WorldWideScience

Sample records for labor market segmentation

  1. Are labor markets segmented across occupations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S

    1995-01-01

    The author uses data from the 1991 Current Population Survey and the fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to examine the extent to which U.S. labor markets are segmented across occupational as well as industrial divisions. Consideration is also given to the differences between the male and the female work force in this regard. The author uses differences in educational status to identify distinct wage regimes across occupations. The implications both for the market structure as a whole and for gender inequalities are assessed.

  2. Immigrants'assimilation process in a segmented labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Planas, Núria; Alcobendas, Miguel Angel

    2010-01-01

    While much of the literature on immigrants' assimilation has focused on countries with a large tradition of receiving immigrants and with flexible labor markets, very little is known on how immigrants adjust to other types of host economies. With its severe dual labor market, and an unprecedented immigration boom, Spain presents a quite unique experience to analyze immigrations' assimilation process. Using data from the 2000 to 2008 Labor Force Survey, we find that immigrants are more occupat...

  3. Segmented Labor Markets and the Distributive Cycle: A Roadmap towards Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Charpe

    2014-01-01

    structure with fluid, latent, and stagnant components. The model exhibits a unique balanced growth path which depends on the speeds with which workers are pushed into or out of the labor market segments. We investigate the stability properties of this growth path with segmented labor markets and find that, though there is a stabilizing inflation barrier term in the wage Phillips curve, the interaction with the latent and stagnant portions of the labor market generates potentially (slowly destabilizing forces if policy measures are absent that regulate these labor markets. We then introduce an activating labor market policy, where government in addition acts as employer of last resort thereby eliminating the stagnant portion of the labor market, whilst erecting benefit systems that partially sustain the incomes of workers that have to leave the floating/latent labor market of the private sector of the economy. We show that such policies guarantee the macrostability of the economy’s balanced growth path.

  4. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets.

  5. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  6. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  7. Segmented Labor Markets: A Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Its Implication for Educational Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    The study reviews orthodox theories of labor markets, presents new formulations of segmentation theory, and provides empirical tests of segmentation in the United States and several developing nations. Orthodox labor market theory views labor as being paid for its contribution to production and that investment in education and vocational training…

  8. Expenditure and Wage Policies in a Segmented Labor Market: A Theorical Analysis Expenditure and Wage Policies in a Segmented Labor Market: A Theorical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Riveros

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crucial role attributed to labor markets in determining the supply response to adjustment policies, the implications of a segmented market remain largely unexplored. A common presumption is that adjustment policies would exert an unequirable effect because informal sector wages would decline proportionately more than informal activities. In this a formal model of segmented labor market is used, where open unemployments is mostly a formal sector phenomenon derived from regulations setting a premium on wages. The Model assumes that the informal sector is completely unregulated and non-unionized. The paper shows that Expenditure-reducing policies unaccompanied by ad-hoc indexation schemes, do not necessarily lead to any unequitable effect in terms of the formal-informal wage gap. The paper also shows that increasing wage distortions are likely to cause an appreciation of the real exchange rare and higher open unemployment. Finally, the paper concludes that under a proportionately fixed wage distortion, expenditure-reducing policies may decrease rather than increase open unemployment. Expenditure and Wage Policies in a Segmented Labor Market: A Theorical Analysis

  9. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.

  10. STEM Employment in the New Economy: A Labor Market Segmentation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…

  11. STEM Employment in the New Economy: A Labor Market Segmentation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…

  12. STEM employment in the new economy: A labor market segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.

  13. Improvement of social-economic partnership in the youth labor market segment: the institutional forms and implementation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznyak Maria, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.

  14. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued."

  15. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  16. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  17. Strategic market segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maričić Branko R; Đorđević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    ..., requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation...

  18. 劳动力市场的非经济性分割探究%Study of the Non-economic Labor Markets Segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪

    2014-01-01

    Labor markets segment would cause inefficiency of labor mobility , therefore brings adverse impacts to economic development and accumulation of human capital.Based on the labor market and senior labor market of Xiamen, this paper uses Oaxaca -Blinder factor decomposition method to process the achieved data , and studies the segment of both labor markets;According to the final evaluation results , this paper also puts forward some rele-vant policy suggestions.%劳动力市场分割会导致劳动力流动的低效,进而影响到社会经济的发展和人力资本的积累。以厦门人才市场和高级人才市场为例,利用Oaxaca-Blinder方法对调研数据进行因素分解,从而研究两个市场的分割程度;并最终通过分析计量结果,提出相应的政策建议。

  19. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  20. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...

  1. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  2. Market segmentation: venezuelan adrs

    OpenAIRE

    Urbi Garay; Maximiliano González

    2012-01-01

    The foreign exchange controls imposed by Venezuela in 2003, constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that, although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, shares in the firm CANTV were, through its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the ...

  3. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  4. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  5. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  6. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...... and potential positive benefits from employment programs for long-term unemployed....

  7. 劳动力市场多重分割与大学生就业制度创新%Multiple Segmentation of Labor Market and Employment System Innovation of College Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马廷奇; 彭忱

    2012-01-01

    与西方劳动力市场的功能性分割不同,我国劳动力市场由于发育不成熟,呈现出一种以体制性分割为主、行业性分割和地域性分割为辅的多重分割格局。当前,大学生就业面临的实践困境也是这种劳动力市场多重分割的制度性反映。现在的关键问题是要通过制度和政策创新,打破大学生劳动力市场的分割格局,促进大学生顺利就业。%Different form the function segmentation of Western labor market, our country labor market showed a multiple segmentation pattern, that taking the systematic division as the principal thing and the industrial seg- mentation and regional segmentation as the supplement, all that due to the immaturity of the market develop- ment. At present, the practical plight faced by college students' employment is the system reflection of labor market multiple segmentation. Now, the key problem is to break the college student labor market segmentation structure by the system and nnli~v inn~r~t;~n

  8. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  9. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  10. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  11. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  12. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  13. Talking About University Students' Employment Orientation Based on the Labor Market Segmentation Theory%从劳动力市场分割理论谈大学生就业定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2012-01-01

    Labor market segmentation theory emphasizes on the segmentation property of labor market, and our country's labor market also has the dual-division phenomenon. Most of university graduates' employment orientation gathers in the main labor market and the internal labor market, which resulting in the situation of demand exceeding supply in position and the phenomenon of unemployed graduates. Therefore, we should reverse the adverse phenomenon from the perspectives of preferential policy, school's guidance and students" understanding%劳动力市场分割理论强调劳动力市场的分割属性,我国劳动力市场也存在二元分割。高校毕业生的就业定位多数聚集于主要劳动力市场和内部劳动力市场,形成了职位的供不应求,造成大学生毕业即失业的现象。为此应从制度倾斜、学校指引和学生自身认识上扭转这一不良现象。

  14. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market insti

  15. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  16. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  17. The Chilean Teacher Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Maria del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…

  18. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  19. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  20. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  1. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  2. 劳动力市场行政垄断行业分割与劳动收入比重--基于中国省级面板数据的分析%Labor Market Administrative Monopoly Industry Segmentation and Labor Share---An Empirical Analysis Based on China's Provincial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永照

    2014-01-01

    通过对我国劳动收入比重变动的原因研究发现:劳动力市场行政垄断行业分割与劳动收入比重之间互为因果。我国劳动力市场行政垄断行业分割会使行政垄断行业就业人数占总就业人数比例下降,行政垄断行业和竞争行业间收入差距扩大,导致劳动收入比重下降,进而会使资本实际价格下降,增强行政垄断企业的市场力量,加剧劳动力市场行政垄断行业分割程度。因此,减弱劳动力市场行政垄断行业分割是稳定劳动收入比重的关键。%Through the analysis on the variations in labor income share, it was found that the relationship between the labor market administrative monopoly industry segmentation and the labor share in china is bilateral Granger causality. The labor market administrative monopoly industry segmentation decrease the ratio of employment in administrative monopoly industry to the total number of jobs, widen income disparity between the administrative monopoly industry and the competitive industry, and decrease labor share, strengthen the market force of administrative monopoly; this further raises the level of the labor market administrative monopoly industry segmentation. So taking the efficient steps to reduce the labor market administrative monopoly industry segmentation is the key element to stabilize the labor share.

  3. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market perf

  4. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market perf

  5. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  6. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  7. 劳动力市场城乡分割与劳动收入比重*--基于中国省级面板数据的分析%Labor Market Urban-rural Segmentation and Labor Share-An Empirical Analysis Based on China’s Provincial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永照

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,we study on the variations in labor income share from the angle of labor market urban-rural segmentation.We find that the relationship between the labor market urban-rural segmentation and the labor share in china is bilateral Granger causality.The labor market urban-rural segmentation decrease agricultural marginal output.The decline of agricultural marginal output results in the low rural labors reservation wages and city workers wages;and this will decrease labor share. On the other hand,the decline of labor share results in the insufficient of the human capital investment and the increasing of unskilled workers proportion;and this further raises the level of the labor market urban-rural segmentation.So taking the efficient steps to reduce the labor market urban-rural segmentation is the key element to stabilize the labor share.%基于劳动力市场城乡分割的视角对中国劳动收入比重的变动原因进行研究,发现劳动力市场城乡分割与劳动收入比重之间互为因果:中国劳动力市场城乡分割会使农业边际产出下降,降低农村劳动者的保留工资,制约城市劳动者的工资水平,导致劳动收入比重下降。而劳动收入比重下降会使劳动者减少人力资本投资,增加低技能劳动者比例,加剧劳动力市场城乡分割程度。因此,减弱劳动力市场城乡分割是稳定劳动收入比重的关键。

  8. Labor Market Distortions in Côte d'Ivoire:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Verner, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent and nature of distortions in the labor market in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire by using quantile regression analysis on employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector. We found that the labor markets in Côte d'Ivoire do not seem to be much distorted. Union...... in the absence of unions, segmentation and inefficiencies will still be present as long as firms seek to retain their employees by paying wages above the market clearing level. The inefficiency arising from establishment-size wage effects can be mitigated by education.......This paper investigates the extent and nature of distortions in the labor market in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire by using quantile regression analysis on employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector. We found that the labor markets in Côte d'Ivoire do not seem to be much distorted. Unions...

  9. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  10. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  11. The Process of Marketing Segmentation Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.

  12. The Process of Marketing Segmentation Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.

  13. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  14. Priorities for urban labor market research in Anglophone Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, W J

    1992-10-01

    The earlier interest regarding how urban labor markets function centered on the dualist approach. An International Labor Office report on Kenya detected the urban informal sector reinforcing the labor market segmentation idea that those unable to obtain employment in the formal sector could obtain a subsistence-level livelihood in the urban informal sector. Recent work in urban Juba, Southern Sudan, has demonstrated that low-income households in the lowest quintile of urban income per adult showed an overrepresentation of female-headed households; larger household sizes; more children; greater dependency; and an overrepresentation of the indigenous, nonmigrant ethnic group plus an underrepresentation of the migrant Northern Sudanese who dominate the trade sector. Real wages in the formal sectors of English-speaking African countries have declined in the past decade. Unemployment of the educated is growing, evidenced by a longitudinal study of university graduates in Kenya over the period from 1970 to 1983. In 1991 the majority of 1990 graduates had still not found public sector employment. The rapid growth of labor supply has been paralleled by a rapidly growing informal sector which created 6 million new jobs in Africa between 1980 and 1985, while the formal sector added only 1/2 million jobs in the urban economy. An efficient labor market is characterized by relatively high turnover at less than 1 year of seniority and very low turnover among workers with 3-15 years of seniority. The modeling of the urban labor market has not progressed much in the last decade, and the dualistic approach has been repudiated. Such modeling requires in-depth data on the way workers and households allocate their time across the labor market segments. The understanding of the fusion of labor markets is best attained by well-designed household level surveys, which would study the relationship between labor market insertion and poverty status.

  15. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  16. Essays in International Market Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of methodological

  17. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  18. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to b

  19. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  20. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  1. Early smoking, education, and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance by using mixed ordered and mixed proportional hazard models. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for mal

  2. An Empirical Measure for Labor Market Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we derive a structural measure for labor market density based on the Ellison and Glasear (1997) index for industry concentration''. This labor market density measure serves as a proxy for the number of workers that can reach a certain work area within a reasonal amount of t

  3. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  4. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  5. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  6. Labor Market Segmentation, Intergenerational Occupational Mobility and Income Inequality%劳动力市场分割、代际职业流动与收入不平等

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯槿; 胡咏梅

    2016-01-01

    利用中国家庭追踪调查(CFPS)2010年和2012年全国住户抽样调查数据,本文基于劳动力市场分割理论,重点考察了转型期中国劳动力市场分割与代际职业流动对收入不平等的影响。研究发现:(1)主要劳动力市场的人力资本收益明显高于次要劳动力市场,而且人力资本对次要劳动力市场的劳动者收入差异的影响极为显著;(2)利用Shapley分解及扩展的Owen分解方法测算了人力资本与其他非市场因素对劳动者收入差异的贡献率,发现主要与次要劳动力市场收入差异主要来源于人力资本特征差异,由人力资本特征不同而引起的收入差异占40.18%,有13.29%的收入差异则来源于劳动力市场分割与代际职业流动;(3)分位数回归方程分解结果显示,人力资本特征差异对收入总差异的贡献率在不同分位点上并不是均匀分布的,而是随着收入水平由低分位点向高分位点渐趋减低。由此,政策涵义在于打破阻碍城乡劳动力市场向一体化方向发展的体制性壁垒,完善职业代际流动机制;在次要劳动力市场中进一步提高拥有高人力资本的劳动力报酬,同时促进劳动力结构优化升级;而在主要劳动力市场,则需要进一步强化技能偏向、绩效本位的收入分配机制,遵循市场运行规则,提高劳动力市场资源配置效率。%Using the data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) of 2010 and 2012, this paper examined how the income inequality was influenced by labor market segmentation and intergenerational occupational mobility in economic transition period of China on the basis of labor market segmentation theory. The results showed that:(1) Returns from human capital in the primary labor market was significantly higher than those of the secondary labor market. Human capital significantly affected the income gaps in the secondary labor market. (2) Employing Shapley

  7. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  8. Market segmentation strategy in internet market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yawei; Yang, Deli; Diao, Xinjun

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the competitive dynamics of web sites on the WWW market and analyze the stability of the model which is composed of one powerful site and two small sites. One of the most important results that emerge from this simple model is that strong competition among websites does not necessarily lead to the demise of the small website on the WWW market. From the stability analysis of the model, we obtain a series of conditions in which small sites can obtain competitive advantages by using the market segmentation strategy.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-01-01

    Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well...

  10. Unfolding Implementation in Industrial Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    of implementing industrial market segmentation is discussed and unfolded in this article. Extant literature has identified segmentation implementation as a core challenge for marketers, but also one, which has received limited empirical attention. Future research opportunities are formulated in this article......Market segmentation is an important method of strategic marketing and constitutes a cornerstone of the marketing literature. It has undergone extensive scientific inquiry during the past 50 years. Reporting on an extensive review of the market segmentation literature, the challenging task...... for marketing management. Three key elements and challenges connected to execution of market segmentation are identified — organization, motivation, and adaptation....

  11. Migraine Headache and Labor Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    REES, DANIEL I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. We find that migraine headache is associated with a decrease in wages. However, there is little evidence that migraine headache leads to reductions in labor force participation or hours worked....

  12. Labor Market Inequalities in FYR Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The study includes an analysis of inequality patterns in terms of labor force participation as well as a review of policy responses, and areas for possible further policy action. In particular, the report looks at the two main dimensions of inequality that characterize Macedonia’s labor market: gender and ethnicity. Almost half the female working age population is inactive, whereas male in...

  13. Central bank conservatism and labor market reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jordahl, Henrik; Laséen, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    How does central bank conservatism affect labor market reform? In this paper we examine the economic forces at work. An increase in conservatism triggers two opposite effects. It reduces the inflation bias of discretionary monetary policy and hence the benefits of a reform. It also increases unemployment variability, which increases the precautionary benefits of a reform. In combination, the two effects produce a u-shaped relation between conservatism and labor market reform. An empirical inv...

  14. Labor Markets, Unemployment and Optimal Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The optimal infation rate and the relationship between inflation and unemployment are central issues in macroeconomics. It is widely accepted that inflation is a monetary phenomenon. However, there is little consensus with regard to unemployment. Economists differ widely in their view of labor markets and wage-setting mechanisms. The present paper develops a search-theoretic monetary model with imperfect labor markets. It studies the issue of the optimal inflation rate and the relationship be...

  15. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti-social...... behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  16. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  17. Market Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Based Clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hattum, P.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share commo

  18. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  19. Communication with market segments - travel agencies' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Bašan; Jasmina Dlačić; Željko Trezner

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the travel agencies’ communication with market segments. Communication with market segments takes into account marketing communication means as well as the implementation of different business orientations. Design – Special emphasis is placed on the use of different marketing communication means and their efficiency. Research also explores business orientation adaptation when approaching different market segments. Methodology – In explo...

  20. Lifestyle market segmentation - efficiency and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pilstl, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle market segmentation can be very supportive for a successful marketing strategy of a company. However it is not clear whether lifestyle market segmentation is efficient and ethical or not. Several market segmentation concepts such as Cross-Cultural Consumer Characterization, VALS, PRIZM NE, Mosaic, ConneXions NE and GfK Roper Consumer Styles are analyzed in order to give an extensive overview of the offered concepts. The observation of efficiency issues in regards to market segmentat...

  1. Labor, markets and agricultural production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Focusing on the complex and often contradictory relationships between agricultural production and markets, the author examines the micro-macro linkages between farm production, farm labour issues and the degree of autonomy or dependancy vis-a-vis markets. By comparing the case of farmers in Peru,

  2. Job-Transitions in the Administrative Labor Market in Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolansky, Bettie M.

    The question of whether the market for administrators is segmented by institutional types (i.e., region, affiliation, size, mission, and resource level) was investigated. One facet of the research was the applicability of segmentation theory to the occupational labor market for college managers. Principal data were provided by career histories of…

  3. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe;

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  4. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    Settlement in a socially deprived neighborhood may hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed or highly skilled contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were...... assigned to municpalities quasi-randomly, which successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. I show that individuals sort intor neighborhoods. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes...... of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  5. Labor market institutions in OECD countries : Origins and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the field of labor economics. It investigates the effects of labor market institutions, such as the labor taxes, unemployment benefits, labor standards and industrial relations systems on the labor market performance. It also raises the question of their legitimacy,

  6. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  7. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  8. Social Ties for Labor Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina;

    in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without...... such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially...

  9. Segmenting the mental health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T R; Warren, W E; Stevens, R E

    1990-03-01

    The authors report the results of a segmentation study of the mental health care market. A random sample of 387 residents of a western city were interviewed by telephone. Cluster analysis of the data identified six market segments. Each is described according to the mental health care services to which it is most sensitive. Implications for targeting the segments are discussed.

  10. Labor Market Effects of Unemployment Insurance Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, includ

  11. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... and that a high quality of contacts increases the individual’s employment chances and annual earnings....

  12. Trends in the Educator Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, William H.; Stone, Joe A.

    Changes in the labor market in the last 20 years are evaluated in order to examine the impact of teacher unionization, the extent of teacher mobility and responsiveness to wage differentials, and the projected demand for teachers from 1980 to 2000. Using cross-section wage regressions and wage change regressions, the study shows that the…

  13. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  14. The Labor Market for College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Engin Inel, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    During the spring of 1974 a series of seminars on student aid programs and student access were held in connection with the congressional hearings on Title IV of the Higher Education Act. The final seminar in the series focused on the labor market predictions and conditions facing college graduates. The presentations reported on four major areas;…

  15. Labor market effects of unemployment insurance design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, including the st

  16. Interpersonal Styles and Labor Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Weel, Bas ter; Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a framework of the role of interpersonal interactions in the labor market. Effective interpersonal interactions involve caring and directness. The ability to perform these tasks varies with personality and the importance of these tasks varies across jobs. An assignment model shows that people are most productive in jobs that…

  17. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  18. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  19. Shocks and child labor: the role of markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Economic shocks have been shown to affect child labor and particularly so when households fail to access credit. This paper endeavours to assess whether access toagricultural labor markets also reduce the impact of shocks on child labor. Using panel data from Tanzania, we confirm that households respond to transitory productivity shocks by changes in child labor, but that (1) child labor increases with increases in rainfall, (2) it increases less when households have access to a labor market ...

  20. GENDER SEGREGATION AND WOMAN DISCRIMINATION ON LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIȚESCU ALINA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of gender equality is the core of the European social and economic policies, but in spite of the progress achieved in recent years, the inequalities between women and men still remain in some fields of activities. Thus, equality and inclusion on the labor market must become a desideratum given the belief that the labor market should provide an opportunity for all, regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. Equality between men and women represents a common value of the EU, and a necessary condition for achieving the objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. In this context, the present paper aims to address a number of theoretical issues in relation to the concept of gender segmentation, to its forms and factors of influence.

  1. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  2. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  3. Labor market conditions of leading countries of international migration movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Станіславович Чепеленко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work the labor markets of the leaders of international migration are considered, it is found an acyclicity of movement indicators of the labor market and their impact on the economic and demographic situation of countries that are the most influential of the global labor market. It is found that indicators, characterizing the labor market, have acyclic nature depending on the direction of migration flows

  4. LABOR MARKET INTEGRATION OF HIGHER EDUCATIONECONOMIC GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelescu Coralia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a major research topic in the last decade (Hannan and Werquin 2001 and Ryan 2001. The main reason is related to the fact that after graduating finding a job is difficult and more often the graduates occupy vulnerable positions. In Romania, one year after graduation, the insertion rate is 60,9% for university graduates and 35% for those with secondary education. This paper examines the process of insertion of higher education graduates in the Romanian labor market, focusing on economic profile graduates and using a national survey conducted on a sample including the 2003, 2005 and 2007 promotions. Keywords: labor market, insertion, youth unemployment

  5. Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He

    2015-03-01

    We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.

