WorldWideScience

Sample records for labor productivity

  1. Improving Labor Productivity and Labor Elasticity at Multiproduct Japanese Cuisine Restaurant Introducing Cell-Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura , Takeshi; Takenaka , Takeshi; Ohura , Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Part III: Sustainable Services; International audience; This study examined improvement of labor productivity and elasticity of labor hour on sales of a multiproduct Japanese cuisine restaurant. Conventionally, multiproduct restaurant operations include a line production system in the kitchen. Japanese chefs are assumed to be low-skilled workers with staff members supported by someone. A cell production system is introduced into a Japanese Cuisine restaurant to improve it. Results show that t...

  2. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  3. Towards improving construction labor productivity and projects’ performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa E. Shehata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome from the literature is that there is no standard definition of productivity. This study provides a guide for necessary steps required to improve construction labor productivity and consequently, the project performance. It can help improve the overall performance of construction projects through the implementation of the concept of benchmarks. Also, it gives an up to date concept of loss of productivity measurement for construction productivity claims. Two major case studies, from the literature, are presented to show construction labor productivity rates, factors affecting construction labor productivity and how to improve it.

  4. Analysis of labor employment assessment on production machine to minimize time production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati, Tri; Suliawati; Sari Gumay, Vita

    2018-03-01

    Every company both in the field of service and manufacturing always trying to pass efficiency of it’s resource use. One resource that has an important role is labor. Labor has different efficiency levels for different jobs anyway. Problems related to the optimal allocation of labor that has different levels of efficiency for different jobs are called assignment problems, which is a special case of linear programming. In this research, Analysis of Labor Employment Assesment on Production Machine to Minimize Time Production, in PT PDM is done by using Hungarian algorithm. The aim of the research is to get the assignment of optimal labor on production machine to minimize time production. The results showed that the assignment of existing labor is not suitable because the time of completion of the assignment is longer than the assignment by using the Hungarian algorithm. By applying the Hungarian algorithm obtained time savings of 16%.

  5. Labor productivity and employment gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ellen B

    2017-02-01

    Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors in all of the countries analyzed, productivity gaps shrink by half, on average, when expressed on a per-hour basis. Underlying the productivity gaps that are prominently reflected in national accounts data are large employment gaps, which call into question the productivity gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. Furthermore, agriculture's continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted by the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production.

  6. SYSTEM OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN IT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Levon M. Seropov

    2015-01-01

    Internal and external factors, which influence labor productivity in IT companies, are considered. Internal factors are considered as fundamental factors, directlyinfluencing labor productivity. The analysismethod PESTL is adapted for fi nding out of external factors of labor productivity.

  7. Towards improving construction labor productivity and projects’ performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa E. Shehata; Khaled M. El-Gohary

    2011-01-01

    Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome fro...

  8. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY AS A FACTOR FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over a paired sample of 1424 companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the labor productivity was based on the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (63.2% and the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.665. The results confirm the practical utility of the labor productivity in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  9. HE CONVERSION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LABOR, RESPECTIVELY OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL RATE OF RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CĂRUNTU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.

  10. Labor productivity adjustment factors. A method for estimating labor construction costs associated with physical modifications to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report develops quantitative labor productivity adjustment factors for the performance of regulatory impact analyses (RIAs). These factors will allow analysts to modify ''new construction'' labor costs to account for changes in labor productivity due to differing work environments at operating reactors and at reactors with construction in progress. The technique developed in this paper relies on the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) for baseline estimates of the direct labor hours and/or labor costs required to perform specific tasks in a new construction environment. The labor productivity cost factors adjust for constraining conditions such as working in a radiation environment, poor access, congestion and interference, etc., which typically occur on construction tasks at operating reactors and can occur under certain circumstances at reactors under construction. While the results do not portray all aspects of labor productivity, they encompass the major work place conditions generally discernible by the NRC analysts and assign values that appear to be reasonable within the context of industry experience. 18 refs

  11. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  12. What Caused the Recession of 2008? Hints from Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Mulligan

    2009-01-01

    A labor market tautology says that any change in labor usage can be decomposed into a movement along a marginal productivity schedule and a shift of the schedule. I calculate this decomposition for the recession of 2008, assuming an aggregate Cobb-Douglas marginal productivity schedule, and find that all of the decline in employment and hours since December 2007 is a movement along the schedule. This finding suggests that a reduction in labor supply and/or an increase in labor market distorti...

  13. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY AS A FACTOR FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manif...

  14. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  15. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena PETRESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of the level of labor productivity in agriculture for each development region of Romania. Labor productivity in agriculture was analyzed by two parameters, namely: the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture for the period 2011 – 2012. The level of labor productivity is influenced by the quality of biological and bio-capacity of plants and animals as well, as well as the equipment and quality of work performed. From the factorial analysis it can be noticed a decrease of labor productivity caused by a decrease in the value of agricultural production.

  16. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Projection 0f Labor Needs and Productivity to Reduce Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Agusalim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of labor needs and productivity in Banten Province from 2016 until 2020. By estimating the needs and productivity of the labor, the government can use this information to create the appropriate policies in order to reduce the open unemployment rate (OUR in Banten Province. According to BPS data in 2014, OUR of Banten Province was the highest among other provinces in Java and second highest in Indonesia after Maluku. This study used the quantitative method, which are the exponential and geometric methods to project the labor needs. Other than that, this study used the descriptive method to interpret the quantitative data. The result showed that (1 from 2016 until 2020 there will be an increasing condition of employment, (2 from 2010 until 2014, the highest labor productivity were from electricity, gas and water sector. However from 2016 – 2020, the highest labor productivity will be from financing, insurance, real estate, land, and business services. (3 The number of OUR is expected to decrease annually. Meanwhile OUR in 2016 which is 7.39 percent will decrease to 3.94 percent in 2020.

  18. INNOVATIVE RESERVES OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVE IN NATIONAL ENTERPRISES OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the innovative inertia and effective use of innovative reserves of labor productivity increase in domestic sugar factories is an important step towards the revival of strategically important sector for Ukraine’s economy and the key to its future development in the long run. The aim of the article is to search and study of innovative reserves of labor productivity increase in domestic enterprises of sugar industry. The international experience of innovation implementing in sugar industry enterprises is studied. The paper proves that management innovation is innovative reserves of labor productivity improve in the domestic sugar enterprises. The study analyzes overall trends of innovation development and dynamics of labor productivity in the sugar factories of Ukraine during the period of 2003-2013. The benefits and risks of laboratory tests of sugar beets and sugar are overviewed for the optimal technological mode of production installation on terms of outsourcing. The necessity and economic effectiveness of laboratory research outsourcing is proved to create the optimal technological mode of sugar production. It will improve labor productivity and quality of sugar, increase production and develop new profitable activities of sugar industry enterprises.

  19. Panel data estimates of the production function and product and labor market imperfections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent with two models of imperfect competition in the labor market-the efficient bargaining model and the monopsony model-we provide two extensions of a microeconomic version of Hall's framework for estimating price-cost margins. We show that both product and labor market imperfections generate

  20. Female Schooling, Non-Market Productivity, and Labor Market Participation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aromolaran, Adebayo B.

    2004-01-01

    Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...

  1. Labor Productivity Growth, Education, Health and Technological Progress: A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Supachet Chansarn

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to calculate the growth rates of labor productivity of 30 countries categorized into four groups, including G7 countries, western developed countries, eastern developed countries and eastern developing countries, during 1981 – 2005 and examine the influences of education, health and technological progress on the growth rate of labor productivity. The findings reveal that the growth rates of labor productivity of every country, except the Philippines, were greater than four per...

  2. Increasing labor productivity - an important target for miners. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The development of coal mining in the USSR from 1980 to 1983 is discussed. Factors which influence labor productivity increase are analyzed: use of equipment with increased productivity and reliability (e.g. the KM-103 and KD-80 face systems for thin coal seams, the ANShch integrated face systems for steep coal mines, the KMT and 2UKP systems for mining seams with roofs difficult to break down, the 4PP-2 and 4PP-2Shch heading machines), use of equipment replacing manual operations during underground mining, increasing role of surface coal mining which is characterized by labor productivity higher than in underground mining, use of more reliable mining systems in surface mining less influenced by low temperatures in winter (in Siberia), use of mining schemes optimized by means of computerized simulation and mathematical models both in underground and surface coal mining, reducing idletime of mining equipment, social and economic policy aimed at labor productivity increase and reducing absenteeism, improved training and refreshment courses for miners, use of automatic control systems in coal preparation plants, use of more productive equipment for coal preparation.

  3. 48 CFR 809.270 - Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 809.270 Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. (a) Each VISN Nutrition and Food Service representative is authorized to establish a common VISN QPL for convenience and labor-saving foods...

  4. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent...

  5. ESTIMATION OF COB-DOUGLAS AND TRANSLOG PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS WITH CAPITAL AND GENDER DISAGGREGATED LABOR INPUTS IN THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Sebunya Muwanga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an empirical investigation of the homogeneity of gender disaggregated labor using the Douglas, single/multi-factor translog production functions; and labor productivity functions for the USA.   The results based on the single factor translog model, indicated that: an increase in the capita/female labor ratio increases aggregate output; male labor is more productive than female labor, which is more productive than capital; a simultaneous increase in quantity allocated and productivity of the leads to an increase in output; female labor productivity has grown slower than male labor productivity; it much easier to substitute male labor for capital compared to female labor; and the three inputs are neither perfect substitutes nor perfect complements. As a consequence, male and female labor are not homogenous inputs. Efforts to investigate the factors influencing gender disaggregated labor productivity; and designing policies to achieve gender parity in numbers/productivity in the labor force and increasing the ease of substitutability between male labor and female labor are required.

  6. The Features of Definition and Analysis of the Labor Productivity in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryvusha Svitlana H.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the features of definition and the tendencies of labor productivity changes in the education sector at the macro level. The need to study the problem of labor productivity in the sphere of education is substantiated. Several contemporary researches on the economic nature of non-market educational services are provided. A comparative analysis of the dynamics of labor productivity in the sphere of education, market and non-market services, and the sphere of production of goods was carried out. The tendencies in the ratio of productivity and increase of wages are analyzed. Emphasis has been given to increasing the role of education, which has a significant impact on the overall indicator of productivity growth at the macro level.

  7. HARVEST LABOR QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY:CASE STUDY OF CHERRY GROWING IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO JARA-ROJAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, the cherry tree has been one of the fastest growing and most profitable crops in the last ten years. However, increasing production costs, the scarcity of hired labor, and unfavorable exchange rates have reduced the productivity and competitiveness of the Chilean fruit sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the harvest labor quality in cherry growing in Chile through the use of productivity indicators. A harvest labor evaluation system (HLES was designed and four indicators were measured: Average Weight of Harvested Box, Average Daily Production per Worker, Percent of Export Fruit, and Percent of Fruit Discarded. Significant differences werefound between the 2010/11 season (with the HLES implementation and the previous seasons without HLES. The average worker yield, average weight of a filled box, and fruit quality improved, while the amount of discarded fruit decreased. Hired labor management in agriculture is crucial for improving the productivity of the fresh fruit export producers. The use of HLES and the adoption of new technologies could help to solve the competitiveness problem in the Chilean fruit sector.

  8. Information-communication technology impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Lovrić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the ICT impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries. Empirical studies of the role of ICT as one of the main determinants of productivity growth, for developing countries have produced disagreement. To help clear up the subject, this paper employs a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM through a dynamic panel data approach on the sample of 25 European developed and developing countries over the period of 2001-2010. The results indicate a positive and significant impact of ICT on labor productivity growth in developed and developing countries, but the terms of impact in developing countries rely on human capital, a contribution of a higher educational level, advanced research qualifications and development activity. Comparing to developed countries, the growth accounting approach indicate that developing countries have similar relative ICT contribution to labor productivity growth, but their average growth rate of labor productivity is 6.8 times higher. The main conclusion is that education, especially of higher levels, is the critical factor of productivity and growth of EU developing countries and that must be taken as development policy implication in these countries.

  9. THE LEVEL OF WAGE AND LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN HOTEL INDUSTRY: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanda Karina Astari Fatma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wage a phenomenon that happen today is high wage and high competitiveness. Wage theory that was developed by Rees (1973 and Katz (1980 explain that wage cannot only be seen only as a production cost but also as a part of an effort to increase the labor prosperity and motivation. This theory is a wage efficiency theory, which stated that company’s revenue can increase despite paying wage above the market wage equilibrium. Even though here the two experts had calculated the problem of labor’s quality but they have not reach empirical testing by developing certain model. Therefore, the researchers saw this gap as an opportunity to unravel the phenomena happening to labor and make an effort to develop an empirical model to see the influence of wage to productivity and variable that can measure the quality of labor and other variables that affect wage and productivity simultaneously. The factors used are the difference in individual characteristic, human capital, and quality of work life. The approach of this research is constructivism approach through quantitative analysis technique with simultaneous equation system. Analysis unit in this research is labor in hospitality industry. Estimation results of research shows that education, training, experience, work hour and productivity have significant positive influence to wage, while age and work status is not significant. Quality of work life, and wage have significant positive influence to productivity, while education, experience, age and work status have no significant influence. Important finding from research that training has significant influence to productivity but negatively. Overall, findings of this research show that positive effect of training to productivity will be bigger in organization that willing to invest in work environment that support the labor.

  10. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...

  11. Physical foundation of the labor theory of value: production and environmental destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, T.

    2005-01-01

    A concept negentropy is introduced to supplement Marx's labor theory of value. The negentropy, that is a less entropy state than the thermal equilibrium state of matter, is a common property of the usefulness of material needs. The production of commodity increases the negentropy of product, but the action raises more environmental entropy than the negentropy of the product. This is environmental damage. In addition the negentropy plays a role of the substance of value and answers the issue about productive and unproductive labor. It is clarified that the origin of surplus value is the negentropy of information

  12. Is automation labor-displacing? : Productivity growth, employment, and the labor share

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autor, David; Salomons, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041575

    2018-01-01

    Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries.

  13. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  14. [Labor productivity losses attributable to premature deaths due to traffic injuries between 2002 and 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubí-Mollá, Patricia; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Casal, Bruno; Rivera, Berta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the years of potential life lost, years of potential productive life lost and the labor productivity losses attributable to premature deaths due to traffic injuries between 2002 and 2012 in Spain. Several statistical sources were combined (Spanish Registry of Deaths, Labor Force Survey and Wage Structure Survey) to develop a simulation model based on the human capital approach. This model allowed us to estimate the loss of labor productivity caused by premature deaths following traffic injuries from 2002 to 2012. In addition, mortality tables with life expectancy estimates were used to compute years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. The estimated loss of labour productivity caused by fatal traffic injuries between 2002 and 2012 in Spain amounted to 9,521 million euros (baseline year 2012). The aggregate number of years of potential life lost in the period amounted to 1,433,103, whereas the years of potential productive life lost amounted to 875,729. Throughout the period analyzed, labor productivity losses and years of life lost diminished substantially. Labor productivity losses due to fatal traffic injuries decreased throughout the period analyzed. Nevertheless, the cumulative loss was alarmingly high. Estimation of the economic impact of health problems can complement conventional indicators of distinct dimensions and be used to support public policy making. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Experience of attaining high labor productivity in a stoping face using mechanized complex 110PK-70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetnikov, M N

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 when the first 1 million T of coal was produced at the mine ''Zyryanovskaya'' high volumes of coal extraction were attained in individual months: in January 102,300 T, in July 122,200 T. In 1980, high results were also attained. In January 106,000 T were extracted and in November 108,500 T of coal. The brigade has accumulated experience for introducing scientific organization of labor and improving labor productivity. In 1977 labor productivity of the workers in the stoping face was 31.5 T per shift, in 1978 variable productivity was elevated to 48.2 T. In 1979 labor productivity reached 67.3 T per shift. The best results for productivity was reached in June 1979, 90 T at the outlet, in February 1980--81.1 T per shift. The success of the brigade is formed of many factors, technical, organizational, economic. The basis for high labor productivity of the workers is timely preparation of new longwalls, normal production conditions for fulfillment of plans and the adopted socialist commitments. An important factor in the work of the extraction brigade is the type and condition of mining equipment. The level of work organization as a whole depends on the brigade, directly on the miners and the section leaders themselves. High conscientiousness of all the brigade members also is important for improving labor productivity. The majority of workers in the brigade (about 70%) are members of the party. Mass technical creativity of all the brigade members is also a great reserve for improving labor efficiency. The brigade has 24 efficiency experts who annually introduce 20-30 suggestions each aimed at improving work efficiency.

  16. An Analysis of the Impact of Heat Waves in Labor and Crop Productivity in the Agricultural Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, F.; Wehner, M. F.; Gilless, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    California agriculture is an important economic activity for the state. California leads the nation in farms sales since 1950. In addition, agricultural employment in California reached approximately 410,000. Production of many fruits and vegetables is labor intensive and labor costs represent anywhere from 20% to 40% of total production costs. In additon, agricutlural production growth has been the highest for labor intensive crops such as berries (all types) and nuts. Given the importance of the agricultural sector and the labor component whithin it, the analysis of the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector of California becomes imperative. Heat waves are a weather related extreme that impact labor productivity, specially outdoor labor producitivity. We use crop production function analysis that incorporates socio economic variables such as crop prices, total acreage, production levels and harvest timiline with climate related variables such as an estimated Heat Index (HI) to analize the impact of heat waves on crop production via an impact on labor productivity for selected crops in the Central and Imperial Valleys in California. The analysis finds that the impact of heat waves varies by the degree of labor intensity of the crop and the relative intensity of the heat wave.

  17. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  18. Structural Reforms and Growth : Product and Labor Market Deregulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Rossi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy.The approach undertaken is prominently empirical.After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two

  19. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the Generalized System of... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) October 3...

  20. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) on December...

  1. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in China: A Latent Growth Curve Model at the Prefectural Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the shrinking proportion of agriculture output and the growing mobility of the labor force in China, how agricultural labor productivity develops has become an increasingly attractive topic for researchers and policy makers. This study aims to depict the development trajectory of agricultural labor productivity in China after its WTO entry. Based on a balanced panel data containing 287 Chinese prefectures from 2000 to 2013, this study applies the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM and finds that the agricultural labor productivity follows a piecewise growth path with two breaking points in the years of 2004 and 2009. This may stem from some exogenous stimulus, such as supporting policies launched in the breaking years. Further statistical analysis shows an expanding gap of agricultural labor productivity among different Chinese prefectures.

  2. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  3. 9 CFR 381.203 - Products offered for entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.203 Products offered for... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products offered for entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products which are refused entry. 381.203 Section 381...

  4. Immigration and labor productivity: New empirical evidence for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper of this paper is to explore the immigration and productivity in Spain. We estimate the effect of immigration on labor productivity from 2004 until 2008 for Spain. Using firms (SABI) and individuals data (Social Security Records) we calculate the effect by sector and municipality for the two big Spanish provinces that have received most immigrants in the last decade: Barcelona and Madrid. After controlling for endogeneity of immigration, the results demonstrate that i...

  5. [Productive restructuring and its impact on labor relations in the public health services in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Molinaro, Alex

    2013-06-01

    The restructuring of productive systems and economic globalization are directly impacting the basic social rights of workers. In the semi-peripheral countries such as Brazil, where the wage-based society and the consolidation of social rights are not completely implemented, this process of change in the world of labor contributes to aggravate the inequality in the capital-labor relationship and hampers access to employment. By means of a critical review of the scientific literature regarding changes in the world of labor and its impact on the organization and production of health services in Brazil, this article pinpoints the weakness of regulation of the labor market in Brazil, especially in the health sector. It also stresses the need to increase the debate on new forms of institutionalization of the labor relationship in order to ensure equity in the workplace and protect the rights to work and in the workplace.

  6. The effect of contraceptive use on labor Woman Productivity at PT Bomar Makassar Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Masni; Isnawati, Andi; Darmawansyah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Work productivity is potential on the survival of a company. The use of contraceptives can affect the physiology of each woman, so it can affect daily activitiesand resulted in labor productivity. The aim of this study was todetermine the effect of contraceptive use on labor woman productivity.Study with cross sectional design involves 71 women workersof PT. Bomar Makassar who had got married. Data were found by interview using questionnaire and then analyze using univariate, b...

  7. The connection between the education level of young people, labor productivity and inflation in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ortansa FLOREA (MOISE)

    2015-01-01

    Labor productivity is an important indicator for any economy. An increase of productivity is benefits for the entrepreneurs and for the national economy. This paper discusses the link between changes in the number of high school graduates in Romania, to amend the rate labor productivity and inflation rate. The period under review is 2004-2012. The data used are those published by the National Institute of Statistics, National Bank of Romania and Eurostat. The data used are those published by ...

  8. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... 106- 200 (2002), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the... of benefits under CBTPA and AGOA, respectively. In addition, the Andean Trade Preference Act, as... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION...

  9. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  10. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  11. Trends in hospital labor and total factor productivity, 1981-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Jerry; Pope, Gregory C.

    1989-01-01

    The per-case payment rates of Medicare's prospective payment system are annually updated. As one element of the update factor, Congress required consideration of changes in hospital productivity. In this article, calculations of annual changes in labor and total factor productivity during 1981-86 of hospitals eligible for prospective payment are presented using several output and input variants. Generally, productivity has declined since 1980, although the rates of decline have slowed since prospective payment implementation. According to the series of analyses most relevant for policy, significant hospital productivity gains occurred during 1983-86. This may justify a lower update factor. PMID:10313278

  12. The opportunity cost of family labor in the economy of the dairy production in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Alexis Jiménez Jiménez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze associated factors with the variation of the profit margin and the influence of the opportunity cost of family labor in the economic profit of the family dairy in the municipality of Maravatio, Michoacan. Productive economic information was obtained through the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and direct observation, using the methodology of Participatory Action Research. The opportunity cost of workforce was established on the basis of the work options for the family members involved in the activity; the options were classified into three types: local, regional, and foreign, according to the location of the job opportunities. In order to determine the influence of family labor in earning, it was used a multiple regression model with inclusion of step-by-step variables. The livestock feed represented the highest index of determination of the profit margin variation with the 68 %. Family labor is one of the variables that have an adverse impact on the profitability of the production units, it represented 26% of the variation of economic gain, with a negative linear relation of -1.05 (P ≤0.001. The best labor alternatives for producers, when emigrating, show that family labor is not the productive factor allowing them to have earnings; however, the dairy activity provides productive and economic sustenance for people with a local and regional opportunity cost.

  13. Labor and health status in economic evaluation of health care. The Health and Labor Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.