  6. Labor Markets in South Africa During Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that international political pressure and domestic civil unrest in the mid-1970s and 1980s brought an end to apartheid in South Africa. I show that, prior to these events, labor market pressure in the late 1960s/early 1970s caused a dramatic unraveling of apartheid in the workplace. Increased educational attainment among whites reduced resistance to opening semi-skilled jobs to Africans. This institutional change reflected white economic preferences rather than a rel...

  7. Labor market pooling and occupational agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd M.; Jaison R. Abel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-foundations of occupational agglomeration in U.S. metropolitan areas, with an emphasis on labor market pooling. Controlling for a wide range of occupational attributes, including proxies for the use of specialized machinery and for the importance of knowledge spillovers, we find that jobs characterized by a unique knowledge base exhibit higher levels of geographic concentration than do occupations with generic knowledge requirements. Further, by analyzing co-aggl...

  8. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  9. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  10. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  11. Labor Market Duality and the Impact of Prolonged Recession on Employment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Brkić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term labor market duality can be used to describe different forms of labor market segmentation. Nevertheless, this term is most often used to describe the segregation between permanent employees and workers employed on a temporary basis. There is a consensus in the literature that labor market duality most often occurs after governments engage in asymmetric reforms of the labor market legislation, which significantly liberalize the use of temporary contracts, while retaining a high level of employment protection for permanent workers. This paper analyzes whether in Croatia as a country with relatively rigid labor market legislation there are signs of labor market duality. The analysis is motivated by the recent data on employment flows showing that companies have intensified temporary hiring in recent years, which might be considered as a sign of increasing labor market duality. However, this paper discusses labor market developments in the context of persistent recession, taking into account that such changes in the employment flows could be a cyclical phenomenon reflecting high risk aversion of companies.

  12. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S. W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  13. POST-HOC SEGMENTATION USING MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL CONSTANTIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an instrumental research conducted in order to compare the information given by two multivariate data analysis used fordividing a population in clusters. These methods are K-means cluster and TwoStep cluster, which are available in SPSS system. Such methods could be used in post-hoc market segmentations, which allow companies to find segments with specific behaviours or attitudes. The research scope is to find which of the two methods is better for market segmentation practice. The outcomes reveal that every method has strong points and weaknesses. These ones are related to the relevance of segments description and the statistic significance of the difference between segments. In this respect, the researchers should compare the results of the named analyses and choose the method which better discriminate between the market segments.

  14. Statistical Mechanics of Japanese Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He

    We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.

  15. Labor Market Integration of Immigrants in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    and subsequent generations of immigrants. Roxane Silberman and Richard Alba write that France’s poor record of integration is actually segmented...market compared other immigrants, mainly those who are white.10 Silberman and Alba also conclude that discrimination is rampant at the entry level...Wages, 3. 9 OECD, Jobs, 114–115. 10 Roxane Silberman and Richard Alba, "Segmented Assimilation in France?: Discrimination in the Labor Market

  16. Marketing Communications as Important Segment of the Marketing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Milena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New frameworks operating at the international level have led to the need for a broader and more complex involvement of companies in international economic flows. In such circumstances, focus on the international and global markets becomes inevitable. Each segment companies must adapt and evolve in accordance with such conditions. Marketing as an important activity of the company in selling products or services is also changing and expanding its activities in line with international market. This leads to the creation of an international marketing concept and system as a specific approach to the processing of international economic relations. An important segment of implementation of the marketing concept is the marketing communication, which in terms of the limited number of international barriers. It is certainly possible to overcome with a well-defined marketing strategy. Clearly defined marketing strategy and well-prepared marketing mix remove barriers, to meet the set goals and lead to positive results for the company.

  17. Lactation and the labor market: breastfeeding, labor market changes, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, J

    1997-01-01

    Public health authorities in the United States actively promote breast-feeding, with target goals for increased beast-feeding rates by the year 2000. In recent decades, however, there has been an increase in the number of American mothers with infants who are in the labor market. Drawing together research examining the intersection of breast-feeding and women's involvement in paid employment, as well as various labor market analyses, this study explores how national recommendations advocating increased breast-feeding among new mothers in paid work are reconciled with economic pressures to return to the labor force in the early postpartum period. This analysis highlights those employment-related factors that constrain the practice of breast-feeding, thereby impeding "choice" over infant feeding method for many mothers. Finally, there is an attempt to explore various employer and public policies and strategies potentially supportive of breast-feeding among mothers in paid employment.

  18. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  19. Methodological Options in International Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Iryna

    2007-01-01

    The last decades were marked with an increasing involvement of multi-product manufacturers into cross-border business activities. Dealing with heterogeneous needs of consumers in different countries is one of the biggest challenges in the modern business. Correspondingly, special importance is being attached to international market segmentation. Finding transnational segments and developing standardized marketing programs for targeting them gain on popularity. The doctoral research of Dr. Iry...

  20. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  1. Lady Academe and Labor-Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…

  2. Lady Academe and Labor-Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…

  3. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step of the segmentation process with equal treatment. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold. First, a snapshot of the segmentation process in a step-by-step fashion will be provided. Second, each step (where possible will be evaluated on chosen criteria by means of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis of 32 academic papers and 13 commercial typology systems. Ultimately, the segmentation stages will be discussed with empirical findings prevalent in the segmentation studies and last but not least suggestions calling for further investigation will be presented. This seven-step-framework may assist when segmenting in practice allowing for more confidential targeting which in turn might prepare grounds for creating of a differential advantage.

  4. The labor market consequences of family illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Allison A.

    1999-12-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of mental illness on the labor market performance of family members of afflicted individuals. Numerous research projects have attempted to measure the impact of mental illness and related disorders on the ill individual, yet have traditionally neglected estimating potential costs accruing to family members of the ill. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Previous research estimating the impact of illness on the time allocation decisions of family caregivers has been limited in scope. I obtain estimates of the impact of mental illness on the probability of labor force participation and hours of work of all family members. The general analysis used in this study will pave the way for more accurate assessments of the costs of all types of illness and the estimates obtained will provide policy makers with a much more complete picture of the costs of mental illness. METHODS: The main empirical work in this study includes a probit estimation of labor force participation and a tobit regression of hours worked (including sample selection correction). The data sample, taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, is also partitioned by gender to clarify effects of family illness on labor supply for both females and males. RESULTS: Adult males are found to increase their probability of labor force participation in the presence of mental illness in the family (all else equal) when the mental illness is accompanied by a chronic physical illness. However, females are surprisingly found to have no significant impact on their probability of being a member of the labor market when a family member is afflicted with mental illness. On the other hand, hours of work are significantly reduced for both females and males when the mentally ill family member is afflicted with additional illnesses (physical and/or mental). DISCUSSION: Previous studies have traditionally not considered the effects of family illness on males because females are typically

  5. Focusing Marketing Strategy with Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    TANASE, George Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    A manager who develops an understanding of the needs and characteristics of specific groups of target customers within the broader market may see new, breakthrough opportunities. But it’s not always obvious how to identify the real needs of a target market—or the marketing mix that those customers will see as different from, and better than, what is available from a competitor. Identifying a company’s market is an important but sticky issue. In general, a market is a group of potential custom...

  6. Identifying spatial segments in international markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M; Steenkamp, JBEM

    2002-01-01

    The identification of geographic target markets is critical to the success of companies that are expanding internationally. Country borders have traditionally been used to delineate such target markets, resulting in accessible segments and cost efficient entry strategies. However, at present such "c

  7. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...... in the Brazilian seafaring labor market, it is relevant to research the interaction between various factors that can provide insights regarding the nature of this distinct labor sector. This paper explores the economic indicators that can possibly influence the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market...... covering the demand and supply sides, as well as the evolution of the wage level. This is an exercise of analyzing a sector-specific labor market in order to explore potential areas where adjustments might be necessary to address an imbalance. The econometric methodology of this research using multivariate...

  8. The deficit of decent work as a global problem of social and labor segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Kolot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overview of the current trends in social and labor segment globally and in the Ukrainian economy is provided. The crises in functioning of the social and labor segment as the forms of expression of the deficit of decent work were isolated. The reasons destabilizing the social and labor segment and limiting the development of the decent work institute are presented. The findings on the situation of self-employment and vulnerable employment worldwide are given. The modern transformations in employment through the lens of decent work are disclosed, with a focus on vulnerable employment. A correlation between inequality in income and a deficit of decent work is shown. The relationship and interaction between decent work and human values in terms of the new economy and postindustrial society development as a philosophical platform of the modern concept of decent work is proven. The aggravation of the crisis of values of the labor g life in the light of deficit of the decent work is explained. The conceptual foundations of the decent work are revealed. The author's vision of the decent work institute as an integrated political, economic, and social platform of sustainable development is reasoned. The criteria and components of the decent work are presented. The importance of inclusive labor markets to expand the scale of decent work is disclosed. The strategic landmarks of overcoming the deficit of decent work are delineated.

  9. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  10. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  11. Urban-rural Wage Gap in the Multiple Segmented Labor Market%劳动力市场多重分割下的城乡工资差距

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡强

    2014-01-01

    Based on data of China General Social Survey conducted in 2006, this paper adopts Appleton decompositon method to analyze causes of the wage gap between urban workers and rural workers in the multiple segmented labor market .The results show that: individual characteristics differences are the mainly causes of the wage gap between urban workers and rural workers , but huji discrimination also exists , including unequal pay for equal work and unequal employment opportunity between urban workers and rural workers and the former is the mainly aspect of the discrimination . Among the three segmentation form , ownership segmentation leads to the most serious employment opportunity discrimination . From the points of region comparison , the wage gap between urban workers and rural workers is maximum in Eastern region and minimum in Central region . Pay discrimation is the most serious in Eastern region , employment opportunity discrimination is the most serious in Central region and huji discrimination is the most serious in Western region .%基于2006年中国综合社会调查数据,本文应用Appleton分解方法分析了劳动力市场多重分割下城乡劳动力工资差距的成因。研究表明,我国劳动力市场上城乡劳动力之间的工资差距主要是由城乡劳动力的个体特征差异造成的,但也存在对农村劳动力的户籍歧视,这种歧视主要表现为同工不同酬和就业机会不均等两个方面,其中同工不同酬是户籍歧视的主要表现形式,在三种部门分割导致的就业机会不均等方面,所有制分割形式对农村劳动力就业机会的歧视最为明显。从分地区的比较来看,东部地区城乡劳动力的工资差距最高,中部地区城乡劳动力的工资差距最低,东部地区同工不同酬的程度最高,中部地区就业机会不均等的程度最高,而西部地区的户籍歧视最为严重。

  12. Education, Labor Markets and the Retreat from Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…

  13. Teaching Labor Market Survey Methodology in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Labor Market Survey (LMS) and labor market analysis knowledge and methodologies are minimum competencies expected of rehabilitation counselors through credentialing and accreditation boards. However, LMS knowledge and methodology is an example of a contemporary oral tradition that is universally recognized in rehabilitation and disability services…

  14. The labor market for people 50+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia LUCIUS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays. The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor market employment in the 55+ group increased in 10 years by 20%. Effective management of the community of older people is necessary to keep the balance in economy. Many examples of good case practices from chosen European countries point an important role of education in this process. Education is a tool that aims to support older people in functioning on the job market and increase employers’ awareness of changes and solutions that need to be implemented in their companies. Customized forms of employment are another instrument of increasing job activity of older people. They let employers adjust the time, place of work, job description and form of payment according to the employer’s and employee’s preferences. Though, the most significant instrument is reduction of unemployment benefits for people who are qualified to take job activity. In this case one of the solutions is applying temporary benefits that stimulate active job hunting. The mentioned activities, to ensure their efficiency, should be supported by adequate law regulations.

  15. 劳动力转移与工资差距同时扩大的“悖论”研究——基于市场分割的视角%A Study of the Paradox of Simultaneous Expansion of Labor Force Shift and Wage Gap: from the Perspective of Market Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓宁; 姚延婷

    2012-01-01

    从市场分割的角度出发,对劳动力流动与工资差距同时扩大的"悖论"和中国市场化过程中的"迁移谜题"进行了深入分析,认为劳动力市场的地区分割和城乡分割导致了劳动者之间必然存在工资收入差距,而且即使存在劳动力转移,也不能使工资差距收敛。这种制度性偏好导致的劳动力市场分割,对劳动者工资收入差距的扩大起了推波助澜的作用,因此构建全国统一、自由竞争的劳动力市场是非常必要的,并提出有关的政策建议。%From the angle of market segmentation,this paper conducts an in-depth analysis of the paradox of the simultaneous expansion of labor force flowing and wage gap,as well as the "migration riddle"during the process of China's marketization.It is believed that the regional division and the urban-rural division of the labor markets would inevitably lead to the wage income disparity between the workers;moreover,even if there is labor force shift,it could not restrain the wage disparity.This kind of labor market division caused by system preferences has played an important role in enlarging the wage income disparity of the workers.Therefore,it is essential to construct a nationally-unified and freely competitive labor market.So that this paper offers some related policy suggestions.

  16. Is Germany the North Star of Labor Market Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, Ulf; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2013-01-01

    Germany's recovery from an unemployment disease and its resilience to the Great Recession is remarkable. Its success story makes it a showcase for labor policy and labor market reforms. This paper assesses the potential of the German experience as a model for effective, evidence-based policymaking. Flexible management of working time (through overtime and short-time work, time accounts and labor hoarding), social cohesion and controlled unit labor costs, combined with a rigid, incentive-orien...

  17. Charter Schools and Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batie, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was undertaken to examine the effect(s) of charter school marketing on the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) education landscape with respect to the stratification of charter schools. Information from four sources: school websites, a survey of charter school parents, existing online statistics and data, and various…

  18. Charter Schools and Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batie, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was undertaken to examine the effect(s) of charter school marketing on the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) education landscape with respect to the stratification of charter schools. Information from four sources: school websites, a survey of charter school parents, existing online statistics and data, and various…

  19. External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

  20. Growing inequalities call for a flexible yet secure labor market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张车伟

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines inequalities in China’s job market.The first section answers the question of whether rapid economic growth in China has created adequate employment,concluding that it has,based on an analysis of aggregate growth and employment data.Section Two presents the general trends in labor supply and demand in China,and concludes that the unlimited labor supply seems to be diminishing,but this does not mark the coming of a labor shortage;in fact,China seems to have a sufficient supply of labor for the next 20 years.Section Three discusse: major problems facing the labor market,which include the structural problems of employment,informal employment,and distorted primary income distribution.Section Four argues that a well-functioning labor market must be able to combine flexibility with security in the pursuit of balance between economic growth and employment.

  1. Segmenting the MBA Market: An Australian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A University of Western Australia market segmentation study for the masters program in business administration examined the relationship between Graduate Management Admission Test scores, work experience, faculty of undergraduate degree, gender, and academic success in the program. Implications of the results for establishing admission criteria…

  2. Segmenting the MBA Market: An Australian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A University of Western Australia market segmentation study for the masters program in business administration examined the relationship between Graduate Management Admission Test scores, work experience, faculty of undergraduate degree, gender, and academic success in the program. Implications of the results for establishing admission criteria…

  3. LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT UNDER ROMANIA'S INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity involving work objectively factor designed to exploit natural resources and monetary system in its interest. According to Adam Smith, the work is a primary factor, the original production was considered by him as the sole source of national wealth. This factor of production can be achieved through labor market that is in a competitive market economy. Transactions in this market have as their object or labor work. Employment policy work focus on boosting production and the flexibility of labor market through an easy tax for economic entities to make hiring, increasing the occupancy of the active population. In Romania, the pressures exerted on the labor market increasingly higher while the economy is subject to extensive qualitative transformations concerning privatization, restructuring and upgrading.

  4. Segmentation and the Role of Labor Standards Enforcement in Immigration Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janice Fine; Gregory Lyon

    2017-01-01

    ... “secondary” labor market, that are associated with advanced market economies. Ensuring labor standards are upheld diminishes the incentive for employers to undercut wages by exploiting vulnerable workers, many of whom are immigrants...

  5. ANALYSE OF LABOR FORCE MOBILITY PHENOMENOM ON ROMANIAN INTERNAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Labor force mobility is an increasingly important component of contemporary society and equally adjustment tool imbalances in labor markets. The phenomenon of labor mobility is nowadays the most dynamic form of movement of potentially active population. Using cluster analysis this paper aims to highlight the relationship between economic and regional development of counties and the phenomenon of internal labor mobility. Labor mobility is both an explanatory factor of economic development and its effect or result, based on the natural desire of individuals to increase income and improve quality of life by changing jobs, which could contribute to GDP growth and economic growth.

  6. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  7. Informalidade no mercado de trabalho brasileiro: uma resenha da literatura Brazilian labor market informality: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ulyssea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature relative to Brazilian labor market informality is very disperse and presents a significant lack of organization. In that sense, the purpose of this paper is to organize and discuss on a systematic way the main pieces of literature concerning informality in the Brazilian labor market using, whenever it is possible, the international literature as a comparison point for the existing results relative to Brazil's experience. More specifically, questions related to wage differentials between formal and informal workers, labor market segmentation and the effect of institutions on the informal sector are emphasized.

  8. Wage Subsidy and Labor Market Flexibility in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Delfin S. Go; Kearney, Marna; Korman, Vijdan; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors use a highly disaggregate general equilibrium model to analyze the feasibility of a wage subsidy to unskilled workers in South Africa, isolating and estimating its potential employment effects and fiscal cost. They capture the structural characteristics of the labor market with several labor categories and substitution possibilities, linking the economy-wide resu...

  9. High Technology, Work, and Inequality in Southern Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Glenna; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    1990-01-01

    Explores the relationship among high technology industrialization, skill levels, and economic inequality. Finds that minority labor force participants experience more earnings discrimination in high tech industries than in other industries. Attributes findings to variations in local labor market contexts and to differing stages of product cycles…

  10. Labor Market Problems of Older Workers. A Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Employment Policy, Washington, DC.

    The National Council on Employment Policy found that there are small but substantial groups of older persons who are experiencing labor market problems--the working poor, the displaced unemployed, persons with health limitations, and groups of women who have been out of the labor force for large blocks of time. The problems of this generation, now…

  11. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  12. Labor Market Outcomes and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and…

  13. Marriage Market, Divorce Legislation and Household Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Andre Chiappori; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical framework for analyzing the impact of the marriage market and divorce legislation on household labor supply. In our approach, the sex ratio on the marriage market and the rules governing divorce are examples of "distribution factors". The latter are defined as variables that affect the household members' bargaining position but neither preferences nor the joint budget set. We extend the collective labor supply model developed by Chiappori (JPE, 1992) to allow...

  14. Multiple Job Holding, Local Labor Markets, and the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barry T.; Husain, Muhammad M.; Winters, John V

    2016-01-01

    About 5 percent of U.S. workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998-2013. High unemployment labor markets have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between mu...

  15. Happiness as a guide to labor market policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and unemployment benefits can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivi...

  16. Assessing the labor supply and demand missmatch by skills in the Uruguay labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Espino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the mismatch between labor supply and demand for educational qualificationsin the Uruguayan labor market during 2000-2009. It attempts to measure the phenomenonof under-qualification and overqualification by occupation type based on educational requirementfor each occupation. Following the previous literature, the empirical work concentrates onthe determinants of over-education and its impact on wages.

  17. The Ethnic Niche as an Economic Pathway for the Dark Skinned: Labor Market Incorporation of Latina/o Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Latina/os are turning to employment in ethnic niches as an alternative to general labor markets. This study places special focus on how skin color segmentation or colorism influences job-market allocation. The hypothesis is that dark-skinned Latina/os are more likely to be employed in ethnically homogeneous jobsites or…

  18. The Ethnic Niche as an Economic Pathway for the Dark Skinned: Labor Market Incorporation of Latina/o Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Latina/os are turning to employment in ethnic niches as an alternative to general labor markets. This study places special focus on how skin color segmentation or colorism influences job-market allocation. The hypothesis is that dark-skinned Latina/os are more likely to be employed in ethnically homogeneous jobsites or…

  19. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." excerpt

  20. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bratyhina; Irina Toimenceva

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  1. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bratyhina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  2. Shopping Effort Classification: Implications for Segmenting the College Student Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.; Palmer, John C.; Eidson, Vicky; Griswold, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Market segmentation strategies based on levels of consumer shopping effort have long been utilized by marketing professionals. Such strategies can be beneficial in assisting marketers with development of appropriate marketing mix variables for segments. However, these types of strategies have not been assessed by researchers examining segmentation…

  3. Shopping Effort Classification: Implications for Segmenting the College Student Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.; Palmer, John C.; Eidson, Vicky; Griswold, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Market segmentation strategies based on levels of consumer shopping effort have long been utilized by marketing professionals. Such strategies can be beneficial in assisting marketers with development of appropriate marketing mix variables for segments. However, these types of strategies have not been assessed by researchers examining segmentation…

  4. Student Segmentation in the Process of University Marketing Strategy Formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolanta Urbanovic

    2013-01-01

      The paper presents an overview and an analysis of literature related to specificity of university marketing, possibilities for market segmentation and main prerequisites for effective marketing strategy formulation...

  5. Labor market conditions and employment of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Drake, Robert E.; Becker, Deborah R.; Clark, Robin E.

    1999-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The mental health services literature includes assertions that workers with mental illness are at earlier risk of unemployment than other workers when the economy contracts. This possibility is important for several reasons. One is that such a phenomenon would support the argument that the lives of mentally ill persons are made unnecessarily stressful by the stigma of mental illness. Another is that the phenomenon could distort comparisons of the effectiveness of programs designed to prepare persons with severe mental illness for work. Despite its importance, the assertion that severely mentally ill workers are at early risk of unemployment has never been empirically tested. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aim to test the hypothesis that unemployment among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) increases before job loss among other workers. METHODS: We test the hypothesis by applying Granger causality methods to time-series data collected in two communities in the United States (i.e., Concord and Manchester, NH) over 131 weeks beginning on 12 May 1991. RESULTS: We find no relationship between job loss in the labor market and the likelihood that persons with SMI will be unemployed. DISCUSSION: We speculate that persons with SMI participate in the secondary labor market and that their employment status is unlikely to be well described by data gathered in the primary labor market. This implies that widely available measures of labor market status, which are designed to describe the primary labor market, cannot be used to improve the evaluation of programs intended to prepare the mentally ill for work. We also discuss the possibility that persons with SMI may have needs that are better met by the secondary than by the primary labor market. CONCLUSIONS: The intuition that workers with severe mental illness are affected earlier than other workers by labor market contraction may not be correct. We infer that persons with severe mental illness may participate in the

  6. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  7. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; McLennan, Michele

    1995-01-01

    Using self-reported sex discrimination data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a study found that working women who report discrimination are more likely to change employers or interrupt their labor force participation. However, women who report discrimination do not accrue less experience or have lower wage growth. (SK)

  8. Market segmentation by motivation: The case of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is about the segmentation of mature travel markets, as exemplified by Switzerland. Based on an extensive and representative travel survey covering 2,000 households and more than 11,000 trips, a situational, motivation-based travel market segmentation is proposed. The clustering of motivations proves to be a valuable means to segment markets. The results reveal a diminishing role of socio-demographic segment descriptors. It is more the (anticipated) travel profile and the att...

  9. TRANSFORMATION IN BULGARIAN LABOR MARKET IN THE YEARS OF TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the dependency of labor market on positive and negative effects of cyclic recurrence and economic development. Probable scenarios of the dynamics in employment and unemployment in dependence of changes in gross domestic product (GDP and productivity in conditions of recession and following the start of economic revival are analyzed in accordance to the open character of Bulgarian economy and the specificity of Bulgarian model of transition predetermined by the impacts of outer influences and additional inner ones on the labor market, which verification is on the basis of the data for state-of-art of labor market in years of transition to market economy. The factor predestining the level of unemployment are investigated on the basis of input flows unemployment relating to macroeconomic and other outer measures, as well as the impact which would lead to decrease in the average duration of unemployment. The accent is on the necessity of establishment of a consecutive and sustainable strategy of economic development having a clear vision about the structuring of economy and labor demand in middle-term aspect, as founding in the flexibility of labor market and employment in the country.

  10. Who Opposes Immigrants' Integration into the Labor Market? The Swiss Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Tobias; Tai, Silvio H. T.

    2010-01-01

    First, we spell out a political-economy model, based on segmented labor markets, which explains why a guest-worker system is preferred to a non-discriminatory immigration regime and why measures to improve the integration of low-skill immigrants tend to be opposed subsequently. The model also predicts that attitudes towards the integration of immigrants are positively related to education. Second, we examine the empirical evidence on attitudes towards the integration of immigrants. Our findin...

  11. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  12. Wage-Tenure Profiles in Contractual Labor Markets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Luis and Andrew Weiss, "Self-Selection in the Labor Market," American Economic Review 71, June 1981, 275-84. Hall, Robert, "The Importance of Lifetime...Efficiency, Boston, M.I.T. University Press, 1965. Johnson, George E., "Economic Analysis of Trade Unionism," American Economic Review 65, May 1975, 23-8...Profiles, Productivity and Hours Restrictions," American Economic Review 71, September 1981, 606-20. Mincer, Jacob, and Boyan Jovanovich, "Labor

  13. The impact of epidemics on labor market: identifying victims of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in the Korean labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Cho, Joonmo

    2016-12-01

    The vulnerability approach suggests that disasters such as epidemics have different effects according not only to physical vulnerability but also to economic class (status). This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market to investigate whether vulnerable groups become more vulnerable due to an interaction between the socio-economic structure and physical risk. This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market by considering unemployment status, job status, working hours, reason for unemployment and underemployment status. In particular, the study investigates whether the U-shaped curve becomes a J-shaped curve due to the interaction between medical vulnerability and labor market vulnerability after an outbreak, assuming that the relative vulnerability in the labor market by age shows a U curve with peaks for the young group and middle aged and old aged groups using the Economically Active Population Survey. We use the difference in difference approach and also conduct a falsification check and robustness check. The results suggest that older workers faced a higher possibility of unemployment after the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak. In particular, they experienced higher involuntary unemployment and underemployment status as well as decreased working hours. It was confirmed that the relative vulnerability of the labor market for older workers was higher than for the other age groups after the epidemic outbreak due to the double whammy of vulnerability in the medical and labor market. The vulnerability in the young group partially increased compared to the 30s and 40s age groups due to their relative vulnerability in the labor market despite being healthy. We find that assuming the relative vulnerability in the existing labor market shows a U shape with age increase, the U-shaped curve became J-shaped after the outbreak. Disasters like epidemics can

  14. Labour market in Albania. Identifing the shortages of skills in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmonda Beluli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The labor market is a relationship between the demand (persons who seek work and supply (job vacancies. The labor market is very complex, to study it we have to know better the characteristics of its variables, ie demand and supply. The Good compatibility between demand and supply is the golden key to well-functioning of labor market. Using the data obtained from questionnaires issued to study the labor market, many shortages are revealed in some sectors, especially in some professions, in terms of labor power, Identification of the skills and training needs of companies is the essence of consultation, orientation to career and training services. The survey through questionnaires  is used as a means of research. The Information obtained from the research on needed skills ought to become an integral part of the Information System on Labor Market (ISLM. The Information on Labor Market that was usually collected through employment services, education and vocational training departments and national training agencies, facilitates the analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of the training system and estimation of training demand, and enables the employment services and training providers to make possible the adjustment of both, demand and supply. as well. Concerning Albania, it is important to develop effective institutions and policies on labor market in order to reduce the inefficiencies and to create more job vacancies. In this aspect, we need to understand better what is happening with the economy. The results of the study suggest the existence of strong national divisions and regional labor market in terms of age and gender, which are so strong that even if you have in mind the caution that is dictated by the given samlpe it is felt that further investigation will be justified. Key Words: labor market, population, skills, vacancies, gender

  15. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  16. Balancing the fit and logistics costs of market segmentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix

  17. Balancing the fit and logistics costs of market segmentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix

  18. Clusterwise regression and market segmentation : developments and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.

    1990-01-01

    The present work consists of two major parts. In the first part the literature on market segmentation is reviewed, in the second part a set of new methods for market segmentation are developed and applied.

    Part 1 starts with a discussion of the segmentation concept, and proceeds

  19. Clusterwise regression and market segmentation. Developments and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.

    1990-01-01

    The present work consists of two major parts. In the first part the literature on market segmentation is reviewed, in the second part a set of new methods for market segmentation are developed and applied.Part 1 starts with a discussion of the segmentation concept, and proceeds with a discussion on

  20. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.

  1. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  2. Market Segmentation in Business Technology Base: The Case of Segmentation of Sparkling

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Riscarolli; Universidade Nove de Julho - UNINOVE; Sandra Regina Silva dos Santos Souza; Universidade Nove de Julho - UNINOVE; Leonel Cezar Rodrigues; Universidade Nove de Julho - UNINOVE; Fabrícia Durieux Zucco; FURB e UNIVALI

    2014-01-01

    A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is...

  3. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  4. Structural Analysis of Labor Market Transitions Using Indirect Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Mark Yuing; Liu, Ming

    1996-01-01

    In the econometric analysis of labor market transitions, the data generating process is often specified as a continuous-time semi-Markovian process with a finite state space. With typically short panel data, analysts have long been concerne d with the initial conditions problem.......In the econometric analysis of labor market transitions, the data generating process is often specified as a continuous-time semi-Markovian process with a finite state space. With typically short panel data, analysts have long been concerne d with the initial conditions problem....

  5. The Destructuring and Restructuring of Global Labor Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective....... Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ...

  6. MARKET SEGMENTATION PRACTICES OF RETAIL CROP INPUT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer

    2007-01-01

    While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...

  7. MARKET SEGMENTATION PRACTICES OF RETAIL CROP INPUT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer

    2007-01-01

    While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...

  8. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income...... from advantaged to disadvantaged workers. A worker can be disadvantaged in the sense that they may have less ability to aquire and utilize skills in the workplace. The model explains why passive benefits tend to fall and active benefits tend to increase during the course of unemployment spell...

  9. Analysis criteria market veterinary preparations which touch commodity segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    OLENICH I.; KHARIV I.; GYTUJ B.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-proven that the criteria of market of veterinary preparations segmentation must represent the features of this market. At researches, in every case, depending on the put purpose, market segmentation can be conducted by system of the most complete scope of criteria, or after one or by a few criteria.

  10. Course of major depressive disorder and labor market outcome disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhehui; Cowell, Alexander J; Musuda, Yuta J; Novak, Scott P; Johnson, Eric O

    2010-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been found to be negatively associated with labor market outcomes. However, MDD has many different courses that are chronic or persistent, relapsing and remitting, or limited to a single lifetime episode. Such heterogeneity has been ignored in most past analyses. We examine the impact of heterogeneity in course of MDD on labor market outcomes. Wave I (2001-2002) respondents of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - a nationally representative panel survey - were interviewed on average 3 years later (2004-2005). We categorized changes in MDD before and after wave I and before wave II into six courses: incident, recent remission, persistent remission, relapse, persistent depression, and no history of MDD. Odds ratios (ORs) and marginal effects of MDD transitions in multivariable multinomial regressions of labor market outcomes (being out of the labor force, being unemployed, working part-time, and working full-time -- the reference outcome) are reported. Men and women who exhibited persistent remission (2 to 3 years) were equally likely to be in the labor force, employed, and working full-time, compared to those with no history of MDD (reference group). For men, recently remitted MDD (less than 1 year), compared to the reference group, increased the likelihood of being unemployed (3.2% higher probability of being unemployed conditional on being in the labor force; OR = 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13--3.44) and working part-time (5.8% higher probability of working part-time conditional on being employed; OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.10-2.80). For women, no statistically significant effect for recent remission was found. The negative effects of incident onset, relapse, and persistence of MDD were found on some labor market outcomes for men and, to a lesser extent, for women. Clinical treatment for depression should be coordinated and/or integrated with work-related interventions that help

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIVE PROSPECTS OF THE LABOR MARKET OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Chuvardynskyi

    2015-01-01

    The foreign experience of the provision of innovative development of labour market was investigated. The current tendencies of the development of labour market segments were analyzed. The main problems of the providing of the possibilities of innovative prospects of labour market development realization were defined. The most important reason is the saving of the significant share of low-effective labour in the occupational and qualification structure of labour force. The ways of the realizat...

  12. Three Driving Forces of Labor Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhanqiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sub prime in Wall Street of USA finally turned into global economic crisis. China, as the second largest export country in the world, caught in the biting cold economic storm. As the declining export directly plays on the weakness of Chinese economy, shrinking domestic demand and weak export market worsens the employment situation in China.

  13. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  14. Chile's labor markets in an era of adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Riveros, Luis A.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1970s, Chile underwent profound structural changes in market regulation, public sector policies, and foreign trade. These changes produced notable economic strain and high open unemployment. After the financial crisis of the 1980s the Chilean economy adjusted successfully and resumed economic growth. The author describes the important role labor markets played in the adjustment process. Expenditure-switching and expenditure-reduction policies are important in interpreting the observed ...

  15. Analysis of Regional Effects on Market Segment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    customers (Nielsen, 2016). Nielsen assigns every household in America to a PRIZM NE market segment based on demographics , credit card spending...REGIONAL EFFECTS ON MARKET SEGMENT PRODUCTION by James D. Moffitt June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Lyn R. Whitaker Co-Advisor: Jonathan K. Alt...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL EFFECTS ON MARKET SEGMENT PRODUCTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  16. Marketing ambulatory care to women: a segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, G D; Fors, M F

    1985-01-01

    Although significant changes are occurring in health care delivery, in many instances the new offerings are not based on a clear understanding of market segments being served. This exploratory study suggests that important differences may exist among women with regard to health care selection. Five major women's segments are identified for consideration by health care executives in developing marketing strategies. Additional research is suggested to confirm this segmentation hypothesis, validate segmental differences and quantify the findings.

  17. Segments and responses to marketing of older consumers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bin, Ying; Xiao, Jingjian

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes market segments of consumers aged 50+ in China. Two innovative dimensions are used to construct market segments: a broadly defined health dimension and a traditionalmodern value orientation dimension. Based on data collected from six representative cities in China, older consumers are divided to four segments: healthy liberal (13.86%), healthy conservative (37.34%), unhealthy liberal (13.43%), and unhealthy conservative (35.37%). Segment differences in consumer responses ...

  18. Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search…

  19. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  20. Active Labor Market Programs and Reservation Wages: Its a Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this paper shows that positive earnings effects of labor market programs might be driven by an employment and/or a wage effect. The findings of this paper suggest that treated individuals in a high-intense scheme are more prone to have lowered short- term...

  1. Do flexible labor markets indeed reduce unemployment? A robustness check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickell et al. (2005) have frequently been cited as empirical evidence that labor market rigidities cause high unemployment. We find that their model is not robust. Leaving their database unchanged and changing three details in their estimation procedure, it turns out that several policy-relevant co

  2. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  3. Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…

  4. Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    This study is a cross-section regression analysis of male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. Data for the study were obtained from the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. A prime objective of this dissertation is to determine how much of the observed male-female wage differential can be attributed to the effects of discrimination…

  5. Mobility and Wage Equilibration in the Educator Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, William H.; Stone, Joe A.

    Using wage regression equations, this paper examines the wage determination process for educators at the elementary and secondary levels in Oregon. The propositions tested include whether educators are responsive to wage differentials between their teaching jobs and alternative occupations, as well as within the educator labor market, and whether…

  6. Recent Research on Labor Market Outcomes of Secondary Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    This paper synthesizes the results of recent research on the labor market outcomes associated with participation in secondary vocational education. It is based on 10 studies conducted with national data and reported since passage of the 1976 amendments to the Vocational Education Act of 1963. Despite the problems of analyzing vocational outcomes…

  7. Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of how immigration influences the joint determination of the wage structure and internal migration behavior for native-born workers in local labor markets. Using data from the 1960-2000 decennial censuses, the study shows that immigration is associated with lower in-migration rates, higher…

  8. Using Illustrations from American Novels to Teach about Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…

  9. Professional Education and the Labor Market: Problems of Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, A. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing desire to obtain a higher education in Russia is causing a growing disparity between educational qualifications and the needs of the labor market. Blue-collar jobs of varying levels are difficult to fill, and the demand for the qualification of those with degrees is not sufficient to avoid high levels of unemployment. Ways need to…

  10. Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…

  11. Labor Market Flexibility and the Impact of the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artha, I. Kadek Dian Sutrisna; de Haan, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    P>The impact of the global financial crisis varies across countries. We examine whether cross-country differences in output loss and speed of recovery are affected by differences in labor market flexibility. By employing cross-country regressions and including control variables like trade and capita

  12. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  13. Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of how immigration influences the joint determination of the wage structure and internal migration behavior for native-born workers in local labor markets. Using data from the 1960-2000 decennial censuses, the study shows that immigration is associated with lower in-migration rates, higher…

  14. Employers and the Implementation of Active Labor Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bredgaard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.

  15. [Segment analysis of the target market of physiotherapeutic services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the possibilities to analyse selected segments of the target market of physiotherapeutic services provided by medical and preventive-facilities of two major types. The main features of a target segment, such as provision of therapeutic massage, are illustrated in terms of two characteristics, namely attractiveness to the users and the ability of a given medical facility to satisfy their requirements. Based on the analysis of portfolio of the available target segments the most promising ones (winner segments) were selected for further marketing studies. This choice does not exclude the possibility of involvement of other segments of medical services in marketing activities.

  16. Foreign labor and regional labor markets: aggregate and disaggregate impact on growth and wages in Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....

  17. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  18. Increasing Labor Market Participation and Reducing Structural Unemployment in Rural and Urban Areas of Europe. Case Study – Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Member States ought to integrate the flexicurity values approved by the European Council into their labor market policies and apply them, making full use of European Social Fund sustain with a view to growing labor market participation and fighting segmentation and inactivity, gender inequality, at the same time as reducing structural unemployment. Actions to improve flexibility and security should be both balanced and mutually strengthen. Member States must consequently initiate a combination of flexible and reliable employment contracts, active labor market policies, effective lifelong learning, policies to promote labor mobility, and adequate social security systems to secure professional transitions accompanied by clear privileges and responsibilities for the unemployed to dynamically seek work.

  19. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  20. Employer health insurance and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    Theory suggests that an employer's decisions about the amount of health insurance included in the compensation package may be influenced by the practices of other employers in the market. We test the role of local market conditions on decisions of small employers to offer insurance and their dollar contribution to premiums using data from two large national surveys of employers. These employers are more likely to offer insurance and to make greater contributions in communities with tighter labor markets, less concentrated labor purchasers, greater union penetration, and a greater share of workers in big business and a small share in regulated industries. However, our data do not support the notion that marginal tax rates affect employers' offer decision or contributions.

  1. Modeling of market segmentation for new IT product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation[1] in their product development[2] and strategic planning[3]. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers[4] with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation[5]. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation[6] based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.

  2. The Online Laboratory: Conducting Experiments in a Real Labor Market

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, John J; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Online labor markets have great potential as platforms for conducting experiments, as they provide immediate access to a large and diverse subject pool and allow researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials. We argue that online experiments can be just as valid---both internally and externally---as laboratory and field experiments, while requiring far less money and time to design and to conduct. In this paper, we first describe the benefits of conducting experiments in online labor markets; we then use one such market to replicate three classic experiments and confirm their results. We confirm that subjects (1) reverse decisions in response to how a decision-problem is framed, (2) have pro-social preferences (value payoffs to others positively), and (3) respond to priming by altering their choices. We also conduct a labor supply field experiment in which we confirm that workers have upward sloping labor supply curves. In addition to reporting these results, we discuss the unique threats to validity in...

  3. Market segmentation of mobile communications in SEE region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Anto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the focus of all activities are customers of mobile services on mobile communications market. As the basis of telecommunication network and services development, as also for creating an optimal marketing-mix from mobile operators' side, we have investigated the needs, motivations and customer behavior and have made analysis mobile communication customers on the SEE Region market. The aim of this analysis is identification of the regional segments and following their growth, size and profitability. At the end, we have contributed the suggestions for creating the marketing-mix using a strategy of marketing differentiation, which implicit optimal combination of all marketing-mix elements for each regional segment separately. For identified segments we have set up an estimation model of significant key factors on the particular segments, because of more efficient creation of marketing instruments.

  4. Labor market reforms and wage inequality in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Peter; Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....

  5. Models for the analysis of the labor market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela TUDOSE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the transition to a market economy put the urgent problem of using labor and unemployment. Increasing labor resources has been accompanied by a continued reduction in employment and a rise in unemployment. The government tried to initiating programs, including external funding, job creation, but compared to the massive layoffs that occurred following the restructuring of sectors, the number of new jobs created has proved insufficient. A significant aspect is given by the increase of population employed in agriculture, characteristic of underdeveloped countries. Modalities of intervention in support of reducing unemployment and increasing employment can be active and passive character.

  6. Marketing Education Through Benefit Segmentation. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    The applicability of the "benefit segmentation" marketing technique to education was tested at the College of DuPage in 1979. Benefit segmentation identified target markets homogeneous in benefits expected from a program offering and may be useful in combatting declining enrollments. The 487 randomly selected students completed the 223…

  7. Segmenting Student Markets with a Student Satisfaction and Priorities Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1995-01-01

    A market segmentation analysis of 872 university students compared 2 hierarchical clustering procedures for deriving market segments: 1 using matching-type measures and an agglomerative clustering algorithm, and 1 using the chi-square based automatic interaction detection. Results and implications for planning, evaluating, and improving academic…

  8. Segmenting Student Markets with a Student Satisfaction and Priorities Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1995-01-01

    A market segmentation analysis of 872 university students compared 2 hierarchical clustering procedures for deriving market segments: 1 using matching-type measures and an agglomerative clustering algorithm, and 1 using the chi-square based automatic interaction detection. Results and implications for planning, evaluating, and improving academic…

  9. The Teaching Evaluation Process: Segmentation of Marketing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Oliver H. M.; Kwan, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    A study applied the concept of market segmentation to student evaluation of college teaching, by assessing whether there exist several segments of students and how this relates to their evaluation of faculty. Subjects were 156 Australian undergraduate business administration students. Results suggest segments do exist, with different expectations…

  10. The Teaching Evaluation Process: Segmentation of Marketing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Oliver H. M.; Kwan, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    A study applied the concept of market segmentation to student evaluation of college teaching, by assessing whether there exist several segments of students and how this relates to their evaluation of faculty. Subjects were 156 Australian undergraduate business administration students. Results suggest segments do exist, with different expectations…

  11. Labor market reforms and wage inequality in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Skott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High-performing temp......Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....

  12. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science.