    1996-01-01

    A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several

  14. Labor Union Effects on Innovation and Commercialization Productivity: An Integrated Propensity Score Matching and Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongphil Chun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research and development (R&D is a critical factor in sustaining a firm’s competitive advantage. Accurate measurement of R&D productivity and investigation of its influencing factors are of value for R&D productivity improvements. This study is divided into two sections. The first section outlines the innovation and commercialization stages of firm-level R&D activities. This section analyzes the productivity of each stage using a propensity score matching (PSM and two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA integrated model to solve the selection bias problem. Second, this study conducts a comparative analysis among subgroups categorized as labor unionized or non-labor unionized on productivity at each stage. We used Korea Innovation Survey (KIS data for analysis using a sample of 400 Korean manufacturers. The key findings of this study include: (1 firm innovation and commercialization productivity are balanced and show relatively low innovation productivity; and (2 labor unions have a positive effect on commercialization productivity. Moreover, labor unions are an influential factor in determining manufacturing firms’ commercialization productivity.

  15. Neoliberalism and productive restructuring: discussing the flexibilisation of labor rights in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleier Marconsin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors aim to show that important changes required for conducting combined neoliberal restructuring productive mark the Brazilian capitalist society, producing serious loss of workers' rights, among them the labor. The qualitative research methodology used, having as north the perspective of totality, has enabled us reflections of the joint authors of the theses from "Public Policy for the Solidarity Economy: A Policy in Construction" (2008 and "Siege of labor rights and the crisis of the movement union in contemporary Brazil "(2009 and research" Ethics, Rights, Labour and Social Work: A Study in Penal System. “The documentary research used in the thesis” “Siege of labor rights and the crisis of the union movement in contemporary Brazil” (2009 provides the material used in the analysis of data on the Brazilian labor legislation since the first term until Cardoso's second term Lula. In the study of these data, there is a line of continuity between the two governments - Cardoso and Lula - fair to conclude that, over the years of neoliberal interference in Brazil, the prospect of governments has been translated into the realization of interests financial capital. Among various elements, the flexibility of labor rights has enabled this goal.

  16. Labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children with spina bifida: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng

    2009-01-01

    Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.

  17. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Faleiros, João Paulo Martin; da Silva, José Carlos Domingos; Nakaguma, Marcos Yamada

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coeffici...

  18. Assessment of the level of farm labor availability and productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the level of farm labor availability and productivity in Imo state, Nigeria. OC Korie. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (3) 2007: pp. 270-274. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. A study of the behavior of labor industrial productivity in the regions of Brazil during the period 1996 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileuza Vital Galeano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an empirical study of the behavior of labor industrial productivity in the regions of Brazil during the period 1996 to 2010 by groups of technology intensity. It was used the shift-share method. The results indicated that in the groups of sectors that showed positive growth rates were the competitive advantages inherent to each region that explained, in most cases, the growth of labor productivity. There was predominance of technology absorbing sectors in prejudice of sectors that generate technological spillovers. The growth of labor productivity in the extractive industry showed a upward trend, while the manufacturing industry showed downward trend, evidencing a stagnation of labor productivity at the national level. There are evidences of a reprimarization process of industrial activities through the specialization in commodities.

  20. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  1. International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

  2. Micro-evidence on product and labor market regime differences between Chile and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Lauterbach, R.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms' operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in

  3. Micro-evidence on product and labor market regime differences between Chile and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Lauterbach, R.; Mairesse, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms’ operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor

  4. Labor Market Frictions and Production Efficiency in Public Schools. Working Paper 163

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    State-specific licensing policies and pension plans create mobility costs for educators who cross state lines. We empirically test whether these costs affect production in schools--a hypothesis that follows directly from economic theory on labor frictions--using geo-coded data from the lower-48 states. We find that achievement is lower in…

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Listed End Products. As prescribed in 22.1505(a), insert the following provision: Certification... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition...

  6. Drivers of Labor-Related Indicators across Diverse Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This regional case study is focused on employment, remuneration and labor productivity, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between labor productivity and other labor-related indicators and macroeconomic conditions in Italy, Egypt, Lebanon and Greece. Its value lies in the high degree of consistency and comparability of the data, owing to a shared data collection methodology. This has allowed for the compilation of both national and regional comparisons. The data is treated in two groups—the first group consists of national data that considers all the active vessels in a country; the second group focuses on the trawl segments of Italy and Egypt. These two countries present an interesting case study because they are so different in terms of labor productivity and remuneration performance. For instance, in Italy labor shortages have caused a shift in fishing strategies towards less labor-intensive operations to maintain the socioeconomic sustainability of the fisheries, while in Egypt macroeconomic conditions have resulted in a larger labor pool and strong incentives to work in the fisheries sector. The regional study demonstrates that labor-related indicators are interconnected and there is an inversely proportional relationship between labor productivity and remuneration and employment levels. This relationship necessitates a combined analysis. The results across and between the countries were compared, with particular attention given to labor productivity and remuneration in the respective countries with a discussion centred around the potential drivers of labor productivity.

  7. Identification and analysis of labor productivity components based on ACHIEVE model (case study: staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2014-12-15

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees' viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities.

  8. Identification and Analysis of Labor Productivity Components Based on ACHIEVE Model (Case Study: Staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees’ viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities. PMID:25560364

  9. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  10. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children�s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

  11. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  12. PENENTU UPAH REGIONAL: TENAGA KERJA TERDIDIK (SKILLED LABOR DAN TIDAK TERDIDIK (UNSKILLED LABOR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The wage have impacts on poverty, living standards and the incentive to improve labor productivity (human capital, in particular, for economic growth. Regional decentralization has implications, which, they must be developed regional endowment to get the efficiency in production process. So it is interesting to examine the importance of regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage in Indonesia. Based on this idea, the objective of this study is to examine the contribution of regional characteristics to the regional wage differential in Indonesia. Data supplied by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during 2003 – 2007. In this study used 3 model; Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Co-Varian Model and Generalized Least Squared (GLS. Then, the most effective model based on the smallest standard error was chosen to estimate regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage inIndonesia. The result showed that the regional characteristics, particularly skilled or unskilled labor, play an important role in determining the wage differentials in region. The empirical evidence presented that regional economic growth and the existing of high skilled labor in labor market have positive impact toward spatial wage. Then, skilled labor and unskilled will give negative influence in regional wage. The points out is laboring existence with level education or skilled level, despite not works or was working have influence toward the regional wage. Therefore, labor's policy is expected gets focused on given specialization corresponds to that region characteristics.

  13. [Study on the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi; Lan, Ya-Jia

    2006-09-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (36 marketing group, 331 public service/safety group, 903 production laborer group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for marketing group public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. OSI-R profile from for marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. The authors combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  14. Statistical estimation of the infl uence of the factors of «technological leadership» on the dynamics of labor productivity in the subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sychev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of production factors on the dynamics of labor productivity at the level of the subjects of the Russian Federation. For the purposes of research as a complex indicator characterizing a wide range of socio-economic indicators affecting the productivity of labor, it is proposed to use composite indicators – “Securing the labor market with high-performance jobs.” In addition to the abovementioned quantitative characteristic of the labor market security with high-performance jobs, the material, technical and innovation-investment factors of the regional economy were analyzed as labor productivity factors. The infl uence of these factors on the dynamics of labor productivity was evaluated from two directions: increasing the level of manufacturability of the products and increasing the technology of the level of production and equipment of labor on the basis of the following indicators: the share of high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries in the gross regional product; Share of domestic expenditure on research and development in the gross regional product; Coeffi cient of depreciation of fi xed assets; Share of investments in fi xed assets in the gross regional product. Based on the results of the study, the nature of the relationship between the dynamics of labor productivity and the provision of the economy with high-performance jobs for different groups of regions of Russia was revealed. The relevant interaction between the processes of creating highproductivity jobs and their richness of the economy has been confi rmed, a description of the nature of this interaction has been carried out, groups of entities that have a typical and atypical impact from this indicator have been identified. Based on the results of the initial stage of the study, it was stated that it is necessary to conduct a more detailed analysis of the impact of the level of

  15. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION...

  16. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA...

  17. Efectos de los factores de edificabilidad sobre la productividad laboral de moldajes de vigas en fundaciones The effects of buildability factors on formwork labor productivity of grade beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M Jarkas

    2010-08-01

    decisiones sobre la eficiencia laboral. Por otro lado, los patrones descritos pueden servir como guía a los administradores de la construcción para una efectiva planificación de actividades y utilización laboral eficiente.Buildability is one of the most important factors affecting labor productivity. Nonetheless, an extensive search of the literature revealed a dearth of research into its effects on in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Despite the importance of this trade to in situ reinforced concrete material, the influence of buildability factors on formwork labor productivity of major structural elements are yet to be quantified in measurable terms. Grade beams are important structural elements which are primarily used to provide one, or a combination, of the following functions: (1 tie the building foundations to provide the required lateral stiffness at the sub-structural levels; (2 reduce the unsupported free length of columns below grade level; and (3 limit excessive differential settlements of isolated foundations. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the following buildability factors on formwork labor efficiency of this activity: (a variability of beam sizes; (b beam sizes; and (c number of joints formed at beams intersections. To achieve this objective, a large volume of productivity data was collected and analyzed using the multiple regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildability factors investigated are determined. Apart from the variability of beam sizes, the findings show significant effects of these factors on formwork labor productivity, which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildability principles, and the consequences of their decisions on labor efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns may provide guidance to

  18. Labor Market and Home Production: Are Men and Women Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Madalozzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Female labor market participation is one of the central investigation topics in feminist economics’ studies. Even after an increase in the labor market participation and the decrease in the wage gap between men and women, the latter still face great difficulties on being remunerated and promoted when compared to men. Neoclassical economic models cannot explain completely these differences without making use of strong hypothesis about individual preferences and family goals. This study has as the main objective to analyze difference on the housework participation as an influencer to different conditions in the labor market for men and women. Our results show that women still have a double work shift. Among our main conclusions, we can say that women benefit more from personal income increase than with labor market participation, because their bargain power within family increases and they can decrease their housework hours.

  19. Leading experience of reaching high labor productivity in the stoping face using grader extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikh, M P

    1982-01-01

    The main factors which hold back highly productive work are high labor intensity of reinforcing the terminal sections of the longwalls, difference in the speed characteristics of the worm and longwall conveyers, jamming of the worm conveyers, holdups in transportation, etc. Consequently under the leadership of the party and trade union organizations, organizational technical measures were developed and are constantly being improved. Shift working meetings are held at which specific solutions are adopted. In order to improve load on the face, specific measures were adopted: measures are regularly developed for maintenance and repair of the stoping face equipment; a cartogram of repair-technical operations is compiled for the longwall; the velocity of the worm conveyers is brought to the velocity of the longwall conveyer, on the scraper conveyers in the conveyer galleries the edge is increased to 0.6 m; supply of electricity to the grader and conveyer in the longwall is done by individual substations; the efficiency experts of the mines have developed and introduced an improved design of belt loader at the loading point; in order to repair equipment on off days, a special group of highly skilled mechanics has been created. Introduction of these measures together will make it possible to improve coal extraction, labor productivity, labor efficiency, reduce accident rate, reveal latent reserves. Practice has indicated that the use of the grader units with mechanized timbering IMKS makes it possible to achieve high technical-economic indicators both of the work of the brigade and the mine as a whole.

  20. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  1. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  2. White Ethnics, Racial Prejudice, and Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott

    The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…

  3. Factors of development of modern forms of social and labor relations as a way of improving productivity in the aviation enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the factors of development of modern forms of social and labor relations as a way to increase productivity on airlines. We describe economic and social issues of a new form of labor relations - working from home. We review the brand new chapter of Labor Code of Russian Federation about working from home as a legal way to conclude telework agreement with the employee. This is a model of working from home for aviation enterprise based on typical performance of “Aeroflot - Russian airlines”.

  4. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... . Executive Order No. 13126 (EO 13126) declared that it was ``the policy of the United States Government..., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Western Sahara, Republic of Yemen, Zambia... penalize those responsible and the adequacy of these actions. (D) Government Policies on Child Labor DOL...

  5. Effects of Heat Stress on Construction Labor Productivity in Hong Kong: A Case Study of Rebar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C

    2017-09-12

    Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong. Onsite wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), workers' heart rate (HR), and labor productivity were measured and monitored. Based on the 378 data sets of synchronized environmental, physiological, construction labor productivity (CLP), and personal variables, a CLP-heat stress model was established. It was found that WBGT, percentage of maximum HR, age, work duration, and alcohol drinking habits were determining factors for predicting the CLP (adjusted R ² = 0.68, p stress reduces CLP, with the percentage of direct work time decreasing by 0.33% when the WBGT increased by 1 °C. The findings in this study extend the existing practice notes by providing scientific data that may be of benefit to the industry in producing solid guidelines for working in hot weather.

  6. LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT UNDER ROMANIA'S INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity involving work objectively factor designed to exploit natural resources and monetary system in its interest. According to Adam Smith, the work is a primary factor, the original production was considered by him as the sole source of national wealth. This factor of production can be achieved through labor market that is in a competitive market economy. Transactions in this market have as their object or labor work. Employment policy work focus on boosting production and the flexibility of labor market through an easy tax for economic entities to make hiring, increasing the occupancy of the active population. In Romania, the pressures exerted on the labor market increasingly higher while the economy is subject to extensive qualitative transformations concerning privatization, restructuring and upgrading.

  7. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva; Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2013-01-01

    The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity) are allocated and proved. On...

  8. A study of the impacts of leverage on labor and capital productivity: A case study of companies listed in Tehran Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Akbari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is a primary objective of increasing competition in modern economy and any increase in productivity level helps development of organization in the competitive market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between operating leverage, financial leverage, compound leverage as independent variables and productivity indices including labor and capital productivities as dependent variables. The study includes 102 companies accepted in Tehran Stock Market based on screening, systematic deletion, over the period 2005-2010. The required data are gathered through official financial statements, committee reports, and other available documents in Tehran Stock Market. Stepwise regression and Pearson correlation are used to analyze the data. The results of the study have indicated that there were significant relationships between independent variables including leverage ratios with labor productivity. In addition, there is also a significance relationship between leverage ratios with capital productivity of total assets.

  9. Preparing skilled labor in industry through production-based curriculum approach in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto

    2017-09-01

    Vocational high school (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan / SMK) aims to prepare mid-level skilled labors to work in the industry and are able to create self-employment opportunities. For those reasons, the curriculum in SMK should be based on meeting the needs of the industries and is able to prepare learners to master the competence in accordance with the skills program of their choice. Production based curriculum is the curriculum which the learning process is designed together with the production process or using production process as a learning medium. This approach with the primary intention to introduce students with the real working environment and not merely simulations. In the production-based curriculum implementation model, students are directly involved in the industry through the implementation of industrial working practices, do work on production units in school, and do practical work in school by doing the job as done in the industry by using industry standards machines.

  10. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  11. Trends in labor productivity increase in construction subordinated to the Ministry of the Coal Industry of the Ukrainian SSR. Osnovnye napravleniya rosta proizvoditel'nosti truda na stroikakh Minugleproma USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhan' , E.Ya.; Karpenko, K.P.

    1986-01-01

    Investment in the coal industry of the Ukrainian SSR in 1981-1985 amounted to 7,828.9 million rubles, of it 4,322.2 million rubles fell on construction. Four new coal mines were constructed and 2 mines were modernized; buildings totalling more than 4 million m/sup 2/ surface were constructed. Investment in 1981-1985 increased by 23% over 1975-1980, construction increased by 19%, labor productivity in construction increased by 11%. The following methods were applied to increase labor productivity: standardization, use of light construction elements, modified shaft furniture, new design of head frames, blocking of head frames and other buildings, new methods for increasing advance rates of mine drivage. The following measures for labor productivity increase are planned for 1986: use of large construction elements (1.03% labor productivity increase), innovation and rationalization (0.71%), new equipment characterized by increased productivity (0.26%), increasing advance rates in mine drivage (0.32%), organizational measures e.g. reduced idle time and absenteeism (0.41%). 10 refs.

  12. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor.... Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade...

  13. Labor construction trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program

  14. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  15. DEVELOPING A MODEL TO ENHANCE LABOR PRODUCTIVITY USING BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION BENCHMARK DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Labor Working Status Monitoring (LWSM Model that incorporates the WRITE and the industry benchmark data was developed through the five steps to enhance labor producitivty in bridge construction operations. The first step of the development process was to conduct a literature review, followed by the second step which was to develop the WRITE. During the development, the authors identified the necessary hardware and software for the WRITE and outlined a schematic to show the connection of major hardware components. The third step was to develop the LWSM Model for monitoring the on-site construction labor working status by comparing data from the WRITE with the industry benchmark data. A survey methodology was used to acquire industry benchmark data from bridge construction experts. The fourth step was to demonstrate the implementation of the LWSM Model at a bridge construction site. During this phase, labor working status data collected using the WRITE was compared with the benchmark data to form the basis for the project managers and engineers to make efficiency improvement decisions. Finally, research findings and recommendations for future research were outlined. The success of this research made several contributions to the advancement of bridge construction. First, it advances the application of wireless technology in construction management. Second, it provides an advanced technology for project managers and engineers to share labor working status information among project participants. Finally, using the developed technology, project managers and engineers can quickly identify labor efficiency problems and take action to address these problems.

  16. Unraveling the impact of workforce age diversity on labor productivity : The moderating role of firm size and job security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meulenaere, Kim; Boone, Christophe; Buyl, T.P.L.

    Previous literature has suggested both positive and negative effects of age diversity on labor productivity: positive because of the potential knowledge complementarities between employees of different ages and negative because of the age-related value differences that might reduce cohesion and

  17. The effect of hyperactive bladder severity on healthcare utilization and labor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Brenes, F J; Ochayta, D; Lizarraga, I; Arumí, D; Trillo, S; Rejas, J

    2014-05-01

    To explore the relationship between the severity of urinary urge incontinence (UUI) on healthcare resources utilization (HRU) and loss of labor productivity of subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) in the general population in Spain. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based study conducted in the general population >18 years, through a battery of HRU questions asked using an online method. Probable OAB subjects were identified using a previously validated algorithm and a score >8 in the OAB-V8 questionnaire. HRU questions included an assessment of concomitant medication used as a consequence of OAB/UUI, pad utilization, and medical office visits. Patients were grouped according to the number of UUI episodes into 0, 1, 2-3 or 4+ episodes. Of a total of 2,035 subjects participating from the general population, 396 patients [52.5% women, mean age: 55.3 (11.1) years, OAB-V8 mean score: 14.5 (7.9)] were analyzed; 203 (51.3%) with 0 episodes, 119 (30.1%) with 1, 52 (13.1%) with 2 or 3, and 22 (5.6%) with 4 or more episodes. A linear and significant adjusted association was observed between the number of UUI episodes and HRU; the higher the number of daily episodes the higher the HRU. Subjects with more episodes had medical visits more frequently at the primary care (P = .001) and specialist (P = .009) level as well. Consumption of day (P < .001) and night (P < .001) urinary absorbents, anxiolytic medicines (P = .021) and antibiotics (P = .05) was higher in patients with more UUI episodes. The severity of OAB in terms of frequency of daily urge incontinence episodes was significantly and linearly associated with higher healthcare resources utilization and a decrease in labor productivity in subjects with probable OAB in Spain. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on Internal Labor Movement and Policy Multiplier in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autsawin Suttiwichienchot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is trying to measure the effectiveness of selected supply side and demand side policies on Thai economy by using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. We found that there is a special characteristic of the unskilled labor movement among agricultural sector and other sectors in Thailand and this characteristic can represented by Harris-Todaro expected wage equation. Therefore, we developed the CGE model incorporating Harris-Todaro expected wage equilibrium for the labor market. The simulation result shows that, for selected supply side policy, the reduction of switching cost, increasing labor productivity (which are selected supply side policy, increasing in government spending and export promotion (which are selected demand side policy can contribute positive impacts to Thai economy. Interestingly, we found that if both the reduction of switching cost and the increasing labor productivity are implemented together, they will generate even more positive impacts to Thai economy than separately implemented. This finding suggests policy maker should implement both the reduction of switching cost and the increasing labor productivity together in order to gain more benefit to Thai economy. These two policies are supply side policy and related to labor market, thus improving labor market is a great choice for Thailand. Lastly, we found that all policies have the similar non-linear characteristic.

  19. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  20. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity are allocated and proved. On the basis of an author’s calculation method of an integrated index of labor life quality of the population in regions of Russia are calculated and analyzed in dynamics. Regularities of formation of an integrated index of labor life quality in regions of Russia are revealed, ways of an assessment of efficiency of realized state programs in the social and labor sphere are planned.

  1. Currency Integration under Labor Mobility: when Cost is incurred

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    We assess whether renouncing monetary policy autonomy becomes a cost of currency integration under labor mobility in the framework of the New Open Economy Macroeconomics. Assuming Nash equilibrium among central banks of candidate countries, we find that the forfeiture of monetary policy autonomy becomes a cost when country-specific total factor productivity shocks hit them, labor input weights differ between candidate countries, and country specific shocks on marginal disutility of labor occu...

  2. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  3. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  4. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  5. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark

    1993-01-01

    The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative "feedback" hypothesis consistent with the same facts is that women experience labor market discrimination and respond with career interruptions and specialization in household production. This paper explores the relationship between self-reported discrimina...

  6. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  7. La inversión extranjera directa, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto y el mercado laboral en Puerto Rico Foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product and the labor market in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Ruiz Mercado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR para examinar la interrelación entre la entrada de flujos de inversión extranjera directa (EFIED, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto (PIB, la tasa de desempleo (TD y la tasa de participación laboral (TPL en Puerto Rico. Los datos utilizados incluyen los años fisca- les de 1980 al 2010. Se encontraron cuatro vectores cointegrados en el sistema, que evidencian la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre las variables. Los hallazgos sugieren que aumentos consecutivos en la EFIED podrían reducir significativamente la TD e incrementar el interés de los puertorriqueños por ingresar en la fuerza laboral. El mismo resultado se refleja con relación a los incrementos en el nivel de exportaciones. Las variaciones en el PIB se explican principalmente en el largo plazo por la TD.In this paper, a vector autorregresive model (VAR is applied to examine the interrelationship among foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, unemployment rate and labor force participation rate in Puerto Rico, taking into account a time period that includes the fiscal years from 1980 to 2010.  Four cointegrating vectors were found in the system which indicates that there is a long run relationship between the variables. The findings suggest that consecutive increases in foreign direct investment inflows could significantly reduce the unemployment rate and increase interest in joining the labor force in Puerto Rico.  The same result also applies to increases in export levels.  The variations in Gross Domestic Product are mainly explained in the long run by the unemployment rate.