  13. The Crowding out Effect on the Labor Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Hrisanta DOBRE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination expresses any distinction, exclusion, restriction, preference or different treatment that disadvantages a person or group, in comparison with others in similar situations. The crowding out effect was first formulated by Bergmann (1974 and explains that an individual can obtain lower returns if he belongs to a branch dominated by the members of another group. The difference in pay between women and men is also reinforced by the segregation in the labor market, which may explain the crowding out effect. In this article we analyzed the level of segregation in the Romanian labor market starting from the workers professional status and their distribution by branch from 2003 to 2008. Crowding out effect was analyzed based on the gain function of the two groups (women and men.

  14. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Observatory facility staff requirements and local labor markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabanus, David

    2012-09-01

    Current large observatories, both in operation and projects in development or construction, face the challenge to find skilled personnel for integration and operation. Typical locations of these observatories are found to be remote, mainly due to electromagnetic pollution prevention, which in many if not all cases reduces the attractiveness of the work posts. Additional budgetary limitations restrict the recruitment radius for certain positions to the local labor market. This paper outlines these staffing constraints in more detail and elaborates on the need for training programs on various levels, which can be costly. This, in turn, drives the need for creative retention efforts. Therefore, financial modeling, contingency, risk and quality management, and the reliability, availability, and maintainability of an observatory are directly coupled to the local embedding in the labor market of the host country.

  16. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  17. Childhood and Adulthood Skill Acquisition - Importance for Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills...... at childhood, but only important for employment rate for workers with high cognitive and low non-cognitive childhood skills. Overall our findings suggest that both cognitive and non-cognitive skills are important but that the dynamics differ....

  18. The Destructuring and Restructuring of Global Labor Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    . Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ......The paper is divided into five sections. The first section debates the shifts in trade, competition and explains the factors behind the capitalist developmental state in East Asia in geo-political terms and in view of the financial crisis which started in 1997.  The second part deals with the shift...... in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective...

  19. Labor Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labor market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labor market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon in which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers. (JEL J15, J31, J61, J64, J71)...

  20. The labor market in Romania to the year 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscor, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation of the Romanian labor market and trends for 2020 and the evolution of employment on regions and activity fields in 2010 in comparison to 2009. The most important areas where labour demand will increase are: sales, outsourcing, engineering, IT, finance, banking, environment protection, insurance, medicine and pharmacy, accounting. Other areas that will absorb more employees in the following five years are: hospitality industry, trade, constructions, energy field, marketing and public relations. The educational and training system will need to be reformed in order to train qualified staff for these fields.

  1. Why Do College Graduates Shun the Labor Market?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to a recent report in Changjiang Daily, Chen Chuande, Deputy Director of Hubei Provincial Education Department,said at a conference on March 30 he "deeply regretted" college graduates' mistaken ideas about finding work. Chen said some graduates insisted on finding high-paid jobs or working in certain cities, while others chose to stay out of the labor market where they could not find "satisfying jobs" still others changed jobs fre-quently by breaking contracts with employers.

  2. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-02-01

    Although several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness. This article uses a longitudinal national sample, including sibling pairs, to show the important labor market outcome consequences of ADHD. The employment reduction is between 10 and 14 percentage points, the earnings reduction is approximately 33%, and the increase in social assistance is 15 points, figures that are larger than many estimates of the Black people/White people earnings gap and the gender earnings gap. A small share of the link is explained by educational attainments and co-morbid health conditions and behaviors. The results also show important differences in labor market consequences by family background and age of onset. These findings, along with similar research showing that ADHD is linked with poor education outcomes and adult crime, suggest the importance of treating childhood ADHD to foster human capital. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Market Segmentation in Business Technology Base: The Case of Segmentation of Sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Riscarolli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is a case study, through information from the company’s CEOs and crossed by primary information from observation and formal registries and documents of the company. In this research we look at sparkling wines market segmentation. Main results indicate that the winery studied considers only technological elements as the basis to build a market segment. One may conclude that a market segmentation for this company is based upon technological dominion of sparkling wines production, aligned with a premium-price policy. In the company, directorship believes that as sparkling wines market is still incipient in the country, sparkling wine market segments will form and consolidate after the evolution of consumers tasting preferences, depending on technologies that boost sparkling wines quality. 

  4. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  5. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  6. Understanding the market for geographic information: A market segmentation and characteristics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, William S.; Mick, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    Findings and results from a marketing research study are presented. The report identifies market segments and the product types to satisfy demand in each. An estimate of market size is based on the specific industries in each segment. A sample of ten industries was used in the study. The scientific study covered U.S. firms only.

  7. Does human capital raise earnings for immigrants in the low-skill labor market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George

    2008-08-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the "mixed"picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown.

  8. Integrated Development of China’s Agricultural Labor Market from the Perspective of Convergence of Planting Industry Marginal Labor Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longhua; YUE; Shiyuan; YANG; Rongtai; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Using Compilation of National Cost Benefit Data of Agricultural Products in 1990-2009 and based on the convergence of planting industry marginal labor productivity,this paper studies the integration of agricultural labor market in China. Firstly,it calculates labor output elasticity of each province for wheat,japonica rice and corn. Secondly,it builds indicators reflecting change level of marginal labor productivity. Researches show that in 1990-2000,the difference level of marginal labor productivity expands. From 2000,it starts to fall and becomes more and more stable. However,due to difference of crops and farming custom,the turning point of marginal labor productivity is not consistent with each other. Even so,it is still possible to reach the conclusion that agricultural labor market is gradually integrated from 2000.

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIVE PROSPECTS OF THE LABOR MARKET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chuvardynskyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The foreign experience of the provision of innovative development of labour market was investigated. The current tendencies of the development of labour market segments were analyzed. The main problems of the providing of the possibilities of innovative prospects of labour market development realization were defined. The most important reason is the saving of the significant share of low-effective labour in the occupational and qualification structure of labour force. The ways of the realization of innovative prospects of labour market development due to growth of quality of educational services on the basis of “life-long education” formation aimed on optimization of the occupational and qualification structure of labour force were defined.

  10. Next manager. Academic Background versus Labor Market Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Catalin Dobrea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The employability of of graduates is today one of the major problems both of universities and economical environment. Also, employability, inserting optimum professional and social life is a problem of each graduate. It finds today, that a large part of are young drop out of school and thus possibility of qualify at a high level or have difficulty entering the labor market. European Commission recommends for member states reforming education, especially of the university so as to ensure the professionalization of the young people, developing their professional skills and transversal, harnessing their potential, enhance the relevance of education for youth and the labor market. Bologna Declaration shows that employability (ability to engage, to maintain the service and mobility in the labor market is defining higher education, whose role is to familiarize students with the skills and competencies that individuals need to place on the job. (Bologna, 1999 This paper addresses the issue of employability of higher economic studies graduates, and analyzes a positive experience resulting from the provision of complex information, guidance, advice and orientation to students in POSDRU "Practice today to become manager of tomorrow". The paper presents the results of a complex study conducted on the impact that these services have had on the students involved, from three perspectives: students, employers, who guided activity students at the university level. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the increase in the number of students who have benefited from guidance, counseling and professional development appropriate to their needs and the number who have developed personal skills to substantiate decisions regarding their career paths and educational because of of information, advice, guidance provided in the project. These services have helped students to develop, to know better, know their own skills and abilities and to focus

  11. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  12. Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers: Is There a Shortage? Proceedings of a Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    These proceedings include four papers that examine four different models of the engineering labor market, namely, those of: (1) the American Electronics Association ("Technical Employment Projections, 1983-1987" by Pat Hill Hubbard); (2) the Bureau of Labor Statistics ("Future Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers" by Ronald E.…

  13. Educational Mismatches and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Both Vertical and Horizontal Mismatches in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholphirul, Piriya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Educational mismatches constitute negative impacts on labor markets in most countries, Thailand is no exception. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the degree of educational mismatch in Thailand and its impacts on labor market outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This study analyzes data obtained from Thailand's Labor Force Survey…

  14. THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING – GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    OPRESCU, Alina Elena

    2014-01-01

    Anyapproach that involves the use of strategic resources of an organisation requires a responsible approach, a behaviour that enables it to properly integrate itself into the dynamic of the business environment. This articles addresses in a synthetic manner, the issues of specific integration efforts for customers’ segmentation in the strategic marketing planning. The essential activity for any organisation wishing to optimize its response to the market, the customer segmentation will fully b...

  15. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  16. Promoting Hong Kong's Higher Education to Asian Markets: Market Segmentations and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.; Yuen, Celeste Y. M.; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers. Design/methodology/approach:…

  17. Promoting Hong Kong's Higher Education to Asian Markets: Market Segmentations and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.; Yuen, Celeste Y. M.; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers. Design/methodology/approach:…

  18. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    1999-01-01

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain t

  19. Bilingual advantage language, literacy and the US labor market

    CERN Document Server

    Callahan, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to examine the economics of bilingualism for the new generation of bilinguals entering a digital-age globalized workforce. The authors also pay considerable attention to how to best capture measures of bilingualism and biliteracy, given the constraints of

  20. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2009-01-01

    Spatial concentration of ethnic groups may theoretically have positive or negative effects on the economic performance of those groups. I examine the effects of the ethnic enclave size on labor market outcomes of immigrants. I account for ability-sorting into ethnic enclaves by exploiting a Danish...... increase in the ethnic enclave size increases annual earnings by 18 percent on average, irrespective of skill level. Third, the paper proposes an explanation for the earnings gain of ethnic enclave members. Enclave members benefit from more access to ethnic networks because ethnic networks disseminate job...

  1. Informal Care Giving and Market Labor Supply (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miki Kohara

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how adult-children decide time spent providing nursing care to their parents and their working time in the market. Utilizing a unique survey containing information both on adult-children and their parents in Japan, we clarify whether or not adult-children fs supply of informal care would discourage their labor supply. We first find that the existence of inheritance that children expect to receive from their parents in the future is one of the important determinants of whet...

  2. Targeting Political Communications: A Problem in Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwart, Richard I.

    Political campaigns are major, high-budget marketing efforts, but because they are usually managed by people with little training in either marketing or communications, they fail to persuade voters to vote in the desired way. Political targeting can be treated as a segmentation problem, one of identifying and responding to the specific qualities…

  3. SEGMENTING THE U.S.A. NON-TRAVEL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne W. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism marketers focus on understanding the many different segments that comprise their visitors. Understanding these segments’ motivations for travel is important in order to motivate repeat visitation and to attract like-minded consumers to visit. But how about those who do not travel? This surprisingly large percentage of the population is a lost opportunity for the industry. The research that follows, based upon a very significant USA-based sample of non-travelers, suggests that non-travelers can be effectively segmented and targeted. Understanding these segments will better allow vacation marketers to craft their product and their message, hopefully bringing more travelers to the mix.

  4. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public...

  5. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  6. [Women in labor and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and migration of women to Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, I

    1994-06-01

    low status nonmigrant women. The disadvantages of migrant women related to their lower age, education, and urban experience have declined or disappeared, but disadvantages related to lack of family and housing in the city have persisted. Continuing high rates of urban poverty in Santiago and substitution of precarious employment for open unemployment have resulted in continuing high rates of female employment. The lack of dynamism in the expansion of female employment, the persistence of gender segmentation of the labor market, continuing tertiarization of female employment, and new trends to precarious employment and increased economic participation of nonmigrant women suggest that occupational patterns of migrant women will not change greatly in the 1990s. Although they have become better educated and prefer to avoid live-in domestic service, their employment options appear limited.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON LABOR MARKET FLEXICURITY AUSTRIA - ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Avram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Present in the European political discourse in the early '90s, the concept of flexicurity, achieved by the contraction of two terms, flexibility and security, emerged in the European Union with the adoption of the Communication "Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security" in June 2007. This study, result of the research internship undertaken in October-December 2011 at WIFO, aims to capture the main dimensions of labor market flexicurity, the quality of social partnership and the present status of the targets set by of Europe 2020 Strategy. Europe 2020 Strategy aims, among other objectives, at achieving a series of targets specific for the labor market, in the European context, such as: - Employment for the population aged between 20-64 years, - Reducing the number of early school leavers, - Increasing the share of university graduates in the population between 30-34 years, - Reducing the number of people affected by poverty and social exclusion.

  8. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  9. IMMIGRATION AND ITS IMPACT IN ALBANIAN LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma SHYLE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth has already begun to fall in most of the countries. In the wider European area, therefore, population decline is likely to occur several years earlier. Regions with declining population demographic trends are affected by social and economic developments. Migration flows, in particular, are related to regional differences in labor market conditions, people moving from areas of low job growth to ones with more employment opportunities, and, over the longer-term, such differences can also affect birth and death rates. Declining regions in the EU are, therefore, characterized by low income levels, high unemployment and a large proportion of the work force employed in agriculture and industry. In addition, they tend to have a relatively small number of young people, reflecting their migration to other areas as well as low fertility rates, and a low density of population, reflecting the rural nature of many of them. The aim of this paper is to present the important consequences these trends will have regarding Albanian reality. We will see this for social welfare and taxation systems. We are also going to present here the policies to discourage illegal immigration, engaged in facilitating the entry, installment into the labor market, legal regulation, and social integration of Albanian emigrants in receiving countries. Finally, we will promote the impact of voluntary return of emigrants in the country development.

  10. FBIH financial market segmentation on the basis of image factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnela Bevanda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to recognize, single out and define market segments useful for future marketing strategies, using certain statistical techniques on the basis of influence of various image factors of financial institutions. The survey included a total of 500 interviewees: 250 bank clients and 250 clients of insurance companies. Starting from the problem area and research goal, the following hypothesis has been formulated: Basic preferences of clients in regard of image factors while selecting financial institutions are different enough to be used as such for differentiating significant market segments of clients. Two segments have been singled out by cluster analysis and named, respectively, traditionalists and visualists. Results of the research confirmed the established hypothesis and pointed to the fact that managers in the financial institutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH must undertake certain corrective actions, especially when planning and implementing communication strategies, if they wish to maintain their competitiveness in serving both selected segments.

  11. Serbian labor market with special emphasis on defining marketing strategy in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Fabian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to clear negative impact of the global economic crisis, which we witness, the labor market in Serbia has been faced with the transition problems accumulated through many years. Tourism and hospitality are among the those activities which have capacity to induce the entire system of other complementary activities that contribute to coping with the problem of high unemployment. The paper discusses role of developing marketing strategies in tourism sector of Serbia. As the author, it is important for the country to define a clear marketing strategy that includes adequate directing capabilities and resources in this industry in order to response to changes in the environment.

  12. Identifying market segments in consumer markets: variable selection and data interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, D G

    2004-01-01

    Market segmentation is often articulated as being a process which displays the recognised features of classical rationalism but in part; convention, convenience, prior experience and the overarching impact of rhetoric will influence if not determine the outcomes of a segmentation exercise. Particular examples of this process are addressed critically in this paper which concentrates on the issues of variable choice for multivariate approaches to market segmentation and also the methods used fo...

  13. Do Job Applicants also Discriminate Potential Employers? Evidence from the Worldfs Largest Online Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have examined labor-market discrimination in traditional labor markets and demonstrated that employers have strong tastes over job applicants. However, so far little is known about potential discrimination in online labor markets, where personal information on gender, race, age, education, etc. is not available. Moreover, few studies have discussed another potential discrimination against employers by job applicants. This paper answers this under-investigated question by us...

  14. Segments of marketers based on a perceived importance of marketing knowledge and skills

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Žabkar; Maja Hosta

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and empirically verify a range of knowledge and skills which are necessary in order to segment marketers, based on their perceptions of the importance of such marketing knowledge and skills. To empirically verify the importance of marketing knowledge and skills, a 28-item measurement instrument was developed. Responses from 235 marketing vice-presidents, marketing directors, sales directors or company presidents/owners in Slovenia were obtained (an 11....

  15. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN DECISION MAKING ON THE LABOR MARKET OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina GLOBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the business intelligence concept is enabling new opportunities for the labor market research and management. Labor market intelligence means a competent decision making process in the labor market. Such process should be based on the comprehensive set of analytical technologies and tools. The analysis of online information available at websites of state organizations working in the labor market of the Republic of Moldova has shown that many them are still at the very beginning of the effective data using.

  16. Market segmentation in two-sided markets : tv rights for premier league

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes market segmentation in a two-sided market that consists of media consumers and advertisers. The analysis is motivated by a European Court of Justice Decision in October 2011, which allowed viewers to take advantage of international price differences and buy access to Premier League TV matches from whichever country they like. We compare complete market segmentation with the new situation where consumers can purchase from abroad (allowing for passive sales). Clearly, such a...

  17. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed.

  18. Differential segmentation responses to an alcohol social marketing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Drennan, Judy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Leo, Cheryl; Gullo, Matthew J; Connor, Jason P

    2015-10-01

    This study seeks to establish whether meaningful subgroups exist within a 14-16 year old adolescent population and if these segments respond differently to the Game On: Know Alcohol (GOKA) intervention, a school-based alcohol social marketing program. This study is part of a larger cluster randomized controlled evaluation of the GOKA program implemented in 14 schools in 2013/2014. TwoStep cluster analysis was conducted to segment 2,114 high school adolescents (14-16 years old) on the basis of 22 demographic, behavioral, and psychographic variables. Program effects on knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy of identified segments were subsequently examined. Three segments were identified: (1) Abstainers, (2) Bingers, and (3) Moderate Drinkers. Program effects varied significantly across segments. The strongest positive change effects post-participation were observed for Bingers, while mixed effects were evident for Moderate Drinkers and Abstainers. These findings provide preliminary empirical evidence supporting the application of social marketing segmentation in alcohol education programs. Development of targeted programs that meet the unique needs of each of the three identified segments will extend the social marketing footprint in alcohol education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on the Marketing of Rural Tourism on the Basis of Market Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern agriculture and the further improvement in balancing urban and rural development, rural tourism ushered in a new opportunity for development. However, due to lack of market segmentation,rural tourism in China is facing many problems.The rural tourists will be classified based on the market segmentation in this article,and then put forward four aspects from the use of different target market strategy, develop network marketing, Implements the region brand strategy and international marketing strategy.The aim is to offer advices and suggestions to the sustainable development of the rural tourism.

  20. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

  1. What We Know and What We Don’t Know About Swedish Labor Market History: Reflections on Spelets Regler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bengtson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we reflect upon the state of Swedish labor market history by using Christer Lundh’s synthesis Spelets regler as a point of departure. In particular, we discuss three main themes: (1 the relationship between economic structures and institutions, (2 power and income distribution, and (3 flexibility and segmentation. In future research we would like to see stronger empirical evidence of links between structural and institutional changes, more elaborated studies of the effects of institutional change on the functional distribution of incomes and increased awareness of how patterns of segmentation and flexibility strategies have evolved over time.

  2. Labor-Associated Gene Expression in the Human Uterine Fundus, Lower Segment, and Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hankins, Gary D. V; Saade, George R; Anderson, Garland D; Thornton, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Background Preterm labor, failure to progress, and postpartum hemorrhage are the common causes of maternal and neonatal mortality or morbidity. All result from defects in the complex mechanisms controlling labor, which coordinate changes in the uterine fundus, lower segment, and cervix. We aimed to assess labor-associated gene expression profiles in these functionally distinct areas of the human uterus by using microarrays. Methods and Findings Samples of uterine fundus, lower segment, and cervix were obtained from patients at term (mean ± SD = 39.1 ± 0.5 wk) prior to the onset of labor ( n = 6), or in active phase of labor with spontaneous onset ( n = 7). Expression of 12,626 genes was evaluated using microarrays (Human Genome U95A; Affymetrix) and compared between labor and non-labor samples. Genes with the largest labor-associated change and the lowest variability in expression are likely to be fundamental for parturition, so gene expression was ranked accordingly. From 500 genes with the highest rank we identified genes with similar expression profiles using two independent clustering techniques. Sets of genes with a probability of chance grouping by both techniques less than 0.01 represented 71.2%, 81.8%, and 79.8% of the 500 genes in the fundus, lower segment, and cervix, respectively. We identified 14, 14, and 12 those sets of genes in the fundus, lower segment, and cervix, respectively. This enabled networks of co-regulated and co-expressed genes to be discovered. Many genes within the same cluster shared similar functions or had functions pertinent to the process of labor. Conclusions Our results provide support for many of the established processes of parturition and also describe novel-to-labor genes not previously associated with this process. The elucidation of these mechanisms likely to be fundamental for controlling labor is an important prerequisite to the development of effective treatments for major obstetric problems—including prematurity

  3. Labor-associated gene expression in the human uterine fundus, lower segment, and cervix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm labor, failure to progress, and postpartum hemorrhage are the common causes of maternal and neonatal mortality or morbidity. All result from defects in the complex mechanisms controlling labor, which coordinate changes in the uterine fundus, lower segment, and cervix. We aimed to assess labor-associated gene expression profiles in these functionally distinct areas of the human uterus by using microarrays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Samples of uterine fundus, lower segment, and cervix were obtained from patients at term (mean +/- SD = 39.1 +/- 0.5 wk prior to the onset of labor (n = 6, or in active phase of labor with spontaneous onset (n = 7. Expression of 12,626 genes was evaluated using microarrays (Human Genome U95A; Affymetrix and compared between labor and non-labor samples. Genes with the largest labor-associated change and the lowest variability in expression are likely to be fundamental for parturition, so gene expression was ranked accordingly. From 500 genes with the highest rank we identified genes with similar expression profiles using two independent clustering techniques. Sets of genes with a probability of chance grouping by both techniques less than 0.01 represented 71.2%, 81.8%, and 79.8% of the 500 genes in the fundus, lower segment, and cervix, respectively. We identified 14, 14, and 12 those sets of genes in the fundus, lower segment, and cervix, respectively. This enabled networks of co-regulated and co-expressed genes to be discovered. Many genes within the same cluster shared similar functions or had functions pertinent to the process of labor. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide support for many of the established processes of parturition and also describe novel-to-labor genes not previously associated with this process. The elucidation of these mechanisms likely to be fundamental for controlling labor is an important prerequisite to the development of effective treatments for major obstetric problems

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Maczulskij, Terhi

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990-2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Professional preparation in physical education: changing labor market and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Tani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.

  6. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Dumitru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological revolution of recent years about the spectacular development of the Internet has made its presence felt in the economy. Electronic commerce is already a major component of the economy and thus influences the labor market. In this article, we present electronic commerce as an alternative to increase the number of employees. Given that only 6% of Romanian currently use electronic commerce, its growth potential is huge and in terms of thoughtful strategies it can be achieved their guidance to specific regions. Attracting companies operating on the Internet in a given region can be done by providing incentives and beneficial effects will be felt not only through the number of employees but also through the services used by these companies.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES ON ROMANIA'S LABOR MARKET

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    IRINA-ELENA CHIRTOC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly important role in economic activity has the human resources. These are represented of population, also planning and management of such resources are extremely important, almost as important as raw materials and energy resources. Without people, any activity of exploitation of deposits is not possible, as otherwise there can be not possible any economic action or otherwise. The labor market in Romania has undergonesignificant changes in the process of economic transition, manifested by reducing the active and occupied people, by maintaining relatively steady unemployment rate and increasing youth unemployment and the long term unemployment, being affected mainly by the limited capacity of creation new jobs. In parallel with the reduction in employment people, it occurred significant changes in employment structure by sectors, industries, regions, types of ownership, age and occupational status.

  8. Quality management in the training of skilled workers as a key problem of the interaction of labor market and educational services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyaglov Sergey, G.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Russia's transition to innovation-oriented type of economic development is becoming particularly urgent problem of improving the quality of the workforce and professional development throughout their working life. Currently, the regional labor market characterized by increasing diversity of professions and as a result, the diversification requirements of employers at the regional level, depending on the industrial, agricultural, logistics, etc. specialization of the region. The increasing complexity of the structure and the internal differentiation of the various areas of economic activity determines the demand for workers with a broad fundamental training along with narrow professional competencies, so the mechanism of regulation of the regional bloc needs assessment of competencies of workers, institutionalized at both the state level and at the level of regional public associations, employers' associations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the state of the youth segment of the labor market, the establishment of the fact that for resolving the contradictions of the labor market and the education market (mismatch structure and quality of the training of human capital in the region, the needs of employers, the contradictions of regional professional and educational standards at the regional level, it is advisable to provide correlation of regional professional standards with the federal state educational standards, which will neutralize the contradictions, the solution of which determines the rational use of the labor potential in the regional economy.

  9. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  10. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  11. Do Culture-based Segments Predict Selection of Market Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academists and practitioners have already acknowledged the importance of unobservable segmentation bases (such as psychographics yet still focusing on how well these bases are capable of describing relevant segments (the identifiability criterion rather than on how precisely these segments can predict (the predictability criterion. Therefore, this paper intends to add a debate to this topic by exploring whether culture-based segments do account for a selection of market strategy. To do so, a set of market strategy variables over a sample of 251 manufacturing firms was first regressed on a set of 19 cultural variables using canonical correlation analysis. Having found significant relationship in the first canonical function, it was further examined by means of correspondence analysis which cultural segments – if any – are linked to which market strategies. However, as correspondence analysis failed to find a significant relationship, it may be concluded that business culture might relate to the adoption of market strategy but not to the cultural groupings presented in the paper.

  12. Institutional priorities of formation and functioning of the motivational mechanisms in the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelchenko Elena, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors consider institutional features of formation and functioning of motivational mechanisms in the labor market, as well as major trends of Russian modern system of labor motivation. Special attention is paid to the role of salary as an institutional component of the mechanism of labor motivation in conditions of decreasing the lag in the economic development.

  13. The Labor Market and the System of Education: Difficulties in the Interpretation of Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamoya, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…

  14. The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    A labor supply forecast is developed for the U.S. labor market in the 1980s, focusing on the effects of the low fertility rates of recent years. That forecast is then compared with the Bureau of Labor Statistics projection of employment demand in the next decade. Effects of illegal immigrants are also discussed. (CT)

  15. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

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    Reynolds Travis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%; At Risk (22%; Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%; Getting Best Results (13%; and Doing OK (12%. Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8% compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%. Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct

  16. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-03-08

    The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be identified for social marketing

  17. Small rural hospitals: an example of market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, A G; Shelby, R L

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, market segmentation analysis has shown increased popularity among health care marketers, although marketers tend to focus upon hospitals as sellers. The present analysis suggests that there is merit to viewing hospitals as a market of consumers. Employing a random sample of 741 small rural hospitals, the present investigation sought to determine, through the use of segmentation analysis, the variables associated with hospital success (occupancy). The results of a discriminant analysis yielded a model which classifies hospitals with a high degree of predictive accuracy. Successful hospitals have more beds and employees, and are generally larger and have more resources. However, there was no significant relationship between organizational success and number of services offered by the institution.

  18. Segmentation based on sources of marketing intelligence, marketing intelligence quotient and business characteristics in software industry

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Selen; OKUMUŞ, Abdullah; MUTLU, Feride

    2015-01-01

    In today’s competitive environment, managers desperately need information to make effective decisions. Marketing intelligence system supplies this information to marketing executives. It consists of current information on developments in marketing environment that helps managers to prepare and adjust marketing plans. This information can be obtained from many sources. In this study, it is aimed to determine whether software companies are clustered into different segments according t...

  19. Treasury Bond Market Segment at Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Maria Andrada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian Treasury bond market segment at Bucharest Stock Exchange. A trial will be made to identify the determinants that contributed to the current level of development of domestic secondary government bond market and the factors that can generate a further (and improved development. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romanian are short, based on the secondary data offered by Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  20. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  1. Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from Michigan. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley; Dynarski, Susan; Jacob, Brian; Kreisman, Daniel; Sosa, Alfredo; Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relative labor market gains experienced by first-time college students who enrolled in five community colleges in Michigan in 2003 and 2004. We track credentials, credits, earnings, and employment for these students through 2011. We compare labor market outcomes of those who earned a credential (associate degree or certificate) to…

  2. The Class of 2012: Labor Market for Young Graduates Remains Grim. EPI Briefing Paper #340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierholz, Heidi; Sabadish, Natalie; Wething, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Though the labor market is slowly improving, the Great Recession that began in December 2007 was so long and severe that the crater it left in the labor market continues to be devastating for workers of all ages. Unemployment has been above eight percent for more than three years, and 12.7 million workers remain unemployed today. The weak labor…

  3. Data Warehouse for Professional Skills Required on the IT Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GEORGESCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a research regarding informatics graduates professional level adjustment to specific requirements of the IT labor market. It uses techniques and models for data warehouse technology to allow a comparative analysis between the supply competencies and the skills demand on the IT labor market.

  4. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  5. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  6. Mobility in the Urban Labor Market : A Panel Data Analysis for Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Villagomez, E.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze mobility in urban Mexico between three labor market states: working in the formal sector, working in the informal sector, and not working. We use a dynamic multinomial logit panel data model with random effects, explaining the labor market state of each individual during each time period.

  7. Collaboration between Higher Education and Labor Market in Kinshasa, DR Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etshim, Rachal

    2017-01-01

    The transition of new graduate students from school to the labor market in Democratic Republic of Congo has been a major topic for debate over the last twenty years. This study identifies the factors affecting collaboration between higher education and the labor market in Kinshasa, the Capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Even though…

  8. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  9. Trade Liberalization and Women's Integration into National Labor Markets: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lisa B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…

  10. The Labor Market Imperative for CTE: Changes and Challenges for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfield, Sam; Stone, James R., III.

    2017-01-01

    The labor market in the United States is evolving in unexpected ways following the 2007 recession. Career and technical education (CTE) has historically linked young people to the workplace. In this article we examine the U.S. labor market and provide multiple perspectives on its growth and direction and implications for future directions for CTE.…

  11. Proposed Model for Innovation of Community Colleges to Meet Labor Market Needs in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…

  12. Tracking Success: High School Curricula and Labor Market Outcomes by Race and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Stearns, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Education researchers have established that educational tracking reinforces inequalities, but they have not fully examined the affect of these tracks on labor market outcomes for men and women of different races/ethnicities. At the same time, labor market researchers have studied the association between education and income by race and gender, but…

  13. Instruments to stimulate activation of older persons on labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Lucius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays.  The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor market employment in the 55+ group increased in 10 years by 20%.  Effective management of the community of older people is necessary to keep the balance in economy. Many examples of good case practices from chosen European countries point an important role of education in this process. Education is a tool that aims to support older people in functioning on the job market and increase employers’ awareness of changes and solutions that need to be implemented in their companies. Customized forms of employment are another instrument of increasing job activity of older people. They let employers adjust the time, place of work, job description and form of payment according to the employer’s and employee’s preferences. Though, the most significant instrument is reduction of unemployment benefits for people who are qualified to take job activity. In this case one of the solutions is applying temporary benefits that stimulate active job hunting. The mentioned activities, to ensure their efficiency, should be supported by adequate law regulations.

  14. Psychiatric disorders and the labor market: an analysis by disorder profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J; Luo, Zhehui; Masuda, Yuta J

    2009-03-01

    A key societal cost of mental illness is its impact on the labor market. In examining the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the labor market, the literature to date either examines psychiatric disorders in broad classes or focuses on the impact of specific conditions. The aim is to examine the relationships among meaningful profiles of concurrent past year disorders and labor market outcomes by gender. Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions for 2001/2002 (NESARC), a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 18 or older residing in the United States. The analysis sample contains 18,429 women and 16,426 men (unweighted). We examined the relationship between profiles of psychiatric disorders and three labor market outcomes: labor force participation; employment, conditional on labor force participation; and working full-time conditional on being employed. Because no attempt was made to control for potential endogeneity between the labor market outcomes and the psychiatric profiles, we are unable to establish the causal direction of the associations estimated. First, anxiety disorders among women appear to be associated with labor market outcomes (e.g., anxiety profile in employment outcome: OR=0.76, plabor market outcomes, employment status is particularly sensitive to the profiles of disorders. For men, no such pattern was found for any single labor market outcome. Concurrent psychiatric disorder profiles affect men and women differently in the labor market. The greatest differences are in (i) the relationship between labor market outcomes and profiles exhibiting anxiety disorders, and (ii) which labor market outcomes are influenced. The main methodological limitation is that the approach does not attempt to assert a direction of causation between mental health conditions and the labor market outcomes. Unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity are both possible and likely to some degree

  15. REGIONAL DYNAMICS ORGANIZATION OF URBAN LABOR MARKETS: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE LABOR MARKETS IN THE TOWNS OF MICRO-REGION OF SANTA CRUZ DO SUL (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Andre Cadoná

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes how regional development dynamics affect the organization of labor markets, but also the working conditions of people living labor. Taking as empirical reference research conducted in towns of micro-region of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS, whose economy is heavily dependent on tobacco agro-industrial production, attentive to how regional particularities contribute to defining the forms of employability and the use of force-of-work, but also and even the forms of unemployment. Keywords: Regional dynamics. Labor market. Employment. Unemployment. Working conditions.

  16. The Low-Skilled Labor Market from 2002 to 2014: Measurement and Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the evolution of the U.S. labor market from 2002 to 2014. The Great Recession’s employment declines fell disproportionately on groups with low levels of observable skills. Compositional changes lead averages to obscure downward movement in real wages over this time period. Traditional measures of wage inequality similarly tend to understate the relative decline in low-skilled individuals’ labor market opportunities. To understand the low-skilled labor market’s deterioration, I const...

  17. The Role of Borders, Languages, and Currencies as Obstacles to Labor Market Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bartz, Kevin; Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Based on a modified Spatiotemporal Autoregressive Model (STAR), we analyze whether borders still constitute significant impediments to labor market integration in the European Union, despite the formal law of free movement of labor. Using regional data from the EU-15 countries over 21 years, we find that this is the case. We further investigate whether the abolishment of border checks through the Schengen agreement or the introduction of the Euro improved our measure of labor market integrati...

  18. The Crime Rate and the Condition of the Labor Market: A Vector Autoregressive Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Yamada

    1985-01-01

    Few empirical studies of the economics of crime have doubted the deterrent effects of the legal sanctions on crime. Those studies, however, have not established a definitive understanding of the effects of labor market conditions on crime. In this paper, we examine the impact of labor market conditions, represented by either male civilian unemployment or labor force participation rates, on seven major categories of crime, using the quarterly crime-rate data for the United States. Based on an ...

  19. Is Germany the North Star of Labor Market Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Rinne; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2013-01-01

    Germany’s recovery from an unemployment disease and its resilience to the Great Recession is remarkable. Its success story makes it a showcase for labor policy and labor market reforms. This paper assesses the potential of the German experience as a model for effective, evidence-based policymaking. Flexible management of working time (through overtime and short-time work, time accounts, and labor hoarding), social cohesion and controlled unit labor costs, combined with a rigid, incentive-orie...

  20. A Review of Market Segmentation and Inefficiencies of the Chinese Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Feng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese stock market is an emerging market that has gained much importance over the past few decades. Because of this, it also serves as a great subject for studying market inefficiencies and anomalies. In this paper we provide a review of evidence regarding the development, efficiency and integration of the Chinese stock market. In particular, we review recent literature in the areas of market segmentation, cross-listings and calendar effects. This provides evidence of market inefficiency in China. We also pose questions that can be answered in future studies. 

  1. Changes in the economy, the labor market, and expectations for the future: what might Europe and the United States look like in twenty-five years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    In times of globalization, modern societies' labor markets have been marked by an increasing segmentation and growing social inequality. Youths in particular have experienced a worsening of their employment chances in the past three decades. However, what will the future bring?

  2. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...... the market, if the price premium is held within limits....

  3. Market segmentation and positioning: matching creativity with fiscal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, M E

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to continuing professional education (CPE) program development in nursing within a university environment that utilizes the concepts of market segmentation and positioning. Use of these strategies enables the academic CPE enterprise to move beyond traditional needs assessment practices to create more successful and better-managed CPE programs.

  4. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fundamentals, a market segmentation model was developed. A feasible ... a country level), the OECD cites “under-pricing” of especially the road mode as a major driver of ... significant capital investment) (Rennicke & Kaulbach 1998: 6). ..... Investment in rail results in assets with useful lives measured in decades; asset-.

  5. Segmenting Medical Market Based on Banking Expectations: Evidence from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Shahriar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify banking expectations of the medical sector as one of the highincome sectors as a basis for segmenting the market. Mixed method (qual ► QUAN design is used in this research. In qualitative phase 28 in-depth interviews with customers in medical sectors were competed. Using content analysis nine major expectations were identified which consisted of 24 sub-expectations. In quantitative phase data were collected by 456 questionnaires. Results revealed that major expectation of medical market are: check related services in the laboratory guild, loans in the pharmacy guild, and speed in the clinic guild. Segmentation showed three distinct segments: traditional, modern and low demanding. The results showed that laboratory and pharmacy guilds were almost similar to each other while the clinic guild had differences in comparison with the two other guilds.

  6. A Market Segmentation Study of the Youth Market's Perception of the Ideal Newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Eileen

    Segmentation, a research technique used to ascertain the needs and wants of consumers, was employed in a study that examined the attitudes of persons aged 18 to 34 years toward newspapers. This age group was chosen on the basis of research indicating that it is the weakest segment in the newspaper readership market. Interviews with 14 college…

  7. Identifying consumer segments in health services markets: an application of conjoint and cluster analyses to the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P

    1983-01-01

    Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

  8. Why Should We Care About Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    BEEGLE, KATHLEEN; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature on the determinants of child labor and many initiatives aimed at combating it, there is limited evidence on the consequences of child labor on socioeconomic outcomes such as education, wages, and health. The authors evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy. Five years subsequent to the child labor experience, they find significant negative effects on sch...

  9. Segments of marketers based on a perceived importance of marketing knowledge and skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Žabkar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define and empirically verify a range of knowledge and skills which are necessary in order to segment marketers, based on their perceptions of the importance of such marketing knowledge and skills. To empirically verify the importance of marketing knowledge and skills, a 28-item measurement instrument was developed. Responses from 235 marketing vice-presidents, marketing directors, sales directors or company presidents/owners in Slovenia were obtained (an 11.8% total response rate. The results reveal four clusters of marketers: marketing specialists, marketing generalists, non-marketers and marketing generals. General and leadership skills are highly evaluated, together with the knowledge and skills related to competition and the company’s market position. Consistent with the general prejudice about marketing people, creative thinking skills and imagination are very important, especially to marketing generalists in our survey. Yet, the knowledge and skills related to consumer behaviour and marketing communication are less important, especially to marketing generals and non-marketers. Certain implications for marketing education and practice arise from the survey.

  10. How consumers pick a hotel strategic segmentation and target marketing

    CERN Document Server

    Winston, William

    2013-01-01

    Venture through the pages of How Consumers Pick a Hotel to learn the steps of selecting a target and using consumer behavior applications to segment the market to reach your target. Much as a consumer goes through the process of selecting a satisfying hotel, you can choose to use the information provided to make your hospitality career relaxing and satisfying. When you finish this fantastic reading journey, you'll be prepared to offer services that meet the public's demands, and you'll possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills for developing your own strategic approach to a target market. As the many methods of segmentation are discussed in detail, you will also learn effective strategies for communicating with multiple segments. Ideal as a supplementary text for marketing and hospitality marketing courses, How Consumers Pick a Hotel provides a concise overview of consumer behavior and intertwines marketing theory with sound ways in which to implement the theory. This will both orient you and give you a s...

  11. Determinantes de la temporalidad en el mercado laboral ecuatoriano || Determinants of Temporality in Ecuadorian Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez, Yannira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las diferencias que existen dentro del mercado laboral ecuatoriano, en las diferentes ramas de actividad, evidencian los niveles de formación que los trabajadores deben tener para evitar efectos negativos. Por tal motivo, en este estudio se analiza el papel que las características personales, laborales y geográficas desempeñan en la probabilidad de obtener un contrato temporal frente a uno indefinido. El análisis es realizado por rama de actividad, para determinar qué características posibilitarán la existencia del contrato temporal en cada una de ellas. Para lograr este objetivo, se estiman modelos de regresión logística utilizando los datos de la Encuesta de Empleo, Desempleo y Subempleo desde el 2º trimestre del año 2007 al 2º trimestre del año 2010, elaborada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC. || The differences that exist inside the labor Ecuadorian market, in the different branches of activity, demonstrate the training levels that the workers must have to avoid negative effects. However, in this study, the role played by individual, jobs and residence characteristics are analyzed on the probability of having a fixed-term employment versus permanent employment. It is analyzed concretely by branch of activity, to check which are the characteristics that would make it possible the existence of the fixed-term employment in each of them. To achieve this aim, there are estimated models of logistic regression using the information of the Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment from 2nd quarter of 2007 to the 2nd quarter of 2010, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC.

  12. A model of local labor market reguiation of Chin in the transition period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Qi

    2009-01-01

    With the establishment of labor market of China,market is playing a more and more important role in allocation of human resources.However,with the transition of economy in China and industrial upgrading in recent years,many labor problems have occurred which do harm to the sustainable development of local economy.The paper researches on the labor market issues of China from the perspective of local labor market regulation,Firstly,reviews the theories of local labor market regulation.And then the main components of local labor market regulation of China are identified and the evaluation index system is established,The results of analysis of the calculated output show that (1) the local labor market regulation of China has an obvious character of gradient distribution geographically and decreases gradually from east to west;(2) of all the regulations,the regulation of the development of human capital has the most significant impact on local economy currently which is followed by the regulation of laborrelation and the regulation of market participation.As to the regulation of social security,it has no significant impact on the development of local economy.

  13. Model instruments of effective segmentation of the fast food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityaeva Tetyana L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of optimisation step-type calculations of economic effectiveness of promotion of fast food with consideration of key parameters of assessment of efficiency of the marketing strategy of segmentation. The article justifies development of a mathematical model on the bases of 3D-presentations and three-dimensional system of management variables. The modern applied mathematical packages allow formation not only of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays and analyse links of variables, but also of three-dimensional, besides, the more links and parameters are taken into account, the more adequate and adaptive are results of modelling and, as a result, more informative and strategically valuable. The article shows modelling possibilities that allow taking into account strategies and reactions on formation of the marketing strategy under conditions of entering the fast food market segments.

  14. Regulation of youth labor market in the Samarkand region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirojitdin Kurbanov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers role of youth in labor force formation in Samarqand region of Uzbekistan. Theessential youth factor within the labor resources makes necessary discretionary employment policy.

  15. Market segmentation and analysis of Japan's residential post and beam construction market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Ivan L. Eastin; Hisaaki. Matsuguma

    2005-01-01

    A mail survey of Japanese post and beam builders was conducted to measure their level of ethnocentrism, market orientation, risk aversion, and price consciousness. The data were analyzed utilizing factor and cluster analysis. The results showed that Japanese post and beam builders can be divided into three distinct market segments: open to import...