  8. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  9. La fuerza laboral y su incidencia en el desarrollo agroproductivo del territorio. Estudio de caso en un municipio de la provincia Matanzas Labor force and its incidence on the agricultural-production development of the territory. Case study in a municipality of Matanzas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Suset

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se exponen algunas concepciones teóricas esenciales, resultado de la revisión de la literatura, que sirven de sustento al análisis de los aspectos relacionados con la fuerza laboral en un contexto agroproductivo cubano específico. La investigación se realizó desde una perspectiva sistémica y para la recopilación de la información se consideró la situación de la fuerza laboral inmersa en el sector agropecuario municipal; para el trabajo de campo se aplicó la entrevista a profundidad estructurada, por lo que constituyó un estudio de caso. Se pudo constatar que la fuerza laboral del sector agropecuario del municipio no es suficiente, y no cuenta con la preparación para el reto que implican las transformaciones en marcha ni para el desempeño en las nuevas lógicas en que se insertan los procesos productivos. Existe un variado potencial de reserva laboral que puede ser incentivado para la reinserción estable en el sector, a partir de que perciban expectativas reales de mejora a corto y a mediano plazo, máxime cuando se reconoce que la producción agropecuaria es fundamental para el desarrollo del territorio en el caso analizado.This work presents some essential theoretical conceptions, result of literature review, which support the analysis of the aspects related to labor force in a specific Cuban agricultural-production context. The study was conducted from a systemic perspective and for the information collection the situation of the labor force involved in the municipal agricultural sector was considered; in the field work the structured in-depth interview was applied, for which this constituted a case study. It could be observed that the labor force of the agricultural sector in the municipality is not sufficient and is not prepared for the challenge implied by the ongoing transformations or the performance in the new logics in which productive processes are inserted. There is varied potential of labor force

  10. The labor protection and safety measures at the electrolysis department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to labor protection and safety measures at the electrolysis department. Thus, the characteristics of dangerous and harmful production factors as well as the danger of thermal burns and thermal exposure were considered. Safety requirements on labor safety were studied.

  11. Jobs and the resource curse in the sun: The effects of oil production on female labor force participation in California counties from 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gabriel

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between oil income and the female labor force participation rate in California for the years of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 using panel linear regression models. This study also aims to visualize the spatial patterns of both variables in California through Hot Spot analysis at the county level for the same years. The regression found no sign of a relationship between oil income and female labor force participation rate but did find evidence of a positive relationship between two income control variables and the female labor force participation rate. The hot spot analysis also found that female labor force participation cold spots are not spatially correlated with oil production hot spots. These findings contribute new methodologies at a finer scale to the very nuanced discussion of the resource curse in the United States.

  12. Antiretroviral therapy, labor productivity, and sex: a longitudinal cohort study of tea pluckers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Fox, Matthew P; Bii, Margaret; Rosen, Sydney; Rohr, Julia; Shaffer, Douglas; Sawe, Fredrick; Wasunna, Monique; Simon, Jonathon L

    2013-01-02

    To estimate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on labor productivity and income using detailed employment data from two large tea plantations in western Kenya for HIV-infected tea pluckers who initiated ART. Longitudinal study using primary data on key employment outcomes for a group of HIV-infected workers receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and workers in the general workforce. We used nearest-neighbor matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART among 237 HIV-positive pluckers on ART (index group) over a 4-year period (2 years pre-ART and post-ART) on 4 monthly employment outcomes - days plucking tea, total kilograms (kgs) harvested, total days working, and total labor income. Outcomes for the index group were compared with those for a matched reference group from the general workforce. We observed a rapid deterioration in all four outcomes for HIV-infected individuals in the period before ART initiation and then a rapid improvement after treatment initiation. By 18-24 months after treatment initiation, the index group harvested 8% (men) and 19% (women) less tea than reference individuals. The index group earned 6% (men) and 9% (women) less income from labor than reference individuals. Women's income would have dropped further if they had not been able to offset their decline in tea plucking by spending more time on nonplucking assignments. HIV-infected workers experienced long-term income reductions before and after initiating ART. The implications of such long-term impacts in low-income countries have not been adequately addressed.

  13. TRANSFORMATION IN BULGARIAN LABOR MARKET IN THE YEARS OF TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the dependency of labor market on positive and negative effects of cyclic recurrence and economic development. Probable scenarios of the dynamics in employment and unemployment in dependence of changes in gross domestic product (GDP and productivity in conditions of recession and following the start of economic revival are analyzed in accordance to the open character of Bulgarian economy and the specificity of Bulgarian model of transition predetermined by the impacts of outer influences and additional inner ones on the labor market, which verification is on the basis of the data for state-of-art of labor market in years of transition to market economy. The factor predestining the level of unemployment are investigated on the basis of input flows unemployment relating to macroeconomic and other outer measures, as well as the impact which would lead to decrease in the average duration of unemployment. The accent is on the necessity of establishment of a consecutive and sustainable strategy of economic development having a clear vision about the structuring of economy and labor demand in middle-term aspect, as founding in the flexibility of labor market and employment in the country.

  14. Labor demand effects of rising electricity prices: Evidence for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Michael; Peichl, Andreas; Pestel, Nico; Siegloch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Germany continues to play a pioneering role in replacing conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. While this might be beneficial with respect to environmental quality, it also implies increasing electricity prices. The extent to which this is associated with negative impacts on employment depends on the interrelationship between labor and electricity as input factors in the production process. In this paper, we estimate cross-price elasticities between electricity and heterogeneous labor for the German manufacturing sector. We use administrative linked employer–employee micro-data combined with information on sector-level electricity prices and usage over the period 2003–2007. We find positive, but small conditional cross-price elasticities of labor demand with respect to electricity prices, which means that electricity as an input factor can be replaced by labor to a limited extent when the production level is held constant. In the case of adjustable output, we find negative unconditional cross-price elasticities, implying that higher electricity prices lead to output reductions and to lower labor demand, with low- and high-skilled workers being affected more than medium-skilled. Resulting adverse distributional effects and potential overall job losses may pose challenges for policy-makers in securing public support for the German energy turnaround. - Highlights: • We estimate cross-price elasticities for electricity and labor in manufacturing. • We use linked employer–employee micro-data from Germany for 2003 to 2007. • We find a weak substitutability between electricity and labor for constant output. • We find complementarity between electricity and labor for adjustable output. • Low- and high-skilled workers are more affected than medium-skilled

  15. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  16. Parturients' need of continuous labor support in labor wards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Continuous labor support is practiced in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitude of women in response to labor support based at institutional ... The reasons given for wanting companion were emotional ..... mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men.

  17. Competition for labor resources: losses of the Amur region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vasilyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define labor losses of the Amur region because of the competition of regions. Each region, directly or indirectly, seeks to attract and keep in its territory highly skilled labor force. Shortage of labor force slows down development of the economy of the region. Thus, because of the depopulation, the demand for the produced and consumed goods and services in the region is decreasing. The decrease in demand influences tax reduction and non-tax revenues in budgets of various levels, reduction of employment of labor resources, increase in unemployment, increase in cost of products and rendered services, reduction of the gross regional product, growth of social tension in the society.Under conditions of the competition between regions for labor resources, other things being equal, the outflow of labor resources occurs from regions with a rather low level of compensation to regions with a rather high level of the salary. At the same time, the population leaves, as a rule, the provincial and less developed regions and concentrates in the largest metropolitan areas. In the competition for labor resources some regions win and get essential advantages in social and economic development, others sustain considerable losses. Statistical methods of analyzing social and economic phenomena and processes were used as tools for carrying out the research: indexes of dynamics, structure, and tabular and graphic methods of visualization of quantitative data.As a result of the conducted statistical research, it was found out that the population of the Amur region decreases annually, at the same time the decline in the population of the region is long-term and steady in nature. Over 25 years the Amur region lost population amounting to the population of the whole city. The present work shows that the tendency of demographic aging of the population characteristic of many regions of the country is observed in the Amur region. Decrease

  18. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  19. An endogenous relationship between wages, job opportunity, and skilled labor shortage in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yin Jien

    2010-01-01

    Norway's economy has gone through unprecedented growth in the past decade. The strong growth in GDP, employment, labor productivity, real wage, and labor immigration combines with increasing outflows from the labor force, such as early retirement scheme, sickness and disability, and old age retirement implies that Norway's labor market is tight. We hypothesize demographic changes and skilled and unskilled job composition affects tertiary education participation through wage premium and job ...

  20. [Demography and labor shortage. Future challenges of labor market policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J

    2013-03-01

    For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.

  1. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  2. Labor market in Serbia: 1990-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Key problems in transitions in Serbia can be analyzed through the processes happening at the labor market. Labor market in Serbia is divided on the formal and informal one ("gray". The basic problem is mass unemployment. The unemployment in Serbia is not frictional unemployment resulting from decisions of workers to change their jobs. This kind of unemployment is considered normal at all labor markets. Since it is not frictional, unemployment in Serbia is not short-term one. This unemployment is by its nature structural and therefore long-term. Structural unemployment always arises as a result of the illadapted structure of labor supply and demand. There is a particularly high level of long-term unemployment among young people who practically do not have any work experience. The only realistic solution for mass unemployment and low wages in the Serbian economy is increasing of productivity and overall economic efficiency. Stimulating entrepreneurship and opening of new companies to absorb an enormous number of unemployed is the central issue of the economic reform. Instead of short-term passive measures, the state should adopt active measures aimed at stimulating of entrepreneurship and creating of new jobs.

  3. Institutions of Higher Education Under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    The Fair Labor Standards Act contains provisions and standards concerning minimum wages, equal pay, maximum hours and overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor. These basic requirements apply to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce and also to employees in certain enterprises that are so…

  4. Pinning Design: The Curatorial Labor of Creative Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Scolere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinterest is a site primarily used for sharing online content particularly images; as such, it is a unique platform through which to explore curatorial practices. Professional designers are a unique community of interest because their expertise in the offline curation of visual images is central to their professional work. Drawing on digital curation, convergence culture, and creative professionals, this study examined the curatorial labor practices of design professionals on Pinterest. Through a series of in-depth qualitative interviews and online observation of design professionals, we identify three aspects of curatorial labor on Pinterest: (1 performance, (2 process, and (3 product. The strategic and creative selection and arrangement of digital images by these designers becomes an ongoing authorial act of creative labor. This community demonstrates how the public digital curation of visual images is an important part of the ongoing venture labor of design professionals. The study concludes with implications for our collective understandings of online curation, creative professional labor, and the role of social media within commercial and organizational contexts.

  5. Model of monopolistic competition with heterogeneous labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a tool for modelling monopolistic competition markets, based on Dixit-Stiglitz ideology but taking into account heterogeneity at labor market. We analyse several modifications of a two-sector general equilibrium model. In the basic one with two levels of workers qualification their shares are determined endogenously on the base of comparison between the higher wage of the skilled worker and heterogeneous education costs, also taking into account the labor mobility between the manufacture and agriculture sector. The model is generalized for the case of continuous distribution of labor qualification. The impact of the model parameters (ratio of fixed and variable costs, market size, heterogeneity in productivity, elasticity of substitution, etc. on the obtained equilibrium prices, quantities, wages, number and size of firms, social welfare is investigated.

  6. Free and Slave Labor in the Antebellum South: Perfect Substitutes or Different Inputs?

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Elizabeth B

    1988-01-01

    The substitutability between free and slave labor is examined, and the permissibility of aggregating the two in to a single labor variab le is investigated, using a translog production function. Slaves on large cotton farms worked in gangs; free labor was not observed to do so. Despite this, previous research has aggregated free and slave labor, and employed functional forms imposing strong restrictions on substitution. Estimation of the translog function shows that simple additive aggregatio...

  7. A global strategy for labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  8. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  9. Entorno laboral y social en las maquiladoras de Coahuila: estudio muestral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcon, G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the labor and social environment that prevails in the maquiladoras (assemble plants located in the northern border states of México, particularly in the state of Coahuila; also it is addressed the importance of factors contributing to improve labor conditions and productivity. The study is based in a sample of 20 firms located in the counties of Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Monclova, Torreón, Sabinas, Piedras Negras and Ciudad Acuña. This study analizes the main socialeconomic figures of the workers, their labor conditions in regard to labor security, training, rights and duties, social security and social environment in which they live in. Conclusions and recommendations are related to improving training and labor conditions, as well as fostering a new labor culture, health, social security and social environment.

  10. GROWTH EFFECTS OF CONSUMPTION AND LABOR-INCOME TAXATION IN AN OVERLAPPING-GENERATIONS LIFE-CYCLE MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Mierau, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    We study labor-income and consumption taxation in an overlapping-generations model featuring endogenous growth clue to interfirm investment externalities. Consumption, saving, and labor supply display life-cycle features because mortality and labor productivity are age-dependent and because annuity

  11. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  12. Emancipating Labor Internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic – and labor-devastating – development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...

  13. LABOR MARKET IN ROMANIA BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis, cataloged by most economists as the worst recession of 1933, makes most of the population can not enjoy a decent standard of living and appropriate working conditions. The most serious implication that the economic crisis has on the labor market is the rising unemployment and underemployment rate increase default. The number of unemployed in Romania could increase at any time due to the economic restructuring of the country and the availability of immigrants from the Community, Romania is one of the major exporters of labor. In this time of crisis in the face of Romanian economy appears that a particular problem are twofold. It is, on the one hand, an effective demand for labor insufficient structurally that will lead in the future to under-utilization of production equipment, and on the other hand, a substitution of labor imposed by technical progress, which will lead to increased unemployment

  14. International trade and migration in the presence of sector-specific labor quality pricing distortions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    In one of two sectors, there are labor quality pricing distortions in the sense that labor obtains the average rather than marginal product. This may be due to a failure on the part of employers to observe individual labor quality or due to an income redistributing union. Relatively low quality

  15. El Acoso ó “Mobbing” Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcira Isabel Muñoz Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo, producto de un proyecto de investigación institucional y un proyecto de aula de la cátedra dederecho laboral individual, realiza un análisis de las situaciones que surgen en el ámbito del ambiente laboral,que de una u otra forma perjudican y desestabilizan al trabajador, sujeto pasivo del acoso. El artículo pretendedar a conocer que todo ultraje y/o maltrato que se presenta en el ambiente laboral de manera repetitiva, públicay que atenta contra la dignidad humana, hoy día es objeto de sanciones. Se revisan además los antecedentes yel marco jurídico de esta conducta.Palabras claves:Acoso laboral, mobbing, agresivo, persistente, demostrable, atropello.Abstract:This article, the product of an institutional research project and a draft class of the class of individual employmentlaw, an analysis of the situations that arise in the context of the workplace, which in one way or another harmand destabilize the worker, taxpayer harassment. The article aims to show that every outrage and / or abuse thatoccurs in the workplace so repetitive, public and undermines human dignity, is now subject to sanctions. It alsolooks into the background and legal framework for this behavior.Keywords:Harassment, bullying, aggressive, persistent, demonstrable killing.

  16. Strategic management of labor resources of agricultural enterprises on the basis of marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kalyuzhna

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this paper is to characterize the theoretical aspects of strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles in agrarian enterprises; to identify individual factors of influence on labor resources and to form a scheme effective strategic management of labor resources in conjunction with marketing activities of the enterprise. Methodology / approach. In the process of writing the article, were used such methods as: logical generalization – for the theoretical substantiation of the marketing activity’s and labor resources’ essence; statistical analysis – for the estimation of such factors, as migration movement of labor resources from rural areas, which influence on the functioning of agrarian enterprises; system analysis – for research and substantiation of effective strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles as the main element of the enterprise’s activity. Results. Today in Ukraine one of the main problems of effective management of is the attraction and use of labor resources. Since labor is the main productive force in solving the issues of competitiveness, economic growth and ensuring the effective operation of the enterprise. The labor resources management is a complex process and has its own specific properties and regularities and should have systemic character and completeness based on the development of strategic management. Application of strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles at agrarian enterprises will allow using economic, organizational and technical possibilities of production effectively. Originality / scientific novelty. An attempt to investigate the influence of interstate migration growth (decrease in the rural population as a negative factor of the labor resources reduction in agrarian enterprises, and the forecast for the prospective period was made. Practical value / implications. The forecasting level of labor

  17. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  18. Analysis of slave labor in large department stores: a modern reading of the new mode of exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Antônio Bruno da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a process that has promoted significant changes in the inner workings of global production chains. Moreover, capital, which is embodied in various forms of labor relations, can and in some current cases exploits, even now, its labor force. Furthermore, this research is structured in two segments. The first analyzes how large companies use labor exploitation in order to reduce production costs and maximize profits, dissociating themselves from the responsibilities that they have in relation to their laborers that are an important part of their internal structure. The second investigates whether these companies can be held responsible for the exploitation of their employees – whom are part of their production network. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the context in which public policies fight contemporary slave labor in Brazil, highlighting the complexities of implementing these policies.

  19. Labor satisfaction as an indicator of public administration efficiency (sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Labor satisfaction is an indicator of social wellbeing of the working population. The study of subjective perceptions of labor is an important indicator of public administration efficiency. The article contains the analysis of the population’s satisfaction with labor, particularly, with one of its structural components – labor conditions. It reveals the high correlation of these indicators with the satisfaction with everyday life and labor productivity. It determines the degree of employees’ satisfaction with working conditions in such areas as health and psychological atmosphere at the workplace, equipment capability and security. The study discloses employees’ estimates in socio-demographic and territorialdimensional aspects. The research demonstrates the interrelation between satisfaction with working environment and implementation of labor potential. The analysis indicates the importance of regular sociological research into the issues of satisfaction with various aspects of labor activity. The article indicates that for the country’s development it is necessary to take into account the labor satisfaction factor (in the narrow sense – working conditions while developing strategies and approaches for social-economic policy and defining the standards of social responsibility, primarily, of the state and employers

  20. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  1. Psychoprophylaxis during labor: associations with labor-related outcomes and experience of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla

    2010-06-01

    To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.

  2. An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemkow, S.

    This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

  3. LABOR SUBSTITUTABILITY IN LABOR INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN LABOR

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES) is estimated to address factor substitutability in Florida agriculture during 1960-1999. By adopting a profit maximization model of induced innovation theory, the MES's between hired and self-employed labor and the MES's between labor and capital provide implications for future immigration policies.

  4. Regional Competitiveness: Labor-Management Relations, Workplace Practices, and Workforce Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Kleinhenz; Russ Smith

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines regional competitiveness as it relates to regional labor-management relations. A survey of recent literature provides perspective and secondary evidence regarding labor-management relations, workplace practices, and workforce quality. It does not answer the question, “Are unions good or bad?” Rather, it investigates the themes of productivity, wage premium, job security, innovation, communication, and economic development—the larger picture to consider when evaluating the ...

  5. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Garam

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  6. Labor migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  7. TODAY THE GLOBAL LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shchipanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  8. Reproducing Life and Labor: Global Processes and Working Children in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart; Estrada, Silvia Lopez; Jennings, Joel; Aguirre, Lina Maria

    2006-01-01

    The issue of child labor continues to challenge thinking on the nature of work, play, schooling and apprenticeship. New wisdom from some contemporary academic writing places children closer to the center of our understanding of consumption, production and reproduction, and at the heart of inequities generated by globalization. Child labor comes in…

  9. Notes on the incorporation of third world women into wage-labor through immigration and off-shore production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen-koob, S

    1984-01-01

    The different forms and geographic locations in which the expanded incorporation of Third World women into wage labor occur may be closely interrelated. 2 such instances examined in this article are: 1) the recruitment of young women, without previous labor force experience, into the new manufacturing and service jobs generated by export-led manufacturing in several Caribbean and Asian countries; and 2) the employment of immigrant women in large cities of highly industrialized countries which have undergone basic economic restructuring. While many of these women may have become domestic or international migrants as a function of their husbands' or family's migration, the more fundamental processes of this restructuring are the ones promoting the formation of a supply of women migrants and a demand for this type of labor. Examples are the shift of plants and offices to Third World countries, and the demand for immigrant women labor in large cities within the US. The latter is a manifestation of the general shift to a service economy, the downgrading of manufacturing, partly to keep it competitive with overseas plants, and the direct and indirect demand for low-wage labor generated by the expansion of management and control functions centered in these large cities, and necessary for the regulation of the global economy. The feminization of job supply and the need to secure a politically adequate labor supply, which combine to create a demand for the type of labor represented by migrant women, suggest that gender has to be considered in conjunction with the structural arrangements and that gender by itself cannot adequately describe the nature of migrant labor.

  10. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  11. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... child labor regulations published on September 2, 2011. The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is...

  12. Relationship Banking in Labor Bank

    OpenAIRE

    三村, 聡

    2012-01-01

    As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...

  13. 75 FR 67776 - Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics... Statistics (BLS) is responsible for publishing measures of labor productivity and multifactor productivity..., Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Room 2150, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE...

  14. Flexible labor and innovation performance : Evidence from longitudinal firm-level data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, H.; Dekker, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    Firms with high shares of workers on fixed-term contracts tend to have higher sales of imitative new products but perform significantly worse on sales of innovative new products ("first on the market"). High functional flexibility in "insider-outsider" labor markets enhances a firm's new product

  15. Acoso laboral - daño psíquico Laboral abuse - psychological damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.

  16. VIETNAM AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: POTENTIALS ANDCHALLENGES ON THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Homlong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several years Vietnam has been receiving attention as an attractive businesslocation for foreign companies. But in spite of overall positive economicdevelopments, foreign companies in Vietnam also experience challenges, e.g.connected to bureaucracy and corruption. Another issue that is of crucialimportance for foreign companies in foreign markets are the conditions on thelabor market. This paper investigates questions about the potentials andchallenges for foreign companies on the Vietnamese labor market, and of howattractive Vietnam’s labor market is compared to India and China.Educationlevels, productivity, wage levels, and number of strikes are among theindicators that are used to compare the attractiveness of Vietnam’s labor market tothe labor markets of China and India. Furthermore the results of almost 30interviews conducted withcompanies from Austria, Germany and Switzerland ontheir experiences with doing business in Vietnam are used to shed light on thestrengths and weaknesses of the labor market in Vietnam.

  17. Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouser, Shahzad; Abedullah; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-25

    The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Child labor. A matter of health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.

  19. Military duty: risk factor for preterm labor? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeary, A M; Lomenick, T S

    2000-08-01

    The female military population represents a high-risk group for preterm labor and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. As the number of women entering the armed forces continues to increase, concerns regarding the effects of military service on pregnancy must persist. Although active duty females have access to prenatal care and maintain consistent follow-up, previous research has noted a 5-fold increase in preterm labor compared with civilian working women. Hospitalization and loss of work attributable to pregnancy complications directly affect productivity and mission accomplishment; therefore, it is crucial to identify those at risk to institute measures that will prevent such occurrences and decrease time away from work. This article provides a review of the existing literature concerning preterm labor in military women, comparisons with the civilian population, and recommendations for future research.

  20. Electrohysterographic Characterization of Labor Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....

  1. Incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la capacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En España coexisten dos sistemas públicos de salud: el universal, gestionado por las comunidades autónomas y financiado con impuestos, y el laboral, gestionado por las Mutuas y financiado por cuotas a la Seguridad Social, los cuales se reparten la responsabilidad de gestión de la incapacidad laboral. Esta doble dependencia dificulta la gestión de esta importante prestación sanitaria y social. Una gestión que es diferente en función de la etiología (común o profesional y su pronóstico (temporal o permanente. Para poder comprender mejor la naturaleza de la incapacidad laboral, y que su investigación sea útil para mejorar su gestión médica y social, conviene adoptar una perspectiva longitudinal (life course research, analizando trayectorias de incapacidad en los individuos, y no solo episodios aislados. Una trayectoria de incapacidad que debemos analizar junto a la trayectoria laboral de esa misma persona. Para analizar conjuntamente las trayectorias laboral y de incapacidad disponemos de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales de la Seguridad Social desde 2004. Una muestra de 873.008 afiliados (un 4%, aproximadamente en 2009 entre los que se produjeron 163.136 episodios de incapacidad temporal (IT iniciados en 2009, las cuales evolucionaron entre 2009 y 2012 a 4.738 casos de incapacidad permanente (IP. Un 2,9% en total, que fue del 12,6% en caso de tumores malignos (282 IP de 2.234 IT y del 9,2% en el caso de enfermedades cardiovasculares (344 IP de 3.532 IT. En un contexto de incremento de la esperanza de vida y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas (vivimos más pero con más incapacidad necesitamos analizar longitudinalmente las trayectorias de incapacidad para poder prevenir los años de vida laboral perdidos por IP, los cuales, como sabemos, están relacionados con la trayectoria laboral (1.

  2. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuzova, M

    1991-12-01

    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  3. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...

  4. Ajuste produtivo e medidas de flexibilização da legislação trabalhista Productive adjustment and flexibilization in the labor laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ribeiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir da década de 90, a introdução de inovações tecnológicas e organizacionais na indústria brasileira se intensificou significativamente. Um dos objetivos deste artigo é analisar os principais obstáculos à negociação de cláusulas referentes a essas inovações entre o sindicato dos trabalhadores da indústria de calçados, da indústria siderúrgica e da indústria têxtil e os respectivos empresários. Outro objetivo é investigar o grau de difusão das recentes medidas de flexibilização da legislação trabalhista e a estratégia desses sindicatos. Palavras-chave: Ajuste produtivo. Negociação coletiva. Flexibilização. Legislação trabalhista. During the 90’s, many new technologies and innovations in organizational structure were introduced to the Brazilian industry. One of the purposes of this article is to analyze the main obstacles to the negotiation of new labor laws in relation to theses changes between labor unions (footwear, metal and textile industry workers and the owners of the factories. The other purpose is to investigate the level of diffusion of the recent flexibilization measures of the labor legislation and the strategy of these unions. Keywords: Productive adjustment. Collective negotiation. Flexibilization. Labor laws.

  5. Untold stories of unfree labor: Asians in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Cuba Commission Report: A Hidden History of the Chinese in Cuba. The Original English-Language Text of 1876 (Introduction by Denise Helly. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. viii + 160 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Indentured Labor, Caribbean Sugar: Chinese and Indian Migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. WALTON LOOK LAI. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. xxviii + 370 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95 The world system formed by European mercantile and industrial capitalism and the history of transcontinental labor migrations from Africa to the Americas have been amply documented. The genesis, evolution, and demise of New World slavery are subjects much scrutinized and debated, particularly since the 1960s. Enjoying a less extensive tradition of historiography are the variously devised alternative labor schemes that came on the heels of emancipation: the colonially-orchestrated efforts to contract free and voluntary workers to take the place of slaves in a system of production theoretically the moral antithesis of that earlier "peculiar institution." Yet scholarship on indentured labor systems has consistently revealed that the "freedom" of immigrant workers was merely nominal, the "voluntary" nature of their commitments arguable, and the indenture projects often only ideally a kinder, gentier form of labor extraction.

  6. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  7. IT Solution concept development for tracking and analyzing the labor effectiveness of employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilin, Igor; Shirokova, Svetlana; Lepekhin, Aleksandr

    2018-03-01

    Labor efficiency and productivity of employees is an important aspect for the environment within any type of organization. This is particularly crucial factor for the companies, if which operations are associated with physical labor, such as construction companies. Productivity and efficiency are both very complicated concepts and a huge variety of methods and approaches to its analysis can be implemented within the organization. Despite that, it is important to choose the methods, which not only analyze the key performance indicators of employee, but take into account personal indicators, which might affect performance even more than professional skills. For this complicated analysis task it is important to build IT solution for tracking and analyzing of the labor effectiveness. The concept for designing this IT solution is proposed in the current research.

  8. IT Solution concept development for tracking and analyzing the labor effectiveness of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilin Igor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Labor efficiency and productivity of employees is an important aspect for the environment within any type of organization. This is particularly crucial factor for the companies, if which operations are associated with physical labor, such as construction companies. Productivity and efficiency are both very complicated concepts and a huge variety of methods and approaches to its analysis can be implemented within the organization. Despite that, it is important to choose the methods, which not only analyze the key performance indicators of employee, but take into account personal indicators, which might affect performance even more than professional skills. For this complicated analysis task it is important to build IT solution for tracking and analyzing of the labor effectiveness. The concept for designing this IT solution is proposed in the current research.

  9. Agricultural Returns to Labor and the Origins of Work Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Fouka, Vasiliki; Schlaepfer, Alain

    2017-01-01

    We examine the historical determinants of differences in preferences for work across societies today. Our hypothesis is that a society’s work ethic depends on the role that labor has played in it historically, as an input in agricultural production: societies that have for centuries depended on the cultivation of crops with high returns to labor effort will work longer hours and develop a preference for working hard. We formalize this prediction in the context of a model of endogenous prefere...

  10. Signs of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  13. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  14. Implementation of production function of labor law as a means of achieving the social stability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Izbiyenova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the role and importance of the production function in the Russian labor law under modern conditions. Methods general comparative analysis abstraction analysis synthesis and speciallegal methods method of comparative law analysis technicallegal method etc.. Results the study proved the necessity of amendment in the civil law in terms of giving workers39 representatives the right to participate in the work of collective bodies of legal entities. The existing approaches to the formation of the management bodies do not allow to discuss the possibility of successful implementation of the production function of labour law. Scientific novelty for the first time by the examples of industrial democracy implementation in some foreign countries and in the Russian Federation the role and significance of industrial democracy was studied as the form of implementation of the production function of labour law. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research activities when considering the functions of the Russian labour law and also in standardsetting activities for the improvement of normative legal acts. nbsp

  15. Forms and causes of labor disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denada Keçiçi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Labor disputes can be small or large, individual or collective, refer to a particular job or lie in more than one enterprise. The causes of these disputes are numerous and diverse, ranging from a simple appeal of one individual employee for the right of compensation, in a collective complaint of the employees about the unsafe or unhealthy conditions of work, or termination of work by all employees in a workplace, claiming that they are prevented from setting up a union to protect their interests. The product of this process is a binding agreement for its implementation and is the result of ongoing cooperation between employees and employers based on consensual decision. Organizations of employees are important actors of collective conflict resolution procedures of labor relations, and particularly those held in the offices of reconciliation, should revitalize their role.

  16. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  17. Sources of Labor Growth in Malaysian Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poo Bee Tin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing sector plays an important role in Malaysianindustrial development. High growth rates and technology expan-sion in the manufacturing sector resulted in a substantial increasein demand for labor. This process of rapid growth and changes in thedemand for labor were also accompanied by changes in laborstructure and skills. At the same time, the range of activities andproducts became more diversified and, correspondingly the compo-sition of manpower sub sectors changed significantly. This studyemployed the input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA.The analysis computed the compositional manpower change as aresult of decomposition. The result of this study indicates thatsources of labor growth in the manufacturing sector were favored bychanges in the final demand structure. Within the changes in thefinal demand structure, changes in domestic demand structure werethe dominant source of employment growth between 1978 and 1991and the overall period 1978-2000. However, from 1991 to 2000,employment change was due mainly to changes in export structure.Changes in the structure of domestic demand had a relatively strongand increasing effect on service workers, production and relatedworkers, transport equipment operators, laborers, and clerical andrelated workers during the 1978-1991 period. Changes in the exportstructure were the main factor that had an increasing effect on the employment of high skill workers and sales workers. However,during the second sub period of 1991-2000, manpower growth wasexports structure driven. Keywords: input-output; labor; manufacturing; structural decomposition analysis

  18. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  19. Migrants at the Russian labor market: occupations, mobility, intensity of labor and wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mukomel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should

  20. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  1. Optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm under labor taxes and labor mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ponce Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is developed a theoretical model to study the incentives that a labor tax might induce in terms of the optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm. In particular, we analyze the interaction of a labor tax that tends to reduce the wage due the firm is induced to shift backwards the tax burden to its employees minimizing the possible increase in the payroll costs and a fall of profits. However a lower wage might not be an optimal response to the establishment of a labor tax because it increases the labor turnover and as a result the firm faces both: an output’s opportunity cost and a labors turnover cost. The firm thus optimally decides to respond to the qualification and labor taxes by increasing the after tax wage.

  2. The Thrifty Food Plan is not thrifty when labor cost is considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George C; You, Wen

    2010-04-01

    Recent research has shown that the typical Supplemental Food Assistance Program (SNAP) family falls short in meeting the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) nutritional guidelines that underlie the SNAP even when they typically have sufficient monetary resources to eat a healthful diet (i.e. to follow the TFP recommendations). However, the TFP does not consider labor cost. This study uses a basic labor economics technique to value labor in a home food production scenario that is required to reach the TFP nutrition and budget targets and calculates the total cost (inclusive of labor) associated with the TFP. This TFP consistent total cost is then compared, using several metrics, with the total cost associated with actual choices made by those families sharing the same profiles as current SNAP participants. Once labor is included, we find the TFP is not very thrifty and the mean household falls short of the TFP guidelines even with adequate monetary resources.

  3. Identification of first-stage labor arrest by electromyography in term nulliparous women after induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  5. The media festival volunteer: Connecting online and on-ground fan labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moses Peaslee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n this initial attempt to bring volunteering, or what we call on-ground fan labor, into the ongoing discussion of fan productivity, we examine volunteer motivations as elicited through interview and participant observation data collected at a 2012 genre film festival, Fantastic Fest, held in Austin, Texas. This case study is a first step toward integrating the volunteer and fan labor literatures and interrogating the role of social capital and civic engagement in volunteerism. We conclude that the media festival (a term intended to encompass such sites as film festivals and fan conventions is a site of particular and emergent importance for those studying the audience's increasing delivery of free labor.

  6. Education, Health, and Labor Force Supply: Broadening Human Capital for National Development in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Ikoma, Sakiko; Baker, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Education and health are both capital investments in national development, often viewed as independent factors on a country's labor force supply and productivity. This study uses the 2010-2011 Third Integrated Household Survey in Malawi to propose an Education-enhanced Health Human Capital (EHHC) model where education influences labor force supply…

  7. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  8. Labor Markets in Imbalance: Review of Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, James L.; Wiener, Jonathan B.

    Recent statistical investigations indicate that labor market imbalance has increased during the past decade and has had important deleterious effects on the nation's inflation and productivity growth records. A growing difficulty in filling skilled jobs at a given unemployment rate is reflected. Business community analysts attribute the growing…

  9. Flexible labor and innovation performance : Evidence from longitudinal firm-level data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinknecht, A.; Dekker, R.; Zhou, H.

    2009-01-01

    Firms with high shares of workers on fixed-term contracts have significantly higher sales of imitative new products but perform significantly worse on sales of innovative new products (“first on the market”). High functional flexibility in “insider-outsider” labor markets enhances a firm’s new

  10. Flexible labor and innovation performance : Evidence from longitudinal firm-level data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; Kleinknecht, A.H.; Zhou, H

    2010-01-01

    Firms with high shares of workers on fixed-term contracts have significantly higher sales of imitative new products but perform significantly worse on sales of innovative new products (“first on the market”). High functional flexibility in “insider-outsider” labor markets enhances a firm’s new

  11. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...

  12. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...

  13. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...

  14. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  15. Outcomes of Nulliparous Women with Spontaneous Labor Onset Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-active versus Active Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre

  16. Description and search labor for information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  17. Labor processes within a commodity system :a comparative study of workers in apple packing houses

    OpenAIRE

    Bello Barros, Rosario

    1993-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of how two forms of capitalist production intersect with gender to shape the labor process in apple packing houses of Virginia, United States and the VI Region, Chile. It illustrates how differences in growers' production systems, as well as traditional undervaluation of women's work, shape the organization of the apple-packing workplace. A theoretical framework based on the notion of labor processes was developed to study growers' farming systems and t...

  18. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  19. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...

  20. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... its [[Page 31550

  1. Abolition of Labor Makes you Free–Labor as Mystification, Practice and Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ribać

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author tries to articulate a rational demand for the expansion of free time and transformation of wage labor. Firstly, the author demontrates that the internalization of fetishized capitalist relations is an integral part of capitalism. He demonstrates that both the capitalist and worker construct the meaning of the world through arbitrary forms of perception, and that in this process the work itself is a vital factor that generates, modifies and reproduces these forms themselves. Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and Foucault’s investigations about body and norm complement Marx’s theorization of abstract labor. This complement is then a focal point of phenomenological critique of the abstract labor practice. In the second part of the article, the author presents a strategic proposal of the French economist Michel Husson, whose arguments defend a specific transgression of capitalism: shorter working week through the socialization of products and services. Husson’s strategic proposition is also complemented. The author complements it with the ideas of how class struggle can be expanded beyond the borders of professional solidarity to the terrain of universal suffrage. He rethinks living space in a universal and unconditional manner, which can substantially reduce the subordination to economic necessity. His argument postulates that apartments as well as other housing units must be rethought outside of value form. In the last part of the article, the author tries to crystalize his line of arguments by addressing some of Husson’s implicit as well as explicit assumptions. Through critique of capitalism as a systemic totality, the author tries to fully articulate his demand for historical and material conditions of autonomy, which is structured and conditioned by limitations of capitalist system.

  2. Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…

  3. Challenges in Albania for improving Labor Market Information System and Labor Market Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshat Zeneli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.

  4. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...

  5. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Garam Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...

  6. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market

  7. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  9. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Labor Laws and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...

  11. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2003-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  12. PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S LABOR EDUCATION IN THE PEDAGOGICAL SYSTEM OF A. MAKARENKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Fed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the social situation that prevails in the beginning of the twenty-first century in Ukraine, the education priority is given to forming and developing a creative and active person with a distinct subject position who is able to adapt quickly to the rapidly changing society. And, therefore, the problem of the laziness growth, which causes understandable concern is particular urgent. The change of educational goals and objectives at the present stage of the Ukrainian school education development forces the problem of labor education and forming such youth and children’s personal qualities as diligence, which is a manifestation of the habit and love of labor; conscientious, diligent and part implementing the labor action without coercion; interest in achieving positive results and acting as an effective mean of not only human life support, but also the spiritual self-realization. Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in labor education pick out the difficulties and challenges that the today’s educational community faces. In the theory and practice of children’s school and labor education the certain contributions were made by A. Makarenko. «Children are the future citizens of society and their value in this society is determined how active they will be able to take part in their work, how well they are prepared to this work. Our society needs creative person, so children should treat labor not only as a forced burden, and as an activity, which is strenuous, tension, but gives a pleasure, and is perceived as socially useful» (A. Makarenko. Labor is considered to be mutual support, respect for working people, a sense of team building. Nowadays in secondary school vocational education is carried out due to a variety of pedagogical means. They are educational work, vocational training classes, technical creativity, and agricultural work, productivity, self-service, socially useful work in their spare time. Vocational education

  13. Labor Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  14. Limiting labor input is an overall prerequisite for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show by a simple, aggregate, descriptive model, how the importance of labor input to the production sector has to be revised in a future aiming at sustainable development. Despite substantial technological potentials for more eco-efficient utilization of nature...

  15. Reorganization of Firms and Labor Market Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar; Snower, Dennis J.

    1997-01-01

    Much of the history of economic enterprise has involved reaping the benefits from specialization of labor by dividing increasingly fragemented tasks among different employees - as vividly described already by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations. This development was greatly facilitated through the rise of "Tayloristic organizations," where standardized inputs are processed to yield standardized outputs, and where different functional tasks (e.g. administration, production, marketing, design) ...

  16. Determination of management by labor competencies in the production process of the Isotope Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Centurión, Yoneiki; Fernández Rodríguez, Rosio

    2016-01-01

    The present research is carried out in the Center of Isotopes (CENTIS) belonging to the Agency of Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba (CITMA). Its mission is to develop, produce, and supply radiopharmaceuticals, clinical diagnostics and scientific and technical health services in the national and international markets. Based on a diagnosis of the organization through the GRH-DPC model, it was determined that the main problem is the Deficient Management of Human Resources, highlighting as main cause that the labor competencies are not identified at any of its three levels . As a result of this analysis the need to establish a procedure to carry out the process of identification and validation of the competency system, as well as the design of the profile of positions by competencies of the entity. For the development of this work, different tools and techniques were used in the field of research such as: bibliographical analysis, brainstorming, expert method, statistical tools, cause and effect diagram, SWOT matrix, flow diagram, among others. The main result of the research is the identification of the organization's distinctive competencies, those of the key production processes of 99 Mo-99mTc Generators and the profiles of the positions of the Production Management linked to the selected subprocesses.

  17. 10 CFR 440.19 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...

  18. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to

  19. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  20. 24 CFR 92.354 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...

  1. The Supply and Demand for College Educated Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Stanley D.

    In this study a model for the supply of college educated labor is developed from human capital theory. A demand model is added, derived from neoclassical production function theory. Empirical estimates are made for white males and white females, using cross-sectional data on states of the U.S., 1960-70. In human capital theory, education is an…

  2. The shape of uterine contractions and labor progress in the spontaneous active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat

    2015-03-01

    Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (PR ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.

  3. Foreign labor and regional labor markets: aggregate and disaggregate impact on growth and wages in Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....

  4. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong... Contractor uses forced or indentured child labor in its mining, production, or manufacturing processes. (4...

  6. CURRENT WAGE AND LABOR REGULATION PROBLEMS IN RUSSIAN RESTRAURANTS END HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sh. Kachalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, considerable disproportions take place in Russia between organizational, regulatory, social and economic relations actually existing in restaurant and hotel business enterprises on one part and provisions of their legal law basic norms and regulations on the other part. Labor organization and normative practice improvement directions are proposed for enterprises of the branch. Economic essence of the “tipping” phenomenon is revealed. Measures aimed at elimination of overcoming wage rise rates in comparison with those of the labor productivity presently existing in the branch.

  7. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject...

  8. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  9. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  10. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  11. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  12. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  13. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...... on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential...

  14. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Towards a better understanding of recommender system in the labor market.:Towards a better understanding of recommender system in the labor market.

    OpenAIRE

    Reusens, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The rise of information systems, and especially the internet, has given service providers the opportunity to increase the number of services they can offer their customers. E-commerce platforms, such as Amazon and AliExpress, can offer their customers millions of products because they do not need shelf space to present all their products. Entertainment providers, such as Youtube, Spotify and Netflix, have millions of songs and movies from which the user can choose. Also in the labor market, e...

  16. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  17. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  18. [Adapting to a shortage of labor beyond the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, D; Marchand, O

    1991-05-01

    Future labor force trends in France are reviewed. The impact of these trends on the current disequilibrium between job supply and demand is assessed. Factors considered include increases in immigration, extension of working life, female employment, and increased productivity. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  19. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  20. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...

  1. Analysis of current labor market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yurchyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.

  2. [Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  3. INFLUENCE FACTORS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.

  4. An early modern factory between state and market: labor and management at the Amsterdam naval shipyard (1660-1795)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandon, P.; de Jong, A.; Wubs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Naval shipyards were among the largest production facilities of the pre-industrial world. The Venetian Arsenal and the British Royal Dockyards therefore play a prominent role in the historiography of early modern labor relations. However, labor relations at the Dutch naval shipyards remain

  5. Structural imbalances as a key factor of unemployment in the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.

  6. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  7. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  8. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  9. Lactate in Amniotic Fluid: Predictor of Labor Outcome in Oxytocin-Augmented Primiparas' Deliveries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiberg-Itzel

    Full Text Available One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL.To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries.A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study.AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l or low (12h (p = 0.04, post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01 and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04.The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications.

  10. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-3 - Convict Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...

  12. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...

  13. Collective labor supply and housework with non-participation of women in paid labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2009-01-01

    Back to overview Collective Labor Supply and Housework with Non-Participation of Women in Paid Labor (with B. van Praag and H. Maassen van den Brink) We estimate a collective time allocation model, where two-earner households behave as if the spouses maximize a household utility function, and where

  14. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... reduce or eliminate the amount of diacetyl in some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have.... Hilda L. Solis, Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation... in part II of this issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed...

  15. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...

  16. Shotgun proteomics deciphered age/division of labor-related functional specification of three honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) exocrine glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Hori, Yutaro; Takeuchi, Jun; Kubo, Takeo; Oyama, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology. We identified approximately 2000 proteins from each of the nurse bee or forager glands and highlighted the features of these glands at the molecular level by semiquantitative enrichment analyses of frequently detected, gland-selective, and labor-selective proteins. First, we found the high potential to produce lipids in PcGs and MGs, suggesting their relation to pheromone production. Second, we also found the proton pumps abundant in TGs and propose some transporters possibly related to the saliva production. Finally, our data unveiled candidate enzymes involved in labor-dependent acid production in MGs.

  17. The Division of Labor, Investment, and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokai Yang

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium model based on corner solutions to formalize the classical theory of investment and capital which considers investment to be a vehicle for developing a high level of division of labor in roundabout productive activities. If it takes time for a specialist producer of tractors to learn the right method in producing commercially viable tractors, specialization in producing tractors is infeasible in the absence of investment in terms of consumption go...