  16. Usage rate segmentation: enriching the US wine market profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Kelley,1 Jeffrey Hyde,2 Johan Bruwer3 1Department of Plant Science, 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: The purpose of this research is to enrich our knowledge of the US wine market and provide insights into how usage rate segmentation can be enhanced by select innovative perspectives of current offerings. Data were collected through a 15-minute online survey of 910 US wine drinkers randomly selected from a panel of consumers. It was found that the “super core” segment not only drank wine more frequently, but also were more likely to drink other types of alcohol presented (beer, distilled spirits, and ready-to-drink cocktails, and at a greater frequency, “at least once a week” and “about once a week”, than “marginal” drinkers. Differences between usage rate segments existed between sex and age generations. Female millennial “super core” consumers would increase wine consumption if the number of calories were reduced to fewer than 80 per 5 oz serving. Practical implications for a winery or wine retailer might include the potential to add these beverages to their product offering or bundling these beverages to create packages (allowing for mass customization, which is used often in retail and appropriately marketing these offerings to their customers. Changes that may invoke a positive response are wine made from “sustainably farmed” or “naturally farmed” grapes, and certified carbon-free wine. From an originality viewpoint, this study is the first to investigate how usage rate segmentation can be enriched by means of variable cross-extension and examination. Keywords: consumer behavior, market segmentation, usage rate, consumption frequency, USA

  17. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  18. Optimal Differentiation of International Environmental Taxes in the Presence of National Labor Market Distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, S. [Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger strasse 40, D-39140 Magdeburg (Germany); Schleiniger, R. [Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich, Bluemlisalpstr. 10, 8006 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    We explore the implication of the 'double dividend' debate for international environmental taxes. In our scenario, small open economies with different labor market distortions follow a common environmental policy and use national environmental tax revenues to finance labor tax cuts. Since the double dividend hypothesis does not hold, a high labor tax implies a low environmental tax relative to other countries. The optimal differentiation of international environmental taxes is proven to be a function of the national labor tax rates and the uncompensated elasticities of labor supply. 20 refs.

  19. Market segmentation and the impact of online media

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation in the pharmaceutical industry is blurred by the complicated market dynamics of the industry: even the classic definition of the customer is not relevant. The customer base is made up of a number of stakeholders, which includes the patient and caregiver. These patients and caregivers have become more empowered and are using the internet as their primary source of information. The internet is developing at an astonishing rate and even healthcare professionals have embraced it. Leg...

  20. The New Explanation of Market Equilibrium Based on Theory of Labor Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen; LUO; Chaozhou; LU

    2015-01-01

    There is market equilibrium when the demand willingness is consistent with the supply willingness. From the individual preferences and budget constraints,Western Economics deduced demand curve,causing the traditional demand willingness to be built on the basis of subjective utility. From the relative labor time of economic entity,this paper discusses the relationship between labor time and price readiness,demand curve or supply curve,and establishes the market equilibrium model based on labor value. In a perfectly competitive environment,the equilibrium exchange price of the model is the ratio of labor value between two commodities,and combines demand and supply sides’ recognition of commodity quantity of labor,reflecting the socially necessary labor time contained in commodities.

  1. Global Health Workforce Labor Market Projections for 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Maeda, Akiko; Bruckner, Tim; Scheffler, Richard

    2017-02-03

    In low- and middle-income countries, scaling essential health interventions to achieve health development targets is constrained by the lack of skilled health professionals to deliver services. We take a labor market approach to project future health workforce demand based on an economic model based on projected economic growth, demographics, and health coverage, and using health workforce data (1990-2013) for 165 countries from the WHO Global Health Observatory. The demand projections are compared with the projected growth in health worker supply and the health worker "needs" as estimated by WHO to achieve essential health coverage. The model predicts that, by 2030, global demand for health workers will rise to 80 million workers, double the current (2013) stock of health workers, while the supply of health workers is expected to reach 65 million over the same period, resulting in a worldwide net shortage of 15 million health workers. Growth in the demand for health workers will be highest among upper middle-income countries, driven by economic and population growth and aging. This results in the largest predicted shortages which may fuel global competition for skilled health workers. Middle-income countries will face workforce shortages because their demand will exceed supply. By contrast, low-income countries will face low growth in both demand and supply, which are estimated to be far below what will be needed to achieve adequate coverage of essential health services. In many low-income countries, demand may stay below projected supply, leading to the paradoxical phenomenon of unemployed ("surplus") health workers in those countries facing acute "needs-based" shortages. Opportunities exist to bend the trajectory of the number and types of health workers that are available to meet public health goals and the growing demand for health workers.

  2. SYMBOLIC AND FUNCTIONAL BRAND EFFECTS FOR MARKET SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kuan-Shun Chiu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the interrelationships among brand personality, brand preference, customer perceived value, and golfers’ performance in the context of Taiwan’s golf clubs market. The theoretical and statisticalrelationships among these constructs are developed and verified. Using survey data from 345 out of 1,000 randomly selected golfers, this study employs ANOVA, Factor Analysis, and Discriminant Analysis to examine the research hypotheses. The findings reveal that (1 notable brand personality factors including Reliability, Fashion, Masculine, Excitement, Wholesome, Leadership, Sentiment, Feminine, and Uniqueness could explain brand preference to a large extent, (2 golfers’ customer perceived value regarding various golf brands areconsiderably dissimilar, and (3 golfers’ deviation in performance significantly relates to brands. In addition to conventional bases for market segmentation (i.e., demographics, psychographics, lifestyles, etc., this paper clearly provides practical guidelines of implementing brand personality for market segmentation and promotionstrategies. Brand personality proves to be a useful segmenting variable. The findings and the statistical results offer supportive evidence for implementing appropriate branding management on both functional (i.e., customer perceived value and performance and emotional attributes (i.e., brand personality in order to enhance competitiveness.

  3. A Search and Matching Approach to Labor Markets: Did the Natural Rate of Unemployment Rise?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary C. Daly; Bart Hobijn; Ayşcegül Şahin; Robert G. Valletta

    2012-01-01

    .... Relying on a standard job search and matching framework and empirical evidence from a wide array of labor market indicators, we examine whether the natural rate of unemployment has increased since...

  4. Internal migration, regional labor markets and the role of agglomeration economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2015-01-01

    for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies......We analyze the determinants and regional implications of internal migration flows across Danish municipalities in 2006–2012. Besides assessing the role of labor market and housing market factors in driving a region’s net migration rate, we particularly focus on agglomeration factors identified...... by “new” migration theories related to regional growth models and the new economic geography. The work contributes to the field in the following way: we extend the scarce literature on the different channels through which agglomeration economies act as an attractor for mobile labor. Moreover, we account...

  5. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  6. On-the-job Search and the Cyclical Dynamics of the Labor Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, M.U.; Lubik, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where workers can engage in search while on the job.We show that on-the-job search is a key component in explaining labor market dynamics in models of equilibrium unemployment.The model predicts fluctuations of unemployment, vacancies, and labor

  7. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent... from the United States attorney or the court. Counterfeit Coins, Obligations, and Other Securities...

  8. Labor Markets and the Social Demand for Education: An Analysis of the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stuart

    This paper analyzes the relationship between existing secondary and technical schools and employment in the modern private sector of the Ivory Coast. Enrollments in secondary and technical schools are examined, and the social demand for education, characteristics of the Ivorian labor market, and the matching of labor supply and demand are…

  9. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  10. Labor Markets and the Social Demand for Education: An Analysis of the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stuart

    This paper analyzes the relationship between existing secondary and technical schools and employment in the modern private sector of the Ivory Coast. Enrollments in secondary and technical schools are examined, and the social demand for education, characteristics of the Ivorian labor market, and the matching of labor supply and demand are…

  11. On-the-job Search and the Cyclical Dynamics of the Labor Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, M.U.; Lubik, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where workers can engage in search while on the job.We show that on-the-job search is a key component in explaining labor market dynamics in models of equilibrium unemployment.The model predicts fluctuations of unemployment, vacancies, and labor product

  12. Managing an aging workforce and a tight labor market : views held by Dutch employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remery, Chantal; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop; Ekamper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Despite the strong growth in employment of the past years, the Dutch labor market faces a number of persistent problems. One such problem is the large number of people on disability benefits. Another problem is the low labor force participation of women, not so much in terms of people, but in terms

  13. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  14. Negative Income Tax and Labor Market Participation. A Short Run Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir AMINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of the negative income tax, in a matching model, on labor market participation. We show that the introduction of such instrument reduces unemployment and improves the situation of the poorest. But, amazingly, it provokes a fall on labor market participation principally because the agents are then less selective. We find another surprising result: despite the rise on participation, the increasing of unemployment benefits improves the situation of the firms at the expense of workers.

  15. EDUCATION VS. ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE AND INACTIVE INDIVIDUALS ON THE LABOR MARKET IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław JEŻ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, education has become a key factor and determinant of labor market situation. The education system should therefore be correlated with labor market needs reported by employers. The main task the universities are facing with is the ability to combine theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge through joint implementation of research projects and grants implementation, increasing the level of human capital of a society.

  16. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect....

  17. Do Immigrants Make Us Safer? A Model on Crime, Immigration and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Bassetti; Luca Corazzini; Darwin Cortes; Luca Nunziata

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-country equilibrium model with search costs in which the structural characteristics of the labor market in each economy affects the relationship between immigration and crime. The main result of the model is that countries with ?flexible labor markets are likely to see a negative relationship between immigration and crime. By combining data from the European Social Survey with the OECD Employment Protection Index, we find supporting evidence in favor of this theoretical predi...

  18. Increasing idiosyncratic risk and converging gender differentials in the labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Yongseok Shin; Donghoon Lee

    2007-01-01

    The gender differentials in schooling and labor market outcomes have narrowed significantly in the last few decades. At the same time, it is well documented that idiosyncratic income risk has risen over the same period. We define idiosyncratic risk as the variance of the unobserved wage component in the labor market. We estimate the structural parameters of the model using the US data on schooling, employment and earnings in the 1970s. With a mean-preserving increase in the wage variance, men...

  19. Neighbors And Co-Workers: The Importance Of Residential Labor Market Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Judith K. Hellerstein; McInerney, Melissa; Neumark, David

    2008-01-01

    We specify and implement a test for the presence and importance of labor market network based on residential proximity in determining the establishments at which people work. Using matched employer-employee data at the establishment level, we measure the importance of these network effects for groups broken out by race, ethnicity, and various measures of skill. The evidence indicates that these types of labor market networks do exist and play an important role in determining the establishment...

  20. Employee Satisfaction, Labor Market Flexibility, and Stock Returns Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Edmans; Lucius Li; Chendi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between employee satisfaction and abnormal stock returns around the world, using lists of the “Best Companies to Work For” in 14 countries. We show that employee satisfaction is associated with positive abnormal returns in countries with high labor market flexibility, such as the U.S. and U.K., but not in countries with low labor market flexibility, such as Germany. These results are consistent with high employee satisfaction being a valuable tool for recruitment, re...

  1. The labor market experience of female migrants: the case of temporary Mexican migration to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoudji, S A; Ranney, S I

    1984-01-01

    This article, using a Mexican national survey, provides a profile of temporary Mexican female migrants in the US labor market. The usual association between occupational groups and wage rates does not hold up, with women in unskilled jobs averaging nearly the same wages as while collar women. The dramatic exception is private household workers, who earn less than 1/4 of the wage rates of other women. Although the distribution of wage rates across occupational groups for migrant women is not easily explained by schooling or potential work experience, wage rates seem to be positively correlated with marriage and childrearing. This is partly explained by the fact that married women are more likely to have the option of not working outside the home, and also that the labor market contacts provided by husbands may be helpful in securing more remunerative jobs. Migration networks make the region of origin in Mexico strongly correlate with wage rate variations across occupational groups for women. Although women are found to have more schooling, higher legal status, more US work experience and are more likely to come from regions with well developed migration networks than men, women average upto $7 less per day--a phenomenon largely explained by the labor market segmentation. A lack of legal status constrains women's job opportunities more than men's: over 90% of the women without entry permits are in the low paying private household sector, compared with less than 1/4 of those with some legal status. This connection between lack of proper legal status and low status jobs does not seem to prevent women from migrating illegally--more than 1/2 the women migrant studied had no legal status at all. This study concludes that women do not necessarily follow men in migration, and their labor market functions are quite distinct from those of men.

  2. “Successes” and Adjustment in the Philippine Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo P. Sicat

    2004-01-01

    A high degree of unemployment and underemployment characterizes the Philippine economic development record. In large part, the mainstream labor policies that emphasized high labor welfare standards and high minimum manages over the creation of employment are responsible for this outcome. In spite of this poor record of employment generation, some successes have been achieved in generating jobs and incomes in specific areas of industry and services. Focusing on these successes gives an insight...

  3. The Study and Prioritization of the Role of Market Segmentation Criteria in Identifying Bank Target Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Rashidi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banks have today become the world's main economic development and trade exchanges. So that, without efficient and up to date banks is virtually impossible to achieve economic prosperity. Bank is an undeniable economic infrastructure and in these circumstances, the bank is also ending the competition, they are forced to develop new methods of banking. Given the current business environment, it is likely that market segmentation to be considered a key strategic issue for service providers. In more developed economies, the importance of market segmentation has been well documented in the financial services sector. When the competition is fierce in the banking market, financial services organizations is largely adopt a strategy based on segmentation complex shapes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of market segmentation criteria on the identification and prioritization of banks target markets. Applied research method, is descriptive and correlation research; which field research and library studies were used for data collection. Given that, the population in this study was a sampling from all branches of Refah Bank in Zanjan city, data and information collected from them conducted through questionnaires and were tested using statistical software Spss18. To assess the presence or absence of the relationship between variables and segmentation, Correlation test was used. Thus, the priority of each of these factors from the perspective Bank customers was obtained by the Friedman test. Also, using the correlation test, relationship between psychological variables and behavior of the customers were calculated and investigated with the main factors of bank market.Our results indicate that the "human" factor have more important and the "incentives" have less importance in preferred standards of banking services from the perspective of bank customers in Zanjan city, also it has been demonstrated that there is a significant

  4. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  5. Effect of repeat purchase and dynamic market size on diffusion of an innovative technological consumer product in a segmented market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, S.; Gupta, A.; Govindan, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops diffusion models for technological consumer products under the marketing environment when a product is marketed in a segmented market and observes two distinctive promotional strategies of mass and differentiated promotion; an under explored study area. Mass promotion strategy...... creates a spectrum effect in market with an aim to create wider product awareness and influence the market size. Whereas the differentiated promotion strategy plays major role in external influence component in the respective segment and target for adoption by the current potential segment. Previous...... studies on segmented diffusion models assumed only first time purchase and constant market size which may yield underestimated results and fail to give appropriate insight of the diffusion process. The study develops and validates generalized diffusion models for segmented market incorporating...

  6. Empirical Research on the Effect of the Household Registration System Evolvement on Labor Market Segmentation in China: From Dual Perspectives of Employment Opportunities and Wage Gap%中国劳动力市场的户籍分割效应及其变迁——工资差异与机会差异双重视角下的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余向华; 陈雪娟

    2012-01-01

    In view of the widespread urban-rural unequal paid and unequal employment opportunity problem faced by the rural immigrant work force, from perspectives of employment opportunities and wage gap, based on CHNS (1993--2009) data - a micro level household survey data, this paper applies quantile regression dealt with heterogeneity, and treatment effect model dealt with endogeneity to explore the effect of the household registration system evolvement on labor market segmentation, and shows that the employment discrimination of occupation against rural household has decreased, but the employment opportunity of rural labors to the state-owned sector is still significantly lower than urban labors ; segmentation of household registration together with the other kinds of segmentations make urban and rural labors face with different wage decision mechanism; and the interaction of unequal employment opportunities with unequal paid makes the effect of Hukou segmentation on wage deceptive and partially hide in the forms of sector difference and oecupation difference; Quantile decomposition found wage gap between urban and rural not effectively relieved while increased, and its root lies in the Hukou wage discrimination. Therefore, cutting the channel of Hukou interacting with the access of sector and occupation, narrowing the edueation gap between the urban and the rural, is the key point to eliminate the unequal employment opportunities and promote equal employment and equal paid between the urban and the rural%针对农村户籍者普遍遭遇的同工不同酬和就业机会不平等问题,基于1993--2009年CHNS微观数据,从工资差异和机会差异双重视角,本文进行了综合异质性揭示和内生性处理的计量和分解。结果显示:改革中岗位进入上的机会歧视有所减弱,但部门进入方面的机会歧视依然较大;户籍分割与其他分割的结合,使城乡户籍劳动力面临不同的工资决定机制,而机会差

  7. EFFECTIVE MARKET SEGMENTATION AND VIABILITY OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has become a global phenomenon as both Islamic and western countries have embraced it. However, the move by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN to introduce Islamic Banking in Nigeria was met with many criticisms, especially from the Non-Muslims. As a divorce from subjective criticisms typical of religious opponents’ discussions, the study examined the viability of Islamic banking in Nigeria using market segmentation criteria. Being a library research, secondary data was obtained from various secondary sources and analyzed descriptively. The study found that, the targeted Muslim segment is substantial, identifiable, measurable, accessible and reliable. Hence, the study concludes that the introduction of Islamic banking in Nigeria is worthwhile and the future of Islamic banks in the country is bright and prosperous. The study, therefore, recommends that though Islamic banking has come to stay, Muslims and non-Muslims should support its establishment as all citizens irrespective of religious affiliation are likely to benefit from it.

  8. Local Labor Markets and Cyclic Components in Demand for College Trained Manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis R.

    Weekly earnings of college and high school graduates were examined and partitioned on the basis of estimated years of work experience. Current Population Surveys (CPS) for each year from 1968 to 1975 were examined. The CPS data are useful to test for the importance of local labor markets because individuals can be assigned to markets by calendar…

  9. Land Market Restrictions, Women's Labor Force Participation, and Wages in a Rural Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of land market restrictions on the rural labor market outcomes for women. The existing literature emphasizes two mechanisms through which land restrictions can affect the economic outcomes: the collateral value of land, and (in) security of property rights. Analysis of this paper focuses on an alternative mechanism where land restrictions increase costs of m...

  10. Segmentation of hospital markets: where do HMO enrollees get care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1997-01-01

    Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality.

  11. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  12. Structural imbalances as a key factor of unemployment in the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.

  13. El teletrabajo como tendencia del mercado laboral / Telecommuting as a labor market tendency

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta al teletrabajo como la última trasformación del trabajo a través de la historia del pensamiento económico. Se analiza desde diversos aspectos tales como su concepto y propuesta de clasificación, el derecho laboral, la motivación y el perfil de los teletrabajadores así como sus áreas de aplicación. El teletrabajo es una tendencia laboral actual que está trasformando la idea de que el ser humano debe salir de casa y trasladarse físicamente a un lugar para tra...

  14. The regulation of educational services market and labor market interaction based on the mechanism of quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Martyakova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this research is justification of the necessity of interaction between educational services market and labour market on improving the economic mechanism based on the quality management.The results of the analysis. Todaythe the increased integration of educational services market and labor market is the most important factor in successful social and economic development. Educational services market can be analyzed in two ways: as a separate item and as part of the labor market. One of the main conditions for successful enterprise development is continuous improvement and modification of human development through education.Therefore, the development and modernization of existing system of selection and training, finding new technologies of integrating educational institutions and businesses are required the solution of the skilled, social and economic regional issues of real and financial sectors of economics.The content of the interaction mechanism between customers and consumers in the educational market was considered in the article. The tools of economic mechanism of educational services quality were defined.The structure of training in terms of the industry knowledge and the needs for businesses were determined. The imbalance between demand and supply of specialists in the market was defined. The effectiveness of educational system is characterized by the degree of compliance with the current structure of the training structure of the economy. In recent years, due to the structural changes, the problem of discrepancies of the existing specialties and skilled levels, not only for young specialists, but also to other categories of applicants on the employers job requirements and the imbalance between supply and demand of labor in the labor market was analyzed.Market of educational services is not ready to satisfy the demand of employers on personnel and promptly respond to the changes occurring in labor market

  15. The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

  16. The Role of Domestic Abuse in Labor and Marriage Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force andmarital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our

  17. The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

  18. THE FORMATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL NURSE AND THE LABOR MARKET TODAY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Milton Barros Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The professional nursing practice has been constantly targeted for discussion, especially regarding the conditions of their work . The aim of this study was to understand the formation of this professional and the job market today, considering the changes in the curriculum of nursing, trends in the labor market , the demand and supply of labor this professional. It is a study of the literature review, based on a historical - critical perspective , using the databases SCIELO , VHL , BIREME , plus titles available in the library of the Centro Universitário de Maceió - CESMAC.O study was guiding question : how has initally vocational nurses face the determinations of the job market today ? It was felt that the training of nurses throughout their history, had fundamental influence of the labor market , whereas the changes in curricular courses were predetermined in the market trends that pointed according to each season . In recent decades , there has been a considerable increase in jobs , but disproportionate to the number of institutions of higher education in nursing in the country . Consequently , highlighted the growth of the informal labor relations , resulting in precarious jobs and the stagnation in labor income.

  19. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  20. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., full study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Specifically, based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant effects on the labor market outcomes. The results of regression analysis indicate that there are no significant differences betwee...