  18. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  19. What's Happening to American Labor Force and Productivity Measurements? Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the National Council on Employment Policy (Washington, D.C., June 17, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, MI.

    This volume contains four papers presented at a 1982 conference sponsored by the National Council on Employment Policy. It begins with a brief policy statement warning that labor force and productivity data systems face deterioration because of budget cuts that have forced a decline in the quality and quantity of the published information and…

  20. Conceptual Provisions for Conducting the Institutional Reform of the National Labor Market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybirtsev Volodymyr V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate and develop conceptual provisions for conducting the institutional reform of the national labor market. There singled out aspects of implementing the operation and development of the labor market in the context of manifestation of the internal complexity and multi-functionality inherent to it. The existence of regularities in the increase of the need for development of the institutional structure of the labor market under conditions of transforming and restructuring the system of socio-economic relations is proved. The presence of a multiplicative effect from the spread of the new institutional practices being introduced in the labor market on the institutional regulation of a wide range of economic operations, phenomena and processes is revealed. There defined the content of the process of developing the institutional space of the national labor market, which involves institutionalizing the processes of socialization of the socio-economic relations associated with productive employment, in the context of which there occurs an increase in the importance and role of human resources in the creation of economic goods, expanded social reproduction.

  1. Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…

  2. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  3. CHALLENGES OF AGING LABOR FORCE IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Petrišič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the changes of the composition of the ageing labor force on the skills and knowledge transfer in an organization. The changing individual needs of older individuals are creating powerful, labor dynamic incentives. For the management organizations from private and public sector, this is an organizational challenge linked to cultural transformation on the level of organization. The results of the study show that the manager and non-manager respondents have the unique aspect of the role of senior employees in some small Slovenian organizations. Managers in the sample based on their managerial experience, see the older workers in an organization primarily as transformers of jobs to younger employees, which should be courteous and efficient and should help the organization competitiveness. Non – managers’ respondents give priority to employment and retirement strategy for senior employees and maintain a positive view of older employees’ motives and productivity. Further, non – managers point to the need to keep older workers with unique skills and competences in an organization. We conclude that organizations will meet the challenge of ageing labor force in the near future. They will have to start the organizational culture, which will promote business change and continuous flow of skills and competences through inter-generation model.

  4. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with preliminary...

  5. The assessment of labor: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2018-01-26

    In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.

  6. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2009-01-01

    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  7. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  8. Technology, labor characteristics and wage-productivity gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Maliranta, Mika

    2003-01-01

    We use plant-level linked employer-employee data from Finland to estimate production functions where also employee characteristics (average age and education, and sex composition) are included. We also estimate similar models for wages to examine whether wages are based on productivity. Our aim is to explain productivity besides manufacturing, also in services. For the service sector plants, no data on capital input, working hours, or value added is available, and productivity has to be measu...

  9. The Role of Domestic Abuse in Labor and Marriage Markets: Observing the Unobservables

    OpenAIRE

    Audra J. Bowlus; Shannon N. Seitz

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force and marital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our model, spousal abuse affects labor supply through decreases in utility from leisure as well as through reductions in productivity at work and hence the market wage. In addition, abuse is treated as...

  10. Development of international labor migration in the dynamics of globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current characteristics of international migration caused by the qualitative changes that occur in the global economy under influence of increasing globalization. The paper attempts to suggest periodization of the global economy development and to identify features of international labor migration occurred under the influence of deep changes in the world economy. During this period, the author identifies three stages in the formation of globalization, the transition criterion from one to other is the degree of world economy changes under the influence of the productive forces development and the major social and political transformations resulted in qualitative changes in the processes of international labor migration. At the same time in the context of globalization the place and role of international labor migration changes in the global economy system: migration becomes a means of promoting the globalization of countries and regions, the most important factor of demographic development and economic growth.

  11. A bioeconomic approach to marriage and the sexual division of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Winking, Jeffrey; Kaplan, Hillard; von Rueden, Christopher; McAllister, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Children may be viewed as public goods whereby both parents receive equal genetic benefits yet one parent often invests more heavily than the other. We introduce a microeconomic framework for understanding household investment decisions to address questions concerning conflicts of interest over types and amount of work effort among married men and women. Although gains and costs of marriage may not be spread equally among marriage partners, marriage is still a favorable, efficient outcome under a wide range of conditions. This bioeconomic framework subsumes both cooperative and conflictive views on the sexual division of labor. We test hypotheses concerning marriage markets, assortative mating, and men's labor motivations among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and find that: (1) men and women both value work effort in marital partners, (2) marital labor contributions are complementary, (3) work effort is correlated between spouses, (4) total production is correlated with total reproduction, and (5) better hunters have higher fitness gains within marital unions.

  12. Comparative study of rural labor in forestry, seeds and fruit growing (Argentina 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Trpin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on case studies done among 2008-2011, on rural labor in concentrated investments. Economic sectors studied were fruticulture in Rio Negro Upper Valley, forestry in Misiones NW, and transgenic corn seeds in Buenos Aires North. Methodology was multisited ethnography searching on different actors’ point of view. Techniques applied were in field deep interviews and participant observation. Secondary analysis by comparative method shown in this paper allows us to point out three continuity issues:Enterprises strategy to discern between “production and “services", reduces classic employment positions. The environmentalization of labor relationship happens by means of quality management and total quality proceedings. This relationship link work (understood as “well done job" with productivity growth. There are different territories one related with production, the other with work and workers dwelling.

  13. Income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil: dual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Garcia Margonato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the formation and income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil in 2002 and 2009 based on microdata from the National Sample Survey (PNAD.The methodology is to estimate the selection and wages equations using the Heckman's Sample Selection Model (1979. For the measurement of the female income differential in commerce, industry and domestic service, compared to income of women in the service sector it is applied an adaptation of the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (1973 adapted by Jann (2008. It was confirmed the hypothesis that segmentation occurs in the female labor market in Southern Brazil because the income differential cannot be explained only by personal attributes (productive or not and by formal work. There are specificities in the sectors (sector effect determining the income differential of women´s income in the labor market, moreover the sector effect explained 33% of the wage differential observed in industry, also explained 29% in the commerce and 35% of the female income gaps when compared to the service sector, which is considered as in advantage.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Coe, Neil

    This article examines the circumstances under which CSR initiatives facilitate and/or constrain labor agency in GPNs. Using a case study of Nike’s CSR approach in the football manufacturing industry of Pakistan, we explore how the CSR measures advocated in a new, emerging policy paradigm on CSR...... in GPNs affect labor agency at Nike’s main football supplier factory in Pakistan. We argue that international companies may undermine labor agency in GPNs through their sourcing policies, but that their CSR policies could have a potential, albeit limited, positive impact on labor agency in GPNs which...

  15. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  16. The effect of aromatherapy with lavender essence on severity of labor pain and duration of labor in primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoreh; Pirak, Arezoo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lavender essence inhalation on severity of labor pain and duration of labor. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 pregnant women in two groups. The experimental group received 2 drops of Lavender essence inhaled at three stages (4-5, 6-7, 8-9 cm cervical dilation) and severity of the labor pain and duration of labor was measured before and after intervention. The control group was treated with distilled water as a placebo in the similar ways, too. The results showed that difference in the labor pain before and after intervention in two groups was significant (P = 0/001). But there was no difference in mean duration of the active phase and the second stage of labor between the two groups. Lavender essence aromatherapy may be an effective therapeutic option for pain management for women in labor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  18. Poverty, Job Quality and Labor Market Dynamics in the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The problem is compounded by youthful populations, low quality education, bloated public sectors and low productivity levels in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This project will ... Morocco conforms to Egypt to a significant degree. Jordan offers an ... Impact of labor market reforms on informality in Egypt. Documents.

  19. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  20. Reflexiones sobre la incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la incapacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Eloy Díaz Salazar

    Full Text Available Numerosos agentes intervienen en la gestión de la incapacidad laboral, tanto temporal como permanente, y se hace necesario una actuación sinérgica entre todos ellos; del mismo modo, se considera que existen posibles actuaciones o cambios que pueden ayudar a disminuir el gasto y duración de los procesos, y proceder a la reincorporación laboral lo antes posible y de la forma más beneficiosa para el paciente, y, por ende, para la sociedad.

  1. Collective labor supply of native Dutch and immigrant households in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a collective time allocation model, where Dutch, Surinamese/Antillean and Turkish households behave as if both spouses maximize a household utility function. We assume that paid labor and housework are the endogenous choice variables and furthermore consider household production.

  2. Labor epidural analgesia: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.

  3. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  4. The Debate on Globalization and International Revitalization of Labor. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fleming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labor. The main question in this discussion is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labor movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization. This question also relates to discussions of changes in division of work, the concept of work, working class, commodification, decommodification, and new centers of global production—all related to different paradigms or new concepts. The reason or need for reconceptualizing comes from the great transformation of capitalism in forms of neoliberal globalization, in a different direction than predicted by Polanyi. That is, instead of increased public sector decommodification (not profit- or market-oriented production and national regulation, embedding capitalist markets, as seen after 1945, the last three decades have witnessed a countertransformation and large-scale recommodification by privatizing, disembedding, and deregulating global markets. As a consequence, inequality in income and working life conditions has increased in most countries and been used to press trade unions. Western industrial unions have been declining as many industries and labor-intensive, low-paid jobs moved to developing countries. Most blue-collar jobs are now in Asia, especially China, with about one-third of its employment blue collars. Is the center of global capital-labor contradictions and dynamics moving to the South, with a possibility of a new revitalization of labor and international solidarity? We discuss different optimistic and pessimistic views on a possible international revitalization of labor.

  5. 78 FR 17721 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... Department of Labor, which is the point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Chapters of U.S. FTAs. The... of the U.S. Department of Labor serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The... for travel expenses. Authority: The authority for this notice is granted by the FACA (5 U.S.C. App. 2...

  6. Validity and efficacy of the labor contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.

  7. Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...

  8. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Context of Labor Relations in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas González, Yalenis del Valle

    2017-01-01

    The present research article was developed with the purpose of describing Corporate Social Responsibility in the context of Labor Relations and its context to generate attitudinal changes and transformations in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that have an impact on the transformation of business processes, for production and productivity, contributing to social welfare and the environment, having an impact on the quality of individual life. This research is justified as an emerging vision...

  10. French Secondary School Students' Perceptions of the Education-Labor Market Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique

    2004-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to…

  11. 48 CFR 2922.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...

  12. Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  13. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  14. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  15. 3 CFR 13496 - Executive Order 13496 of January 30, 2009. Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...' productivity is enhanced when workers are well informed of their rights under Federal labor laws, including the... collective bargaining agreements as defined in 5 U.S.C. 7103(a)(8) and purchases under the simplified... will take such action with respect to any such subcontract as may be directed by the Secretary of Labor...

  16. The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets : Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic

  17. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.

  18. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  19. The gender division of labor and second births: Labor market institutions and fertility in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Nagase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.

  20. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in patients in labor with nonreassuring fetal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, F S; Guney, Yildiz; Dede, Hulya; Koca, Cemile; Dilbaz, Berna; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant enzyme activity in placental tissue and umbilical cord blood, as a marker for fetal hypoxia in patients in labor with nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord arterial blood and placental tissue samples were collected from 24 patients with term pregnancies in labor and nonreassuring fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns (study) and 24 women with normal pregnancies in labor and normal FHR tracings (controls) for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker for lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) for the antioxidant activity. Measured values were compared statistically between two groups using independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test. The median 1min Apgar score was 8 (range 4-9) in the study group and 9 (range 8-10) in the control group, respectively (p 0.05). Placental MDA levels in patients with nonreassuring fetal status were found to be significantly elevated compared to the control group (12.14 nmol/g tissue versus 9.75 nmol/g tissue; p < 0.01). The placental SOD activity in the study group was significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to controls (3.57 U/mg protein versus 2.63 U/mg protein). The umbilical cord blood MDA levels in the study group were higher than in normal pregnancies (4.99 nmol/mL, 3.88 nmol/mL; p < 0.05). The activity of SOD in umbilical cord blood was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with nonreassuring fetal status when compared with the control group (11.62 versus 6.95 U/mL). Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant functions were elevated in the umbilical cord blood and placenta of patients having nonreassuring FHR tracings during labor. These findings indicate that lipid peroxidation products in placenta and umbilical cord blood can be used as a possible marker for fetal hypoxia during labor and SOD levels may discriminate acute from chronic hypoxia. Further investigations are needed with large number of series to

  1. Labor Comes into Its Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Edmund F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a concise and interesting overview of the rise and extension of labor activity during the New Deal. Labor took advantage of Roosevelt's pro-union policies to consolidate their power and forever transform the lives of working men and women. Discusses improvements in working conditions, wages, and benefits. (MJP)

  2. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.327 Production of livestock. For an employee to be engaged in the production of livestock, he must be actively taking care of the animals or standing by in readiness for that purpose. Thus...

  3. Labor Economics and Sociology of Labor: Demarkation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.

  4. Gender Bias and Child Labor in LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Emma Underhill

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that girls work more than boys as child labor. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the causes and consequences of the gender differentials in child labor. In particular, we analyze the effects of gender bias on child labor. We find that when parents can give strictly positive bequests to both boys and girls, son preference on its own does not lead to gender differential in child labor. Only when parents cannot give bequests, girls work more than boys as ch...

  5. Labor force activity after 60

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona

    2015-01-01

    of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...... in labor force participation is described based on register data and on labor force surveys along with indicators of cohort relevant changes in education and health. Focus in the paper includes also the gender aspect to accommodate stronger cohort effects for women than for men. The impact on labor force...

  6. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions...... and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based) and disintegrated (nonequity......-based) value chains. We also assume that globalization can both impede and enable labor empowerment. Based on these premises the key question is, how can labor leverage effective power against management in global corporate networks? This question is split into two subquestions: a) How can labor theoretically...

  7. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  8. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L.; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.—Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. PMID:27075242

  9. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2016-08-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.-Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. © FASEB.

  10. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...

  11. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  12. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  13. 75 FR 34421 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY... the timeframe to submit pre-applications for section 514 Farm Labor Housing (FLH) loans and section...

  14. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  15. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  16. Conceptual problems of the intellectual labor economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.

  17. The labor impacts of policy change in health care: how federal policy transformed home health organizations and their labor practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, A

    1990-01-01

    Health care organizations are highly labor-intensive; policies designed to stimulate organizational change are likely to have labor impacts. This paper examines the labor effects of policy change in home health care. Major federal home care policy trends since 1980 have spurred the evolution of the typical home care provider toward greater organizational and market rationality. Greater managerial sophistication has introduced changes in management/labor relations. Survey data from the 1986 DRG Impact Study are used to show how the pressure of cost-containment policies has pushed agencies to cut labor costs by increasing workloads, managerial supervision, and control of the work process. Research on the effects of recent policy change in health care has to date focused primarily on potential client effects. Labor impacts are rarely examined and are poorly understood at the time that policy is made. Findings in this article suggest that these issues deserve greater, more systematic attention, because unanticipated labor impacts may prove to be significant impediments to the realization of intended policy goals.

  18. 29 CFR 452.14 - Newly formed or merged labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 452.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT... identity the terms of its officers may not be extended beyond the maximum period specified by the Act for...

  19. Saberes modernos para políticas eficaces. El derecho laboral y el estudio del mundo del trabajo. Córdoba, 1906-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portelli, María Belén

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the process of social knowledge production related to the labor question at the Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales of the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba during the fi rst decades of the twentieth century. It particularly explores the way in which intellectuals created a group of methodological and conceptual tools from the social sciences to develop the first studies about the labor force problems. In order to accomplish this task, the production of a group of professors and researchers related to the Chair of Industrial Legislation is examined. This Chair was created in 1906 for the purpose of introducing the new contents of the labor law.

  20. Labor market modeling recognizing latent job attributes and opportunity constraints : an empirical analysis of labor market behavior of Eritrean women

    OpenAIRE

    Arneberg, Marie W.; Dagsvik, John K.; Jia, Zhiyang

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes labor market behavior of urban Eritrean women with particular reference to the impact of education, earnings and labor market opportunities. Unlike traditional models of labor supply, which assume that work can be supplied freely in the labor market, we develop a framework that explicitly takes into account the notion of job opportunities and observable sets of feasible jobs. The framework is formulated within a random utility setting in which unob...

  1. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  3. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  4. Observations vs. theory of household labor supply vol. I

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Keiichiro

    1986-01-01

    In this paper I shall be using three different units of laborsupply; labor supply in man units, in hourly units, and in man-hour units.The first category, labor supply in man units, indicates the quantity oflabor supplied as measured by the number of persons who are willing to work.Labor supply in hourly units refers to the quantity of percapita labor supplymeasured in hourly units. Finally, labor supply in man-hour units indicatesthe quantity of labor supplied by a group of persons measured ...

  5. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  6. Is Productivity Linked To Wages? An Empirical Investigation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Soo Khoon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between real wages, labor productivity and unemployment in Malaysia at the macroeconomic level, using time-series econometric techniques. The study found a long-term equilibrium relationship between labor productivity and real wages, but that unemployment was apparently unconnected to the system. The results suggested that labor productivity is positively related to real wage in the long run. However, the increase in real wage exceeds the increase in ...

  7. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  8. WORKIN CONDITION OF RURAL LABOR IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contreras-Molotla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.

  9. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  10. Child labor : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...

  11. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  12. International Labor Organization's 75th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)

  13. Wage-productivity gap in OECD economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elgin, Ceyhun; Kuzubas, Tolga Umut

    2013-01-01

    The Walrasian theory of labor market equilibrium predicts that in the absence of any market frictions, workers earn a wage rate equal to their marginal productivity. However, this observation is not supported empirically for various economies. Based on the neoclassical tradition, the ratio of the marginal product of labor to real wages is generally defined as the Pigouvian exploitation rate. In this paper, the authors calculate this specific wage-productivity gap for the manufacturing sector ...

  14. LC/MS/MS data analysis of the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome fingerprint in pregnancy, labor, and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is the subject of an article in the American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, titled “The Human Uterine Smooth Muscle S-nitrosoproteome Fingerprint in Pregnancy, Labor, and Preterm Labor” (doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00198.2013 (Ulrich et al., 2013 [1]. The data described is a large scale mass spectrometry data set that defines the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome differences among laboring, non-laboring, preterm laboring tissue after treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione.

  15. Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension

  16. 75 FR 78755 - Notice of Initial Determination Revising the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced/Indentured Child Labor Pursuant to... products requiring federal contractor certification as to the use of forced or indentured child labor. To.... 13126 (``Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor''), in...

  17. Labor allocation in transition: evidence from Chinese rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical models are developed in this paper to quantitatively analyze households' participation in decisions on hiring labor and supplying labor off the farm, hired labor demand and off-farm labor supply of rural Chinese households. Econometric estimates use micro-level data from Zhejiang province

  18. Proceedings of New York University. Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference on Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, David

    Management and labor are concerned with affirmative action, Title VII, and new roles that they are being forced to play by the federal government. Employers want the employees to be more productive. Unions want the workers to enjoy what they are doing and receive a good wage. The government tells management that employees must be happy, healthy,…

  19. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....

  20. El clima laboral y la satisfacción laboral en el desempeño docente de instituciones educativas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Huaita Acha, Delsi Mariela

    2016-01-01

    La investigación titulada “El clima laboral y la satisfacción laboral en el desempeño docente de instituciones educativas públicas”, tuvo como objetivo general determinar la influencia del clima laboral y la satisfacción laboral en el desempeño docente de instituciones educativas públicas. El tipo de investigación fue básica, explicativa y descriptiva, el diseño fue no experimental y transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 81 docentes de instituciones educativas del niv...

  1. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Wijayanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of national labor law system guarantees fair is one of legal reform to achieve access to justice. This study aims to analyze whether the system of labor law has given capacity to achieve access to justice as the basis for implementing international labor relations in Asia. The method of this study is a normative legal research with statute approach. The findings support that there was an inconsistency on the substance of the legal structures that affect the low legal culture. The substance of the national labor law systems have not adapted the comprehensive International Labor Organization (ILO conventions. Less robust system of national labor laws affect access to justice in the weak field of labor in the region. How To Cite: Wijayanti, A. (2016. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 17-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.144

  2. Unemployment Benefits and Redistributive Taxes in the Presence of Labor Quality Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a worker s productivity is assumed to depend on his own quality and on the average quality of other employed workers.In this setting, unemployment benefits that induce low quality workers to leave the labor force have important efficiency as well as equity implications.In addition to

  3. The experience of using a collective crew form of labor organization and payment under conditions of introduction of a quality control system of drilling work in the Dolinsk URB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagiy, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The work experience is given of drilling crews switched to a collective crew form of labor organization and payment. In such a wage payment system, a worker's pay depends directly on the volume of drilling of the entire crew, and the work quality of each of its members. It promotes development of a feeling of mutual responsibility and mutual assistance in work among the members, raises labor and production discipline and instills a communist attitude to labor. The crew form of labor payment has contributed to improving labor organization. Use of drilling equipment improved significantly, the net drilling time increased, and production and labor discipline of the crew members rose. A system has also been developed of monitoring the quality of drilling work, where special attention is paid to a fault-free work system, enabling a significant improvement in the technical and economic indices. The commercial speed in exploratory drilling in 1977 was fulfileld by 114.1%; in production drilling, by 121.4%. Over 620,000 rubles of profits over the plan were obtained. The 1978 drilling plan was fulfilled by 109.8%; for commercial speed in exploratory drilling, by 131.5%; in production drilling, by 125.3%. The above-plan profit was 154,000 rubles.

  4. Extending the Multi Regional Input-Output framework to labor related impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardadi, Gilang; Pizzol, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    -O framework to social impacts. These challenges are addressed in this study where the Exiobase database was extended with new data on five quantitative indicators available from the International Labor Organization: employment; working hours; salary; occupational accident cases; and unemployment....... This required modeling steps, such as the disaggregation of data from sector to product group level, and filling the data gaps for missing countries by primary data collection or interpolation. A characterization step where indicator values are converted into social impacts on human productivity and human well...

  5. 29 CFR 215.4 - Employees not represented by a labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees not represented by a labor organization. 215.4 Section 215.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.4 Employees not represented by a labor...