  1. Persistence of the Gender Gap and Low Employment of Female Workers in a Stratified Labor Market: Evidence from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gender gap in working conditions has barely improved in South Korea where various measures for gender equality have been in place for a relatively long time. Furthermore, the female employment rate is also the lowest in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. This study will evaluate the stratified structure of the labor market to identify the causes and will analyze changes in the gender employment distribution and mobility. This study conducted an empirical analysis of gender distribution and labor mobility in the South Korean labor market, utilizing long-term data (2005–2014 from the supplementary survey by employment type on the Economically Active Population of the Korea National Statistical Office. From the analysis, women showed a relatively smaller increase than men in the primary labor market, classified as the large and standard employment market, in 2014 compared with 2005, but showed a relatively greater increase than men in the secondary labor market, comprising the small–medium and non-standard employment market. Thus, gender skewness in employment distribution was greater in the stratified labor market. On the other hand, the non-economically active population more than doubled for women compared to men. From the analysis of labor mobility by gender, a higher proportion of women were employed in the peripheral labor market than in the core labor market and women were also more likely to be employed in the relatively weak peripheral labor market. These results imply that dichotomous gender equality policies for resolving the gender gap have a certain limitation in the stratified labor market. Thus, what is needed is a holistic approach that takes into account the labor market structure.

  2. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act.

  3. THE PROBLEM OF YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EDUCATION MARKET MISMATCH AND LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Rafaelevna Gabidullina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the problem of employment of young specialists - graduates of professional institutions. Youth employment is a national problem, because the youth is the country’s human potential. Youth employment is a pressing and long-term objective of national social and economic policy. One of the causes of youth unemployment is a discrepancy between the education markets to labor market needs. Solving problems of youth unemployment is only possible from the standpoint of an integrated, systematic approach.

  4. Essays on the statistical mechanics of the labor market and implications for the distribution of earned income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P. A.

    This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely

  5. Turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses: do local labor market factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V; Williams, Eric S; Wagar, Terry H

    2008-01-01

    Turnover of nursing staff is a significant issue affecting health care cost, quality, and access. In recent years, a worldwide shortage of skilled nurses has resulted in sharply higher vacancy rates for registered nurses in many health care organizations. Much research has focused on the individual, group, and organizational determinants of turnover. Labor market factors have also been suggested as important contributors to turnover and vacancy rates but have received limited attention by scholars. This study proposes and tests a conceptual model showing the relationships of organization-market fit and three local labor market factors with organizational turnover and vacancy rates. The model is tested using ordinary least squares regression with data collected from 713 Canadian hospitals and nursing homes. Results suggest that, although modest in their impact, labor market and the organization-market fit factors do make significant yet differential contributions to turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses. Knowledge of labor market factors can substantially shape an effective campaign to recruit and retain nurses. This is particularly true for employers who are perceived to be "employers-of-choice."

  6. The managerial labor market and the governance role of shareholder control structures in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2003-01-01

    We simultaneously analyze two mechanisms of the managerial labor market: CEO turnover and monetary remuneration schemes.Sample selection models and hazard analyses applied to a random sample of 250 firms listed on the London Stock Exchange over a six-year pre-Cadbury period show that managerial remuneration and the termination of labor contracts play an important role in mitigating agency problems between managers and shareholders.We find that both the CEO's industry-adjusted monetary compens...

  7. Past, Present, and Prospects for Thailand’s Growth: A Labor Market Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sra Chuenchoksan; Don Nakornthab

    2008-01-01

    Using growth accounting and econometric estimation methodologies, we investigate Thailand’s growth developments from 1972 to 2007 and project forward Thailand’s supply-side long-term potential growth till 2035. Our analysis is framed in terms of labor productivity and labor market developments. In this respect, the macroeconomic impact of Thailand’s ageing population is also highlighted. Our findings suggest that priority should be given to the resuscitation of capital accumulation or Thailan...

  8. The Labor Market Effects of Skillbiased Technological Change in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Marouani, Mohamed Ali; Nilsson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    During the last half-century, the evolution of educational attainment among Malaysians has been spectacular, and current enrollment rates suggest this progression will continue, albeit at a slower pace. Such a transformation of the educational attainment of labor should bring about macroeconomic effects such as wage compression, sectoral shifts and/or high skill un- employment, unless compensatory mechanisms exist. This article examines the impact of this evolution using a dynamic general equ...

  9. Instruments to stimulate activation of older persons on labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Klaudia Lucius; Edyta Simińska

    2015-01-01

    The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays.  The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor mar...

  10. FORWARD TECHNOLOGY FOR MASS RECRUITMENT OF WORKERS IN THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the solution of the problem of mass recruitment of staff on large-scale construction projects in the conditions of the liberalized labor market and deficiency of it skilled workers. The innovation in the labor market is offered: the forward contract is transferred from the financial sphere and applied in labor market taking into account a number of features of its realization. The authors analyze practice of involvement of skilled workers on large-scale construction projects at various stages of development of a national economy in USSR/Russia. Earlier applied adequate to time methods of attraction of labor force in the country based on the analysis of practice of largescale construction projects are revealed. The tendency of a humanization of mechanisms of recruitment of stuff is revealed. Need of the guaranteed and reliable staffing of the construction having nation-wide value is actualized. The approach of the authors consists of the long-term contract with a guarantee on time and on quality of the attracted worker force is signed. The conditions of the forward contract, its subjects, responsibility of the parties and providing are defined on this basis. Application of the forward contract in labor market acts as an innovation within state - private partnership and allows not only to form construction collectives, but also to make a shortterm professional education, certification and the solution of social problems, and also provides social and economic interest of the parties. The forward technology within which a four-edged contract signed between participants of labor market is developed. It can be applied on largescale constructions which are planned beforehand, and creates infrastructure of perspective attraction of the qualified labor force

  11. Business structure, ethnic shifts in labor markets, and violence: the link between company size, local labor markets, and non-Latino homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Combining several schools of thought, including the civic engagement thesis, we extend current research by linking three things at the county level; firm size, the ethnic composition of labor markets, and violent crime. Our results suggest that larger businesses (based on the average number of persons employed) are more likely to have an external orientation and long recruitment reach, and this is linked to ethnic shifts in labor markets toward Latino workers. Such shifts are in turn associated with high rates of homicide among non-Latinos. Through indirect effects modeling, we find that increases in Black homicide are linked to rises in concentrated poverty, while increases in White homicide are linked to changes in unemployment. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  12. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market...... for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P......, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed...

  13. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...... of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...

  14. Passion and Exploitation Among Young Adults with Different Labor Market Status in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Bergqvist

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the relationship between attitudes to work, wellbeing, and labor market status among young adults in Europe and to discuss the extent to which the relationship can be understood in terms of passion or exploitation. This aim is made concrete in the following research questions: To what extent do young adults in Europe have a passionate attitude to work? Are there differences between groups with various labor market status and nationalities? Are there differences in levels of well-being between the groups of young adults with different labor market status, and differences between the countries? The results are based on an individual survey conducted with three categories of young people (18–34 years old: long-term unemployed, those in precarious employments, and those regularly employed. The study had a cross-national comparative design and the countries included were France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.

  15. Insecure times? Workers' perceived job and labor market security in 23 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Lena

    2016-11-01

    By examining the association between employees' perceptions of job security and central labor market policies and characteristics, this paper seeks to understand the mechanisms through which institutions generate confidence and positive expectations among individuals regarding their economic future. The analyses distinguish between different facets of perceived job security and different institutional mechanisms. My multilevel analyses of a data set that contains information on 12,431 individuals and 23 countries show that some labor market policies and characteristics are more likely than others to provide workers with subjective security. Unemployment assistance in particular is an effective means of reducing workers' worries about job loss. Dismissal protection, by contrast, only unleashes its psychologically protective effects under certain conditions. The paper's main conclusion is that the effectiveness of policies varies and that different types of labor market institutions serve as complements rather than as substitutes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2016-01-01

    of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4......In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i....... The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk...

  17. Expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing: dilemmas and contradictions facing the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Lara Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes.

  18. Remittances 2004: Transforming Labor Markets and Promoting Financial Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2005-01-01

    As entrepreneurs explore markets abroad, migrant workers driven by family values search abroad for comparative advantages. The challenge is to provide adequate financial infrastructure for families to use remittances more effectively.

  19. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  20. Evaluating and Improving the SAMA (Segmentation Analysis and Market Assessment) Recruiting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    IMPROVING THE SAMA ( SEGMENTATION ANALYSIS AND MARKET ASSESSMENT) RECRUITING MODEL by William N. Marmion June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Lyn...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATING AND IMPROVING THE SAMA ( SEGMENTATION ANALYSIS AND MARKET ...and potential within their areas of responsibility. One of the tools used by USAREC is the Segmentation Analysis and Market Assessment (SAMA) tool

  1. Modeling Employment on Regional Labor Markets(Through the Example of the Khabarovsk Territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Valerievna Zikunova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The disbalance of demand and supply on the labor market acquires special sense for remote and underpopulated settled lands. The lack of perspective estimations of the regional labor markets development leads to the outflow of human capital assets from regions, and their high concentration in central regions of the country. It results in the loss of competition effects on the labor market, aggravation of the mismatch of the demand and supply for labor resources according to the types of economic activity. Ultimately, the inertia policy in the area of planning regional employment can lead to the loss of skilled personnel and loss of effects related to regional specialization. The aim of this article is to substantiate the model to predict the number of the employed in the region. Firstly, the article generalizes regional and national tendencies of the labor market development. Secondly, based on the analysis of demographic and economic characteristics of the region, the model related to predicting the employment in the region is offered. Its quality is proved by subsequent approbation on the basis of real statistic data. The article displays the perspectives of applying such models in other regional economic systems taking into account their industry specialization.

  2. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)

  3. Effects of Intensifying Labor Market Programs on Post-Unemployment Wages: Evidence From a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    This paper investigates effects on wages of a Danish field experiment intensifying Active Labor Market Policies (ALMP).We link unemployed workers who participated in an ALMP experiment called “Quickly Back” carried out by the Danish Ministry of Employment 2005-2006 in two counties to matched...... employer-employee and public transfer register data up to 2008 enabling us to analyze exact labor market transitions and jobs of the participants. Men in one of the counties experienced significant higher probability of earning higher short and long term wages after treatment. Treated men in the other...

  4. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...

  5. Empirical Essays on the Labor Market Outcomes of PhD Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    During the past decade, policy makers have accentuated the need for more PhDs to drive innovation and use their research skills to push the technological frontier. The public sector in Denmark has financially supported a doubling of the number of enrolled PhD students based on a strong belief...... that PhDs accelerate growth. A major objective has been to direct more PhDs to the industry to use their skills to monetize knowledge. However, we have limited evidence on how PhDs are absorbed into the labor market, how the market values PhD labor, and how PhDs value the possibility to work...

  6. Optimum Organization of the Labor Market in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark labor has been organized in independent but cooperating craft unions for more than a century. Within an extremely simple model of a small open economy facing imperfect competition, we analyze four different ways of organizing the labor market and show that the Danish model (partial...... centralization of the wage setting process) may be accounted for as the outcome of a two-stage Nash bargaining game, being robust in relation to changes in market conditions, and likely close to optimum from the point of view of society as a whole....

  7. Height and cognition at work: Labor market productivity in a low income setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFave, Daniel; Thomas, Duncan

    2017-05-01

    Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these potential mechanisms underlying the link between adult stature and labor market productivity in a specific low income setting, rural Central Java, Indonesia. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, sectoral and occupational choice, as well as local area market characteristics. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-employed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality to employers. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Demographic forecasts, migration and transition theory: a labor market perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele BRUNI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo propone un nuevo sistema lógico para construir escenarios demográficos basados en un modelo que explique los flujos entrantes de migración como una función de las necesidades de mano de obra que países con tasas de fecundidad por debajo de los niveles de remplazo están experimentando como resultado del declive de la población en edad laboral y el crecimiento del empleo. Usando este enfoque mostramos que la población en edad laboral (PEL de los países caracterizados por un bajo nivel de fecundidad necesariamente crecerá; que el balance migratorio de numerosos países cambiará de negativo a positivo bastante antes de 2050; que el nivel de los flujos migratorios internaciones progresivamente incrementará hasta valores no vistos de manera que entre 250 y 300 millones de personas migrarán de países en desarrollo hacia desarrollados en los siguientes 50 años; que el declive en fecundidad y el crecimiento relativo de las tasas de empleo de países desarrollados y en desarrollo determinará cambios radicales en el patrón de las migraciones internacionales.

  9. Self-Employed but Looking: A Labor Market Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); J.N. Mell (Julija); I. Pohl (Irene); C. Roessler (Christian); T. Treffers (Theresa (Michl))

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examine whether having previously been self-employed is a negative signal on the job market. In a UK field experiment where two applications of otherwise equally qualified individuals were sent out in response to the same vacancies in human resource management, we find that entreprene

  10. The Economics of Community College Labor Markets: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Hirschel

    2009-01-01

    The community college has many roles and constituents: academic, professional, and vocational. Its curriculum may be distinguished from that of other institutions of higher education by its many courses designed to enhance students' immediate career opportunities, especially with nearby employers. This article focuses on the job markets for…

  11. Labor market consequences of growing up with a sibling with type 1-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovén, Ida

    2017-04-01

    Economic research on child health and future labor market outcomes has mainly focused on children with impaired health themselves, and only recently begun to assess spillover effects for siblings. Yet, the challenge to accommodate a family's routines within the requirements of a complex and time-consuming disease is most likely to spillover on siblings. While the burden of ill health and managing a disease may have adverse effects, living with a disease may still give families useful experiences and skills that favor future labor market outcomes. Therefore, the potential labor market impacts of growing up with a sick sibling could be both positive and negative. This study investigates differences in the progression of annual labor earnings between siblings of children with type 1-diabetes and population controls. The data is based on detailed Swedish longitudinal registers, covering annual labor earnings in the years 1990-2010 for 764 siblings of 764 children with diabetes and 5506 population controls born in 1962-1971, and follow individuals between ages 19-48. The results indicate that brothers of children with type 1-diabetes have lower earnings growth than controls, while sisters' earnings growth appears unaffected. Consequently, spillovers from one family member to another might differ within a family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disequilibrium in the Labor Market in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bankim Chadha

    1995-01-01

    Unemployment in South Africa is decomposed into a cyclical and a structural component. The estimates suggest that unemployment is largely structural. Alternative explanations for the persistence of deviations of market wages from full-employment levels are examined. Three models that are empirically capable of generating the observed wage and employment gaps are presented. The predictions of the models for wages and employment are discussed in light of recent and prospective developments in S...

  13. Does cancer reduce labor market entry? Evidence for prime-age females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John R; Short, Pamela Farley

    2014-06-01

    Existing studies of the labor market status of cancer survivors have focused on the extent to which cancer disrupts the employment of individuals who were working when diagnosed with cancer. We examine how surviving cancer affects labor market entry and usual hours of work among females aged 28 to 54 years who were not working when first diagnosed. We find that prime-age females have employment rates 2 to 6 years after diagnosis that are 12 percentage points lower than otherwise similar women who were initially out of the labor force, full-time employment rates that are 10 percentage points lower, and usual hours of work that are 5 hours per week lower. These estimates are somewhat larger than estimates for prime-age women employed at the time of diagnosis and highlight the importance of considering nonworking females when assessing the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer.

  14. Marketing Analysis of Public Catering Market in Russia: District, Regional, and Segment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Petrovich Frolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The market of public catering is an important element of the national economy which has been dynamically developing. As in any other country, Russian citizens spend some part of their income on eating out, however, this part is rather small (for example, according to official statistics as of 2005, the average resident of Russia spent 9.5 times less money on catering than the resident of the US, and 4 times less than the German resident. This gap as well as significant differences in the degree of individual business development in different regions, testify to the enormous prospects of this market both in quantitative and geographic, and qualitative aspect. According to the expert opinion, the current macroeconomic situation unfavorable for many sectors of the economy can become a driver for the growth of the catering market, to be exact – for the fast food segment, which in the previous crisis of 2008-2009 showed a positive dynamics and opened up new opportunities for business. In this article we investigated the dynamics of the catering market development, and evaluated the contribution of the industry to Russian GDP. We studied the regional market conditions in the context of districts, regions and socio-economic indicators, such as the turnover of catering, the number of enterprises, the number of seats, and the area of cafes. The article describes the method of classifying the catering enterprises, highlights the specific features of the Russian market and the structure of the largest network companies. We studied the expert opinions regarding the medium-term development of the industry, the market trend of eating out and the possible fundamental changes associated with an increase in the quality of business processes, service and marketing communications.

  15. Why Women Are Progressive in Education? Gender Disparities in Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Family Arrangement in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and…

  16. The Class of 2011: Young Workers Face a Dire Labor Market without a Safety Net. EPI Briefing Paper #306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierholz, Heidi; Edwards, Kathryn Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Great Recession left a crater in the labor market that has been devastating for unemployed Americans of all ages. After more than two years of unemployment at well over 8%, there is a hole of more than 11 million jobs, with average spells of unemployment lasting nearly nine months. The weak labor market has been particularly tough on young…

  17. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  18. The 21st-Century Community College: A Strategic Guide to Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness. Volumes 1, 2, and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    The Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative was created by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), to develop and disseminate information to enable community colleges to keep pace with the needs of a diverse student body and a dynamic labor market. The main goals of the initiative…

  19. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  20. Individual Schooling Decisions and Labor Market Allocation: Vertical and Horizontal Sorting. IFG Program Report No. 84-B8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Joop

    If labor market phenomena are interpreted from an allocational point of view, where individuals differing in levels of various capabilities have to be matched with jobs differing in job requirements, education can be seen as an intermediary institution affecting the capability endowment of individuals upon entering the labor market. Vertical…

  1. Weathering the Great Recession with Human Capital? Evidence on Labor Market Returns to Education from Arkansas. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…

  2. Why Women Are Progressive in Education? Gender Disparities in Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Family Arrangement in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and…

  3. Examining Educators' and Employers' Perceptions on Career and Technical Education Graduates' Employability Skills for the Labor Market in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawneh, Muhammad Khaled

    2009-01-01

    Preparing skilled and knowledgeable workforce that fits the labor market requires continued collaboration between education and work. Studying educators' and employers' perspectives on technical and non-technical skills may result in improving the quality of the graduates to compete on the level of the local as well as the global labor market.…

  4. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  5. STEM in the Ohio Labor Market: A Mismatch or a Missed Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stacia Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the supply of educated workers and the talent demands of employers is complex. Declining educational attainment levels in the US have been identified as a possible cause for the reported mismatch between the availability of talent that businesses want to hire and the talent available in the labor market, especially in the…

  6. The Primary School Dropout in Spain: The Influence of Family Background and Labor Market Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita, Carlos; Pastor, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Despite 2 decades of overall enrollment increases at all education levels, Spain's primary-school dropout rate is relatively high and permanent. A study using 1985 living/working conditions data shows that family socioeconomic-status variables significantly determine probability of dropping out; youth labor market conditions are also influential.…

  7. Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language

  8. Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language problem

  9. Efficiency versus fairness : The evaluation of labor market policies by economists and laypeople

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haferkamp, Alexandra; Fetchenhauer, Detelf; Belschak, Frank; Enste, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial differenc

  10. Labor Markets, Incentives and Occupational Education. Center Research Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn, Robert M.

    Although the major factors determining curriculum mix are known, little has been done to measure the relative importance of each factor. Using the data gathered by questionnaire from North Carolina community colleges and technical institutes, this study tested the hypotheses that local labor market structures influence curricular offerings, and…

  11. Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…

  12. Unleashing the Power of the 21st Century Community College: Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    To help all community colleges unleash their potential for workforce and economic development, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education sponsored the Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative. This project sought to develop and disseminate information and tools enabling colleges to keep pace…

  13. The Effect of Labor Market Conditions and Financial Aid on Doctoral Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…

  14. Benchmarking the Importance and Use of Labor Market Surveys by Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…

  15. Quality of higher education and the labor market in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Larouche, Alexandre; Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    While many studies examine the effect of primary education quality on labor market outcomes in developing countries, little is known about the effects at higher levels. We exploit the quasi-experiment provided by a large-scale education reform launched in Senegal in 2000 to investigate how quality...

  16. The Gendered Labor Market Impacts of Trade Liberalization. Evidence from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaddis, I.; Pieters, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates gender differences in the impact of Brazil's trade liberalization on labor market outcomes. To identify the causal effect of trade reforms, the paper uses difference-in-difference estimation exploiting variation across microregions in pre-liberalization reduced male and femal

  17. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  18. Micro-evidence on product and labor market regime differences between Chile and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Lauterbach, R.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms' operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in

  19. Indirect benefits of infrastructure improvement in the case of an imperfect labor market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin; Ommeren, van Jos; Rietveld, P.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a welfare analysis of transport infrastructure improvements in the presence of an imperfect labor market, allowing for endogenous wages and involuntary unemployment. Efficiency wage setting is incorporated in a spatial two-region general equilibrium model, written as a welfare program. In

  20. The Managerial Labor Market and the Governance Role of Shareholder Control Structures in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    We simultaneously analyze two mechanisms of the managerial labor market: CEO turnover and monetary remuneration schemes.Sample selection models and hazard analyses applied to a random sample of 250 firms listed on the London Stock Exchange over a six-year pre-Cadbury period show that managerial

  1. Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language problem

  2. The Implications of Labor Market Orientation Programs for Black Teenage Job Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Charles; Pentecoste, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The Labor Market Orientation (LMO) program responded to the problem of unemployment among Black teenagers. LMO provided classroom training which mitigated unrealistic expectations and served as an introduction to the requisites of the work world. The program was successful in providing a rational sequence of training and job exposure. (JCD)

  3. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  4. French Secondary School Students' Perceptions of the Education-Labor Market Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique

    2004-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to a paper-and-pencil…

  5. Efficiency versus fairness : The evaluation of labor market policies by economists and laypeople

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haferkamp, Alexandra; Fetchenhauer, Detelf; Belschak, Frank; Enste, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial differenc

  6. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  7. The Managerial Labor Market and the Governance Role of Shareholder Control Structures in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    We simultaneously analyze two mechanisms of the managerial labor market: CEO turnover and monetary remuneration schemes.Sample selection models and hazard analyses applied to a random sample of 250 firms listed on the London Stock Exchange over a six-year pre-Cadbury period show that managerial remu

  8. Labor Market Surveys: Importance to and Preparedness of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs') importance of and preparedness in the labor market survey (LMS) competency through data collected by the "Knowledge Validation Inventory-Revised" ("KVI-R") instrument used by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's (CRCC)…

  9. Benchmarking the Importance and Use of Labor Market Surveys by Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…

  10. Labor Market Experiences of Central American Migrants in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repak, Terry A.