  6. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  7. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  8. La ocupación laboral femenina en dos ciudades fronterizas: Tijuana y Matamoros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Escamilla Herrera

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the evolution of female labor force in the border cities of Tijuana and Matamoros during the period between 1987 and 1996. During the initial stages of the maquiladoras (in-bond industry, female workers predominated, but recent changes in the production process have brought about an increase in male labor force, especially in Tijuana. From female labor several changes in cultural and social patterns derive: an increase in the number of divorced or separated women with one or two children, an increase in education level from basic to medium in both cities. Income levels are also worth mentioning. In Matamoros the minimum wage has increased up to three times compared to Tijuana. This is because In the former city worker-class participation has resulted in better forms of social, class and union organization, which have been reflected in modest improvements in working conditions, a reduction in job turnover and a higher job stability.

  9. What can be done about child labor ? - An overview of recent research and its implications for designing programs to reduce child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the research on child labor, and places the phenomenon in a broader development agenda. It explains the demand for, and supply of child labor, linking these factors to others, such as the supply of education. Then it looks into the private, and social costs of, and benefits from child labor. Against this background, strategies fore reducing child labor are debated.

  10. ROLE OF METHODS FOR CAR-REPAIRING ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INCREASE OF LABOR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the line form of production organization are shown. The examples of forming the lines in different branches of industry are given. Main characteristics of line production are presented. An important role in the development of new structures of car repair lines promoting in production efficiency and labor productivity growth is emphasized. Huge reserves in this direction can be seen in creation of multi-subject flexible asynchronous systems with high level of production mechanization and automation.

  11. 76 FR 24025 - Information Collection; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before..., Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, signed by the President...

  12. SOCIO-LABOR-PROFESSIONAL DYNAMICS OF BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION / DINÁMICA SOCIO-LABORAL-PROFESIONAL DE LA SEMIPRESENCIALIDAD EN LA UNIVERSIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pura de la Caridad Rey Rivas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of autonomy and professional self-management as key factors in Blended Process of Formation, an integrative perspective of socio-labor-professional formation which permits to reinforce the leading role of students starting from emergent contents from the labor context and from the correct application of personal and professional resources, is needed. This will allow the students a critical contextualized interpretation of their formation process. From this perspective, the need to propose a Model of socio-labor-professional dynamics of blended process as well as a Didactic Strategy of socio-labor blended formation in Higher Education, is recognized. This permits to reveal didactic aspects that, in an integrative process, condition the logic formation of blended process from its socio-professional character as a dynamic point of the professional praxis in contexts of labor performance. This view allows students to develop a socio-labor-professional performance culture during their labor practice as well as a successful acting as a graduate. RESUMEN Por la importancia de la autonomía en el aprendizaje y de la autogestión profesional, como elementos esenciales del proceso de formación semipresencial, se precisa de una perspectiva integradora de la formación socio-laboral-profesional que permita potenciar el rol protagónico del estudiante partiendo de contenidos emergentes del contexto laboral desde la aplicación adecuada de recursos personales y profesionales que le posibilitarán una interpretación crítica contextualizada de su proceso formativo. Desde esta visión, se reconoce la necesidad de proponer un modelo de la dinámica socio-laboral-profesional de la semipresencialidad en la Educación Superior, así como una estrategia didáctica de formación socio-laboral de la semipresencialidad en la Educación Superior. Lo anterior permite la revelación de las particularidades didácticas que, en un proceso integrador

  13. Pathophysiology of preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immigrants, Labor Market Performance, and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...

  15. Beyond dualism: Multisegmented labor markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  16. Labor progress indices and dynamics of the individual uterine contraction during the active stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob; Odeh, Marwan; Kaminsky, Svetlana; Shnaider, Oleg; Megel, Yuri; Barnea, Ofer

    2014-03-01

    To obtain and study new data on the dynamics of the labor process and to develop a contraction-based index of labor progress. This study was carried out at the Delivery Room, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, Israel, using a new device (Birth Track). We continuously monitored cervical dilatation (CD) and head descent (HD) in 30 nulliparaous women during active labor with (augmented group) and without (study group) oxytocin augmentation. This led to the development and validation of progress indices based on features extracted from continuous monitoring. There were no significant differences between the average of each parameter in the study and augmented groups, except for HD velocity. Average HD velocity was faster in the study group. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that head station (HS) amplitude and Toco amplitude were the best parameters for predicting HD velocity in both groups. In the study group, average HD velocity was also significantly related to Toco rate and contraction efficiency. In the augmented group, only a weak correlation with Toco rate was seen, and no correlation with contraction efficiency. With the assistance of the Birth Track device, we can obtain continuous data on the labor process and indices to estimate the labor progress process without the use of vaginal (manual) examination. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Factors associated with higher oxytocin requirements in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; England, Sarah K; Roehl, Kimberly A; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-09-01

    To identify clinical characteristics associated with high maximum oxytocin doses in women who achieve complete cervical dilation. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed within a cohort of all term women at a single center between 2004 and 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. Cases were defined as women who had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor >20 mu/min, while women in the control group had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor of ≤20 mu/min. Exclusion criteria included no oxytocin administration during labor, multiple gestations, major fetal anomalies, nonvertex presentation, and prior cesarean delivery. Multiple maternal, fetal, and labor factors were evaluated with univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Maximum oxytocin doses >20 mu/min were administered to 108 women (3.6%), while 2864 women received doses ≤20 mu/min. Factors associated with higher maximum oxytocin dose after adjusting for relevant confounders included maternal diabetes, birthweight >4000 g, intrapartum fever, administration of magnesium, and induction of labor. Few women who achieve complete cervical dilation require high doses of oxytocin. We identified maternal, fetal and labor factors that characterize this group of parturients.

  18. Profile of employed persons in Paraná labor market for 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clécia Ivânia Rosa Satel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to outline the profile of employed persons in Paraná labor market in the period 2003-2012 from the microdata of the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD. The results showed that Paraná's labor market predominantly occupied by male individuals, belonging to the formal market and with white skin. The participation of women, non-young people and skilled individuals among the employed has increased. Skilled individuals usually perform activities in sectors related to the sciences and arts, while the unskilled are related to production or service sector.

  19. Labor Market Determinants of Migration Flows in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.

  20. Loss of labor time due to malfunctioning ICTs and ICT skill insufficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to unexplore the area of information and communication technology (ICT) use in organizations related to the assumed productivity gains by the use of ICTs. On the one hand, the paper focus on the losses of labor time that are caused by malfunctioning hardware or

  1. Youth and Fast Food Restaurants: the Tough Face of Flexible Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Fávero Arend

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how labor relations operate in the world of youth based on the reported experiences of male and female workers in the McDonald’s fast food restaurants in the city of Florianópolis from 2000 - 2007. It was found that the production and service system in this sector is guided by Fordist and Toyotist strategies. This fast food system seeks to forge a certain kind of worker, understood as “multifunctional,” “interchangeable” and “discardable” to the degree that, under the euphemism of flexibilization, it utilizes labor in the quantity, place and time desired. To do so, specific training is conducted in which the high turnover of these attendants does not make the business of the fast food restaurants unviable.

  2. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... failing to fulfill its obligations and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration... were inconsistent with its commitments under the Labor Chapter. The objectives of the review of the... commitments or obligations arising under a labor chapter * * *.'' The Procedural Guidelines specify that OTLA...

  3. Educación Superior y Mercado Laboral: Relación Ética Humanista Educación Superior y Mercado Laboral: Relación Ética Humanista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Cervera Delgado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Every time and to a lesser extent the Mexican labor market is distinguished for its permanence and stability in employment in the public and productive sectors. This is attributed mainly to the impact that technological innovation and the generation of the knowledge has had in the world. Both the agricultural and industrial production, once pillars of the economy, have yielded in favor of services and commerce. In this sense, it is more difficult to find lasting and stable employment. In the world, sub-contracting, the division of economies and tele-working (networking have increased. For example, there are fewer permanent jobs in the factories, fewer tenured professors in the educative institutions and fewer safe contracts for young people. The gap in social inequality grows due to the diversity of capacities and the ability to obtain income in the labor market. For that reason, in the present paper, it is found that higher education plays an important role, considered not only as a cultural and political institution, but also as recognition of its economic role. In addition, actual demands from the labor market and higher education also need a new relationship in a context of humanistic ethics. Cada vez en menor medida el mercado laboral mexicano se distingue por la permanencia y estabilidad del empleo en el sector público y en el sector productivo. Esto se le atribuye principalmente al impacto que han tenido la innovación tecnológica y la generación del conocimiento en el mundo. Tanto la producción agrícola como industrial, otrora pilares de la economía, han cedido el paso a favor de los servicios y el comercio. En este sentido, resulta cada vez más difícil encontrar empleos duraderos y estables. En el mundo, se ha incrementado la subcontratación, la terciarización de la economía y el teletrabajo. Por ejemplo, son menos los trabajadores de planta en las fábricas, de profesores de base en las instituciones educativas y de

  4. Three Empirical Essays on Education and Informality in the Labor Market of a Developing Country: The Colombian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Idárraga, Paula

    2014-01-01

    [eng] 1) Informality and Overeducation in the Labor Market of a Developing Country This chapter explores the connection between labor market segmentation in two sectors, a modern protected formal sector and a traditional- unprotected-informal sector, and overeducation in a developing country. Informality is thought to have negative consequences, primarily through poorer working conditions, lack of social security, as well as low levels of productivity throughout the economy. This chapter c...

  5. Analysis of e-commerce transaction system’s division of labor based on essential services quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The division of labor of e-commerce transaction system is an important research topic. However, there is a certain disparity between the current mainstream research model and the reality, which leads to a biased result. This paper aims to find the effects of transaction efficiency on the evolution of e-commerce transaction system’s division of labor and the relationships between the results and other parameters. Design/methodology/approach – This paper puts forward a definition of transaction efficiency based on transaction services and establishes a model of middleman’s specialized production decision of transaction services on this basis. Findings – The research results show that the transaction efficiency plays an important role on the change of middlemen’s division of labor level. The degree of economic specialization, price of commodities and transaction services and other associated factors also affect middlemen’s division of labor. Originality/value – This paper is of great significance for evaluating the development level and forecast the development direction of e-commerce.

  6. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  7. Smoking, Labor, & Delivery: It's Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.

  8. Globalization, structural change, and productivity growth:

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Margaret; Rodrik, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Large gaps in labor productivity between the traditional and modern parts of the economy are a fundamental reality of developing societies. In this paper, we document these gaps and emphasize that labor flows from low-productivity activities to high-productivity activities are a key driver of development. Our results show that since 1990 structural change has been growth-reducing in both Africa and Latin America, with the most striking changes taking place in Latin America. The bulk of the di...

  9. Use of migrants' remittances in labor-exporting countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandavarkar, A G

    1980-06-01

    For many developing countries, migrant workers' remittances comprise a substantial proportion of foreign exchange earnings. The most important macroeconomic requisite for inducing remittances through official channels is a realistic single rate of exchange for the currency of the labor exporting country. Convenient facilities for holding remittances in approved foreign currency accounts with banks in the country of origin are another useful incentive for attracting migrants' funds. In addition, policies must be formulated to ensure the optimal use, sectoral and regional, of cash remittances. There is a choice between consumption, saving, and investment. Generally, remittances have contributed little to the longterm development potential of most labor exporting countries. This reflects the lack of a coherent policy to mobilize the savings from remittances into productive investment. The 1st priority, given the lack of financial and managerial skills in many migrant households, is the creation of a specialized institution or specialized units within existing banks for remittances. It is important as well to ensure that remittances are utilized to inculcate a savings psychology among recipients. This can be achieved through the creation of contractual savings schemes and the linkage of savings to credit facilities. Such measures are contingent upon an adequate spread of banking facilities in rural areas and the development of an appropriate intermediate financial technology in the labor exporting countries. Institutional banking will have to adapt lending procedures to the viability of projects rather than to the availability of collateral. Advantageous interest rates in rural areas are also necessary to redress the urban bias of the financial system in developing countries.

  10. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  11. Testing the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Showering in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann

    : Therapeutic showering is a holistic nursing intervention that is often available and supports physiologic labor. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic showering with usual care during active labor. Research questions were as follows: Are there significant differences between women who showered 30 minutes during active labor and those who received usual labor care in anxiety, tension, relaxation, pain, discomfort, and coping? Is there a difference in use of obstetric interventions between groups? A convenience sample of healthy low-risk women in active labor was recruited (N = 32). A pretest posttest control group repeated-measures design was used. Participants were randomized to treatment group (n = 17), who showered for 30 minutes, or to control group (n = 14) who received usual labor care. Women evaluated pain, discomfort, anxiety, tension, coping, and relaxation at enrollment, again 15 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care, then again 30 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care. Chart reviews after delivery recorded obstetric interventions. The showering group had statistically significant decreases in pain, discomfort, anxiety and tension, and significant increase in relaxation. There were no differences in use of obstetric interventions. Therapeutic showering was effective in reducing pain, discomfort, anxiety, and tension while improving relaxation and supporting labor in this sample.

  12. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  13. Estimating GSP and labor productivity by state

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W. Bauer; Yoonsoo Lee

    2006-01-01

    In gauging the health of state economies, arguably the two most important series to track are employment and output. While employment by state is available about three weeks after the end of a month, data on output, as measured by Gross State Product (GSP), are only available annually and with a significant lag. This Policy Discussion Paper details how more current estimates of GSP can be generated using U.S. Gross Domestic Product and personal income along with individual states’ personal in...

  14. 76 FR 42709 - Submission for OMB Review; Prohibition on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor AGENCY: Department of Defense... acquisition of products produced by forced or indentured child labor. DATES: Submit comments on or before... on Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor, by any of the following...

  15. Influence of the Reform of Local Self-Government in Ukraine on the Formation and Development of Labor Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharuk Kateryna B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the peculiarities of formation and development of the labor potential in the process of the reforming local self-government in Ukraine. It has been found that an integration of population, the system of economic entities, infrastructure units, scientific-technical potential allows to determine the need for modern spatial forms of concentration of labor potential, i.e. for consolidated territorial communities. With the purpose of formation and development of labor potential, considering impacts of the reform of local self-government in Ukraine, the following activities has been proposed to be carried out: improving the living standards of rural residents, creation of productive jobs, socio-economic cooperation between communities, infrastructure development, use of natural resources, socio-labor, agricultural and industrial capacities, effective use of rural socio-labour potential, development of agricultural production, rural non-farm activities, development of social infrastructure, creation of advisory service and introduction of a system of continuous education, development of family medicine, collaboration with regional and central authorities, involvement of the regional budget funds, establishment of a fund for economic development, cooperation with domestic and foreign investors. It has been determined that the introduction of the above measures will affect the increase in employment within the consolidated territorial communities.

  16. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  17. 75 FR 55251 - Labor Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... immeasurable contributions of working men and women today and throughout our history. As we recognize the... and that of organized labor in our national life. Workers have not always possessed the same rights... aisles of today's superstores, organized labor has provided millions of hard-working men and women with a...

  18. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  19. International Comparisons on Internal Labor Markets and Corporate Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.

  20. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  1. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  2. 20 CFR 404.1055 - Payments for agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments for agricultural labor. 404.1055... Payments for agricultural labor. (a) When cash payments are not wages. We do not include as wages your cash payments in a calendar year after 1987 from an employer for agricultural labor (see § 404.1056) if your...

  3. Role of Prophylactic Oxytocin in the Third Stage of Labor: Physiologic Versus Pharmacologically Influenced Labor and Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Elise N; Lee, Christopher S; Emeis, Cathy L

    2017-07-01

    Maternity care providers administer oxytocin prophylactically to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Prophylactic oxytocin is generally considered effective and safe and is promoted by national organizations for standardized use. In this article, the evidence supporting prophylactic oxytocin administration for women undergoing spontaneous labor and birth compared with women whose labors included administration of exogenous oxytocin for induction or augmentation is explored. Using data from randomized controlled trials included in 2 recent Cochrane meta-analyses papers, only studies with women in spontaneous labor were selected for inclusion (N = 4 studies). Outcomes of immediate postpartum bleeding volumes (≥ 500 mL or 1000 mL), risk for blood transfusion, and risk for administration of more uterotonic medication were pooled from these 4 studies. Focused random effects meta-analytics were used. Compared to women without prophylactic oxytocin, women who received prophylactic oxytocin had a lower risk of having a 500 mL or higher blood loss. However, prophylactic oxytocin did not lower risk of PPH (≥ 1000 mL), blood transfusion, or need for additional uterotonic treatment. Prophylactic oxytocin may not confer the same benefits to women undergoing spontaneous labor and birth compared to women laboring with oxytocin infusion. Reasons for this difference are explored from a pharmacologic perspective. In addition, the value of prophylactic oxytocin given recent changes in the definition of PPH from greater than or equal to 500 mL to 1000 mL or more after birth is discussed. Finally, gaps in research on adverse effects of prophylactic oxytocin are presented. More research is needed on reducing risk of PPH for women in spontaneous labor. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Costs and Burden Associated with Loss of Labor Productivity in Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: Results from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Kostov, Belchin; Haro, Josep Maria; Cabrera, Esther; Risco, Ester; Alvira, MCarmen; Miguel, Susana; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2017-11-13

    We analyzed indirect costs related to loss of labor productivity (LLP) in informal caregivers (ICs) of people with dementia (PwD) and the associated caregiver burden and patients' clinical variables. Multicenter cohort study of PwD and their ICs (n = 287) focused on two groups: (1) home care and (2) institutional long-term care. The costs of LLP were assessed using the Resource Utilization Dementia instrument and a human capital approach. The cost for LLP was 378&OV0556;/month or 4.536&OV0556;/year. Greater disease severity increased the likelihood of reducing working hours and missing a working day. There was a significant association between partial absenteeism and burden in employed informal caregiver in both the home and institutional setting. Cognitive impairment contributes to the cost of LLP in IC especially in home-care. LLP has a negative impact on IC burden.

  5. A Labor Perspective on Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Anthony R.

    Most major workplace literacy programs involve unions. Organized labor's current leadership in worker education and training is not a continuation of earlier activities but an expansion of union interest and activity that is unprecedented in the history of organized labor. These efforts do not rely on public funding, because many unions have…

  6. The Role of Cross-Training in Reducing the Level of Labor Turn Over Applied Study on Some Hotels in Tripoli – Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Thabet Abuharris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cross-Training is an effective training technology which results in employee motivation and problem-solving. A good cross-training plan can encourage employees to learn more about all sides of the business and is able to jump in to help anytime, anywhere when other departments need to be supported. The tourism industry is a labor-intensive service industry dependent for survival and competitive advantage on the availability of good quality personnel to deliver, operate and manage the tourist product. Cross-training is presented as a learning opportunity whose main purpose is to build employee motivation, reduce turnover and increase productivity for industries. The interaction between tourist and tourism industry personnel is an integral part of the total tourist experience. Generally speaking, hospitality industry has one of the highest levels of skill shortages and Libya is no exception. This paper focuses on skills relating to cross training in hotels industry. The paper considers the key arguments from Libya`s perspective in the context of hotels industry regarding cross training and its effect on labor turnover .Three hotels have been selected for the study by distributing and collecting questionnaire on 91 employees. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS was used to analyze the data. Both hypothesis of the study were tested. The first one indicated that there is a negative relationship between the level of per capita income and labor turnover and the other one tested if cross training has an effect on labor turnover rates. The effect of employee`s income on labor turnover has been tested, in order to find out if employees` income is the only factor effects labor turnover, or cross training is another factor which has its effect on labor turnover too. Labor turnover average in selected hotels illustrated. Justifications of labor turnover will be tested and solutions for reducing labor turn over will be presented.

  7. The labor of a lifetime?: health and occupation type as predictors of workforce exit among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2012-03-01

    The structural aging of the population and withdrawal of older people from the labor force have become common themes within Western social policy discourse and have particular relevance to policy development around health and aging. The current study examines whether particular occupation types are associated with both poor health and an increased likelihood of labor force exit. Longitudinal data are used to examine workforce participation among older Australians (aged between 55 and 64, in 2002). Older workers in trades, labor, and production occupations, the majority of whom are men, have poorer general health than their counterparts in other occupations and are also the most likely to exit the workforce. These findings suggest that a number of older men in Australia (and, indeed, elsewhere) may face both poor health and limited employment opportunities in areas that match their abilities and experience. These individuals may experience a number of years out of the labor force, highlighting a role for targeted policies and programs.

  8. Locating operations in high labor cost countries – Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Diaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The location of operations in high labor cost countries is increasingly discussed in the media, in part for recent declarations and actions from the president of USA, Donald Trump. While this particular instance can be labeled as populist or protectionist, the factors underlying the debate are extremely important: advances in systematic increases in productivity, low population growth, and the transfer of jobs to countries with lower labor costs are creating unemployment and underemployment in developed countries that could eventually result in protectionism and restrictions to free trade. This phenomenon has enormous social and economic implications, and has attracted considerable interest from researchers. In particular, this study provides empirical evidence of the location of manufacturing and services in the context of a European country (Spain, exploring the drivers, social implications and organizational theories that can explain it.

  9. Effects of occupational illness on labor productivity: A socioeconomic aspect of informal sector workers in urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ahmed, Sayem; Ahmed, Mohammad Wahid; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Islam, Ziaul; Gazi, Rukhsana; Khan, Jahangir A M

    2016-05-25

    The informal sector is the dominant area of employment and the economy for any developing country including Bangladesh. The cost of productivity loss due to absence from work or presenteeism with illness has rarely been examined in the Bangladesh context. This current study, therefore, attempted to examine the impact of ill health of informal sector workers on labor productivity, future earning, and healthcare-related expenditure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among three occupational groups of informal workers (rickshaw pullers, shopkeepers and restaurant workers) that were generally found in all urban areas in Bangladesh. A total of 557 informal workers were surveyed for this study. Most of the respondents (57%) reported that they had been affected by some type of illness for the last six months. The overall average healthcare expenditure of informal workers was US$48.34, while restaurant workers expended more (US$53.61). Self reported sickness absenteeism was highest (50.37days) in the case of shop keepers, followed by rickshaw pullers (49.31 days), in the last six months. Considering the income loss due to illness in the past six months, the rickshaw pullers were exposed to the highest income loss (US$197.15), followed by the shop keepers (US$151.39). Although the informal sector contributes the most to the economy of Bangladesh, the workers in this sector have hardly any financial protection. This study provides critical clues to providing financial and social protection to informal sector workers in Bangladesh.

  10. 75 FR 4271 - Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 404 Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 499, revised as [[Page 4272

  11. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  12. Utilidad del mapa de riesgo laboral en el diagnóstico de salud de las empresas Usefulness of labor risk map in health diagnosis of health condition in companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo López Espinosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En la mina-planta de zeolita de Tasajeras, perteneciente al municipio de Ranchuelo, provincia de Villa Clara, se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo en el año 2002, con el objetivo de valorar la utilidad del mapa de riesgo laboral en el diagnóstico de salud de los trabajadores de la empresa. Identificados y clasificados los riesgos presentes en el ámbito laboral y conocido su indicador negativo de control, se procedió a calcular el grado de peligrosidad, y se halló que el ruido industrial y el polvo mineral fueron los de mayor gravedad (1 000 puntos. La temperatura extrema y la exposición al plomo obtuvieron una menor peligrosidad (150 puntos. Se confeccionó un esquema del centro y se localizaron los indicadores de los factores de riesgos, basados en su prioridad; se establecieron los planes de prevención y control. El mapa de riesgo proporcionó una información básica para el análisis de la salud laboral y para la elaboración de planes preventivos, por lo que recomendamos su uso por los Equipos de Salud ubicados en los centros de trabajo.In zeolite production plant and mine located in Tasajeras, Ranchuelo´s municipality in Villa Clara province, an observational descriptive-type study was performed in 2002 to assess the benefits of the labor risk map in the diagnosis of health condition of workers in this company. Once the risks in the labor context were identified and classified and their negative control index was known, the dangerousness level was estimated. It eas found that industrial noise and mineral powder were the most serious risks (1 000 points. Very high temperatures and exposure to lead recorded lower dangerousness rate (150 points. A center drawing was prepared and the risk factors indicators were located on the basis of their priority; also prevention control programs were put into practice. The labor risk map may provide basic information for the analysis of labor health and working-out of

  13. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  14. Revisiting Marshall's Third Law: Why Does Labor's Share Interact with the Elasticity of Substitution to Decrease the Elasticity of Labor Demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Saul D.

    2009-01-01

    The third Marshall-Hicks-Allen rule of elasticity of derived demand purports to show that labor demand is less elastic when labor is a smaller share of total costs. As Hicks, Allen, and then Bronfenbrenner showed, this rule is not quite correct, and actually is complicated by an unexpected negative relationship involving labor's share of total…

  15. Emotional labor in nursing praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.

  16. Unfunded pensions and endogenous labor supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....

  17. 29 CFR 801.65 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 801.65 Section 801.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative...

  18. 76 FR 53880 - Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This notice corrects the scoring...

  19. Projecting female labor supply: The relevance of social norm change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with

  20. The analysis of labor force participation in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact is that natural rubber has a strategic role as it is one of the commodities industry tropical crops. In addition, it also has important and strategic role in sup-porting the national economy, primarily as a source of livelihood of millions of rub-ber farmers in rural areas. This study analyzed the potential of using family labor in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indo-nesia. The total sample used for the study was 280 respondents of households. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The multiple regression analysis used to identify the determinants of labor force participation decision regarding work in the rubber smallholding in the study area such as rubber production (kg per year per hectare, number of family workers, age of family head, location of dwelling, education of family head, and average years of schooling of family workers. Based on the analysis, only two factors affected significantly family labor force participation outside their smallholdings, namely number of family labor and education of family head.

  1. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  2. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  3. Features of the Regional Labor Markets in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Pošta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the Labor Office data for the regions of the Czech Republic to investigate some of the structural features of the respective labor markets. We build our approach on the matching function of the search model of the labor market. In the paper we show how the regional labor markets differ with respect to vacancies, unemployment, matches between unemployed and vacancies, probability of finding a job and labor market tightness. We also demonstrate how these characteristics evolved over time. We show that the labor markets were really hit the hardest several years after the great recession began to affect the Czech Republic. We go on to estimate the matching function for the respective regional labor markets and show that the sensitivity of the probability of finding a job to the labor market tightness generally increased over time, which we interpret as a positive sign. We set our results in the framework of some of the earlier work which has been done. With all the data and estimates used we are able to pinpoint the most troubled regions as far as the structural features of the labor market are concerned.

  4. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 500.231 Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT...

  5. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Omar A; Axtell, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  6. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Guerrero

    Full Text Available It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN. This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  7. Fluctuación de la fuerza laboral en la Unidad Siboney de Camagüey en el período de 2004-2014/Fluctuation of the labor force in Camaguey Siboney Unit for the period 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Hernández Casado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se valoró el comportamiento de la fluctuación de la fuerza laboral en la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa (UBPC cañera “Siboney”.Se determinó las causas que motivaron la fluctuación laboral y los cargos ocupacionales de los fluctuantes. Se realizó una encuesta a una muestra de 60 trabajadores para determinar fundamentalmente el nivel de satisfacción de estos hacia la entidad.Se emplearon los métodos de Análisis y Síntesis, Monográfico, Observación y el Horizontal y Vertical. Sus principales resultados muestran que la causa con mayor incidencia en la fluctuación laboral fue la mejora salarial en un 58 % y la categoría ocupacional más afectada fue la de obreros, representando un 96 % del total. Resultó ser el poco incentivo motivacional y financiero lo que originó que la fuerza laboral que trabaja fundamentalmente vinculada a las actividades agrícolas fluctuara en el período analizado. ABSTRACT The behavior of the fluctuation of the labor force in sugarcane "Siboney" Basic Unit of Cooperative Production (UBPC was assessed. The reasons for labor and occupational fluctuation fluctuating positions are determined. A survey of a sample of 60 employees was used to fundamentally determine the level of satisfaction of these to the entity. Methods of Analysis and Synthesis, Monograph, Observation and Horizontal and Vertical are used. The main results show that the cause with the greatest impact on wage labor fluctuation was improved by 58% and the most affected was the occupational category of workers, representing 96% of the total. It turned out to be little financial incentive motivational and which meant that the labor force working fluctuate mainly linked to agricultural activities in the period.

  8. Flexibility@Work 2013: yearly report on flexible labor and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.; Heyma, A.; Prins, J.

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear evidence that the strong growth in the share of flexible labor relations between 2002 and 2007 points at a worldwide trend towards a larger share of flexible labor at the expense of traditional open-ended labor contracts. The growth in flexible labor varies too much between

  9. Class, Race and American Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Collomp

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor history in the United States is well‑chartered territory. It is the object of countless scholarly books, appears in many college and university curricula and it is the subject of on‑going revisions and debates. Although labor history has always implied a form of at least implicit social commitment, it has been commented upon and written about as abundantly as other aspects of social history and often with more stamina or vindication. Nineteenth and early twentieth‑century working class ...

  10. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  11. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  12. Product and labor market imperfections and scale economies: Micro-evidence on France, Japan and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Kiyota, K.; Mairesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    Allowing for three labor market settings, this paper relies on an extension of Hall's econometric framework for simultaneously estimating price-cost mark-ups and scale economies. Using an unbalanced panel of 17,653 firms over the period 1986-2001 in France, 8,725 firms over the period 1994-2006 in

  13. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Monge González

    2012-11-01

    performance of local firms that hire MNCS’ former employees. We found that, out of a total of 41 149 MNCS’ employees who quitted working for these companies between 2001 and 2007, inclusive, one third shifted to work for local firms (15 139. Knowledge spillovers’ impact on the latter was measured in terms of three variables: sales, employment and average labor productivity, using a panel of local firms for the period between 2007 and 2009, inclusive. Using econometric models suggested by the literature on this field, we found evidence indicating that local firms which hired MNCS’ former employees perform better in terms of employment and sales growth that those local firms not hiring MNCS’ former employees.We did not find the same evidence when measuring local firms’ performance using average labor productivity. Finally, results point out the importance of conducting new research about the local firms’ absorption capacity in order to boost even more the positive impact of knowledge spillovers, as well as the impact of such spillovers on total factor productivity.

  14. Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how the composition of the labor force changes with economic development. It considers recent trends in women's labor force participation and the type of jobs held in various sectors as national per capita income increases. The paper notes that women are more likely to work in the family or informal labor market if the labor costs to firms exceed the opportunity costs of female labor to family enterprises. Firms are at a relative disadvantage compared with families in the...

  15. Chambers of work - steps in the development of labor law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social changes that followed the war and perfection state unit generated new and complex problems in all areas. We try to present problems directly aimed at the working class, that is formalized and institutionalized labor, social and economic context of the time. As regards labor law of 1927 rooms and discussions around it, brought the authors to the conclusion that trying to regulate relations between labor and capital and precise directives followed, social reconciliation, abolition of trade union activity, labor movement split and its supervision. Concessions workers were considered only illusory and employers with state dominance. However during 1933/1934, Chambers work activity had a positive role in the field of enforcement of labor law, serving an important role in other institutions and labor organizations, representing a significant step in the development of labor law.

  16. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  17. 29 CFR 1403.3 - Obtaining data on labor-management disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service from...

  18. Urban scaling and the production function for cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Strumsky, Deborah; West, Geoffrey B

    2013-01-01

    The factors that account for the differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult to measure and identify unambiguously. Here we show that a microscopic derivation of urban scaling relations for economic quantities vs. population, obtained from the consideration of social and infrastructural properties common to all cities, implies an effective model of economic output in the form of a Cobb-Douglas type production function. As a result we derive a new expression for the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of urban areas, which is the standard measure of economic productivity per unit of aggregate production factors (labor and capital). Using these results we empirically demonstrate that there is a systematic dependence of urban productivity on city population size, resulting from the mismatch between the size dependence of wages and labor, so that in contemporary US cities productivity increases by about 11% with each doubling of their population. Moreover, deviations from the average scale dependence of economic output, capturing the effect of local factors, including history and other local contingencies, also manifest surprising regularities. Although, productivity is maximized by the combination of high wages and low labor input, high productivity cities show invariably high wages and high levels of employment relative to their size expectation. Conversely, low productivity cities show both low wages and employment. These results shed new light on the microscopic processes that underlie urban economic productivity, explain the emergence of effective aggregate urban economic output models in terms of labor and capital inputs and may inform the development of economic theory related to growth.

  19. Beyond Dualism: Multi-Segmented Labor Markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabián Slonimczy

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  20. Household Choices of Child Labor and Schooling: A Simple Model with Application to Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rodrigo R.; Kruger, Diana; Berthelon, Matias

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that conflicting results from previous literature--related to the effect of economic conditions on child labor--derive from different income and substitution effects implicit in different types of income variation. We use agricultural shocks to local economic activity in Brazil (coffee production) to distinguish between increases…

  1. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There is no single satisfactory way to measure productivity in the construction industry. The industry is too varied, too specialized and too dependent upon vast numbers of interrelations between trades, contractors, designers and owners. Hence, no universally reliable indices for measuring construction productivity has been developed. There are problems that are generic to all large union-built nuclear power plants. The actions of any one owner cannot rectify the shortcomings of the construction industry. The generic problems are being identified, and many national organizations are attempting to make the construction industry more productive by recommending various changes

  2. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt

  3. Using Mythematics in the Classroom: The Fifth Labor of Hercules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…

  4. Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

    cannot be adjusted in the short run. However, land, labor, and organic fertilizer can neither be traded on a perfect market nor are their quantities completely fixed for cotton production, but these input quantities can be adjusted by adjusting their use for other activities of the household. Hence......Cotton is known as the “white gold” of Africa since it is the only export crop in which the continent’s share in the world market has increased over the past decades. Total cotton production as well as productivity grew particularly in Western and Central Africa. In contrast, cotton production grew...... and output, as well as socio-economic and agronomic factors, but also on the shadow prices of all sparsely traded inputs, i.e. land, labor, and organic fertilizer. Hence, we can not only analyze productivity, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency, but also allocative efficiency, profitability...

  5. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  6. Misguided guidelines for managing labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexiseguridad, derecho al trabajo y estabilidad laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blancas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexisecurity, right to work and labor stabilityThis article deals with one of the most recent and innovative proposals of related flexibilization, basically, to the extinction of labor relation and that areknown as «flexisecurity» or «flexicurity». For this, the author comments the model of Denmark – country in which it’s originated «flexisecurity» – emphasizing the configuration of a «golden triangle», composed of: i flexibility in the labor relation, aimed at facilitating the dismissal ii a generous system of unemployment benefits, funded primarily by the State and iii a new policy of «activation» of the labor market, which seeks to keep large sectors of the population permanently trained to meet new labor challenges. The author emphasizes the difference between our country and Denmark, since it is a Welfare State with a high level of social protection funded by a fiscal pressure and high tax rates. Finally, the article notes that for the study of «flexisecurity» it shouldn’t ignore the legal framework derived from workers’ fundamental rights established in the Constitution and international treaties which imply: right to work, dignity and citizenship of the worker and Trade Union Freedom and Collective Rights

  8. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haider, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... Despite this, we find that the wages of the elderly are low both relative to younger populations and relative to the wages they earned when they themselves were young. Among individuals over the age of 70, we find that changes in health status dominate labor market transitions. Overall. our findings suggest that non- pecuniary considerations play an important role in determining elderly labor supply decisions.

  10. Caffeine products consumption habits of vilnius university students

    OpenAIRE

    Acus, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    A small amount of caffeine in caffeine-containing products helps with stimulating labor activity, but an overdose of caffeine can cause a health hazard, so it is important to pay close attention to the use of caffeine-containing products. The use of psychoactive drugs is very important public health problem, because students attitude to addictive substances can influence their behavior in their family, the labor market and in society in general. Although caffeine is a natural product, but the...

  11. Movimiento sindical venezolano y flexibilización laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Añez Hernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como propósito explorar el movimiento sindical venezolano y la flexibilización laboral, identificando su aplicación, las acciones del movimiento sindical y la alianza surgida entre el Estado-sindicato-trabajadores para superar la precarización laboral. Los resultados reflejan que la flexibilización laboral en Venezuela generó consecuencias negativas a los trabajadores, porque perdieron su estabilidad en el empleo y los beneficios contractuales. Dicha situa...

  12. Capturing Talent: Generation Y and European Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    GAYLE ALLARD; Cristina Simón; RAQUEL MARTIN

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the challenge of capturing talent from both the political and the management level in Western Europe. It begins by identifying the special characteristics of Generation Y: those born since 1980 and recently joining national labor forces. It then evaluates the rigidity of labor markets in the European countries, dividing them into most and least regulated and exploring some of the labor-market characteristics that accompany those extremes. Finally, it identifies the employm...

  13. Analysis of labor accidents in Brazil, 2004-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Everton Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Current research synthesizes epidemiological data on morbo- mortality by labor accidents in the Brazilian population and gives a cross- section of these accidents in Brazil between 2004 and 2007. Current descrip- tive and exploratory analysis uses databases of thePublic Health Ministry on labor accidents. In fact, 465.700 and 653.090 labor accidents were notified respectively in 2004 and 2007, with a trend towardsan increase in number. The state of Santa Catarina was t...

  14. 25 CFR 309.6 - When does a commercial product become an Indian product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 309.6 Section 309.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.6 When does a commercial product become an Indian product? In addressing Indian embellishments to originally commercial products, the Indian labor expended to add art or...

  15. SOUND LABOR RELATIONS AT ENTERPRISE LEVEL IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichai Thosuwonchinda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the pattern of sound labor relations in Thailand in order to reduce conflicts between employers and workers and create cooperation. The research was based on a qualitative approach, using in-depth interview with 10 stakeholder groups of Thai industrial relations system. They were employees of non unionized companies at the shop floor level, employees of non unionized companies at the supervisor level, trade union leaders at the company level, trade union leaders at the national level, employers of non-unionized companies, employers’ organization leaders, and human resource managers, members of tripartite bodies, government officials and labor academics. The findings were presented in a model identifying 5 characteristics that enhance sound relations in Thailand, i.e. recognition between employer and workers, good communication, trust, data revealing and workers’ participation. It was suggested that all parties, employers, workers and the government should take part in the promotion of sound labor relations. The employer have to acknowledge labor union with a positive attitude, have good communication with workers , create trust with workers, disclose information, create culture of mutual benefits as well as accept sincerely the system that include workers’ participation. Workers need a strong labor union, good and sincere representatives for clear communication, trust, mutual benefits and seek conflict solutions with employer by win-win strategy. The government has a supporting role in adjusting the existing laws in the appropriate way, by creating policy for sound labor relations, and putting the idea of sound labor relations into practice.

  16. Empirical studies in labor and education economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, N.

    2016-01-01

    The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by

  17. Vulnerabilidad laboral de la mujer rural latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el estudio de la situación laboral de las mujeres rurales en los países latinoamericanos. Las mujeres rurales son uno de los grupos sociales más vulnerables en el ámbito laboral latinoamericano, debido a su baja participación laboral, a la categorización ocupacional mayoritaria como trabajadoras por cuenta propia y familiar no remunerado y a índices de feminización positivos. Pero sus posibilidades de mejorar su condición de vulnerabilidad social laboral se centra principalmente en el Empleo Rural No Agrario (ERNA, con gran potencial en el desarrollo rural, y al apoyo legislativo en cuanto al acceso a los bienes de tierra. Frente al proceso de urbanización es necesario implementar políticas públicas que tengan en cuenta la existencia de las mujeres rurales como trabajadoras en el ámbito rural y diseñar medidas de ayuda especialmente dirigidas a este colectivo.

  18. A labor/leisure tradeoff in cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew

    2014-02-01

    Daily life frequently offers a choice between activities that are profitable but mentally demanding (cognitive labor) and activities that are undemanding but also unproductive (cognitive leisure). Although such decisions are often implicit, they help determine academic performance, career trajectories, and even health outcomes. Previous research has shed light both on the executive control functions that ultimately define cognitive labor and on a "default mode" of brain function that accompanies cognitive leisure. However, little is known about how labor/leisure decisions are actually made. Here, we identify a central principle guiding such decisions. Results from 3 economic-choice experiments indicate that the motivation underlying cognitive labor/leisure decision making is to strike an optimal balance between income and leisure, as given by a joint utility function. The results reported establish a new connection between microeconomics and research on executive function. They also suggest a new interpretation of so-called ego-depletion effects and a potential new approach to such phenomena as mind wandering and self-control failure.

  19. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  20. Cell-free DNA, inflammation, and the initiation of spontaneous term labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christina A; Stoerker, Jay; Carlquist, John; Stoddard, Gregory J; Jackson, Marc; Esplin, Sean; Rose, Nancy C

    2017-11-01

    Hypomethylated cell-free DNA from senescent placental trophoblasts may be involved in the activation of the inflammatory cascade to initiate labor. To determine the changes in cell-free DNA concentrations, the methylation ratio, and inflammatory markers between women in labor at term vs women without labor. In this prospective cohort study, eligible participants carried a nonanomalous singleton fetus. Women with major medical comorbidity, preterm labor, progesterone use, aneuploidy, infectious disease, vaginal bleeding, abdominal trauma, or invasive procedures during the pregnancy were excluded. Maternal blood samples were collected at 28 weeks, 36 weeks, and at admission for delivery. Total cell-free DNA concentration, methylation ratio, and interleukin-6 were analyzed. The primary outcome was the difference in methylation ratio in women with labor vs without labor. Secondary outcomes included the longitudinal changes in these biomarkers corresponding to labor status. A total of 55 women were included; 20 presented in labor on admission and 35 presented without labor. Women in labor had significantly greater methylation ratio (P = .001) and interleukin-6 (P < .001) on admission for delivery than women without labor. After we controlled for body mass index and maternal age, methylation ratio (adjusted relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.68) and interleukin-6 (adjusted relative risk, 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.17) remained greater in women presenting in labor. Total cell-free DNA was not significantly different in women with labor compared with women without. Longitudinally, total cell-free DNA (P < .001 in labor, P = .002 without labor) and interleukin-6 (P < .001 in labor, P = .01 without labor) increased significantly across gestation in both groups. The methylation ratio increased significantly in women with labor from 36 weeks to delivery (P = .02). Spontaneous labor at term is associated with a greater cell-free DNA

  1. 75 FR 27366 - OLMS Listens: Office of Labor-Management Standards Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards OLMS Listens: Office of Labor-Management Standards Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Office of Labor-Management Standards, Department of Labor. ACTION... stakeholders and other interested parties to provide individual comments and suggestions. All interested...

  2. Flat-rate tax systems and their effect on labor markets

    OpenAIRE

    Peichl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The potential economic outcomes resulting from a flat rate of income tax have been the subject of an ongoing academic and political debate. Many observers have suggested that the introduction of a flat tax would be beneficial for a country’s economy, having a positive influence on the labor market and the gross domestic product by enhancing incentives to work, save, invest, and take risks. A flat tax also significantly simplifies income taxation which increases tax compliance and reduces ta...

  3. Looking Neat on the Street. Aesthetic Labor in Public Parking Patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Boesby Dahl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on aesthetic labor has been confined to service encounters in private sector industries. Aesthetic labor theory is critical of the commercialism that drives management of service labor and points to the discrimination of employees on the grounds of their “looks” that this entails. Considering the common conception today of the public sector as a service provider, application of the theory of aesthetic labor is relevant to public sector service work. But the public sector has many other purposes and mechanisms than those pertaining to increased revenues that may influence the use of aesthetic labor. This paper analyzes the aesthetic labor of Danish parking attendants in an organizational ethnography. A change management process in this organization has applied the principles of aesthetic labor actively for the purposes of diversity and health and safety. The paper shows how managers apply aesthetic labor principles to promote health and safety and workforce diversity, but also that the use of aesthetics has ambivalent purposes. Aesthetic labor is not as unequivocally applied for commercial purposes as hitherto assumed.

  4. The labor/land ratio and India's caste system

    OpenAIRE

    Duleep, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that India’s caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population/land ratios linked to anthropological measures of caste-system rigidity. Both the longit...

  5. International differences in wage and nonwage labor costs

    OpenAIRE

    Riveros, Luis A.

    1989-01-01

    The ratio of nonwage labor costs (for social security, pensions, vacation days, severence compensation, and the like) to direct wage costs is proportionately higher in Europe and Latin America than in Asia and Africa - largely because workers there are protected more by regulations. The distortionary growth of labor costs because of increasing nonwage costs is not common in the LDCs however. The author of this paper found that international differences in labor costs are attributable largely ...

  6. "Subconscious" Sex Bias and Labor Market Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Stephen E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)

  7. The Labor Market and the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of

  8. Delayed versus immediate pushing in second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary; Johnson, Eileen; Lee, Vickie; Massey, Liz; Purser, Debbie; Ring, Karen; Sanderson, Stephanye; Styles, Juanita; Wood, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of two different methods for management of second stage of labor: immediate pushing at complete cervical dilation of 10 cm and delayed pushing 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation. This study was a randomized clinical trial in a labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. A sample of 44 nulliparous mothers with continuous epidural anesthesia were studied after random assignment to treatment groups. Subjects were managed with either immediate or delayed pushing during the second stage of labor at the time cervical dilation was complete. The primary outcome measure was the length of pushing during second stage of labor. Secondary outcomes included length of second stage of labor, maternal fatigue and perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations. Two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-tests and Chi-square analysis were used for data analysis. Level of significance was set at p pushing; N = 16 delayed pushing). The delayed pushing group had significantly shorter amount of time spent in pushing compared with the immediate pushing group (38.9 +/- 6.9 vs. 78.7 +/- 7.9 minutes, respectively, p = .002). Maternal fatigue scores, perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations were similar for both groups. Delaying pushing for up to 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation resulted in a significant decrease in the time mothers spent pushing without a significant increase in total time in second stage of labor.In clinical practice, healthcare providers sometimes resist delaying the onset of pushing after second stage of labor has begun because of a belief it will increase labor time. This study's finding of a 51% reduction in pushing time when mothers delay pushing for up to 90 minutes, with no significant increase in overall time for second stage of labor, disputes that concern.

  9. Condiciones de salud y satisfacción laboral según régimen laboral en enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Horna, Azucena Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación que a continuación se presenta es titulado: Condiciones de Salud, satisfacción laboral según el régimen laboral de los enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez, tuvo como objetivo general: determinar la relación que existe entre las condiciones de salud, la satisfacción laboral según el régimen laboral de los enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez. El método utilizado fue descriptivo, explicativo, transversal y correlacional. La población estuvo ...

  10. 12 CFR 269.1 - Definition of a labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of a labor organization. 269.1... RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.1 Definition of a labor... to the terms or conditions of membership because of race, color, sex, creed, age or national origin. ...

  11. Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor and School Attendance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisma, Bayu

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…

  12. 29 CFR 500.60 - Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations. The Act imposes certain specific recruitment, contractual and general obligations on farm labor contractors and farm labor contractor employees... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and...

  13. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  14. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  15. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  16. Alcohol use and the labor market in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; French, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    This paper is one of only a few studies to examine potential labor market consequences of heavy or abusive drinking in Latin America and the first to focus on Uruguay. We analyzed data from a Uruguayan household survey conducted in 2006 using propensity score matching methods and controlling for a number of socio-demographic, family, regional, behavioral health, and labor market characteristics. As expected, we found a positive association between heavy drinking and absenteeism, particularly for female employees. Counter to the findings for developed countries, our results revealed a positive relationship between heavy drinking and labor force participation or employment. This result was mostly driven by men and weakened when considering more severe measures of abusive drinking. Possible explanations for these findings are that employment leads to greater alcohol use through an income effect, that the Uruguayan labor market rewards heavy drinking, or that labor market characteristics typical of less developed countries, such as elevated safety risks or job instability, lead to problem drinking. Future research with panel data should explore these possible mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor: (i) The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training... mushrooms, or in connection with the hatching of poultry constitute agricultural labor only if such services...

  18. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.332 Exchange of labor between farmers. (a) Occasionally a farmer may help his neighbor with the harvest of his crop. For instance, Farmer B helps his neighbor Farmer A...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(2)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3401(a)(2)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(2)-1 Agricultural labor. The term “wages” does not include remuneration for services which constitute agricultural labor as defined in section 3121(g). For...

  20. Testing the “division of labor hypothesis” of aphasic verb production using big-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with aphasia and healthy controls produced a similar proportion of light verbs (.38, U(298 = 13,129, p > 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of high light verb use in aphasia: greater syntactic complexity (high DSS score, lower semantic richness (low idea density and lower Verb Naming Test scores (picture naming of heavy verbs, Cho-Reyes & Thompson, 2012. These findings support the division of labor in aphasia – persons with stronger syntactic abilities produce more light verbs and have lower semantic ability (Gordon & Dell, 2003.

  1. Labor Dystocia: Uses of Related Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. Experimental labor markets and policy considerations: Incomplete contracts and macroeconomic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno

    2012-01-01

    This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...

  3. Predicting the Effects of Comparable Worth Programs on Female Labor Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao

    1989-01-01

    Surveys theories in labor economics about how the female labor supply is affected by the wage offers that women receive. Summarizes the implications concerning expected effects of comparable worth wage adjustments on female labor supply. Examines empirical evidence pertaining to the theory of female labor supply. (JS)

  4. Selection into Labor Force and Gender Unemployment Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Bicakova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...

  5. Marriage, Specialization, and the Gender Division of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Baker; Joyce P. Jacobsen

    2005-01-01

    A customary gender division of labor is one in which women and men are directed towards certain tasks and/or explicitly prohibited from performing others. We offer an explanation as to why the gender division of labor is so often enforced by custom, and why customary gender divisions of labor generally involve both direction and prohibition. Our model builds on the literature on the marital hold-up problem, and considers both problems in choice of specialty and human capital acquisition in a ...

  6. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  7. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  8. ROLE AND CONSEQUENCES OF EMOTIONAL LABOR IN THE WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of emotions in the workplace has begun to be increasingly studied by theorists and researchers in organizational behavior. One essential construct in the literature is the emotional labor which is perceived to be the management of feelings to express organizationally desired emotions. This article aims to review existing perspectives on emotional labor, to differentiate the concepts of emotional labor and emotional dissonance, to analyze emotion regulation strategies, and to discuss the consequences of emotional labor in the workplace. These clarifications with regard to the emotional labor and its mechanisms can help manage their associated negative outcomes (such as emotional exhaustion, lower job satisfaction, higher levels of burnout, and intentions to quit the job and sustain their possible positive outcomes (such as feelings of accomplishment and enhanced identification with the work role.

  9. Transitions between states of labor-force participation among older Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achdut, Leah; Tur-Sinai, Aviad; Troitsky, Rita

    2015-03-01

    The study examines the labor-force behavior of Israelis at older ages, focusing on the determinants of the transitions between states of labor-force participation between 2005 and 2010. The study uses panel data from the first two waves of the SHARE-Israel longitudinal survey. A multinomial logit model is used to examine the impact of sociodemographic characteristics, health state, and economic resources on labor-force transitions of people aged 50-67. The results emphasize the role of age and poor health in "pushing" older people out of the labor force or "keeping" them there. Spouse's participation is found to encourage individuals to leave the labor force or to refrain from joining it. However, living with a participating spouse is negatively associated with staying out of the labor force, consistent with the dominance of the complementarity of leisure effect found in the literature. Wealth as an economic resource available to individuals for retirement is also found to encourage individuals to leave the labor force or to refrain from joining it.

  10. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... foreign workers in agriculture (H-2A) employers seeking to temporarily employ foreign workers in logging..., employers seeking to temporarily employ foreign workers in logging operations are now governed by the... products, Fraud, Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers...

  11. 20 CFR 656.24 - Labor certification determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification applications. (2) If the labor certification presents a special or unique problem, the Director of... opportunity as a college or university teacher, the U.S. worker must be at least as qualified as the alien. (3... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor certification determinations. 656.24...

  12. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a maritime...

  13. Writing Center Administration and/as Emotional Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rebecca; McKinney, Jackie Grutsch; Caswell, Nicole I.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have offered research and theory about emotional labor and the feeling of emotion in rhetoric and composition, but we have little if any such research on writing center work specifically. Drawing on data from a year-long qualitative study of writing center directors' labor, this article examines writing center directors' emotional labor…

  14. Measuring educational heterogeneity and labor quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....

  15. The Labor Market and the Second Economy in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    thanks to Marjorie McElroy for encouraging my efforts to adapt the theory and techniques of Western labor economics to the case of the Soviet Union. All...34 Journal of Labor Economics 3:1, pt. 2 (January 1985): S328-S354. SCHULTZ, T. Paul. "Testing the Neoclassical Model of Family Labor Supply and...FemaJe Labor Force Participation and Wage Determination in a Developing Country." Paper presented at the Duke University Labor Economics Workshop

  16. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  17. [Oxytocin administration during labor. Results from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghiti, J; Coulm, B; Kayem, G; Blondel, B; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the frequency of oxytocin administration during labor, in all women in labor, in low-risk women, and in women with a previous cesarean delivery. Our objectives were also to identify characteristics of women and of maternity units associated with this practice in France. Analysis of the 2010 French Perinatal Survey data (n=14,681 women who delivered in continental France). The frequency of oxytocin administration during labor was estimated in all women in labor (n=12,845) and in low-risk women (n=9798). The independent associations between oxytocin administration during labor and characteristics of women and units were quantified with multivariate logistic regression modeling. Sixty-four percent of laboring women received oxytocin during labor, and 58% of women with a spontaneous onset of labor. In the population of low-risk women with spontaneous labor and epidural, nulliparity and over-weight, as well as the private status and small size of the maternity unit, were independently associated with a more frequent administration of oxytocin during labor. Oxytocin administration during labor is very frequent in France, probably beyond classical indications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. An Assessment of the Effects of Hydrotherapy During the Active Phase of Labor on the Labor Process and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Semra; Kaplan, Sena; Moraloglu Tekin, Ozlem

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect on labor process and parenting behavior of hydrotherapy applied during the active phase of labor. This quasi-experimental study was conducted by using an equivalent comparison group ( n = 40). The participants in the experimental group whose cervical dilation was 5 cm were taken to the hydrotherapy tub. This application continued until cervical dilation reached 10 cm. The Participants Questionnaire, The Birth Follow-up Questionnaire, The Postpartum ]collection tools. The duration of the active phase and second stage of labor was extremely short in the experimental group in comparison with the equivalent comparison group ( p = .001). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of the experimental group were lower than those of the equivalent comparison group when cervical dilation was 6 cm and 10 cm ( p = .001). The experimental group also displayed more positive parenting behavior and positive labor feeling ( p = .001).

  19. Estrés laboral: Funcionarios de instituciones penitenciarias

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Murciego, Estela

    2016-01-01

    El estrés laboral es uno de los principales riesgos identificados en el mundo laboral de la sociedad actual. Varios puestos de trabajo llevan consigo asociadas una serie de responsabilidades y de un número elevado de tareas en proporción a la jornada laboral, las interacciones entre distintas personas no siempre son sencillas y otros factores hacen que los trabajadores no siempre puedan sentirse a gusto en su lugar de trabajo habitual. Por este motivo y dado el incremento de casos en los ú...

  20. Determinants of the revenue and productivity of Fadama farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, labor, farm size, planting materials, cost of fertilizer and amount of water used significantly influenced net revenue of the farmers. The result shows further that maize was the most productive planting material while land clearing was the most productive labor used by the farmers. Farm size was also found to be the ...

  1. Educational Diversity and Knowledge Transfers via Inter-firm Labor Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2016-01-01

    have been previously exposed to educationally diverse workforces significantly increases the productivity of the hiring firms. Several extensions of our baseline specification support this finding and confirm that our variable of interest affects the arrival firm's performance mainly through......This article contributes to the literature on knowledge transfer via labor mobility by providing new evidence regarding the role of educational diversity in knowledge transfer. In tracing worker flows between firms in Denmark over the period 1995–2005, we find that knowledge carried by workers who...

  2. LA INSATISFACCIÓN LABORAL COMO FACTOR DEL BAJO RENDIMIENTO DEL TRABAJADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Granda Carazas, Segundo Eloy

    2014-01-01

    El tema "la insatisfacción laboral como factor del bajo rendimiento del trabajador" es importante, ya que se puede constatar que en algunas organizaciones, pese a sus significativos esfuerzos para ampliar y modernizar su infraestructura, afrontan problemas de rendimiento laboral. Este artículo se orienta a determinar en qué medida la insatisfacción laboral se asocia al bajo rendimiento laboral en una organización. Como factores constituyentes de la insatisfacción laboral se considerar...

  3. A labor/leisure tradeoff in cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Daily life frequently offers a choice between activities that are profitable but mentally demanding (cognitive labor) and activities that are undemanding but also unproductive (cognitive leisure). Although such decisions are often implicit, they help determine academic performance, career trajectories, and even health outcomes. Previous research has shed light both on the executive control functions that ultimately define cognitive labor and a ‘default mode’ of brain function that accompanies cognitive leisure. However, little is known about how labor/leisure decisions are actually made. Here, we identify a central principle guiding such decisions. Results from three economic-choice experiments indicate that the motivation underlying cognitive labor/leisure decision-making is to strike an optimal balance between income and leisure, as given by a joint utility function. The results reported establish a new connection between microeconomics and research on executive function. They also suggest a new interpretation of so-called ego-depletion effects, and a potential new approach to such phenomena as mind-wandering and self-control failure. PMID:23230991

  4. [Labor market and health. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  6. Índice de satisfacción laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeterio Franco Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone un índice de satisfacción laboral utilizando el método de componentes principales. Para formar el índice se realiza la agregación directa de los primeros componentes principales, ponderados por la desviación estándar de cada uno. Este índice consigue cuantificar y resumir en un dato la satisfacción laboral de cada trabajador (a, expresándose en valores entre 0 y 100, lo cual facilita su interpretación y la toma de decisiones correspondientes. Adicionalmente, la metodología se aplicó a una base de datos con información de satisfacción laboral

  7. Educational and labor wastage of doctors in Mexico: towards the construction of a common methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz José

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses the problem of wastage of the qualified labor force, which takes place both during the education process and when trained personnel try to find jobs in the local market. Methods Secondary sources were used, mainly the Statistical yearbooks of the National Association of Universities and Higher Education Institutions (ANUIES in Spanish. Also, the 2000 Population Census was used to estimate the different sources of labor market wastage. The formulas were modified to estimate educational and labor wastage rates. Results Out of every 1000 students who started a medical training in 1996, over 20% were not able to finish the training by 2000. Furthermore, out of every 1000 graduates, 31% were not able to find a remunerated position in the labor market that would enable them to put into practice the abilities and capacities obtained at school. Important differences can be observed between generalists and specialists, as well as between men and women. In the case of specialists and men, lower wastage rates can be observed as compared to the wastage rates of generalists and women. A large percentage of women dedicate themselves exclusively to household duties, which in labor terms represents a wastage of their capacity to participate in the production of formal health services. Conclusion Women are becoming a majority in most medical schools, yet their participation in the labor market does not reflect the same trend. Among men, policies should be formulated to incorporate doctors in the specific health field for which they were trained. Regarding women, specific policies should target those who are dedicated full-time to household activities in order to create the possibility of having them occupy a remunerated job if they are willing to do so. Reducing wastage at both the educational and labor levels should improve the capacity of social investment, thereby increasing the capacity of the health system as a whole

  8. Educational and labor wastage of doctors in Mexico: towards the construction of a common methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruiz, José Arturo; Bejarano, Rosa

    2005-04-15

    BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the problem of wastage of the qualified labor force, which takes place both during the education process and when trained personnel try to find jobs in the local market. METHODS: Secondary sources were used, mainly the Statistical yearbooks of the National Association of Universities and Higher Education Institutions (ANUIES in Spanish). Also, the 2000 Population Census was used to estimate the different sources of labor market wastage. The formulas were modified to estimate educational and labor wastage rates. RESULTS: Out of every 1000 students who started a medical training in 1996, over 20% were not able to finish the training by 2000. Furthermore, out of every 1000 graduates, 31% were not able to find a remunerated position in the labor market that would enable them to put into practice the abilities and capacities obtained at school. Important differences can be observed between generalists and specialists, as well as between men and women. In the case of specialists and men, lower wastage rates can be observed as compared to the wastage rates of generalists and women. A large percentage of women dedicate themselves exclusively to household duties, which in labor terms represents a wastage of their capacity to participate in the production of formal health services. CONCLUSION: Women are becoming a majority in most medical schools, yet their participation in the labor market does not reflect the same trend. Among men, policies should be formulated to incorporate doctors in the specific health field for which they were trained. Regarding women, specific policies should target those who are dedicated full-time to household activities in order to create the possibility of having them occupy a remunerated job if they are willing to do so. Reducing wastage at both the educational and labor levels should improve the capacity of social investment, thereby increasing the capacity of the health system as a whole to provide services

  9. The Effectiveness of Hypnosis Intervention for Labor: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis has been shown to help pregnant women experience improved labor and postpartum periods. The present study compares the differences between experimental (n = 23) and control groups (n = 22) on specific variables measured both during labor and 24 hr postpartum. The participants in the experimental group received the hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of pregnancy, while those in the control group received only routine antenatal care. The data collected at the labor stage describe the length of the labor stage, pain relief used during labor, the method of delivery, and the type of assisted vaginal delivery. Within 24 hr of delivery, data on neonatal birth weight, neonatal Apgar scores, and self-reported pain were obtained. The labor stage results showed no significant differences in the length of the second and third stages of labor. Although the participants in the experimental group reported higher pain levels immediately prior to, during, and immediately after delivery, their use of pethidine during labor was significantly lower than the control group participants. None of the experimental group participants opted for an epidural, and they had a greater number of assisted vaginal deliveries than the control group participants. The 24 hr postpartum results showed that the neonates of the experimental group participants had nonsignificantly higher Apgar scores than those of the women in the control group. Group differences in neonatal weight were not significant. The results of the present study indicate that hypnosis is useful for assisting pregnant women during labor and the postpartum period.

  10. Hourly rate of direct labor - contributions to its applicability in the pricing process inserted in a competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Benedito Silva Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detailed cost analysis is currently required as a result of increasingly competitive markets. The strategic cost management, analyzed from the optic of the target costing, can be a powerful tool for companies to keep themselves competitive. In this way, this study aimed to present a meticulous analysis of the hourly rate of direct labor in the pricing process of a new product, in order to understand if its use is appropriate in a pricing process. We used the deductive method supported in a case study, and the result achieved is that the hourly rate of direct current labor cannot be used in the pricing process, otherwise will be determined unrealistic costs to the product. It is important to highlight that this analysis applies to micro and small until large corporations.

  11. Migration and income transfers in the presence of labor quality externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a worker's productivity is assumed to depend on his own quality and on the average quality of other workers in the same country. The external effects associated with worker quality give rise to increasing returns to average worker quality. As a result, free migration generally reduces world output. Within each country, social benefits that induce low quality workers to leave the labor force can increase national income. Moreover, the operation of such a benefit scheme financed ...

  12. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  13. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  14. Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.

    2017-01-01

    Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become

  15. FREE MOVEMENT OF SKILLED LABOR WITHIN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Adhisti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss how the free movement of skilled labor policy under the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC scenario enhances opportunities for labor mobility from low-skilled labor countries, what challenges will be faced, and how this policy impacts their economies. The implementation of the AEC’s free movement of skilled labor policy is projected to face challenges such as mismatched labor qualifications, fulfilling ASEAN commitment, time for implementation of ASEAN commitments, and controlling the flow of illegal migrant workers. However, ASEAN leaders already set some supporting policies to overcome challenges from this system by improving labor market information, encouraging language and skills training, managing government and public supports, expanding mutual recognition arrangements and enhancing social protection for migrant workers. If these supporting policies can be implemented, the AEC’s free movement of skilled labor policy will improve the quality of human resources in ASEAN, especially from lower-middle income countries including Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Thailand. As the results, those six countries are expected to increase the high-skilled employment rates by 0.3 to 1.4 percent and the wage rates up to 10-20 percent in 2025. Thus, the projected increases in the employment and wage rates of ASEAN skilled labor will induce an expansion of the ASEAN economic growth to 7.1 percent in 2025.

  16. [Effect of the music in labor and newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarro, Camila Sotilo; de Campos, Luciane Botinhon; Galli, Natália Oliveira; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Pereira, Valdina Marins

    2010-06-01

    Music has been applied for balancing energies that have been disturbed by the stress of modern life. The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of music in labor and on the newborn, when submitted to the same melodies heard by their own mothers during pregnancy. Pregnant women, Health Center users, were submitted to musical sensitization sessions since their fifth month of pregnancy. During labor, the melodies previously selected by the pregnant women were played all the time with a thirty-minute break for every two hours of music. Data collection was performed through interviews performed after labor, at different moments, and the mother' statements were qualitatively analyzed. According to the women's words, music minimized the distress of labor and made it easier for the baby to adjust in the first months of life.

  17. Effects of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena on nulliparous women's pain and anxiety of labor during first stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdamian, Sepideh; Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Hajian, Sepideh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefeh

    2018-03-01

    Reducing labor pain and anxiety is one of the most important goals of maternity care. This study aimed to assess the effects of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena on pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor among nulliparous women. This was a randomized clinical trial of 110 nulliparous women. The eligible participants were randomly assigned to two groups of aromatherapy and control in an Iranian maternity hospital. The participants received 0.08 mL of Rosa damascena essence in the aromatherapy group and 0.08 mL of normal saline in the control group, every 30 min. Pain was measured 3 times, once each at three stages of cervical dilation (4-5, 6-7, and 8-10 cm). Anxiety was measured twice, once each at two stages of cervical dilation (4-7 and 8-10 cm). The tools for data collection were the Spielberger anxiety questionnaire, numerical pain rating scale, demographic and obstetric questionnaire, and an observational checklist. Data analyses included the t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Severity of labor pain and severity of anxiety were used as primary outcome measures. Labor and delivery characteristics (including number of contractions, duration of contractions in second stage, Bishop score, augmentation by oxytocin, Apgar score, and mode of delivery), demographic characteristics, and fertility information were used as secondary outcome measures. Pain severity in the group receiving aromatherapy with R. damascena was significantly lower than in the control group after treatment at each pain assessment (cervical dilation of 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10 cm; P labor. Aromatherapy with R. damascena is a convenient and effective method for pain and anxiety reduction during the first stage of labor. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial: IRCT201306258801N3. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  19. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  20. Melatonin prevents experimental preterm labor and increases offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Rubio, Ana P; Sordelli, Micaela S; Salazar, Ana I; Aisemberg, Julieta; Bariani, María V; Cella, Maximiliano; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Franchi, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and contributes to delayed physical and cognitive development in children. At present, there is no efficient therapy to prevent preterm labor. A large body of evidence suggests that intra-amniotic infections may be a significant and potentially preventable cause of preterm birth. This work assessed the effect of melatonin in a murine model of inflammation-associated preterm delivery which mimics central features of preterm infection in humans. For this purpose, preterm labor was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10.00 hr (10 μg LPS) and 13.00 hr (20 μg LPS) on day 15 of pregnancy. On day 14 of pregnancy, a pellet of melatonin (25 mg) had been subcutaneously implanted into a group of animals. In the absence of melatonin, a 100% incidence of preterm birth was observed in LPS-treated animals, and the fetuses showed widespread damage. By comparison, treatment with melatonin prevented preterm birth in 50% of the cases, and all pups from melatonin-treated females were born alive and their body weight did not differ from control animals. Melatonin significantly prevented the LPS-induced rises in uterine prostaglandin (PG) E2 , PGF2α, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. In addition, melatonin prevented the LPS-induced increase in uterine nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin could be a new therapeutic tool to prevent preterm labor and to increase offspring survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.