    1993-01-01

    Explores labor market experiences of Central American men and women in Washington, DC; analyzes variables determining wage levels; and assesses employment mobility. Results from 50 individuals and 100 households illustrate striking advantages in income and mobility of men. Most migrant women in Washington, DC, are segregated into low-paid service…

  11. The Effect of School Inputs on Labor Market Returns that Account for Selective Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the effect of state school inputs on labor market returns to schooling. The method follows Card and Krueger (1992) and Heckman et al. (1996), but I extend their analysis in two ways. First, I correct state-level returns to schooling for selective migration, adapting a method from Dahl (2002). Second, I use more recent…

  12. Labor Market Prospects, Search Intensity and the Transition from College to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); A.P. van Vuuren (Aico); P. Berkhout (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we develop a structural model for job search behavior of students entering the labor market. The model includes endogenous search effort and on-the-job search. Since students usually do not start a regular job before graduation but start job search earlier, our model is non

  13. Labor Market Prospects, Search Intensity and the Transition from College to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, van der Bas; Vuuren, van Aico; Berkhout, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we develop a structural model for job search behavior of students entering the labor market. The model includes endogenous search effort and on-the-job search. Since students usually do not start a regular job before graduation but start job search earlier, our model is non stationary

  14. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities : Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the

  15. NLS Annotated Bibliography 1968-1989. The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    Part of an ongoing effort to maintain a record of research based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS), this document contains approximately 1,600 summaries of NLS-based journal articles, working papers, and dissertations that have been published over the past 20 years. It couples newly found research for…

  16. Empirical Essays on the Labor Market Outcomes of PhD Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    that PhDs accelerate growth. A major objective has been to direct more PhDs to the industry to use their skills to monetize knowledge. However, we have limited evidence on how PhDs are absorbed into the labor market, how the market values PhD labor, and how PhDs value the possibility to work...... in the private sector. The dissertation investigates determinants of labor market decisions among recent cohorts of PhDs in Denmark to assess how the increasing number of PhDs is absorbed into the economy. Based on econometric models, it examines what factors trigger individual career decisions and supply...... opportunities. The researcher career path has surely evolved as society’s visions for PhDs’ utility in the search for knowledge, and this has led to more diverse career paths. The dissertation sheds light on how career choices are formed in the current labor market structure that new PhDs encounter early...

  17. Labor Market Surveys: Importance to and Preparedness of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs') importance of and preparedness in the labor market survey (LMS) competency through data collected by the "Knowledge Validation Inventory-Revised" ("KVI-R") instrument used by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's (CRCC)…

  18. Assembling a Career: Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Program Students in Two-Year Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Chan, Hsun-yu; Wang, Xueli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on labor market outcomes for individuals who enroll in technical colleges is limited, with even less attention to the effects of short-term certificates than associate degrees. Also, despite the importance of manufacturing programs, there is a lack of research on employment outcomes for individuals who enroll in these programs…

  19. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  20. The Educational Needs of and the Future Labor Market Demand for Human Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prock, Dan; Henson, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Reports and discusses results of a national survey of professionals from all fields of human resource management (HRM) and college recruiters on the content of HRM education, competency requirements of certain specialists, and the labor market for personnel administration and industrial relations (PAIR/HRM) professionals in the next three years.…

  1. Revisiting the Fortunate Few: University Graduates in the Kenyan Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rees

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 294 University of Nairobi (Kenya) graduates in 4 graduating classes, 1970-83, examined trends in first employment of college graduates, the growing surplus of college graduates in the labor market, inflation of job qualifications, and the influence of family socioeconomic background on postgraduation employment when jobs are scarce.…

  2. Measuring Discrimination in Education: Are Methodologies from Labor and Markets Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.; Ludwig, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the methodologies most frequently used by social scientists when measuring discrimination in housing and labor markets, assessing their usefulness for analyzing discrimination in education. The paper focuses on standard statistical methods, methods using more complete data, experimental/audit methods, and natural experiments based on…

  3. Heterogenous Effects of Sports Participation on Education and Labor Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Devon

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…

  4. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  5. An Analysis of Current Labor Market Developments and Structures in European Union – in Correlation with Labor Market Flexicurity Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ştefania CHENIC (CREŢU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Althougt at first sight the crisis appears as a disturbance of the regular course of economic, social and organizational, this is a necessary step that turns old structures and relations to some superior functional. Under these conditions, hawever, it is absolutely necessary that the situation be properly evaluated by an analysis of developments and labour market structures and be taken right decision for the purposes of proper management of existing and potential recovery so far underused resources: people, values and strategies. The impact of the economic crisis on labour markets displays significant variation from one country to another. Employment rates and unemployment rates will be compared between European countries and for different groups of workers. Some countries have succeeded in keeping employment levels up and unemployment levels down through recourse to employmentpreservation and employment-creation measures combined with an expansion of active labour market policies. Moreover, certain labour market groups or categories have been particularly hard hit by the crisis. These include men, temporary workers, youth and migrant workers. In the EU Member States, crossing the crisis period was marked by changes in the sense orientation flexibleworking time and conservation work, a strategy that ensures rapid and reversible adaptation to the needs ofproduction entities present.

  6. Divide and Conquer: Applying the Marketing Concept of "Segmentation" to the Placement Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Deborah; Franzak, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Describes concept of market segmentation, then use of segmentation approach used by a college career planning and placement office which had the objectives of gaining a better understanding of the needs of employers looking to fill entry-level positions with marketing major graduates and collaborating more effectively with academic faculty in…

  7. A Market Segmentation Approach for Higher Education Based on Rational and Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…

  8. Divide and Conquer: Applying the Marketing Concept of "Segmentation" to the Placement Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Deborah; Franzak, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Describes concept of market segmentation, then use of segmentation approach used by a college career planning and placement office which had the objectives of gaining a better understanding of the needs of employers looking to fill entry-level positions with marketing major graduates and collaborating more effectively with academic faculty in…

  9. A Market Segmentation Approach for Higher Education Based on Rational and Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…

  10. Market segment derivation and profiling via a finite mixture model framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Desarbo, WS

    2002-01-01

    The Marketing literature has shown how difficult it is to profile market segments derived with finite mixture models. especially using traditional descriptor variables (e.g., demographics). Such profiling is critical for the proper implementation of segmentation strategy. we propose a new finite mix

  11. Labour Market Segmentation and Women's Employment: A Case-Study from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Christine; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A summary of evidence from a study of payment structures in six industries in three local labor markets in the United Kingdom is used to show that the conditions under which labor is made available exert an influence on wages that is relatively independent of the skill, experience, and effort of the workers concerned. (Author/CT)

  12. PRINCIPLES AND MODELS OF CONSUMER SEGMENTATION IN THE BANKING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Tsarev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of segmenting consumers ofbanking products and services connects withconducting marketing research. In the processof customer segmentation it is necessary to identify the factors that affect them. Identifi cation of competitive and consumer factors, in particular, is necessary for marketing decision making andthe development of the segment coverage strategy to reach a segment at all stages of planningmarketing activities and evaluating its effectiveness. After determining the basic segments on macro and micro levels the segment coveragestrategies are developed that should be based onthe results of the segmentation map construction.Banking institutions that implement informationtechnology to facilitate collecting and processingcustomer data, such as CRM-systems, receivemore opportunities to identify the client and provide a competitive position in the market.

  13. [Mental disorders and participation in the labor market: a multicenter national study in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2017-04-03

    The objective was to explore the relationship between labor market participation and patient characteristics in a representative sample of 2,475 adults admitted to 26 Brazilian mental health institutions (15 Centers for Psychosocial Care and 11 hospitals). Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics were obtained with structured interviews. Multinomial regression was used. Increased likelihood of temporary absence from the work market was associated with female gender, single, divorced, or widowed conjugal status, lack of stable housing, and history of first admission or treatment before the age of 18. Increased likelihood of permanent absence from the labor market was associated with older age. Temporary or permanent leave from work was directly associated with low schooling, lifetime hospitalizations, and diagnosis of severe mental disorder and inversely associated with alcohol and drug use. The occupational vulnerabilities identified in the study raise the debate on specific policies for the mental health sector.

  14. Market segmentation of visitors to Aardklop National Arts Festival: a correspondence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    12298042 - Botha, Karin; Slabbert, Elmarie

    2011-01-01

    Increasing levels of competition in the festival market have important implications for the profitability and survival prospects of South African arts/cultural festivals. In order for a festival to be sustainable, market segmentation can be an effective tool to divide existing and potential markets into homogeneous groups based on meaningful characteristics that could be profitably targeted. Against this background, the primary objective of this study was to segment, by means of a corresponde...

  15. Predictive market segmentation model: An application of logistic regression model and CHAID procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldić-Aleksić Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation presents one of the key concepts of the modern marketing. The main goal of market segmentation is focused on creating groups (segments of customers that have similar characteristics, needs, wishes and/or similar behavior regarding the purchase of concrete product/service. Companies can create specific marketing plan for each of these segments and therefore gain short or long term competitive advantage on the market. Depending on the concrete marketing goal, different segmentation schemes and techniques may be applied. This paper presents a predictive market segmentation model based on the application of logistic regression model and CHAID analysis. The logistic regression model was used for the purpose of variables selection (from the initial pool of eleven variables which are statistically significant for explaining the dependent variable. Selected variables were afterwards included in the CHAID procedure that generated the predictive market segmentation model. The model results are presented on the concrete empirical example in the following form: summary model results, CHAID tree, Gain chart, Index chart, risk and classification tables.

  16. The labor market regimes of Denmark and Norway – One Nordic model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...... of foreign multinational companies. The differences we observe cause us to conclude that the notion of a common Nordic model is problematic....

  17. Specifics of marketing strategy in the segment of high fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Butigan, Ružica; Grilec Kaurić, Alica; UJEVIĆ, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The success of high fashion designers is not only in a specificity of the products but also in specific and very well executed marketing strategy. Emphasis is placed on the design of very specific marketing program and marketing strategies that must concider all the characteristics of the high fashion market. Therefore, a scientific research problem is defined as follows: although the market of high fashion at first glance does not imply a completely different marketing approach than other fa...

  18. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal...... a strong interest in both search and credence cues, as well as in a fish quality label. The segments do not differ with respect to risk perception about fish....

  19. A novel model for product bundling and direct marketing in e-commerce based on market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Beheshtian-Ardakani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, companies offer product bundles with special discounts in order to sell more products. However, it is important to note that customers show different levels of loyalties to companies, and each segment of the market has unique features, which influences the customers’ buying patterns. The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a novel model for product bundling in e-commerce websites by using market segmentation variables and customer loyalty analysis. RFM model is employed to calculate customer loyalty. Subsequently, the customers are grouped based on their loyalty levels. Each group is then divided into different segments based on market segmentation variables. The product bundles are determined for each market segment via clustering algorithms. Apriori algorithm is also used to determine the association rules for each product bundle. Classification models are applied in order to determine which product bundle should be recommended to each customer. The results demonstrate that the silhouette coefficient, support, confidence, and accuracy values are higher when both customer loyalty level and market segmentation variables are used in product bundling. Accordingly, the proposed model increases the chance of success in direct marketing and recommending product bundles to customers.

  20. Methodology of B2B Customer Segmentation in the Utilities on the Czech Market: Tool for Customer Classification into Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Filová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty, improvement, better understanding of customers -- all these notions attract the interest and striving for improvement of many managers. The segmentation has become an indispensable part of path from a company to customers. Dividing market into distinctive groups allows a company to target customers in a better way. The energy industry in the Czech Republic is an example where the segmentation methodology is not working clearly, so entire organisations become disoriented as an effect ...

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF ROMANIA'S LABOR MARKET, DURING THE LAST 20 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadasan Ioana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors will try to analyze the evolution of Romanias labor market, in the last nearly 22 years. More precisely, we will analyze the evolution of the number of employees, the number of pensioners, and the number of unemployed workers, in the mentioned period of time, and we will draw some conclusions. We consider that the dynamic of the labor market is an important indicator, showing both the economic situation, as well as its future evolution; this is why we have chosen to focus our study on it. In order to do so, using the data published by the National Institute for Statistics, and the National Agency for Labor Force Employment, we have noticed worrying evolutions for Romania's labor market: a decrease in the number of employees, an increase in the number of unemployed workers and pensioners, as well as an increase in the number of those who, although able to work, do not have and do not officially look for a workplace. In fact, this is a limit of our research, because those persons either work (abroad, or on the black market, either do look for a workplace, but are not registered as unemployed workers. Another limit of our research is related to the insufficient explanations related to the evolution of the different indicators. But our purpose was to offer an overview of the labor market for the last nearly 22 years, and to suggest some measures to be taken in the future. In order to do that, we have analyzed the evolution of the number of employees, the percentage of employees in the population able to work, the evolution of the number of unemployed workers, the evolution of the number of pensioners. Also, we have made a comparative analysis of the evolution of the number of employees and of the number of pensioners. Through this paper, we have tried to draw attention upon the worrying phenomena taking place on Romania's labor market, as well as upon the fact that our country should take urgent measures in order to

  2. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  3. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  4. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  5. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  6. Application of neural network in market segmentation: A review on recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojit Chattopadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm to market segmentation, there is a need of a comprehensive literature review and a classification system for it towards identification of future trend of market segmentation research. The present work is the first identifiable academic literature review of the application of neural network based techniques to segmentation. Our study has provided an academic database of literature between the periods of 2000–2010 and proposed a classification scheme for the articles. One thousands (1000 articles have been identified, and around 100 relevant selected articles have been subsequently reviewed and classified based on the major focus of each paper. Findings of this study indicated that the research area of ANN based applications are receiving most research attention and self organizing map based applications are second in position to be used in segmentation. The commonly used models for market segmentation are data mining, intelligent system etc. Our analysis furnishes a roadmap to guide future research and aid knowledge accretion and establishment pertaining to the application of ANN based techniques in market segmentation. Thus the present work will significantly contribute to both the industry and academic research in business and marketing as a sustainable valuable knowledge source of market segmentation with the future trend of ANN application in segmentation.

  7. Optimal production policy for multi-product with inventory-level-dependent demand in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yogender

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation has emerged as the primary means by which firms achieve optimal production policy. In this paper, we use market segmentation approach in multi-product inventory system with inventory-level-dependent demand. The objective is to make use of optimal control theory to solve the inventory-production problem and develop an optimal production policy that minimizes the total cost associated with inventory and production rate in segmented market. First, we consider a single production and inventory problem with multi-destination demand that vary from segment to segment. Further, we describe a single source production and multi destination inventory and demand problem under the assumption that firm may choose independently the inventory directed to each segment. The optimal control is applied to study and solve the proposed problem.

  8. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.

  9. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288

  10. The US healthcare workforce and the labor market effect on healthcare spending and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing

    2014-06-01

    The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also

  11. What Do College Students, Young Families, and Empty Nesters Want in a Car? A Market Segmentation and Marketing Mix Project for Introduction to Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Dennis; Gulati, Rajesh; Schneider, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a student project used in introduction to marketing courses. The project is designed to involve students in the application of survey research to generate data used to make a series of marketing management decisions. Students collect data from three different segments of the car buying market and make product,…

  12. What Do College Students, Young Families, and Empty Nesters Want in a Car? A Market Segmentation and Marketing Mix Project for Introduction to Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Dennis; Gulati, Rajesh; Schneider, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a student project used in introduction to marketing courses. The project is designed to involve students in the application of survey research to generate data used to make a series of marketing management decisions. Students collect data from three different segments of the car buying market and make product,…

  13. Education, Labor Market and Innovative Talent%大众化阶段高等教育的规模经济与范围经济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓宇; 董子静

    2011-01-01

    通过对高等院校的生均成本和总成本进行分析发现,我国本专科教育依然符合规模经济现象,但在大学特别是研究型大学中,研究生培养处于规模不经济状态。在我国多产出的高等学校中,人才培养和科学研究之间的范围经济现象显著存在。对此,高职高专院校可以挖掘现有的潜力,扩大招生规模;研究型大学的研究生教育可以将发展战略转变为控制规模,提高质量;单一从事科学研究的机构可以发展和加强人才培养功能,或者寻求与高等教育机构的合作甚至合并。大众化条件下应对不同类型的高等教育机构实行分类管理,加强针对性,以促进其充分发挥多样性的功能和特点。%The innovative talent is regarded as an outcome of both education and labor market, however, most people impute the shortage of the innovative talent to education, in fact, the imperfection of labor market should probably shoulder more responsibility. The institutional segmentation of labor market depresses the role of allocative ability of the talent, and the income distribution problem distorts the incentive of the talent. In order to make the innovative talent emerge, we should continue to expand and improve the education, build an integrative and competitive labor market which will play a basic role on the allocation of labor resources. At the same time, we should set up a new mechanism of utilitization-oriented to the talent, and promote the integration of education with labor market. We should also set up a communicative mechanism between the administrative department of education and labor market.

  14. 教育、劳动力市场与创新型人才的涌现%Education, Labor Market and Innovative Talent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖德胜

    2011-01-01

    创新型人才既是教育培养的结果,也是劳动力市场使用的结果,但当前人们更多地把创新型人才的短缺归责于教育,其实,劳动力市场的缺陷可能是更重要的原因。劳动力市场的制度性分割抑制了创新型人才配置能力的发挥,收入分配问题扭曲了对创新型人才的激励。因此,为使创新型人才涌现,既有赖于教育的改革和发展,也有赖于劳动力市场的改革和发展。要继续增加和改善教育的供给,建立统一竞争的劳动力市场,使市场在人才配置中发挥基础性作用。同时,要衔接好教育与劳动力市场之间的关系,建立教育主管部门与劳动力市场主管部门的沟通对话机制。%The innovative talent is regarded as an outcome of both education and labor market, however, most people impute the shortage of the innovative talent to education, in fact, the imperfection of labor market should probably shoulder more responsibility. The institutional segmentation of labor market depresses the role of allocative ability of the talent, and the income distribution problem distorts the incentive of the talent. In order to make the innovative talent emerge, we should continue to expand and improve the education, build an integrative and competitive labor market which will play a basic role on the allocation of labor resources. At the same time, we should set up a new mechanism of utilitization-oriented to the talent, and promote the integration of education with labor market. We should also set up a communicative mechanism between the administrative department of education and labor market.

  15. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women.

  16. Role of the public university in the labor market of its graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragan, J. N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The market labor for the University graduates has become one of the top issues in academic daily occupation. Education institutions must understand that they had to be part of the occupational efforts made by its graduates. When I was teaching in Germany, the university official told and make very clear that I must not talk about the entrepreneurship sprit to the students; “there is a greart unemployment out there, there is no job available for our students, our only commitment is give them education, find a job is on their own”. Doing nothing to help them to relocate in the labor market, is worst, and I consider is our job to.

  17. Heterogeneous Impacts on Earnings from an Early Effort in Labor Market Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    , also had positive effects on jobs with respect to labor market earnings. The contribution of the paper is two-fold: First, we show that the program had positive effects on earnings in the short term for men, and in the medium and long term for men in one county, which we attribute to the mere taxing......Labor market programs that are found to shorten unemployment duration might not be societal efficient if participants do not find suitable jobs in terms of stability, wages, occupation, etc. This paper investigates whether a program, that previously has been shown to lower unemployment duration...... of leisure time and human capital accumulation/removal of frictions, respectively. Second, we show that the positive effects are heterogenous across earnings distributions. Taxing leisure time primarily affects low earners while human capital accumulation and removing frictions tend to help high earners....

  18. Behavioral Motivations of Gender Discrimination on the Labor Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination can be explained at the level ofsegregation on the labor market by the employers' perceptions about maleand female workforce, by the level of development of a country, employersand employees.In any society, people are categorized from the attributes(stereotypical or not which are supposed to be shared with their owngroup. Usually these attributes are anticipated based on stereotypesconveyed on behalf of different groups (Goffman, 1974. Stereotypes arethose beliefs and opinions about the characteristics of men and women.The features associated with the two groups generally show us not onlyhow men and women are perceived, and also how it should be.Stereotyping can be the basis for the discriminatory treatment in mostcases (Linville, Salovey, Fisher, 1986.In this article we presented the main theories that can explain thewage discrimination and we analyzed the discriminatory attitudes ofgender on the Romanian labor market using the Economic and socialcohesion survey.

  19. Measuring the Effect of Probation and Parole Officers on Labor Market Outcomes and Recidivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Use a unique dataset to pair probation and parole officers and their clients in Denmark in 2002-2009 to identify causal effects of these officers on labor market outcomes and recidivism. Methods: To identify these effects, we rely on data from all probationers and parolees in Copenhagen...... on labor market outcomes and recidivism. The second stage of our analysis shows that although to a lower degree than common sense might suggest, probation and parole officers do matter for their clients’ dependency on public benefit transfers (around 10 percentage points) and criminal recidivism (around 30...... generalizability to the U.S. context is uncertain because we rely on Danish data, our findings nonetheless point in interesting directions for future research....

  20. The Threat Effect of Active Labor Market Programs: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect......, with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect....