The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…
James Heintz; Fabián Slonimczy
Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...
Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday
Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott, Frank A.; And Others
Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)
The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.
Torres-Olave, Blanca M.
The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…
Torres-Olave, Blanca M.
The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.
Zheleznyak Maria, I.
Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.
"Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." excerpt
Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…
James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk
Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...
Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)
D. G. Shchipanova
Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.
Maričić Branko R.
Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.
Lesner, Rune Vammen
This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...
The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...
Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.
Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.
Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David
In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.
Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…
The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market
The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…
The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year
Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)
Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…
Wright, Peter H.
A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…
Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.
The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.
This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market
Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas
The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...
The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...
A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...
Camilleri, Mark Anthony
Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...
The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.
Hofstede, ter F.
The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of
Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.
Gielen, A. C.
One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to
Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.
From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of
Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial
R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)
textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or
Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut
Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...
For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination
Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.
Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....
Baldwin, Stephen E.
Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)
The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative "feedback" hypothesis consistent with the same facts is that women experience labor market discrimination and respond with career interruptions and specialization in household production. This paper explores the relationship between self-reported discrimina...
Van Hattum, P.
This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share
Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin
When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.
Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.
Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic
Lorena Bašan; Jasmina Dlačić; Željko Trezner
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the travel agencies’ communication with market segments. Communication with market segments takes into account marketing communication means as well as the implementation of different business orientations. Design – Special emphasis is placed on the use of different marketing communication means and their efficiency. Research also explores business orientation adaptation when approaching different market segments. Methodology – In explo...
dependent variable are well-known and range from frequent uninterpretability of results to bias in statistical tests (see, e.g., Hanushek and Jackson...shown that logit and probit analysis yield almost identical results near the means of relevant variables ( Hanushek and Jackson, 1977: 188- 189). We choose...general and lucid treatment of these and related points, see Hanushek and Jackson (1977:Ch. 7). Step 2: Analysis of labor market impact on individual
This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...
Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine
Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....
Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.
Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L
This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.
Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...
Kristensen, Nicolai; Verner, Dorte
This paper investigates the extent and nature of distortions in the labor market in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire by using quantile regression analysis on employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector. We found that the labor markets in Côte d'Ivoire do not seem to be much distorted. Unions...... may influence employment through tenure but do not seem to influence wages directly except for vulnerable minorities that seem protected by unions. Establishment-size wage effects are pronounced and highest for white-collar workers. This may be explained by the efficiency wage theory, so that, even...... in the absence of unions, segmentation and inefficiencies will still be present as long as firms seek to retain their employees by paying wages above the market clearing level. The inefficiency arising from establishment-size wage effects can be mitigated by education....
Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
Liviana Andreea Niminet
Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.
Damm, Anna Piil
of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...
Brown, J D
While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.
Full Text Available romotion of gender equality is the core of the European social and economic policies, but in spite of the progress achieved in recent years, the inequalities between women and men still remain in some fields of activities. Thus, equality and inclusion on the labor market must become a desideratum given the belief that the labor market should provide an opportunity for all, regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. Equality between men and women represents a common value of the EU, and a necessary condition for achieving the objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. In this context, the present paper aims to address a number of theoretical issues in relation to the concept of gender segmentation, to its forms and factors of influence.
Full Text Available Key problems in transitions in Serbia can be analyzed through the processes happening at the labor market. Labor market in Serbia is divided on the formal and informal one ("gray". The basic problem is mass unemployment. The unemployment in Serbia is not frictional unemployment resulting from decisions of workers to change their jobs. This kind of unemployment is considered normal at all labor markets. Since it is not frictional, unemployment in Serbia is not short-term one. This unemployment is by its nature structural and therefore long-term. Structural unemployment always arises as a result of the illadapted structure of labor supply and demand. There is a particularly high level of long-term unemployment among young people who practically do not have any work experience. The only realistic solution for mass unemployment and low wages in the Serbian economy is increasing of productivity and overall economic efficiency. Stimulating entrepreneurship and opening of new companies to absorb an enormous number of unemployed is the central issue of the economic reform. Instead of short-term passive measures, the state should adopt active measures aimed at stimulating of entrepreneurship and creating of new jobs.
García, Ana M
The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Basak, Suleyman; Croitoru, Benjamin
While financial markets have recently become more complete and international capital flows well liberalized, markets for goods remain segmented. To investigate how more complete security markets may relieve the effects of this segmentation, we examine a series of two-country economies with internationally segmented good markets, distinguished by the available financial securities. We show that, under heterogeneity within countries, the financial structure matters: even with internationally co...
Sokolova, G. N.
In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…
Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina
such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially......We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records...... in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without...
Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He
We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.
Jonathan B. Berk
This paper studies the effect of employee job selection in a model of statistical discrimination in a competitive labor market. In an economy in which there are quality differences between groups, a surprisingly strong condition is required to guarantee discrimination against the worse qualified group --- MLRP must hold. In addition, because of the self-selection bias induced by competition, the resulting discrimination is small when compared to the magnitude of the underlying quality differe...
Lindbeck, Assar; Snower, Dennis J.
Much of the history of economic enterprise has involved reaping the benefits from specialization of labor by dividing increasingly fragemented tasks among different employees - as vividly described already by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations. This development was greatly facilitated through the rise of "Tayloristic organizations," where standardized inputs are processed to yield standardized outputs, and where different functional tasks (e.g. administration, production, marketing, design) ...
Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben
from advantaged to disadvantaged workers. A worker can be disadvantaged in the sense that they may have less ability to aquire and utilize skills in the workplace. The model explains why passive benefits tend to fall and active benefits tend to increase during the course of unemployment spell....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....
Studies from countries with laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation suggest that gay and lesbian employees report more incidents of harassment and are more likely to report experiencing unfair treatment in the labor market than are heterosexual employees. Gay men are found to earn less than comparably skilled and experienced heterosexual men. For lesbians, the patterns are ambiguous: in some countries they have been found to earn less than their heterosexual counterpart...
Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz
Previous literature has identified considerable non-pecuniary costs to macroeconomic fluctuation and uncertainty. The present paper investigates whether and to what extent labor market institutions can mitigate those costs. We study how life satisfaction of European citizens is affected by employment protection and the level and duration of unemployment benefit payments. We differentiate between direct effects (at given macroeconomic conditions) and total effects (including the feedback throu...
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas
This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...
Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...
Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.
Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.
Full Text Available The overview of the current trends in social and labor segment globally and in the Ukrainian economy is provided. The crises in functioning of the social and labor segment as the forms of expression of the deficit of decent work were isolated. The reasons destabilizing the social and labor segment and limiting the development of the decent work institute are presented. The findings on the situation of self-employment and vulnerable employment worldwide are given. The modern transformations in employment through the lens of decent work are disclosed, with a focus on vulnerable employment. A correlation between inequality in income and a deficit of decent work is shown. The relationship and interaction between decent work and human values in terms of the new economy and postindustrial society development as a philosophical platform of the modern concept of decent work is proven. The aggravation of the crisis of values of the labor g life in the light of deficit of the decent work is explained. The conceptual foundations of the decent work are revealed. The author's vision of the decent work institute as an integrated political, economic, and social platform of sustainable development is reasoned. The criteria and components of the decent work are presented. The importance of inclusive labor markets to expand the scale of decent work is disclosed. The strategic landmarks of overcoming the deficit of decent work are delineated.
The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…
We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.
Arneberg, Marie W.; Dagsvik, John K.; Jia, Zhiyang
Abstract: This paper analyzes labor market behavior of urban Eritrean women with particular reference to the impact of education, earnings and labor market opportunities. Unlike traditional models of labor supply, which assume that work can be supplied freely in the labor market, we develop a framework that explicitly takes into account the notion of job opportunities and observable sets of feasible jobs. The framework is formulated within a random utility setting in which unob...
Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.
Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become
Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen
We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...
This paper provides an analytical framework studying the actors, networks and institutions and examines the evolution of the Indian Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Market. Different market segments, along the lines of demand and supply of PV equipment, i.e. on the basis of geography, end-use application, subsidy policy and other financing mechanisms, are detailed. The objective of this effort is to identify segments that require special attention from policy makers, donors and the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources. The paper also discusses the evolution of the commercial PV market in certain parts of the country and trends in the maturity of the market. (author)
Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris
to pave the way towards closing this gap. The extent of implementation coverage is assessed and various notions of implementation are identified. Implementation as the task of converting segmentation plans into action (referred to as execution) is identified as a particularly beneficial focus area...... for marketing management. Three key elements and challenges connected to execution of market segmentation are identified — organization, motivation, and adaptation....
Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step of the segmentation process with equal treatment. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold. First, a snapshot of the segmentation process in a step-by-step fashion will be provided. Second, each step (where possible will be evaluated on chosen criteria by means of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis of 32 academic papers and 13 commercial typology systems. Ultimately, the segmentation stages will be discussed with empirical findings prevalent in the segmentation studies and last but not least suggestions calling for further investigation will be presented. This seven-step-framework may assist when segmenting in practice allowing for more confidential targeting which in turn might prepare grounds for creating of a differential advantage.
Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna
This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.
TANASE, George Cosmin
A manager who develops an understanding of the needs and characteristics of specific groups of target customers within the broader market may see new, breakthrough opportunities. But it’s not always obvious how to identify the real needs of a target market—or the marketing mix that those customers will see as different from, and better than, what is available from a competitor. Identifying a company’s market is an important but sticky issue. In general, a market is a group of potential custom...
Full Text Available New frameworks operating at the international level have led to the need for a broader and more complex involvement of companies in international economic flows. In such circumstances, focus on the international and global markets becomes inevitable. Each segment companies must adapt and evolve in accordance with such conditions. Marketing as an important activity of the company in selling products or services is also changing and expanding its activities in line with international market. This leads to the creation of an international marketing concept and system as a specific approach to the processing of international economic relations. An important segment of implementation of the marketing concept is the marketing communication, which in terms of the limited number of international barriers. It is certainly possible to overcome with a well-defined marketing strategy. Clearly defined marketing strategy and well-prepared marketing mix remove barriers, to meet the set goals and lead to positive results for the company.
Taryn Ann Galloway
Abstract: Out of necessity, the earliest studies of immigrants' performance in the labor market in Western countries focused solely on men. However, as the employment rates of women in Western countries rise and approach those of men, questions about the labor market adjustments of immigrant women also become increasingly relevant. Furthermore, studies of earnings assimilation have typically analyzed only those individuals actually employed (full-time) in the labor market. Henc...
Ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M; Steenkamp, JBEM
The identification of geographic target markets is critical to the success of companies that are expanding internationally. Country borders have traditionally been used to delineate such target markets, resulting in accessible segments and cost efficient entry strategies. However, at present such
For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.
Full Text Available We use the Labor Office data for the regions of the Czech Republic to investigate some of the structural features of the respective labor markets. We build our approach on the matching function of the search model of the labor market. In the paper we show how the regional labor markets differ with respect to vacancies, unemployment, matches between unemployed and vacancies, probability of finding a job and labor market tightness. We also demonstrate how these characteristics evolved over time. We show that the labor markets were really hit the hardest several years after the great recession began to affect the Czech Republic. We go on to estimate the matching function for the respective regional labor markets and show that the sensitivity of the probability of finding a job to the labor market tightness generally increased over time, which we interpret as a positive sign. We set our results in the framework of some of the earlier work which has been done. With all the data and estimates used we are able to pinpoint the most troubled regions as far as the structural features of the labor market are concerned.
The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…
This dissertation was undertaken to examine the effect(s) of charter school marketing on the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) education landscape with respect to the stratification of charter schools. Information from four sources: school websites, a survey of charter school parents, existing online statistics and data, and various…
Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning
regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...
Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…
Hargens, Lowell L.
Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…
Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Couverture du livre Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Auteur(s):. Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 30 janvier 2008. ISBN : 9780415436113. 384 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552503737. Téléchargez le PDF.
Brosig, S.; Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Rozelle, S.; Wang, X.
The work is devoted to the dynamics of labor market participation of Chinese rural households. Based on a theoretical farm household framework the choice between four distinct labor market participation states is empirically analyzed. Using household data over the period 1995¿2002 from the province
Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong
Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…
GAYLE ALLARD; Cristina Simón; RAQUEL MARTIN
This study explores the challenge of capturing talent from both the political and the management level in Western Europe. It begins by identifying the special characteristics of Generation Y: those born since 1980 and recently joining national labor forces. It then evaluates the rigidity of labor markets in the European countries, dividing them into most and least regulated and exploring some of the labor-market characteristics that accompany those extremes. Finally, it identifies the employm...
Verhallen, Theo M.M.; Frambach, Ruud T.; Prabhu, Jaideep
Segmentation of industrial markets is typically based on observable characteristics of firms such as their location and size. However, such variables have been found to be poor predictors of industrial buying behavior. To improve the effectiveness and power of existing approaches to industrial
Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.
A University of Western Australia market segmentation study for the masters program in business administration examined the relationship between Graduate Management Admission Test scores, work experience, faculty of undergraduate degree, gender, and academic success in the program. Implications of the results for establishing admission criteria…
Wahl, Jack E.
The economic influence of barriers to international information acquisition and, hence, of informational segmentation in international capital markets depends heavily upon the prevailing level of risk aversion. We find that these barriers are likely to have second order economic impact only. Furthermore, improving international informational integration is likely to Increase all asset prices when causing less heterogeneity of international subjective probability beliefs.
NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA
Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity involving work objectively factor designed to exploit natural resources and monetary system in its interest. According to Adam Smith, the work is a primary factor, the original production was considered by him as the sole source of national wealth. This factor of production can be achieved through labor market that is in a competitive market economy. Transactions in this market have as their object or labor work. Employment policy work focus on boosting production and the flexibility of labor market through an easy tax for economic entities to make hiring, increasing the occupancy of the active population. In Romania, the pressures exerted on the labor market increasingly higher while the economy is subject to extensive qualitative transformations concerning privatization, restructuring and upgrading.
Aromolaran, Adebayo B.
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...
Smith, J P
A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.
Gerber, Theodore P; Radl, Jonas
Russia provides an interesting context for studying the labor market experiences of the elderly because of its experience with market transition, its looming growth in the elderly dependency ratio, and its unusual pension policies that do not penalize pensioners for working. We use data from twenty surveys of the Russian population conducted from February 1991 to November 2007 to analyze the labor market participation and earnings of elderly Russians following market transition. Economic desperation, exacerbated by low pension levels, pushed some elderly to seek employment for income on the labor market. Elderly Russians with more education had more opportunities to work, and education differentials increased as market reforms progressed. The correlates of earnings operate similarly for retirement- and pre-retirement age Russians, with several exceptions: unobserved factors favoring employment are negatively associated with earnings for the elderly, occupation mediates most of the effects of education, and patterns of change over time differ somewhat. Elderly Russians are not disproportionately blocked from employment following market reforms. Following the initial transition shock, their labor market activity increased. Overall, both push and pull factors shape the employment and earnings of the elderly, affecting different segments of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…
Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.
The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…
Full Text Available Female labor market participation is one of the central investigation topics in feminist economics’ studies. Even after an increase in the labor market participation and the decrease in the wage gap between men and women, the latter still face great difficulties on being remunerated and promoted when compared to men. Neoclassical economic models cannot explain completely these differences without making use of strong hypothesis about individual preferences and family goals. This study has as the main objective to analyze difference on the housework participation as an influencer to different conditions in the labor market for men and women. Our results show that women still have a double work shift. Among our main conclusions, we can say that women benefit more from personal income increase than with labor market participation, because their bargain power within family increases and they can decrease their housework hours.
Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Using matched PISA and PIAAC data from Denmark, we investigate the return to cognitive and non-cognitive skills with respect to labor market outcomes. We measure cognitive and non-cognitive skills at childhood and when the respondents have entered the labor market. Hence, we are able to split up...... the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills...
[eng] 1) Informality and Overeducation in the Labor Market of a Developing Country This chapter explores the connection between labor market segmentation in two sectors, a modern protected formal sector and a traditional- unprotected-informal sector, and overeducation in a developing country. Informality is thought to have negative consequences, primarily through poorer working conditions, lack of social security, as well as low levels of productivity throughout the economy. This chapter c...
"Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." excerpt
Full Text Available The economic literature relative to Brazilian labor market informality is very disperse and presents a significant lack of organization. In that sense, the purpose of this paper is to organize and discuss on a systematic way the main pieces of literature concerning informality in the Brazilian labor market using, whenever it is possible, the international literature as a comparison point for the existing results relative to Brazil's experience. More specifically, questions related to wage differentials between formal and informal workers, labor market segmentation and the effect of institutions on the informal sector are emphasized.
Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and unemployment benefits can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivi...
I construct an equilibrium model of the labor market where workers and firms enter into dyamic contracts that can potentially last forever, but are subject to optimal terminations. Upon a termination, the firm hires a new worker, and the worker who is terminated receives a termination compensation from the firm and is then free to go back to the labor market to seek new employment opportunities and enter into new dynamic contracts. The model permits only two types of equilibrium terminations ...
Potrafke , Niklas
Abstract This paper empirically investigates the influence of globalization on various aspects of labor market deregulation. I employ the data set by Bassanini and Duval (2006) on labor market institutions in OECD countries and the KOF index of globalization. The data set covers 20 OECD countries in the 1982?2003 period. The results suggest that globalization did neither influence the unemployment replacement rate, the unemployment benefit length, public expenditures on ALMP, the t...
This dissertation contains three independent studies that analyze labor markets in transformation. They focus on two central elements of labor markets in developing countries: non-agricultural employment in the rural economy and informal employment in the urban economy. Rural non-agricultural employment (RNAE) is being increasingly emphasized as a potential pathway out of rural poverty for people who are unable to secure their income in agriculture. By paying particular attention to th...
Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc
exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...
Wright, Robert E.; Palmer, John C.; Eidson, Vicky; Griswold, Melissa
Market segmentation strategies based on levels of consumer shopping effort have long been utilized by marketing professionals. Such strategies can be beneficial in assisting marketers with development of appropriate marketing mix variables for segments. However, these types of strategies have not been assessed by researchers examining segmentation…
Barry T. Hirsch
Full Text Available Abstract About 5 % of US workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998–2013. Labor markets with high unemployment have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between multiple job holding and unemployment is found within markets over time, with near-zero estimates being precisely estimated. Multiple job holding is largely acyclic. JEL Classification: J21
Full Text Available In casual labor markets, intermediaries are used in order to match employers and employees. This function is especially important when the market is imperfect and employers and employees have not formed solid networks. This paper investigates the network effects and the role of intermediaries in the seasonal agricultural labor market in the irrigated area of Adana, Turkey. The network of rural households is divided into one composed mainly of farmers and one composed mainly of seasonal agricultural workers. Our regression analyses show that the seasonal workers who do not have strong networks with farmers have difficulty finding jobs. Middlemen serve to mitigate the seasonal workers’ lack of a network and play a key role in the area’s seasonal agricultural labor market. At the same time, however, blood ties and territorial ties between middlemen and workers may cause middlemen to discriminate among seasonal workers based on their origins.
Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian
This contribution is about the segmentation of mature travel markets, as exemplified by Switzerland. Based on an extensive and representative travel survey covering 2,000 households and more than 11,000 trips, a situational, motivation-based travel market segmentation is proposed. The clustering of motivations proves to be a valuable means to segment markets. The results reveal a diminishing role of socio-demographic segment descriptors. It is more the (anticipated) travel profile and the att...
V. I. Mukomel
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should
Ilyuhina S. V.
Full Text Available this article presents the results of socio-economic studies of University students at various levels of training. This study aims at identifying the economic motives of choice of youth in the labour market, the trends in career guidance and expectations of adaptation of students to the contemporary trends in the labour market.
Full Text Available The paper examines the dependency of labor market on positive and negative effects of cyclic recurrence and economic development. Probable scenarios of the dynamics in employment and unemployment in dependence of changes in gross domestic product (GDP and productivity in conditions of recession and following the start of economic revival are analyzed in accordance to the open character of Bulgarian economy and the specificity of Bulgarian model of transition predetermined by the impacts of outer influences and additional inner ones on the labor market, which verification is on the basis of the data for state-of-art of labor market in years of transition to market economy. The factor predestining the level of unemployment are investigated on the basis of input flows unemployment relating to macroeconomic and other outer measures, as well as the impact which would lead to decrease in the average duration of unemployment. The accent is on the necessity of establishment of a consecutive and sustainable strategy of economic development having a clear vision about the structuring of economy and labor demand in middle-term aspect, as founding in the flexibility of labor market and employment in the country.
Full Text Available The book, entitled Geographical Labor Market Imbalances represents a collective volume of outstanding scientific papers concerning regional issues, which were presented at the XXVII National Conference of Labour Economics organized by AIEL (Italian Association of Labor Economics, the Department of Law of SecundaUniversità di Napoli and the Departments of Economic and Social Sciences of the UniversitàCattolica del SacroCuore (Piacenza, 27-28 September 2012.
The present work consists of two major parts. In the first part the literature on market segmentation is reviewed, in the second part a set of new methods for market segmentation are developed and applied.
Part 1 starts with a discussion of the segmentation concept, and proceeds
Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.
Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix
Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong
This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.
Balsa, Ana I; French, Michael T
This paper is one of only a few studies to examine potential labor market consequences of heavy or abusive drinking in Latin America and the first to focus on Uruguay. We analyzed data from a Uruguayan household survey conducted in 2006 using propensity score matching methods and controlling for a number of socio-demographic, family, regional, behavioral health, and labor market characteristics. As expected, we found a positive association between heavy drinking and absenteeism, particularly for female employees. Counter to the findings for developed countries, our results revealed a positive relationship between heavy drinking and labor force participation or employment. This result was mostly driven by men and weakened when considering more severe measures of abusive drinking. Possible explanations for these findings are that employment leads to greater alcohol use through an income effect, that the Uruguayan labor market rewards heavy drinking, or that labor market characteristics typical of less developed countries, such as elevated safety risks or job instability, lead to problem drinking. Future research with panel data should explore these possible mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.
Johnson, R J; Herring, C
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…
Full Text Available Comparing the Nordic countries, this article examines different combinations of permanent and temporary employment protection legislation, and whether such differences are reflected in patterns of labor market transitions. We find higher levels of transitions from unemployment to temporary contracts in Sweden and Finland, with lax regulation of temporary contracts and strict regulation of permanent contracts. Further, temporary employees are integrated into permanent contracts in countries with lax (Denmark or strict (Norway regulation of permanent contracts, while this is not the case in Finland and Sweden. For these countries, the study indicates a certain degree of labor market duality, with low mobility from temporary to permanent employment contracts.
This report reviews past, current, and projected future labor market trends for health physicists through 2005. Information is provided on degrees granted, available supply of new graduates, employment, job openings for new graduates, and salaries. Job openings for new graduates are compared to the available supply of new graduates to assess relative job opportunities in the health physics labor market. The report is divided into three sections: trends during 1983-1993, trends during the mid-1990s, and projected trends for 1997 through 2005
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective....... Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ...
The case study presents a huge set of data, both market data and firm data, and encourages students to: analyse the market and competitive environment of the firm; evaluate the current segmentation, targeting and positioning strategy of the firm; take marketing strategic decisions in the areas of segmentation, targeting, positioning.
Hernandez Medina, Alberto
Problems in employment and education in Mexico will remain in spite of the rapid economic growth expected from the expanding petroleum industry. The structural problems of the job market and education are analyzed with particular reference to higher education. Commentary by Michael Olivas accompanies this article. (JMF)
Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer
While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...
Harrell, G D; Fors, M F
Although significant changes are occurring in health care delivery, in many instances the new offerings are not based on a clear understanding of market segments being served. This exploratory study suggests that important differences may exist among women with regard to health care selection. Five major women's segments are identified for consideration by health care executives in developing marketing strategies. Additional research is suggested to confirm this segmentation hypothesis, validate segmental differences and quantify the findings.
Babaskin, D V
The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the possibilities to analyse selected segments of the target market of physiotherapeutic services provided by medical and preventive-facilities of two major types. The main features of a target segment, such as provision of therapeutic massage, are illustrated in terms of two characteristics, namely attractiveness to the users and the ability of a given medical facility to satisfy their requirements. Based on the analysis of portfolio of the available target segments the most promising ones (winner segments) were selected for further marketing studies. This choice does not exclude the possibility of involvement of other segments of medical services in marketing activities.
Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt
non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....
FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA
Full Text Available The current economic crisis, cataloged by most economists as the worst recession of 1933, makes most of the population can not enjoy a decent standard of living and appropriate working conditions. The most serious implication that the economic crisis has on the labor market is the rising unemployment and underemployment rate increase default. The number of unemployed in Romania could increase at any time due to the economic restructuring of the country and the availability of immigrants from the Community, Romania is one of the major exporters of labor. In this time of crisis in the face of Romanian economy appears that a particular problem are twofold. It is, on the one hand, an effective demand for labor insufficient structurally that will lead in the future to under-utilization of production equipment, and on the other hand, a substitution of labor imposed by technical progress, which will lead to increased unemployment
Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta
Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.
Uzagalieva, Ainura; Cukrowski, J.
Roč. 59, č. 2 (2006), s. 225-246 ISSN 0012-981X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market regulations * competitiveness * international trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.
Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.
Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…
Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Rossi, A.
The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy.The approach undertaken is prominently empirical.After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two
Full Text Available Labor market is affected by ecologization processes in economy both nationally and globally. Positive and negative effects of this process are analyzed in this article. We defined 5 main areas where labor market is affected by "greening" processes: 1 еcologization create new workplaces for producing "green" goods; for implementation and support of ecology-friendly technical processes; in traditional business areas, connected to "greens"; 2 іt provide changes of overall employment rate; 3 labor market structure transform due to new ecology tendencies; 4 current workplaces become "greener", especially positions, connected to ecology; 5 it causes widespread social integration. We made a conclusion that the total effect of this process on labor market will depend on many economic and political factors. Number and quality of created workplaces will highly depend on level of demand for such specialists and on elasticity of employment. It will correlate with the number of workplaces, lost in traditional industries. Sum of gross benefits and damages will be equal to number of employees, who "green" their work conditions or will be forced to change their jobs at all.
Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III
Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…
Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.
This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…
Belot, M.V.K.; van Ours, J.C.
The development of the unemployment rate di¤ers substantially between OECD countries.In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions.In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which
Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.
Nickell et al. (2005) have frequently been cited as empirical evidence that labor market rigidities cause high unemployment. We find that their model is not robust. Leaving their database unchanged and changing three details in their estimation procedure, it turns out that several policy-relevant
Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Using a randomized controlled trial, this paper shows that positive earnings effects of labor market programs might be driven by an employment and/or a wage effect. The findings of this paper suggest that treated individuals in a high-intense scheme are more prone to have lowered short- term...
Medoff, James L.; Wiener, Jonathan B.
Recent statistical investigations indicate that labor market imbalance has increased during the past decade and has had important deleterious effects on the nation's inflation and productivity growth records. A growing difficulty in filling skilled jobs at a given unemployment rate is reflected. Business community analysts attribute the growing…
Журавлев, Н. Ю.; Zhuravlev, N. Y.
In the article, on the basis of statistical materials examines the position of the elderly in the labor market, analyzed the main problems of the elderly population as a party to the employment relationship, as well as some of the main reasons of age discrimination.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between academic success and labor market outcomes among graduating pharmacy students. Unlike previous studies, this paper characterizes labor market outcome not only as an individual's starting salary, but also whether or not the student had a position secured at the time of graduation, whether or not a signing bonus was received, and the setting in which (she will practice. Methods: A standard exit survey was administered to graduating Doctor of Pharmacy students at a Midwestern, public university within two weeks of graduation. The relationship between academic success and initial labor market outcome was assessed using cross-tabulations, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no significant relationships between grade point averages and signing bonuses, starting salaries or employment offers. Students with higher grade point averages were less likely to work in chain community pharmacies, and more likely to work in a hospital or other health-system setting. Conclusions: The relationships between academic and direct measures of labor market outcomes (salary and bonuses were not necessarily positive, as standard economic theory predicts. Rather, the relationship is indirect, as it appears that students with greater academic success obtained employment in more clinical settings, which carry a different mix of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Type: Original Research
Yeh, Bijou Y.; Lester, David
Analyzed the relationship between the participation of married women in the labor market and divorce rates in the continental states of the United States in 1980. Results showed the higher the proportion of married women working full time and the lower the proportion of married women working part time, the higher the divorce rate of the state.…
Terzidis, Nikolaos; van Maarseveen, Raoul; Ortega - Argiles, Raquel
Recent literature documents the pervasiveness of job polarization in the labor markets of the developed world. However, relatively little is known about polarization on a sub-national level. We exploit extensive data on both genders from Statistics Netherlands to confirm polarization as an important
Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James
Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…
Rodriguez Padron, B.; Burger, C.P.J.
This paper analyses how coffee-producing households responded to the low coffee prices prevailing around 2003. We provide theory on differential responses in regions dedicated to coffee growing, compared to more diversified or better accessible regions. We show how labor market effects can explain
Callahan, Rebecca M., Ed.; Gándara, Patricia C., Ed.
The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to…
Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda
Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation in their product development and strategic planning. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.
Mihaela Roberta STANEF
Full Text Available Member States ought to integrate the flexicurity values approved by the European Council into their labor market policies and apply them, making full use of European Social Fund sustain with a view to growing labor market participation and fighting segmentation and inactivity, gender inequality, at the same time as reducing structural unemployment. Actions to improve flexibility and security should be both balanced and mutually strengthen. Member States must consequently initiate a combination of flexible and reliable employment contracts, active labor market policies, effective lifelong learning, policies to promote labor mobility, and adequate social security systems to secure professional transitions accompanied by clear privileges and responsibilities for the unemployed to dynamically seek work.
Spatial segmentation of the labour market of informal workers within the metropolitan is observed globally. InIndia it is not only compartmentalised on gender, caste, ethnic lines but also geographically segmented by thecreation of spatially disjoined markets. The differential impact of this limited mobility on female and malelabour remains largely unexplored. The present paper argues that the labour market for informal workers issegmented into smaller labour markets separated by commuting (h...
Full Text Available During the transition to a market economy put the urgent problem of using labor and unemployment. Increasing labor resources has been accompanied by a continued reduction in employment and a rise in unemployment. The government tried to initiating programs, including external funding, job creation, but compared to the massive layoffs that occurred following the restructuring of sectors, the number of new jobs created has proved insufficient. A significant aspect is given by the increase of population employed in agriculture, characteristic of underdeveloped countries. Modalities of intervention in support of reducing unemployment and increasing employment can be active and passive character.
Šuvaković Đorđe, Olgin
Full Text Available This paper compares the efficiency of profit- and wage-maximizing (PM and WM monopsony in the labor market. We show that, both locally and globally, a PM monopsony may well be dominated by its WM twin, where the local and global dominance are defined with respect to a single (inverse labor supply function and a single family of such functions. This family is always divided in the two disjoint (subfamilies of the PM and WM dominance. We also analyze some major factors that explain the size of these (subfamilies. .
Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Skott, Peter
Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....
Full Text Available In the focus of all activities are customers of mobile services on mobile communications market. As the basis of telecommunication network and services development, as also for creating an optimal marketing-mix from mobile operators' side, we have investigated the needs, motivations and customer behavior and have made analysis mobile communication customers on the SEE Region market. The aim of this analysis is identification of the regional segments and following their growth, size and profitability. At the end, we have contributed the suggestions for creating the marketing-mix using a strategy of marketing differentiation, which implicit optimal combination of all marketing-mix elements for each regional segment separately. For identified segments we have set up an estimation model of significant key factors on the particular segments, because of more efficient creation of marketing instruments.
Yau, Oliver H. M.; Kwan, Wayne
A study applied the concept of market segmentation to student evaluation of college teaching, by assessing whether there exist several segments of students and how this relates to their evaluation of faculty. Subjects were 156 Australian undergraduate business administration students. Results suggest segments do exist, with different expectations…
Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno
This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...
Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth
The applicability of the "benefit segmentation" marketing technique to education was tested at the College of DuPage in 1979. Benefit segmentation identified target markets homogeneous in benefits expected from a program offering and may be useful in combatting declining enrollments. The 487 randomly selected students completed the 223…
Borden, Victor M. H.
A market segmentation analysis of 872 university students compared 2 hierarchical clustering procedures for deriving market segments: 1 using matching-type measures and an agglomerative clustering algorithm, and 1 using the chi-square based automatic interaction detection. Results and implications for planning, evaluating, and improving academic…
Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.
Full Text Available The empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (PWD has recently attracted the attention of the Indonesian government. Several initiatives have been made to empower their life, especially the establishment of Act No. 8/2016 which enhances their right to inclusive economic activities. This study aims to map PWD in Indonesian labor market. Specifically, it analyzes the characteristics of employed and unemployed PWD. It explored Labor Force Survey (Sakernas, which began to concern on disability issue in 2016. The results show that PWD prevalence varies highly among provinces led by West Sumatera, East Nusa Tenggara, and South Sulawesi and that PWD has lower labor participation rate than that of PWOD. It may indicate the significant presence of discouraged workers among PWD.
Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik
A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...
Full Text Available A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is a case study, through information from the company’s CEOs and crossed by primary information from observation and formal registries and documents of the company. In this research we look at sparkling wines market segmentation. Main results indicate that the winery studied considers only technological elements as the basis to build a market segment. One may conclude that a market segmentation for this company is based upon technological dominion of sparkling wines production, aligned with a premium-price policy. In the company, directorship believes that as sparkling wines market is still incipient in the country, sparkling wine market segments will form and consolidate after the evolution of consumers tasting preferences, depending on technologies that boost sparkling wines quality.
Martínez Sánchez, Rebeca
This article deals with telecommuting as the last transition of the work environment, through the history of economic thought. It is analyzed from different key aspects such as, its conceptualization and proposal for classification, workers rights, motivation, and telecommuting workers’ profiles, as well as areas of application. Telecommuting is a labor market tendency that is currently transforming the idea that humans need to leave home and move physically to a place of work;...
Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility
Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C
Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
We examine the impact of discrimination on labor market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labor market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon in which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers. (JEL J15, J31, J61, J64, J71)...
Mihaela Hrisanta DOBRE
Full Text Available Discrimination expresses any distinction, exclusion, restriction, preference or different treatment that disadvantages a person or group, in comparison with others in similar situations. The crowding out effect was first formulated by Bergmann (1974 and explains that an individual can obtain lower returns if he belongs to a branch dominated by the members of another group. The difference in pay between women and men is also reinforced by the segregation in the labor market, which may explain the crowding out effect. In this article we analyzed the level of segregation in the Romanian labor market starting from the workers professional status and their distribution by branch from 2003 to 2008. Crowding out effect was analyzed based on the gain function of the two groups (women and men.
Abbas Al-Refaie; Nour Bata
A distributor of Apple products' experiences numerous difficulties in developing marketing strategies for new and existing mobile product entries that maximize customer satisfaction and the firm's profitability. This research, therefore, integrates market segmentation in platform-based product family design and conjoint analysis to identify iSystem combinations that increase customer satisfaction and business profits. First, the enhanced market segmentation grid is created. Then, the estimate...
Raposo, Mario; Estevão, Cristina; Mainardes, Emerson; Domingues, Maria José
In view of the importance of the hotel segment for the tourism and for the economy of countries such as Portugal, the objective of this study was to measure the level of orientation for the market of the largest hotel groups of Portugal. This investigation initially emphasized the importance of the marketing for the organizations, mainly the orientation for the market. After a brief explanation on the hotel segment in Portugal, an empirical study was presented, of quantitative, exploratory an...
Cathy Ning; Stephen Sapp
In this paper, we examine the integration of international financial markets. The integration of financial markets across countries and across asset classes is assumed to hold in most empirical studies, but has only been tested for certain countries and certain asset classes. We test for the integration of international equity, bond and foreign exchange markets. Our results indicate that the three classes of assets are segmented. Investigating potential explanations for this segmentation, we ...
Arai, Mahmood; Gartell, Marie; Rödin, Magnus; Özcan, Gülay
Using an experimental setup involving 436 case workers at the Swedish Public Employment Service (SPES) as subjects and the profile photographs and recorded voices of 75 jobseekers as treatments, we report results indicating that male case workers tend to favor jobseekers perceived as having a stereotypical Swedish appearance when they select candidates to be recommended for labor market programs (LMP). This bias represents a roughly 50-percent greater chance of being selected if you compare t...
106 pages The aim of this study is to explore the causes and the extent of the gender wage gap in the Turkish labor market. For this purpose, standard wage regressions are estimated using micro data from an official survey for the year 2006. A number of variables in the dataset enable a comprehensive quantitative analysis including both human capital variables and job-related variables. Furthermore, in order to examine the wage gap in detail, Oaxaca decomposition method is e...
Why did services become the dominant sector in industrialized economies? While abundant literature exists on the transition from agriculture to industry (i.e., the industrial revolution), there is no consensual explanation for the second wave of structural change. I argue that sectoral differences in regulation affecting the degree of competition in labor and goods markets explain: (a) the rise in the services sector share of output and employment, (b) international differences in cross-secto...
The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in c...
Nguyen , Trung Hung
This dissertation aims to investigate the Trends and Determinants of the Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam since the global economic crisis occurred in 2007 with the focus on the household's diversification; the involvement of rural individuals in Rural Non-Farm Employment; Rural Labor Market development; and assessment of a specific labor market policy.
Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation of the Romanian labor market and trends for 2020 and the evolution of employment on regions and activity fields in 2010 in comparison to 2009. The most important areas where labour demand will increase are: sales, outsourcing, engineering, IT, finance, banking, environment protection, insurance, medicine and pharmacy, accounting. Other areas that will absorb more employees in the following five years are: hospitality industry, trade, constructions, energy field, marketing and public relations. The educational and training system will need to be reformed in order to train qualified staff for these fields.
Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.
Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R ampersand D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000
Full Text Available When the economy goes in recession, the necessity of state intervention for its regulation becomes inevitable. Often, the monetary and fiscal policies undertaken by the government with the aim to achieve this target, may result with different economic configuration, probably undesirable. That’s by the other steps undertaken in the priority economic sectors. Actually, the Albanian government has taken some measure in order to reduce the informal economy (focused especially on business agent and to regulate the market labor in the country. As any reforms, the effectiveness of those initiatives will be seen after some years, but actually, some questions bring in mind: what is the impact of those in the economic performance of the agents (business-employee, and can improve their conditions? Is the labor market in able to handle the initiatives and have been those in the appropriate levels? How are the actual report private employment and state employment, and has been rise the employment rate during this time? Is the possibility that higher employment rate will be a good indicator for the improvement of the economic welfare? The configuration of the labor market in the country and its challenges will be the focus of this article.
Full Text Available Labor market activity may have an effect on global economy competitiveness. This issue has been described as "labor market efficiency" (LME, which is a constituent of The Global Competitiveness Index published by The World Economic Forum (WEF. The article's purpose is to clarify the phenomenon of LME and explain the mechanisms which help the constituents affect economy competitiveness. The structure of LME points at the meaning of labor market regime, especially after considering the fact that European Union countries operate within various models of regime. The analysis of the LME diversity may help determine what type of labor market regimes are most efficient in enhancing economy competitiveness
Cling, Jean-Pierre; Razafindrakoto, Mireille; Roubaud, François
Labour market segmentation is usually defined as the division of the labour markets into separate sub-markets or segments, distinguished by different characteristics and behavioural rules (incomes, contracts, etc.). The economic debate on the segmentation issue has been focusing in developed countries, and especially in Europe, on contractual segmentation and dualism.
Piper, William S.; Mick, Mark W.
Findings and results from a marketing research study are presented. The report identifies market segments and the product types to satisfy demand in each. An estimate of market size is based on the specific industries in each segment. A sample of ten industries was used in the study. The scientific study covered U.S. firms only.
Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.
Razvan Catalin Dobrea
Full Text Available The employability of of graduates is today one of the major problems both of universities and economical environment. Also, employability, inserting optimum professional and social life is a problem of each graduate. It finds today, that a large part of are young drop out of school and thus possibility of qualify at a high level or have difficulty entering the labor market. European Commission recommends for member states reforming education, especially of the university so as to ensure the professionalization of the young people, developing their professional skills and transversal, harnessing their potential, enhance the relevance of education for youth and the labor market. Bologna Declaration shows that employability (ability to engage, to maintain the service and mobility in the labor market is defining higher education, whose role is to familiarize students with the skills and competencies that individuals need to place on the job. (Bologna, 1999 This paper addresses the issue of employability of higher economic studies graduates, and analyzes a positive experience resulting from the provision of complex information, guidance, advice and orientation to students in POSDRU "Practice today to become manager of tomorrow". The paper presents the results of a complex study conducted on the impact that these services have had on the students involved, from three perspectives: students, employers, who guided activity students at the university level. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the increase in the number of students who have benefited from guidance, counseling and professional development appropriate to their needs and the number who have developed personal skills to substantiate decisions regarding their career paths and educational because of of information, advice, guidance provided in the project. These services have helped students to develop, to know better, know their own skills and abilities and to focus
Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos
Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.
rail renaissance, market segmentation, South Africa, state of logistics, ... The modal imbalance is the result of a historical rail investment backlog, with ..... vector that can be thought of as a chromosome in genetic terms, while the values used.
Alina Elena OPRESCU
Full Text Available Any approach that involves the use of strategic resources of an organisation requires a responsible approach, a behaviour that enables it to properly integrate itself into the dynamic of the business environment. This articles addresses in a synthetic manner, the issues of specific integration efforts for customers’ segmentation in the strategic marketing planning. The essential activity for any organisation wishing to optimise its response to the market, the customer segmentation will fully benefit from the framework provided by the strategic marketing planning. Being a sequential process, it not only allows time optimisation of the entire marketing activity but it also leads to accuracy of the strategic planning and its stages.
ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M
With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent...
Goldfarb, Robert; Hamermesh, Daniel
This report describes research on the New Haven labor market carried out during the summer and fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970. The aims of the research were to develop further the theoretical approach to micro-labor economics in a local labor market and to test the feasibility of collecting data from local firms which could be used to test…
Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.
Careja, Romana; Andreß, H.-J.
in a multilevel design the impact that regulations in the EU member states concerning immigrants' access to domestic labor markets have on threat perceptions and on opinions about immigrants' economic role. It finds that labor market regulations have a positive effect on opinions about immigrants' economic role...... and reduce the negative relationships between precarious labor market status and opinions about the economic role. However, a robust effect of labor market regulations on threat perceptions was not found. Our results imply that labor market incorporation rules need to be accompanied by other measures......This article builds on the notion that immigrants' integration into the labor market benefits migrants and shapes natives' opinions about immigrants. Using insights from the newest literature on labor immigration and drawing upon the literature on attitudes toward immigrants, the article explores...
low status nonmigrant women. The disadvantages of migrant women related to their lower age, education, and urban experience have declined or disappeared, but disadvantages related to lack of family and housing in the city have persisted. Continuing high rates of urban poverty in Santiago and substitution of precarious employment for open unemployment have resulted in continuing high rates of female employment. The lack of dynamism in the expansion of female employment, the persistence of gender segmentation of the labor market, continuing tertiarization of female employment, and new trends to precarious employment and increased economic participation of nonmigrant women suggest that occupational patterns of migrant women will not change greatly in the 1990s. Although they have become better educated and prefer to avoid live-in domestic service, their employment options appear limited.
Wayne W. Smith
Full Text Available Tourism marketers focus on understanding the many different segments that comprise their visitors. Understanding these segments’ motivations for travel is important in order to motivate repeat visitation and to attract like-minded consumers to visit. But how about those who do not travel? This surprisingly large percentage of the population is a lost opportunity for the industry. The research that follows, based upon a very significant USA-based sample of non-travelers, suggests that non-travelers can be effectively segmented and targeted. Understanding these segments will better allow vacation marketers to craft their product and their message, hopefully bringing more travelers to the mix.
Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.
This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to recognize, single out and define market segments useful for future marketing strategies, using certain statistical techniques on the basis of influence of various image factors of financial institutions. The survey included a total of 500 interviewees: 250 bank clients and 250 clients of insurance companies. Starting from the problem area and research goal, the following hypothesis has been formulated: Basic preferences of clients in regard of image factors while selecting financial institutions are different enough to be used as such for differentiating significant market segments of clients. Two segments have been singled out by cluster analysis and named, respectively, traditionalists and visualists. Results of the research confirmed the established hypothesis and pointed to the fact that managers in the financial institutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH must undertake certain corrective actions, especially when planning and implementing communication strategies, if they wish to maintain their competitiveness in serving both selected segments.
Markwart, Richard I.
Political campaigns are major, high-budget marketing efforts, but because they are usually managed by people with little training in either marketing or communications, they fail to persuade voters to vote in the desired way. Political targeting can be treated as a segmentation problem, one of identifying and responding to the specific qualities…
Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez
Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.
Full Text Available Present in the European political discourse in the early '90s, the concept of flexicurity, achieved by the contraction of two terms, flexibility and security, emerged in the European Union with the adoption of the Communication "Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security" in June 2007. This study, result of the research internship undertaken in October-December 2011 at WIFO, aims to capture the main dimensions of labor market flexicurity, the quality of social partnership and the present status of the targets set by of Europe 2020 Strategy. Europe 2020 Strategy aims, among other objectives, at achieving a series of targets specific for the labor market, in the European context, such as: - Employment for the population aged between 20-64 years, - Reducing the number of early school leavers, - Increasing the share of university graduates in the population between 30-34 years, - Reducing the number of people affected by poverty and social exclusion.
Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.
Until very recently, the pervasive existence of models exhibiting well-defined backward dynamics but ill-defined forward dynamics in economics and finance has apparently posed no serious obstacles to the analysis of their dynamics and stability, despite the problems that may arise from possible erroneous conclusions regarding theoretical considerations and policy prescriptions from such models. A large number of papers have dealt with this problem in the past by assuming the existence of symmetry between forward and backward dynamics, even in the case when the map cannot be invertible either forward or backwards. However, this procedure has been seriously questioned over the last few years in a series of papers dealing with implicit difference equations and inverse limit spaces. This paper explores the search and matching labor market model developed by Bhattacharya and Bunzel [J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Chaotic Planning Solution in the Textbook Model of Equilibrium Labor Market Search and Matching, Mimeo, Iowa State University, 2002; J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Economics Bulletin 5 (19) (2003) 1-10], with the following objectives in mind: (i) to show that chaotic dynamics may still be present in the model for acceptable parameter values, (ii) to clarify some open questions related with the admissible dynamics in the forward looking setting, by providing a rigorous proof of the existence of cyclic and chaotic dynamics through the application of tools from symbolic dynamics and inverse limit theory.
Full Text Available Population growth has already begun to fall in most of the countries. In the wider European area, therefore, population decline is likely to occur several years earlier. Regions with declining population demographic trends are affected by social and economic developments. Migration flows, in particular, are related to regional differences in labor market conditions, people moving from areas of low job growth to ones with more employment opportunities, and, over the longer-term, such differences can also affect birth and death rates. Declining regions in the EU are, therefore, characterized by low income levels, high unemployment and a large proportion of the work force employed in agriculture and industry. In addition, they tend to have a relatively small number of young people, reflecting their migration to other areas as well as low fertility rates, and a low density of population, reflecting the rural nature of many of them. The aim of this paper is to present the important consequences these trends will have regarding Albanian reality. We will see this for social welfare and taxation systems. We are also going to present here the policies to discourage illegal immigration, engaged in facilitating the entry, installment into the labor market, legal regulation, and social integration of Albanian emigrants in receiving countries. Finally, we will promote the impact of voluntary return of emigrants in the country development.
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.; Yuen, Celeste Y. M.; Cheng, Yin Cheong
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers. Design/methodology/approach:…
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård
This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed.
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Drennan, Judy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Leo, Cheryl; Gullo, Matthew J; Connor, Jason P
This study seeks to establish whether meaningful subgroups exist within a 14-16 year old adolescent population and if these segments respond differently to the Game On: Know Alcohol (GOKA) intervention, a school-based alcohol social marketing program. This study is part of a larger cluster randomized controlled evaluation of the GOKA program implemented in 14 schools in 2013/2014. TwoStep cluster analysis was conducted to segment 2,114 high school adolescents (14-16 years old) on the basis of 22 demographic, behavioral, and psychographic variables. Program effects on knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy of identified segments were subsequently examined. Three segments were identified: (1) Abstainers, (2) Bingers, and (3) Moderate Drinkers. Program effects varied significantly across segments. The strongest positive change effects post-participation were observed for Bingers, while mixed effects were evident for Moderate Drinkers and Abstainers. These findings provide preliminary empirical evidence supporting the application of social marketing segmentation in alcohol education programs. Development of targeted programs that meet the unique needs of each of the three identified segments will extend the social marketing footprint in alcohol education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tonks, D G
Market segmentation is often articulated as being a process which displays the recognised features of classical rationalism but in part; convention, convenience, prior experience and the overarching impact of rhetoric will influence if not determine the outcomes of a segmentation exercise. Particular examples of this process are addressed critically in this paper which concentrates on the issues of variable choice for multivariate approaches to market segmentation and also the methods used fo...
Horbal, N.; Shpak, M.; Shpak, Y.
The current state of the labor market in Ukraine is researched. A lot of processes are irregular and uncontrollable as a result of shadow or informal employment at the market nowadays. Different structural and cyclical influences caused high unemployment and a gap between labor market needs and labor force qualification and education. The impact of the political crisis on employment has been related to a large and growing internal flow of people leaving the areas of warfare and looking for...
Das, Maitreyi Bordia
This paper uses data from the 61st Round of the National Sample Survey to understand the employment outcomes of Dalit and Muslim men in India. It uses a conceptual framework developed for the US labor market that states that ethnic minorities skirt discrimination in the primary labor market to build successful self-employed ventures in the form of ethnic enclaves or ethnic labor markets. ...
Froelich, Markus; Puhani, Patrick
Based on a nonparametrically estimated model of labor market classifications, this paper makes suggestions for immigration policy using data from western Germany in the 1990s. It is demonstrated that nonparametric regression is feasible in higher dimensions with only a few thousand observations. In sum, labor markets able to absorb immigrants are characterized by above average age and by professional occupations. On the other hand, labor markets for young workers in service occupations are id...
Full Text Available In this paper we reflect upon the state of Swedish labor market history by using Christer Lundh’s synthesis Spelets regler as a point of departure. In particular, we discuss three main themes: (1 the relationship between economic structures and institutions, (2 power and income distribution, and (3 flexibility and segmentation. In future research we would like to see stronger empirical evidence of links between structural and institutional changes, more elaborated studies of the effects of institutional change on the functional distribution of incomes and increased awareness of how patterns of segmentation and flexibility strategies have evolved over time.
Freedman, Marcia; Maclachlan, Gretchen
Utilizing Federal census data from 1960 and 1970, this study provides (1) an overview of the job structure of the entire American economy as of 1970, by arranging the jobs in a new occupational-industrial matrix and ranking them in terms of average annual earnings; and (2) an analysis of the structural factors that distinguish the better from the…
Full Text Available Implementation of the business intelligence concept is enabling new opportunities for the labor market research and management. Labor market intelligence means a competent decision making process in the labor market. Such process should be based on the comprehensive set of analytical technologies and tools. The analysis of online information available at websites of state organizations working in the labor market of the Republic of Moldova has shown that many them are still at the very beginning of the effective data using.
Full Text Available For several years Vietnam has been receiving attention as an attractive businesslocation for foreign companies. But in spite of overall positive economicdevelopments, foreign companies in Vietnam also experience challenges, e.g.connected to bureaucracy and corruption. Another issue that is of crucialimportance for foreign companies in foreign markets are the conditions on thelabor market. This paper investigates questions about the potentials andchallenges for foreign companies on the Vietnamese labor market, and of howattractive Vietnam’s labor market is compared to India and China.Educationlevels, productivity, wage levels, and number of strikes are among theindicators that are used to compare the attractiveness of Vietnam’s labor market tothe labor markets of China and India. Furthermore the results of almost 30interviews conducted withcompanies from Austria, Germany and Switzerland ontheir experiences with doing business in Vietnam are used to shed light on thestrengths and weaknesses of the labor market in Vietnam.
Full Text Available An increasingly important role in economic activity has the human resources. These are represented of population, also planning and management of such resources are extremely important, almost as important as raw materials and energy resources. Without people, any activity of exploitation of deposits is not possible, as otherwise there can be not possible any economic action or otherwise. The labor market in Romania has undergonesignificant changes in the process of economic transition, manifested by reducing the active and occupied people, by maintaining relatively steady unemployment rate and increasing youth unemployment and the long term unemployment, being affected mainly by the limited capacity of creation new jobs. In parallel with the reduction in employment people, it occurred significant changes in employment structure by sectors, industries, regions, types of ownership, age and occupational status.
Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.
Full Text Available The technological revolution of recent years about the spectacular development of the Internet has made its presence felt in the economy. Electronic commerce is already a major component of the economy and thus influences the labor market. In this article, we present electronic commerce as an alternative to increase the number of employees. Given that only 6% of Romanian currently use electronic commerce, its growth potential is huge and in terms of thoughtful strategies it can be achieved their guidance to specific regions. Attracting companies operating on the Internet in a given region can be done by providing incentives and beneficial effects will be felt not only through the number of employees but also through the services used by these companies.
Vesna Žabkar; Maja Hosta
The purpose of this article is to define and empirically verify a range of knowledge and skills which are necessary in order to segment marketers, based on their perceptions of the importance of such marketing knowledge and skills. To empirically verify the importance of marketing knowledge and skills, a 28-item measurement instrument was developed. Responses from 235 marketing vice-presidents, marketing directors, sales directors or company presidents/owners in Slovenia were obtained (an 11....
Full Text Available Academists and practitioners have already acknowledged the importance of unobservable segmentation bases (such as psychographics yet still focusing on how well these bases are capable of describing relevant segments (the identifiability criterion rather than on how precisely these segments can predict (the predictability criterion. Therefore, this paper intends to add a debate to this topic by exploring whether culture-based segments do account for a selection of market strategy. To do so, a set of market strategy variables over a sample of 251 manufacturing firms was first regressed on a set of 19 cultural variables using canonical correlation analysis. Having found significant relationship in the first canonical function, it was further examined by means of correspondence analysis which cultural segments – if any – are linked to which market strategies. However, as correspondence analysis failed to find a significant relationship, it may be concluded that business culture might relate to the adoption of market strategy but not to the cultural groupings presented in the paper.
Bogusz, Dominika; Górajski, Mariusz
We propose a new dynamic model of product goodwill where a product is sold in many market segments, and where the segments are indicated by the usage experience of consumers. The dynamics of product goodwill is described by a partial differential equation of the Lotka–Sharpe– McKendrick type. The main novelty of this model is that the product goodwill in a segment of new consumers depends not only on advertising effort, but also on consumer recommendations, for which we introduce a mathematic...
Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis
The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be identified for social marketing
Full Text Available Abstract Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%; At Risk (22%; Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%; Getting Best Results (13%; and Doing OK (12%. Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8% compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%. Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct
With the development of modern agriculture and the further improvement in balancing urban and rural development, rural tourism ushered in a new opportunity for development. However, due to lack of market segmentation,rural tourism in China is facing many problems.The rural tourists will be classified based on the market segmentation in this article,and then put forward four aspects from the use of different target market strategy, develop network marketing, Implements the region brand strategy and international marketing strategy.The aim is to offer advices and suggestions to the sustainable development of the rural tourism.
Mainous, A G; Shelby, R L
In recent years, market segmentation analysis has shown increased popularity among health care marketers, although marketers tend to focus upon hospitals as sellers. The present analysis suggests that there is merit to viewing hospitals as a market of consumers. Employing a random sample of 741 small rural hospitals, the present investigation sought to determine, through the use of segmentation analysis, the variables associated with hospital success (occupancy). The results of a discriminant analysis yielded a model which classifies hospitals with a high degree of predictive accuracy. Successful hospitals have more beds and employees, and are generally larger and have more resources. However, there was no significant relationship between organizational success and number of services offered by the institution.
Poverty, Job Quality and Labor Market Dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa ... This project will explore links between labour market dynamics and the quality ... public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.
Avraamoya, E. M.
The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…
Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation procedure of regional labor market influence on sustainability of internal labor market institutions. The paper refines the categories of regional and internal labor market. Internal labor market institutions have been classified and evaluated regarding the level of their sustainability (basing on cases of the Sverdlovsk region city-forming enterprises. As a result the model of labor expenses evaluation is elaborated for enterprises concerned.
Full Text Available The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays. The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor market employment in the 55+ group increased in 10 years by 20%. Effective management of the community of older people is necessary to keep the balance in economy. Many examples of good case practices from chosen European countries point an important role of education in this process. Education is a tool that aims to support older people in functioning on the job market and increase employers’ awareness of changes and solutions that need to be implemented in their companies. Customized forms of employment are another instrument of increasing job activity of older people. They let employers adjust the time, place of work, job description and form of payment according to the employer’s and employee’s preferences. Though, the most significant instrument is reduction of unemployment benefits for people who are qualified to take job activity. In this case one of the solutions is applying temporary benefits that stimulate active job hunting. The mentioned activities, to ensure their efficiency, should be supported by adequate law regulations.
Tyaglov Sergey, G.
Full Text Available In the context of Russia's transition to innovation-oriented type of economic development is becoming particularly urgent problem of improving the quality of the workforce and professional development throughout their working life. Currently, the regional labor market characterized by increasing diversity of professions and as a result, the diversification requirements of employers at the regional level, depending on the industrial, agricultural, logistics, etc. specialization of the region. The increasing complexity of the structure and the internal differentiation of the various areas of economic activity determines the demand for workers with a broad fundamental training along with narrow professional competencies, so the mechanism of regulation of the regional bloc needs assessment of competencies of workers, institutionalized at both the state level and at the level of regional public associations, employers' associations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the state of the youth segment of the labor market, the establishment of the fact that for resolving the contradictions of the labor market and the education market (mismatch structure and quality of the training of human capital in the region, the needs of employers, the contradictions of regional professional and educational standards at the regional level, it is advisable to provide correlation of regional professional standards with the federal state educational standards, which will neutralize the contradictions, the solution of which determines the rational use of the labor potential in the regional economy.
This paper is an empirical attempt to quantify caste-based discrimination in thelabor market using household data taken from rural North India. In the regressionanalysis, transaction costs associated with entry into the labor market and reservationwages are estimated simultaneously along with market wages. The estimation resultsprovide evidence of the existence of transaction costs in the labor market anddiscrimination against backward classes with regard to access to regular employment. Inli...
Scammon, D L; Smith, J A; Beard, T
Mammography has become a vital tool for the early detection of breast cancer. Although many organizations and health care facilities are working to educate and motivate women to take advantage of the life saving opportunity that is offered through screening mammography, only twenty percent of women who should be screened actually have the procedure performed. In order to reach women who have not been screened, it is important to learn which factors most strongly motivate those women who do choose to have a mammogram. Depth interviews with 18 women attending a mobile mammography unit were conducted to explore the decision making process of women obtaining mammography screening services and to develop a profile of prevalent emotions, attitudes, and feelings associated with receiving breast cancer screening services. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several important themes to which health care professionals can direct marketing and health promotion strategies.
Full Text Available Las diferencias que existen dentro del mercado laboral ecuatoriano, en las diferentes ramas de actividad, evidencian los niveles de formación que los trabajadores deben tener para evitar efectos negativos. Por tal motivo, en este estudio se analiza el papel que las características personales, laborales y geográficas desempeñan en la probabilidad de obtener un contrato temporal frente a uno indefinido. El análisis es realizado por rama de actividad, para determinar qué características posibilitarán la existencia del contrato temporal en cada una de ellas. Para lograr este objetivo, se estiman modelos de regresión logística utilizando los datos de la Encuesta de Empleo, Desempleo y Subempleo desde el 2º trimestre del año 2007 al 2º trimestre del año 2010, elaborada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC. || The differences that exist inside the labor Ecuadorian market, in the different branches of activity, demonstrate the training levels that the workers must have to avoid negative effects. However, in this study, the role played by individual, jobs and residence characteristics are analyzed on the probability of having a fixed-term employment versus permanent employment. It is analyzed concretely by branch of activity, to check which are the characteristics that would make it possible the existence of the fixed-term employment in each of them. To achieve this aim, there are estimated models of logistic regression using the information of the Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment from 2nd quarter of 2007 to the 2nd quarter of 2010, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC.
Full Text Available This paper represents a research regarding informatics graduates professional level adjustment to specific requirements of the IT labor market. It uses techniques and models for data warehouse technology to allow a comparative analysis between the supply competencies and the skills demand on the IT labor market.
Henrickson, Kevin E.
Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…
Kalleberg, Arne L.; Rosenfeld, Rachel A.
Examined interrelationships by sex between domestic work and labor market work in the United States, Canada, Norway, and Sweden. Findings suggested that Scandinavian women used their greater opportunities for part-time employment to reconcile family and labor market responsibilities. No significant effects were observed for men in any of the…
Meyer, Lisa B.
This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…
As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…
Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.
Consistent with two models of imperfect competition in the labor market-the efficient bargaining model and the monopsony model-we provide two extensions of a microeconomic version of Hall's framework for estimating price-cost margins. We show that both product and labor market imperfections generate
Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…
Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Villagomez, E.
We analyze mobility in urban Mexico between three labor market states: working in the formal sector, working in the informal sector, and not working. We use a dynamic multinomial logit panel data model with random effects, explaining the labor market state of each individual during each time period.
This paper modifies Edna Bonacich's theory of class conflict which cites the split labor market during the period of 1920-30 as the cause of racial antagonisms. The author states that Bonacich neglected the role of employers and technological advance in the creation of the split labor market. (ML)
The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…
Kiener, M E
This paper describes an approach to continuing professional education (CPE) program development in nursing within a university environment that utilizes the concepts of market segmentation and positioning. Use of these strategies enables the academic CPE enterprise to move beyond traditional needs assessment practices to create more successful and better-managed CPE programs.
Chen, Henry C. K.; And Others
The paper investigates the potential market segments of an upper division university in transition to 4-year status, and explores selection criteria and the influence of various information sources on the choice of university by the potential target students. Data sources for the study included a survey of 142 freshmen students of whom 120…
Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
In times of globalization, modern societies' labor markets have been marked by an increasing segmentation and growing social inequality. Youths in particular have experienced a worsening of their employment chances in the past three decades. However, what will the future bring? Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa
This paper presents a complete analysis of the gender differences in three Chilean professional’s labor market: Business, Law and Medicine. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set collected for this effect. This data set contains information on labor market outcomes (including labor history), on schooling attainment and schooling performance and a complete set of variables characterizing the family background of the individuals in the sample. In addition, the survey contains an in...
Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek
Purpose: To examine the influence and participation of women in the labor market by the know-ledge economy; in negative or positive manner. Methodology: Quantitative research technique has been implied to evaluate women’s participa-tion in the labor market to minimize negative impacts of knowledge economy. Findings: Within the service and agricultural sectors, the outcomes demonstrated that knowledge economy is found to have a significant impact on the participation of women’s labor for...
Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.
Between 1983 and 1989, employment of nuclear engineers in the nuclear energy field increased almost 40 percent while the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees awarded decreased by almost one-fourth. There were, on average, more job openings for new graduates than there were new graduates available to fill the jobs during the 1980s. This trend reversed in the l990s as nuclear engineering employment in the nuclear energy field decreased from 11,500 in 1991 to 9,400 in 1995. During roughly the same period, the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees increased by 11 percent. As a result, from 1990 through 1995, the number of new graduate nuclear engineers available in the labor supply far exceeded the number of job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. This oversupply of new graduates was particularly acute for 1993 through 1995. During 1996--1997, a relative improvement is expected in job opportunities in the nuclear energy field for new graduates; however, a large oversupply is still expected (almost twice as many graduates available for employment as there are job openings). For 1998 through 2000, some improvement is expected in the relative number of job opportunities for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. Nuclear engineering jobs in the nuclear energy field are expected to decrease only slightly (by less than 150) during this period. Also a 10--15% decrease in the annual number of degrees and available supply of new graduates is expected. Overall, an oversupply is expected (140 graduates available per 100 job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field), but this is still a substantial improvement over the current period. For 2001 through 2005, if enrollments and degrees continue to decline, the labor market for new graduates is expected to be approximately balanced. This assumes, however, that the number of degrees and the available supply of new graduates will decrease by 25% from 1995 levels
Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic multi-objective linear integer programming model is proposed to optimally distribute a firm’s advertising budget among multiple products and media in a segmented market. To make the media plan responsive to the changes in the market, the distribution is carried out dynamically by dividing the planning horizon into smaller periods. The model incorporates the effect of the previous period advertising reach on the current period (taken through retention factor, and it also considers cross-product effect of simultaneously advertising different products. An application of the model is presented for an insurance firm that markets five different products, using goal programming approach.
Alina Ştefania CHENIC (CREŢU
Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis and the challenges of globalization, the paper presents and analyses relevant aspects of labor market flexicurity, especially in the Mediterranean and Anglo- Saxon model. Thus, the labor market in Spain and the United Kingdom has been studied, highlighting the reason behind existing problems, compared to other EU countries, notably in the Euro area (Italy, Greece, Portugal, Germany. Labor market flexicurity highlights labor market flexibility while, at the same time, ensuring safe transition for employees from a job to another. In this context, it should be emphasized that integration in the Economic and Monetary Union involves fulfilling a major condition in order to cope within the Union, namely labor market flexibility.
Venture through the pages of How Consumers Pick a Hotel to learn the steps of selecting a target and using consumer behavior applications to segment the market to reach your target. Much as a consumer goes through the process of selecting a satisfying hotel, you can choose to use the information provided to make your hospitality career relaxing and satisfying. When you finish this fantastic reading journey, you'll be prepared to offer services that meet the public's demands, and you'll possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills for developing your own strategic approach to a target market. As the many methods of segmentation are discussed in detail, you will also learn effective strategies for communicating with multiple segments. Ideal as a supplementary text for marketing and hospitality marketing courses, How Consumers Pick a Hotel provides a concise overview of consumer behavior and intertwines marketing theory with sound ways in which to implement the theory. This will both orient you and give you a s...
Mityaeva Tetyana L.
Full Text Available The article presents results of optimisation step-type calculations of economic effectiveness of promotion of fast food with consideration of key parameters of assessment of efficiency of the marketing strategy of segmentation. The article justifies development of a mathematical model on the bases of 3D-presentations and three-dimensional system of management variables. The modern applied mathematical packages allow formation not only of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays and analyse links of variables, but also of three-dimensional, besides, the more links and parameters are taken into account, the more adequate and adaptive are results of modelling and, as a result, more informative and strategically valuable. The article shows modelling possibilities that allow taking into account strategies and reactions on formation of the marketing strategy under conditions of entering the fast food market segments.
Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan
The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.
Nacar, Ramazan; Uray, Nimet
With the increasing role of globalization, international market segmentation has become a critical success factor for global companies, which aim for international market expansion. Despite the practice of numerous methods and bases for international market segmentation, international market segmentation is still a complex and an under-researched area. By considering all these issues, underdeveloped and under-researched international market segmentation bases such as social, cultural, psychol...
Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P
Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market.
Dmitry Aleksandrovich Pokrovsky
Full Text Available This paper is addressed to explanation of differentiation of economics in structure of labor market and income distribution. In order to this aim the author develops a model of endogenous formation of entrepreneurship in economics with heterogeneous agents. The nature of heterogeneity is non- trivial distribution of entrepreneurial abilities across individuals. The impact of form and support of distribution of abilities as well as structure of preferences are studied. The key result is impact of an elasticity of substitution and an elasticity of distribution function on share of entrepreneurs and income inequality in opposite way. This effect must be taken into account when arbitrary economic policy is developed. Also author consider two transformation of support of distribution of entrepreneurial abilities: 1 tension and compression, 2 shift. Economies which are equivalence in sense of first type of support transformation have the same share of entrepreneurs in population and the same level of income inequality. In the second case economy with less able individuals in average has bigger share of entrepreneurs in population and it is more differentiated in income
Sarah A. Reynolds
Full Text Available This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers’ work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children’s lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance. These main effects did not remain significant with the inclusion of a wide range of socio-economic, demographic control variables, however. Our results were similarly null when using an IV analysis or a propensity score matching approach. We provide descriptive information on theoretical pathways by which maternal work may influence child development. Though several of these pathways (e.g. preschool, toys, maternal stress seem to be associated with both maternal work and child development outcomes, the pathways are not sufficiently strong to generate an association between maternal work and child development. We conclude that Chilean mothers’ employment in early childhood generally does not have an effect on child development.
Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M
The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall
Full Text Available Kathleen Kelley,1 Jeffrey Hyde,2 Johan Bruwer3 1Department of Plant Science, 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: The purpose of this research is to enrich our knowledge of the US wine market and provide insights into how usage rate segmentation can be enhanced by select innovative perspectives of current offerings. Data were collected through a 15-minute online survey of 910 US wine drinkers randomly selected from a panel of consumers. It was found that the “super core” segment not only drank wine more frequently, but also were more likely to drink other types of alcohol presented (beer, distilled spirits, and ready-to-drink cocktails, and at a greater frequency, “at least once a week” and “about once a week”, than “marginal” drinkers. Differences between usage rate segments existed between sex and age generations. Female millennial “super core” consumers would increase wine consumption if the number of calories were reduced to fewer than 80 per 5 oz serving. Practical implications for a winery or wine retailer might include the potential to add these beverages to their product offering or bundling these beverages to create packages (allowing for mass customization, which is used often in retail and appropriately marketing these offerings to their customers. Changes that may invoke a positive response are wine made from “sustainably farmed” or “naturally farmed” grapes, and certified carbon-free wine. From an originality viewpoint, this study is the first to investigate how usage rate segmentation can be enriched by means of variable cross-extension and examination. Keywords: consumer behavior, market segmentation, usage rate, consumption frequency, USA
Hemphill, Elizabeth; Kulik, Carol T
Recruitment is an ongoing challenge in the health industry with general practitioner (GP) shortages in many areas beyond rural and Indigenous communities. This paper suggests a marketing solution that identifies different segments of the GP market for recruitment strategy development. In February 2008, 96 GPs in Australia responded to a mail questionnaire (of which 85 questionnaires were useable). A total of 350 GPs were sent the questionnaire. Respondents considered small sets of attributes in the decision to accept a new job at a general practice and selected the most and least important attribute from each set. We identified latent class clusters (cohorts) of GPs from the most-least important data. Three cohorts were found in the GP market, distinguishing practitioners who emphasised job, family or practice attributes in their decision to join a practice. Few significant demographic differences exist between the cohorts. A segmented GP market suggests two alternative recruitment strategies. One option is for general practices to target members of a single cohort (family-, job-, or practice-focussed GPs). The other option is for general practices to diversify their recruitment strategies to target all three cohorts (family-, job- and practice-focussed GPs). A single brand (practice) can have multiple advertising strategies with each strategy involving advertising activities targeting a particular consumer segment.
Joseph A. Roos; Ivan L. Eastin; Hisaaki Matsuguma
A mail survey of Japanese post and beam builders was conducted to measure their level of ethnocentrism, market orientation, risk aversion, and price consciousness. The data were analyzed utilizing factor and cluster analysis. The results showed that Japanese post and beam builders can be divided into three distinct market segments: open to import...
Felder, S.; Schleiniger, R.
We explore the implication of the 'double dividend' debate for international environmental taxes. In our scenario, small open economies with different labor market distortions follow a common environmental policy and use national environmental tax revenues to finance labor tax cuts. Since the double dividend hypothesis does not hold, a high labor tax implies a low environmental tax relative to other countries. The optimal differentiation of international environmental taxes is proven to be a function of the national labor tax rates and the uncompensated elasticities of labor supply. 20 refs
Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall
are indeed key drivers of internal migration flows in Denmark. That is, while we obtain mixed evidence with regard to the role of traditional labor and housing market variables, most of the included proxies for agglomeration economies such as the region’s population density, patent intensity, endowment......We analyze the determinants and regional implications of internal migration flows across Danish municipalities in 2006–2012. Besides assessing the role of labor market and housing market factors in driving a region’s net migration rate, we particularly focus on agglomeration factors identified...... for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies...
Reed, Michael R.; Salvacruz, Joseph C.
A cluster analysis based on a five-year growth rate of agricultural imports from the United States was conducted on 86 countries and revealed two significant market segments for U.S. agriculture: the high-growth markets and the low-growth markets. Multiple discriminant analysis was then used to test the significance of the countries' trade-related and macroeconomic variables to their market growth classification. The discriminant function was used to predict the high-growth markets for U.S. a...
Mityaeva Tetyana L.
The article presents results of optimisation step-type calculations of economic effectiveness of promotion of fast food with consideration of key parameters of assessment of efficiency of the marketing strategy of segmentation. The article justifies development of a mathematical model on the bases of 3D-presentations and three-dimensional system of management variables. The modern applied mathematical packages allow formation not only of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays and analyse ...
Daniela Favaretto; Luca Grosset; Bruno Viscolani
The optimal control problem of determining advertising efforts for a seasonal good in a heterogeneous market is considered. We characterize optimal advertising exposures under different conditions: the general situation in which several wide-spectrum media are available, under the assumption of additive advertising effects on goodwill evolution, the ideal situation in which the advertising process can reach selectively each segment and the more realistic one in which a single medium reaches s...
An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…
Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)
This paper evaluates how access to paid parental leave affects labor market entrance for immigrating mothers with small children. Paid parental leave together with job protection may increase labor force participation among women but if it is too generous it may create incentives to stay out of the labor force. This incentive effect may be especially true for mothers immigrating to a country where having small children automatically makes the mothers eligible for the benefit. To evaluate the ...
Full Text Available This paper examines changes in returns and trading volumes around earnings announcements for firms which have both A-shares (traditionally for local investors only and B-shares (traditionally for foreign investors only in China. It considers the impact of regulatory changes which reduced the segmentation of local and foreign investors across the two classes of shares. We find that both the A- and B-markets experience significant price changes around earning announcements. When the two markets are fully segmented, the magnitude of price changes in the A-share market are significantly smaller than the B-market which lends empirical support to the previous claim that the B-market is less informed. The changes in trading volume indicate that the B-market investors have less divergent expectations and interpretations of the pre-disclosure information compared to the A-market investors.However, when regulatory changes reduced the level of segmentation, the price and volume reactions in the two markets became more consistent. The results suggest that the A- and Bmarkets are more integrated as a result of the regulatory changes.
Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…
Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael
We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…
Cooke, Alexis; Freisthler, Bridget; Mulholland, Elycia
As medical marijuana legislation becomes more common, concerns arise about the overconcentration of dispensaries, raising questions about the number of medicinal marijuana dispensaries (MMD) needed to serve medicinal users. This paper applies niche-marketing theory-which suggests dispensaries market to specific types of people-to examine if MMDs might be targeting recreational users. Observed differences between dispensary populations and between dispensary clients and local residents may indicate that dispensaries are drawing in patients based on factors other than medical need. Data were collected via exit surveys with patients at four dispensaries in Long Beach, CA. A total of 132 patients were surveyed regarding demographic data, purchase information, medical condition, and nearest cross street for their home address. Census tract information was collected for every dispensary. Chi-squared tests show significant associations between dispensary visited and race (χ 2 = 31.219, p market segmentation.
Lina María Díaz Vera
Full Text Available The self-replicating nature of seeds poses a challenge for the traditional configuration of Intellectual property rights, as it overlooks the boundary that prevents amateurs from replicating the technology embedded on it. The territorial scope of IP rights and the lack of an international consensus regarding the exhaustion of IP right aggravates the issue. This loophole enhances the segmentation of markets through license agreements of patents and plant varieties which multinationals employ to drag resources all along the market chain, by demanding payment of fees to each shackle. This might constitute an infringement of Competition Law regimes which is undertaken differently according with the tradition of each country but always with the aim of protecting the well-functioning of their internal market.
Indonesia is in the midst of a major financial, economic and political crisis. The immediate effects of the crisis on labor market outcomes are examined drawing on two rounds of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS...
Haferkamp, A.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.; Enste, D.
The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial
Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this paper is to characterize the theoretical aspects of strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles in agrarian enterprises; to identify individual factors of influence on labor resources and to form a scheme effective strategic management of labor resources in conjunction with marketing activities of the enterprise. Methodology / approach. In the process of writing the article, were used such methods as: logical generalization – for the theoretical substantiation of the marketing activity’s and labor resources’ essence; statistical analysis – for the estimation of such factors, as migration movement of labor resources from rural areas, which influence on the functioning of agrarian enterprises; system analysis – for research and substantiation of effective strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles as the main element of the enterprise’s activity. Results. Today in Ukraine one of the main problems of effective management of is the attraction and use of labor resources. Since labor is the main productive force in solving the issues of competitiveness, economic growth and ensuring the effective operation of the enterprise. The labor resources management is a complex process and has its own specific properties and regularities and should have systemic character and completeness based on the development of strategic management. Application of strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles at agrarian enterprises will allow using economic, organizational and technical possibilities of production effectively. Originality / scientific novelty. An attempt to investigate the influence of interstate migration growth (decrease in the rural population as a negative factor of the labor resources reduction in agrarian enterprises, and the forecast for the prospective period was made. Practical value / implications. The forecasting level of labor
Americano, Nathalia Martins
Considering the various difficulties faced by transgender people who want a professional placement in the formal labor market, the issues discussed in the sphere of principled- normative construction suggest alternatives to resolve them fairly and effectively. This study is developed through theory analysis of the fundamental principles and guarantees prevailing in the current constitutional order and the international community. Notwithstanding the labor market being an environment where it ...
G L Clark
Local labor markets are characterized by rigidities in their patterns of adjustment to short-run fluctuations. With or without unions, fluctuations in employment, hours worked, and money wages are unlike the patterns predicted by conventional discrete-exchange labor-market theories. Moreover there are distinct geographical and industrial patterns in the observed rigidities. Neoclassical implicit contract theory has been vindicated. Or has it? Obvious empirical difficulties remain, especially ...
Clemens, Michael A.; Lewis, Ethan Gatewood; Postel, Hannah M.
An important class of active labor market policy has received little rigorous impact evaluation: immigration barriers intended to improve the terms of employment for domestic workers by deliberately shrinking the workforce. Recent advances in the theory of endogenous technical change suggest that such policies could have limited or even perverse labor-market effects, but empirical tests are scarce. We study a natural experiment that excluded almost half a million Mexican 'bracero' seasonal ag...
This thesis focused on how to develop export during the development process from labor-intensive industry to technology-intensive industry. The situation of wage, labor-intensive industry and technology-intensive industry development are backgrounds. The objective of this thesis was to analyze the problems of the case company and to provide the case company with strategies. The approach used in this thesis is case study. The data acquisition includes interviews, online chatting and telep...
Rockloff, Matthew; Moskovsky, Neda; Thorne, Hannah; Browne, Matthew; Bryden, Gabrielle
This study used a marketing-research paradigm to explore gamblers' attraction to EGMs based on different elements of the environment. A select set of environmental features was sourced from a prior study (Thorne et al. in J Gambl Issues 2016b), and a discrete choice experiment was conducted through an online survey. Using the same dataset first described by Rockloff et al. (EGM Environments that contribute to excess consumption and harm, 2015), a sample of 245 EGM gamblers were sourced from clubs in Victoria, Australia, and 7516 gamblers from an Australian national online survey-panel. Participants' choices amongst sets of hypothetical gambling environments allowed for an estimation of the implied individual-level utilities for each feature (e.g., general sounds, location, etc.). K-means clustering on these utilities identified four unique market segments for EGM gambling, representing four different types of consumers. The segments were named according to their dominant features: Social, Value, High Roller and Internet. We found that the environments orientated towards the Social and Value segments were most conducive to attracting players with relatively few gambling problems, while the High Roller and Internet-focused environments had greater appeal for players with problems and vulnerabilities. This study has generated new insights into the kinds of gambling environments that are most consistent with safe play.
Nadya Araújo Guimarães
Full Text Available This article focuses on the inter-sectorial mobility of industrial workers in Brazil based on longitudinal data from the Brazilian Ministry of Labor on the number of hired and dismissed workers during the 1990s. Comparing two industries in two regional labor markets, the author argues that gender differences are important for understanding patterns of mobility in formal labor markets independent of the degree of their formality, the different patterns of women’s work permeability, and the nature of their restructuring process.
Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of sustainable development of the labor market at a regional level. For this analysis we chose the Development Region of South West Oltenia, based on the terms of future considerations regarding Romania's territorial reorganization. To this extent, we chose to outline, taking into consideration the macroeconomic indicators pertaining to the region chosen for study, the prerequisites for a development based on sound economic principles of the labor market. Sustainable development involves combining all factors of impact for better resource management in the case of labor, which must take into account the cyclical implications of the Romanian economy.
Full Text Available In modern societies gender gap attracts significant attention. Scientists are trying to research this issue from different aspects: demographical, sociological, economic, etc. The goal of this paper is to define the basic variables that explain variation on the labor markets in Europe from the gender point of view and to compare labor market in Serbia with European countries in order to identify the countries with the most similar gender performances, with intention to overview their experiences concerning the policy measures for gender gap reduction. Analysis is conducted through observations of activity rates, employment rates, unemployment rates, inactivity rates, and long-term unemployment rates. With use of factor analysis we have identified the main factors on the labor markets in Europe and on the basis of cluster analysis we have conducted grouping of countries on the basis of discovered factors. Identification of cluster with Serbia was conducted and also the place of the Serbian labor market in the same cluster. On the basis of quantitative results qualitative analysis was conducted to overview the experience in the field of gender differences on the labor market in the countries from the same cluster as Serbia, with special attention to Italy. Contemporary researches define labor market policy measures oriented to reduction of inequalities in the field of paid and unpaid labor. Decrease of these inequalities will consequently lead to the increase of female labor supply on the market. Final result of this research is the recommendation of policy measures in order to reduce gender differences in economic activity with final goal of creating modern society in Serbia and convergence with the most advanced countries in that field.
The research examines the current state of the market of legal services (by the example of Kharkiv Region). To date the market of legal services of Kharkiv Region is mature and features high professionalism of its participants, well-shaped market segments and positive market trends.The author highlights some performance problems and development opportunities of the regional market in the context of international integration. They include manifestations of unfair competition, low standards of ...
Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W
Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality.
Greenland’s population and employment have historically been stable, but its growth performance is not impressive. Greenland enjoys rather stable fishing exports, and it receives two-thirds of its import capacity as a grant from Denmark. Non-fishing labor contributes to either private consumption...... or government consumption. The first is import-intensive and the second is labor-intensive. Greenland’s imports cannot exceed the sum of the grant and net fishing exports. A large public sector guarantees stable employment. A larger private-government consumption ratio is hypothesized as a way to increase...
Matear, Sheelagh Maureen
In the last thirty years segmentation has been recognised as a fundamental concept in the understanding of a market. This research undertakes a benefit segmentation of the passenger and freight, sea and air transport markets between Great Britain and Ireland (both Northern Ireland and Eire). In so doing, two areas which have been under-researched are addressed; segmentation in a transport market and the Irish sea passenger and freight market. The dominant features of the ...
Aggarwal, S.; Gupta, A.; Govindan, K.
creates a spectrum effect in market with an aim to create wider product awareness and influence the market size. Whereas the differentiated promotion strategy plays major role in external influence component in the respective segment and target for adoption by the current potential segment. Previous......This study develops diffusion models for technological consumer products under the marketing environment when a product is marketed in a segmented market and observes two distinctive promotional strategies of mass and differentiated promotion; an under explored study area. Mass promotion strategy...... studies on segmented diffusion models assumed only first time purchase and constant market size which may yield underestimated results and fail to give appropriate insight of the diffusion process. The study develops and validates generalized diffusion models for segmented market incorporating...
Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force andmarital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our
Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.
The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…
Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip
Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…
Cort, David A; Morrison, Emory
To explore whether the number and composition of first-time applicants to U.S. MD-granting medical schools, which have fluctuated over the past 30 years, are related to changes in labor market strength, specifically the unemployment rate and wages. The authors merged time series data from 1980 through 2010 (inclusive) from five sources and used multivariate time series models to determine whether changes in labor market strength (and several other macro-level factors) were related to the number of the medical school applicants as reported by the American Medical College Application Service. Analyses were replicated across specific sex and race/ethnicity applicant pools. Two results surfaced in the analyses. First, the strength of the labor market was not influential in explaining changes in applicant pool sizes for all applicants, but was strongly influential in explaining changes for black and Hispanic males. Increases of $1,000 in prevailing median wages produced a 1.6% decrease in the white male applicant pool, while 1% increases in the unemployment rate were associated with 4.5% and 3.1% increases in, respectively, the black and Hispanic male applicant pools. Second, labor market strength was a more important determinant in applications from males than in applications from females. Although stakeholders cannot directly influence the overall economic market, they can plan and prepare for fewer applications from males, especially those who are black and Hispanic, when the labor market is strong.
Clécia Ivânia Rosa Satel
Full Text Available The paper aims to outline the profile of employed persons in Paraná labor market in the period 2003-2012 from the microdata of the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD. The results showed that Paraná's labor market predominantly occupied by male individuals, belonging to the formal market and with white skin. The participation of women, non-young people and skilled individuals among the employed has increased. Skilled individuals usually perform activities in sectors related to the sciences and arts, while the unskilled are related to production or service sector.
Vania de Fátima Barros Estivalete
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine the prospect of coordinators and members of collective enterprises members of a Brazilian social incubator about the contributions of social entrepreneurship with the female increase in the participation of women in the labor market. We conducted a descriptive and qualitative research. The analysis of the context was defined a priori by defined categories, based on a theoretical model that contemplates the dimensions: human capital, will and viability, social capital, social and institutional environment actors. The categories defined a posteriori contemplated the following categories: empowerment, recovery and personal fulfillment. Regarding women's inclusion in the labor market, the results reflected some difficulties faced by women who participate in projects, with highlights to the lack of qualification, opportunities and participation in the formal market. For many interviewees, these projects represented the first opportunity for inclusion in the labor market.
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.
The thesis covers three topics on the labour market and on consumer demand. Chapters two and three focus on the labour market mobility and wage differentials between the formal sector and the informal sector in urban Mexico. Dynamic random effects panel data models are used in the analysis. Chapters
Brenke, Karl; Clemens, Marius
In the last decade the available labor force has expanded in Germany-despite the decline in the working-age population. The reason: labor market participation has increased, for women in particular and older people in general. Also noticeable was a rise in qualification level because well-educated people have a particularly high propensity to participate in the labor market. Most recently, Germany's potential labor force has grown as a consequence of many factors, including migration-from oth...
Sybirtsev Volodymyr V.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate and develop conceptual provisions for conducting the institutional reform of the national labor market. There singled out aspects of implementing the operation and development of the labor market in the context of manifestation of the internal complexity and multi-functionality inherent to it. The existence of regularities in the increase of the need for development of the institutional structure of the labor market under conditions of transforming and restructuring the system of socio-economic relations is proved. The presence of a multiplicative effect from the spread of the new institutional practices being introduced in the labor market on the institutional regulation of a wide range of economic operations, phenomena and processes is revealed. There defined the content of the process of developing the institutional space of the national labor market, which involves institutionalizing the processes of socialization of the socio-economic relations associated with productive employment, in the context of which there occurs an increase in the importance and role of human resources in the creation of economic goods, expanded social reproduction.
José Milton Barros Neto
Full Text Available The professional nursing practice has been constantly targeted for discussion, especially regarding the conditions of their work . The aim of this study was to understand the formation of this professional and the job market today, considering the changes in the curriculum of nursing, trends in the labor market , the demand and supply of labor this professional. It is a study of the literature review, based on a historical - critical perspective , using the databases SCIELO , VHL , BIREME , plus titles available in the library of the Centro Universitário de Maceió - CESMAC.O study was guiding question : how has initally vocational nurses face the determinations of the job market today ? It was felt that the training of nurses throughout their history, had fundamental influence of the labor market , whereas the changes in curricular courses were predetermined in the market trends that pointed according to each season . In recent decades , there has been a considerable increase in jobs , but disproportionate to the number of institutions of higher education in nursing in the country . Consequently , highlighted the growth of the informal labor relations , resulting in precarious jobs and the stagnation in labor income.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the ways in which social class shapes the return-to-work decisions of Finnish working-class and middle-class mothers, and how these decisions are structured by the constraints and opportunities mothers face in the local labor market. The focus of the study is in the local labor market of the city of Jyväskylä. The data consist of two semi-structured focus group interviews of 14 employed mothers of below school-age children. Using the framework of “gendered moral rationalities,” the study shows that there are similarities in mothers’ experiences, while the structural constraints mothers faced when deciding about the timing of returning back to work differ. The analysis highlights that the differences were not only dependent on social class but also on the situation in the local labor market. For working-class mothers, the most crucial issue was the financial strain that their staying at home caused to their families. For middle-class mothers, finding employment opportunities that would match their educational qualifications in the local labor market had been challenging, which affected their timing of returning back to work. The paper concludes that local labor market plays an important role in mother’s return-to-work decisions and should be explored further in differing geographical contexts.
Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N
Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cools, Sara; Markussen, Simen; Strøm, Marte
We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents' number of children is instrumented with the sex mix of their first two children. We find that having additional children causes sizable reductions in labor supply for women, which fade as children mature and even turn positive for women without a college degree. Among women with a college degree, there is evidence of persistent and even increasing career penalties of family size. Having additional children reduces these women's probability of being employed by higher-paying firms, their earnings rank within the employing firm, and their probability of being the top earner at the workplace. Some of the career effects persist long after labor supply is restored. We find no effect of family size on any of men's labor market outcomes in either the short or long run.
Schneider, Markus P. A.
This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely
This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…
Stambol, L S; Stolen, N M; Avitsland, T
The authors discuss the regional REGARD model, developed by Statistics Norway to analyze the regional implications of macroeconomic development of employment, labor force, and unemployment. "In building the model, empirical analyses of regional producer behavior in manufacturing industries have been performed, and the relation between labor market development and regional migration has been investigated. Apart from providing a short description of the REGARD model, this article demonstrates the functioning of the model, and presents some results of an application." excerpt
Balsvik, Ragnhild; Jensen, Sissel; Salvanes, Kjell G.
We analyze whether regional labor markets are affected by exposure to import competition from China. We find negative employment effects for low-skilled workers, and observe that low-skilled workers tend to be pushed into unemployment or leave the labor force altogether. We find no evidence of wage effects. We partly expect this in a Nordic welfare state where firms are flexible at the employment margin, while centralized wage bargaining provides less flexibility at the wage ma...
Artuc, Erhan; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego
This paper assesses the impact of the rise of China on the trade of Latin American and Caribbean economies. The study proposes an index to measure the impact on trade, which suggests sizable effects, especially in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Mexico, and Paraguay. The paper uses the index and a model of labor mobility, to calculate the impact of China's growth on labor markets in Ar...
Davalos, Maria E.; Elezaj, Ereblina; Flanagan Thurau, Julianna; Rodriguez-Chamussy, Lourdes
Labor market engagement of women is very low in Kosovo - only 12.5 percent of women of working age are employed compared to 41.3 percent of men - suggesting that women face obstacles to work and or being hired. These barriers can be related to a multiplicity of factors, including labor regulations - such as maternity provisions - but also others such as disincentives to work from taxes and ...
In this paper, I investigate whether information accessibility in the target market influences the mode in which out-of-state banks enter the new market following the U.S. interstate banking deregulation and consequently affects local economic activity. I exploit heterogeneity in legal enforcement of non-compete covenants across states and over time as exogenous variations in the key channel through which an out-of-state bank could gain access to local information: the mobility of local incum...
Estrella Gomez Herrera; Bertin Martens
The EU seeks to create a seamless online Digital Single Market for media products such as digital music and film. The territoriality of the copyright regime is often perceived as an obstacle that induces geographical segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence on the extent of market segmentation in the EU on the supply and demand side and measures the contribution of several drivers of this market segmentation. We use data from the Apple iTunes country stores in 27 EU Member States ...
This paper examines the relationship between unemployment and labor market flexibility. The latter is considered in the broadest sense - as it relates to labor markets at large (external flexibility) and to practices within firms (internal flexibility). The first part of the paper addresses the argument that differences in employment performance among the advanced economies result largely from differences in labor market flexibility. Empirical evidence is considered on nominal and real wage f...
Full Text Available The gender gap in working conditions has barely improved in South Korea where various measures for gender equality have been in place for a relatively long time. Furthermore, the female employment rate is also the lowest in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. This study will evaluate the stratified structure of the labor market to identify the causes and will analyze changes in the gender employment distribution and mobility. This study conducted an empirical analysis of gender distribution and labor mobility in the South Korean labor market, utilizing long-term data (2005–2014 from the supplementary survey by employment type on the Economically Active Population of the Korea National Statistical Office. From the analysis, women showed a relatively smaller increase than men in the primary labor market, classified as the large and standard employment market, in 2014 compared with 2005, but showed a relatively greater increase than men in the secondary labor market, comprising the small–medium and non-standard employment market. Thus, gender skewness in employment distribution was greater in the stratified labor market. On the other hand, the non-economically active population more than doubled for women compared to men. From the analysis of labor mobility by gender, a higher proportion of women were employed in the peripheral labor market than in the core labor market and women were also more likely to be employed in the relatively weak peripheral labor market. These results imply that dichotomous gender equality policies for resolving the gender gap have a certain limitation in the stratified labor market. Thus, what is needed is a holistic approach that takes into account the labor market structure.
Rondeau, Kent V; Williams, Eric S; Wagar, Terry H
Turnover of nursing staff is a significant issue affecting health care cost, quality, and access. In recent years, a worldwide shortage of skilled nurses has resulted in sharply higher vacancy rates for registered nurses in many health care organizations. Much research has focused on the individual, group, and organizational determinants of turnover. Labor market factors have also been suggested as important contributors to turnover and vacancy rates but have received limited attention by scholars. This study proposes and tests a conceptual model showing the relationships of organization-market fit and three local labor market factors with organizational turnover and vacancy rates. The model is tested using ordinary least squares regression with data collected from 713 Canadian hospitals and nursing homes. Results suggest that, although modest in their impact, labor market and the organization-market fit factors do make significant yet differential contributions to turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses. Knowledge of labor market factors can substantially shape an effective campaign to recruit and retain nurses. This is particularly true for employers who are perceived to be "employers-of-choice."
The rise of information systems, and especially the internet, has given service providers the opportunity to increase the number of services they can offer their customers. E-commerce platforms, such as Amazon and AliExpress, can offer their customers millions of products because they do not need shelf space to present all their products. Entertainment providers, such as Youtube, Spotify and Netflix, have millions of songs and movies from which the user can choose. Also in the labor market, e...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the relationship between attitudes to work, wellbeing, and labor market status among young adults in Europe and to discuss the extent to which the relationship can be understood in terms of passion or exploitation. This aim is made concrete in the following research questions: To what extent do young adults in Europe have a passionate attitude to work? Are there differences between groups with various labor market status and nationalities? Are there differences in levels of well-being between the groups of young adults with different labor market status, and differences between the countries? The results are based on an individual survey conducted with three categories of young people (18–34 years old: long-term unemployed, those in precarious employments, and those regularly employed. The study had a cross-national comparative design and the countries included were France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.
Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit
In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i....... The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk...... of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4...
Kenia Lara Silva
Full Text Available We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes.
Full Text Available The most important issue of labor market and its active policy is certainly a question of unemployment reduction and employment rates increase. This question is in the focus of attention of many economies over decades ago. The complexity of technology development, specialization of labor, migration and a constant need for education have rendered this area more complex and challenging to explore. It has long been known that the labor market is very asymmetrical and often unpredictable. Despite the great importance of this problem, there is no universal recipe for its solution, which could be effectively applied in neither all countries, nor in every period. In each country there are parts of the territory (regions which have recorded worse results over a longer period of time, as measured by almost all major economic indicators, including the level and rate of (unemployment, compared to the national average. This paper presents a general theoretical overview of the functioning of labor markets and their features, and will provide a short analysis of asymmetry in labor market movements (employment/unemployment between the EU Member States and their regions. .
Stemerding, M.P.; Oppewal, H.; Beckers, T.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
Traditional segmentation schemes are often based on a grouping of consumers with similar preference functions. The research steps, ultimately leading to such segmentation schemes, are typically independent. In the present article, a new integrated approach to segmentation is introduced, which
Gulnara Rafaelevna Gabidullina
Full Text Available This article analyzes the problem of employment of young specialists - graduates of professional institutions. Youth employment is a national problem, because the youth is the country’s human potential. Youth employment is a pressing and long-term objective of national social and economic policy. One of the causes of youth unemployment is a discrepancy between the education markets to labor market needs. Solving problems of youth unemployment is only possible from the standpoint of an integrated, systematic approach.
Full Text Available Abstract This article appeals to heterogeneity in workers’ non-wage preferences to model taste-based discrimination. Firms hire both types of workers and pay lower wages to minority workers, whatever their taste for discrimination. A single prejudiced firm in the market produces a substantial wage gap in all firms. Consequently, discrimination allows unprejudiced firms to make non-zero profits, so that they have little incentive to drive out prejudiced firms. As the market does not eliminate discrimination, state intervention is required. Indirect policies do not affect the absolute wage gap between the two groups, but may be more likely to be used than direct policies.
In Denmark labor has been organized in independent but cooperating craft unions for more than a century. Within an extremely simple model of a small open economy facing imperfect competition, we analyze four different ways of organizing the labor market and show that the Danish model (partial...... centralization of the wage setting process) may be accounted for as the outcome of a two-stage Nash bargaining game, being robust in relation to changes in market conditions, and likely close to optimum from the point of view of society as a whole....
Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
Mason, Andrew D.; Baptist, Jacqueline
A majority of the poor in Indonesia come from agricultural and self-employed households. Moreover, the largest single contribution to poverty reduction between 1990 and 1993 came from within-sector welfare gains to self-employed farm households. Data show that the role of the labor market in reducing poverty has increased since the mid-1980s. Wage labor markets can be expected to play an increasingly important impact on the welfare of Indonesia's poor as the economy continues to undergo struc...
Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
This paper investigates effects on wages of a Danish field experiment intensifying Active Labor Market Policies (ALMP).We link unemployed workers who participated in an ALMP experiment called “Quickly Back” carried out by the Danish Ministry of Employment 2005-2006 in two counties to matched...... employer-employee and public transfer register data up to 2008 enabling us to analyze exact labor market transitions and jobs of the participants. Men in one of the counties experienced significant higher probability of earning higher short and long term wages after treatment. Treated men in the other...
Anguiano Tellez, M E
"This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)
Baker, Gregory A.
Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four market segments were identified corresponding to consumers...
The community college has many roles and constituents: academic, professional, and vocational. Its curriculum may be distinguished from that of other institutions of higher education by its many courses designed to enhance students' immediate career opportunities, especially with nearby employers. This article focuses on the job markets for…
Kimeldorf, Martin; Tornow, Janice A.
A job club approach for secondary disabled youth focuses on mastering job seeking skills by behaviorally sequenced steps learned in situational experiences within a self-help group process framework. Students learn to penetrate the hidden job market, to use social networking via the telephone, and to participate successfully in job interviews. (CL)
30 janv. 2008 ... India started on a program of reforms, both in its external and internal aspects, in the mid-1980s. While the increased exposure to world markets (globalization) and relaxation of domestic controls has undoubtedly given a spurt to the GDP growth rate, the impact of reforms on poverty, inequality and ...
Fátima Rico Encinas
Full Text Available The equitable distribution of income, along with human development indices, is among the factors that differentiate developed from developing countries. In this paper, efforts and other variables related to the circumstances of individuals were quantified and analyzed together with traditional determinants in order to explain inequality in the working population of Bolivia. We estimated econometric models by merging the extended Mincer equation with John Roemer’s theory of Inequality of Opportunity. We find that efforts are important determinants of the levels of wage inequality in the country as well as regional development, labor informality, gender and ethnicity. In this sense, the paper separates the part of wage inequality that may be attributed to situations that are beyond the control of individuals and that can be attributed to conscious decisions. Micro simulations determined that it would be possible to reduce inequality by as much as 21% if it gives people the chance to make similar efforts to improve their wages.
Korepanov Oleksiy S.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the labor market in Ukraine in the regional context using cluster analysis methods. The current state of the labor market in regions of Ukraine is analyzed, and a system of statistical indicators that influence the state and development of this market is formed. The expediency of using cluster analysis for grouping regions according to the level of development of the labor market is substantiated. The essence of cluster analysis is revealed, its main goal, key tasks, which can be solved by means of such analysis, are presented, basic stages of the analysis are considered. The main methods of clustering are described and, based on the results of the simulation, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are justified. In the work the clustering of regions of Ukraine by the level of labor market development using different methods of cluster analysis is carried out, conclusions on the results of the calculations performed are presented, and the main directions for further research are outlined.
Full Text Available Purpose – The Schist Village network is a sustainable development project in Portugal’s Pinhal Interior region that includes 27 villages located in the central inland area of the country. Overall, this study sets out evidence about the motivations, interests, behaviors, and images of visitors/tourists (tourism consumers regarding the Schist Villages in the area. Design/Methodology/Approach – The sample of individuals interviewed includes a total of 223 individuals (59 international and 164 national tourists, all of whom personally answered the questionnaire. Findings and implications – Through analysis of the survey results obtained, it is possible to chart a profile of Schist Village visitors/tourists, ascertain their preferences and the key attributes associated with the image of this tourist destination and, based on these, put forward strongly focused orientations and guidelines to help develop future marketing plans for this territory. Limitations – One limitation stems from how the data was gathered and analyzed constitutes but a mere “moment” in a fairly vast and dynamic universe given that the questionnaires were completed across a defined and fairly brief period of time. The fact that the questionnaires were handed out by network partners effectively excluded from the study all those tourism consumers who travel and visit the territory without any direct recourse to the services of the aforementioned partners. Originality – This study presents an easy and clear way to segment the market that could be used by several stakeholders in order to improve their targeting activities.
Cura Della Redazione, A
SVIMEZ REPORT: Population, school, job market, migrations. The Svimez, a private non profit institution, is an association for the development of business and industries in the south of Italy, whose aim is the study of the economy of the South of Italy to propose development programs. The report on the Economy in the South of Italy is the main annual yearly report since 1974. The main indicators and the development of southern economy in several key sectors are presented and discussed, each year focusing on different specific problems. AIR has already proposed contributions on the gap between north and south to reflect on inequalities. The relationship between economy, wellbeing and health has been demonstrated. The section on school, job market and migrations is presented.
Boden, Leslie I
Recent labor economics studies in the United States and Canada have demonstrated that occupational injuries and illnesses often lead to substantial lost earnings for workers and their families. Other studies have shown substantial long-term lost earnings attributable to large-scale layoffs, where no health impairment has taken place. This article uses evidence from these and other studies of apparently different situations to draw inferences about how managers' actions and public policy choices can affect the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses. Although primary prevention remains the policy of choice, reduction in the impact of workplace injuries and illnesses can decrease the costs of these events and can provide substantial benefits. This article proposes two hypotheses and discusses the evidence for each: (a) Loss of the job held at the onset of illness or injury increases time off work and exacerbates workers' lost earnings. (b) Workers' losses may be substantially reduced by policies that encourage employers to rehire people recovering from or disabled by workplace injuries and illnesses.
Lemmens, A.; Croux, C.; Stremersch, S.
Prior international segmentation studies have been static in that they have identified segments that remain stable over time. This paper shows that country segments in new product growth are intrinsically dynamic. We propose a semiparametric hidden Markov model to dynamically segment countries based
Mitra, Pradeep; Muravyev, Alexander; Schaffer, Mark E.
This paper uses firm-level survey data to study labor reallocation and firm growth in the transition countries over 1996 - 2005, including benchmarking against developed market economies. The data shows rapid growth of the new private sector and of the micro- and small-firm sectors, with the size distribution of firms moving towards the pattern observed in comparable surveys of developed market economies. Throughout, the regional patterns suggest greater convergence in the transition countrie...
Alina Ştefania CHENIC (CREŢU
Full Text Available Althougt at first sight the crisis appears as a disturbance of the regular course of economic, social and organizational, this is a necessary step that turns old structures and relations to some superior functional. Under these conditions, hawever, it is absolutely necessary that the situation be properly evaluated by an analysis of developments and labour market structures and be taken right decision for the purposes of proper management of existing and potential recovery so far underused resources: people, values and strategies. The impact of the economic crisis on labour markets displays significant variation from one country to another. Employment rates and unemployment rates will be compared between European countries and for different groups of workers. Some countries have succeeded in keeping employment levels up and unemployment levels down through recourse to employmentpreservation and employment-creation measures combined with an expansion of active labour market policies. Moreover, certain labour market groups or categories have been particularly hard hit by the crisis. These include men, temporary workers, youth and migrant workers. In the EU Member States, crossing the crisis period was marked by changes in the sense orientation flexibleworking time and conservation work, a strategy that ensures rapid and reversible adaptation to the needs ofproduction entities present.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...
Full Text Available This document analyzes the interactions between macroeconomic regimes, employment generation and the dynamics of labor incomes in Argentina under two different macroeconomic regimes: the currency board regime of the 1990s and the high real exchange rate regime that followed. The former, characterized by a strong currency overvaluation, had a negative impact on economic activity and the labor market. However, the maintenance of a competitive real exchange rate does not by itself guarantee the sustained positive performance of the labor market, as it became evident in Argentina during the 2000s. Although the sizable depreciation of the peso –together with a positive international context- favored the expansion of output and employment, the initial concern of maintaining the real exchange rate at a competitive level was not continued with policies aimed to counteract the appreciation trend that appeared a few years after the implementation of the new regime.
Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek
Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the influence and participation of women in the labor market by the know-ledge economy; in negative or positive manner. Methodology: Quantitative research technique has been implied to evaluate women’s participa-tion in the labor market to minimize negative impacts of knowledge economy. Findings: Within the service and agricultural sectors, the outcomes demonstrated that knowledge economy is found to have a significant impact on the participation of women’s labor force. The only drawback that discourages the employment of women is the concept of culture and social norms. Practical Implications: A higher participation of females in computer science, engineering and technology-oriented jobs would spur innovation and economic advances in all countries. Origi-nality Statement: The research also depicted procedures to accomplish women’s participation as a fundamental requirement for the achievement of developmental goals.
Radcliffe, S A
To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.
Ajanaku, Femi I.; And Others
The work experience of the African-American woman is often overlooked. In this article, the development/underdevelopment model, usually applied to the depressed situation of the Third World, is used to assess the dynamics of race, class, and gender for African-American females in the labor market. (SLD)
Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee
This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…
Sun, Min; Ni, Yongmei
Purpose: Knowledge about principals' leadership roles in charter schools' success has become more important as the number of charter schools increases and as we have learned more about the influence of principal leadership on school effectiveness. To contribute to the limited empirical literature on the principal labor market, this study explores…
Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.
Swiss policy makers created a unique link between unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs) by making benefit payments conditional on program attendance after 7 months of unemployment duration. We evaluate the effect of ALMPs and benefit entitlement on the duration of
This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…
Mitchell, Douglas E.; Yildiz, Selin; Batie, Michael
Community colleges employ more than one-third of the nation's higher education faculty. Nevertheless, the labor market through which faculty are recruited, selected, hired, evaluated and retained or replaced is one of the least understood aspects of these institutions. Functional management and effective policy both require a clear understanding…
Semeijn, J; Boone, C; van der Velden, R; van Witteloostuijn, A; van Velden, R.K.W.
In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain
Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben
A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of…
B. van der Klaauw (Bas); A.P. van Vuuren (Aico); P. Berkhout (Peter)
textabstractIn this paper we develop a structural model for job search behavior of students entering the labor market. The model includes endogenous search effort and on-the-job search. Since students usually do not start a regular job before graduation but start job search earlier, our model is non
Klaauw, van der Bas; Vuuren, van Aico; Berkhout, Peter
In this paper we develop a structural model for job search behavior of students entering the labor market. The model includes endogenous search effort and on-the-job search. Since students usually do not start a regular job before graduation but start job search earlier, our model is non stationary
Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique
A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to…
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
To account for differences between systems of education of highly educated societies, we argue that the impact of academic discipline (field of study) on labor market outcomes should be central. Three modifications of earlier typologies are needed to account for cross-national differences in the
Hill, Elizabeth T.
Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)
Dobbelaere, S.; Lauterbach, R.; Mairesse, J.
Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms' operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in
Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga
We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.
We simultaneously analyze two mechanisms of the managerial labor market: CEO turnover and monetary remuneration schemes.Sample selection models and hazard analyses applied to a random sample of 250 firms listed on the London Stock Exchange over a six-year pre-Cadbury period show that managerial
Bhattacharya, J.; Bunzel, H.
This paper demonstrates that cyclical and chaotic planning solutions are possible in the standard textbook model of search and matching in labor markets. More specifically, it takes a discretetime adaptation of the continuous-time matching economy described in Pissarides (1990, 2001), and computes
The problem is compounded by youthful populations, low quality education, bloated public sectors and low productivity levels in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This project will ... Morocco conforms to Egypt to a significant degree. Jordan offers an ... Impact of labor market reforms on informality in Egypt. Documents.
Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.
Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language
Gaddis, Isis; Pieters, Janneke
This paper investigates the impact of Brazil's trade liberalization on gender differences in labor market outcomes, using difference-in-difference estimation that exploits variation in preliberalization industry composition across microregions. We find that trade liberalization reduced male and
Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.; Ygosse-Battisti, J.
We study how the number of traders affects the interaction between a centralized exchange and bilateral negotiations in an experimental labor market with excess supply and incomplete contracts. In bilateral negotiations firms obtain information about employees’ performance in previous jobs. Though
Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W G
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the
Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy
Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…
Koedel, Cory; Grissom, Jason A.; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael
Educators in public schools in the United States are typically enrolled in defined-benefit pension plans, which penalize across-plan mobility. We use administrative data from Missouri to examine how the mobility penalties affect the labor market for school leaders, and show that pension borders greatly reduce leadership flows across schools. Our…
Alvarado, Andrew; And Others
This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…
Joensen, Juanna Schroter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear evidence of a causal relationship between math and…
-, 05/2008 (2008), s. 1-33 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market * international trade * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.deg.uac.pt/~ceeapla/pt/pdf/papers/Paper05-2008.pdf
While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…
This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…
Plug, E.; van der Klaauw, B.; Ziegler, L.
In this paper, we examine whether children are better off if their parents have more elaborate social networks. Using data on high-school friendships of parents, we analyze whether the number and characteristics of friends affect the labor-market outcomes of children. While parental friendships
Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.
The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…
Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Van der Velden, Rolf
Labor market rewards based on competencies are analyzed using a sample of young European higher education (HE) graduates. Estimates of monetary rewards are obtained from conventional earnings regressions, while estimates total rewards are based on job satisfaction and derived through ordered probit regressions. Results for income show that jobs…
This paper finds that Filipino Americans face significant discrimination in the labor market. Filipino Americans face both wage discrimination and occupational discrimination. But the amount of discrimination faced by Filipino Americans depends on combinations of gender, region of residence, and level of education.
-, č. 348 (2008), s. 1-47 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market * unemployment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp348.pdf
Dinga, Marián; Münich, Daniel
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2010), s. 354-367 ISSN 0927-5371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Univerzity Karlovy(CZ) 7810/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : labor market * unemployment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2010
Unemployment is one of the main economic, social and political problems facing governments in the Middle East and North Africa. The nature and ... This project will explore links between labour market dynamics and the quality of jobs in three varied settings. ... Effects of the new labor law on informality & job quality. 41985.
Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas
This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to
Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.
Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…
Blume, Kræn; Ejrnæs, Mette; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In developed countries, immigrants are more likely to be nonemployed and self-employed compared to natives. Based on register data of male immigrants in Denmark, we performed a detailed investigation of the immigrant-native difference in transition patterns across labor market states. We find...
Münch, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.
We analyze the determinants of female labor market participation for different age-groups in the European Union. We show that female participation is positively affected by tertiary education at any age. But upper secondary education increases participation only up to an age of 40 while after that
Cowles, Deborah; Franzak, Frank
Describes concept of market segmentation, then use of segmentation approach used by a college career planning and placement office which had the objectives of gaining a better understanding of the needs of employers looking to fill entry-level positions with marketing major graduates and collaborating more effectively with academic faculty in…
Moll, H.A.J.; Ruben, R.; Mol, E.W.G.; Sanders, A.A.
Understanding the segmentation in rural financial markets is of major importance for the identification of feasible relationships between clients and financial institutions. In this article we combine different insights into segmentation in rural financial markets into a two-dimensional analysis,
Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep
Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…
Wedel, M; Desarbo, WS
The Marketing literature has shown how difficult it is to profile market segments derived with finite mixture models. especially using traditional descriptor variables (e.g., demographics). Such profiling is critical for the proper implementation of segmentation strategy. we propose a new finite
Gnatenko Irina A.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at implementing an implication of the theory of wave-like (cyclical evolutionary development of the economic system with regard to the regional labor market and determining the time for the most effective introduction of innovation influence according to development cycle of the labor markets in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The article schematically depicts the dissipative system of the cyclical evolutionary development of the regional labor market. The status of the regional labor market in each of the phases of the development cycle has been characterized. An evaluation of the efficiency of introducing innovations in the regional labor market, depending on the development cycle of this market, has been provided. The phase of the development cycle in which the labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions are effective has been defined, and the causal relationships that show these markets being in the «crisis» phase, have been described. It has been concluded that it would be useful to modify the existing policy of innovation impact on the regional labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in line with the development phase of the markets indicated.
Andrey V. Tsarev
Full Text Available The process of segmenting consumers ofbanking products and services connects withconducting marketing research. In the processof customer segmentation it is necessary to identify the factors that affect them. Identiﬁ cation of competitive and consumer factors, in particular, is necessary for marketing decision making andthe development of the segment coverage strategy to reach a segment at all stages of planningmarketing activities and evaluating its effectiveness. After determining the basic segments on macro and micro levels the segment coveragestrategies are developed that should be based onthe results of the segmentation map construction.Banking institutions that implement informationtechnology to facilitate collecting and processingcustomer data, such as CRM-systems, receivemore opportunities to identify the client and provide a competitive position in the market.
Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako
This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…
The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…
Young, I. Phillip; Delli, Dane A.; Miller-Smith, Kimberly; Buster, Amy
Costs associated with teacher salaries are relative in that these costs are referenced to a relevant labor market rather than based on the absolute value of the services provided by teachers. Because the selection of a relevant labor market can substantially influence the costs associated with teacher salaries, a field study was conducted to…
Chakalova Kseniia O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical foundations of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market. The essence of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market is highlighted. The main structural elements of the suggested mechanism have been characterized, including actors and facilities, factors and resources, regulation methods and institutions of the internal labor market, the main processes of staff management in the internal labor market (planning, promotion, development, and motivation of staff, as well as the nature of interactions with the external labor market and the features of the diagnostics of efficiency of the mechanism. The political, economic, social, and organizational groups of factors, influencing the internal labor market, have been provided. The regulation methods used by each actor in the internal labor market have been presented. Indicators for evaluating efficiency of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market have been defined.
Lubyova, M.; van Ours, J.C.
The system of active labor market policies (ALMP) in the Slovak Republic consists to a large extent of the creation of socially purposeful and publicly useful jobs and of retraining of unemployed workers. So far, the effects of these types of active labor market policies have hardly been analyzed.
Statistical Modeling of Stochastic Dependences between Variables that Characterize Labor Market in Romania for Taking Relevant Management Decisions for a Competitive and Sustainable Development of Labor Force
Barbu Bogdan POPESCU
Full Text Available The labor market is an important component of the entire economic system and for social-economic development. However, the labor market is known as the most inflexible of markets, the existence of the phenomenon of permanent labor mobility. After 1990, the Romanian society has experienced a series of economic and social transformation, new reforms covering all areas of activity. Increasing labor resources was accompanied by a continued reduction in employment and increase in unemployment. The government tried to initiate programs, including external funding to create jobs, but compared to the massive layoffs that occurred following the restructuring of sectors, the number of new jobs created has proved insufficient. The paper presents a multiple regression model for employment and prognosis for this until 2020.
Daniil Petrovich Frolov
Full Text Available The market of public catering is an important element of the national economy which has been dynamically developing. As in any other country, Russian citizens spend some part of their income on eating out, however, this part is rather small (for example, according to official statistics as of 2005, the average resident of Russia spent 9.5 times less money on catering than the resident of the US, and 4 times less than the German resident. This gap as well as significant differences in the degree of individual business development in different regions, testify to the enormous prospects of this market both in quantitative and geographic, and qualitative aspect. According to the expert opinion, the current macroeconomic situation unfavorable for many sectors of the economy can become a driver for the growth of the catering market, to be exact – for the fast food segment, which in the previous crisis of 2008-2009 showed a positive dynamics and opened up new opportunities for business. In this article we investigated the dynamics of the catering market development, and evaluated the contribution of the industry to Russian GDP. We studied the regional market conditions in the context of districts, regions and socio-economic indicators, such as the turnover of catering, the number of enterprises, the number of seats, and the area of cafes. The article describes the method of classifying the catering enterprises, highlights the specific features of the Russian market and the structure of the largest network companies. We studied the expert opinions regarding the medium-term development of the industry, the market trend of eating out and the possible fundamental changes associated with an increase in the quality of business processes, service and marketing communications.
Lay, Robert S.; Maguire, John J.
Compares segmentation solutions obtained using a binary segmentation algorithm (THAID) and a new chi-square-based procedure (CHAID) that segments the prospective pool of college applicants using application and matriculation as criteria. Results showed a higher number of estimated qualified inquiries and more accurate estimates with CHAID. (JAC)
Full Text Available Market segmentation presents one of the key concepts of the modern marketing. The main goal of market segmentation is focused on creating groups (segments of customers that have similar characteristics, needs, wishes and/or similar behavior regarding the purchase of concrete product/service. Companies can create specific marketing plan for each of these segments and therefore gain short or long term competitive advantage on the market. Depending on the concrete marketing goal, different segmentation schemes and techniques may be applied. This paper presents a predictive market segmentation model based on the application of logistic regression model and CHAID analysis. The logistic regression model was used for the purpose of variables selection (from the initial pool of eleven variables which are statistically significant for explaining the dependent variable. Selected variables were afterwards included in the CHAID procedure that generated the predictive market segmentation model. The model results are presented on the concrete empirical example in the following form: summary model results, CHAID tree, Gain chart, Index chart, risk and classification tables.
Dolnicar, Sara; Freitag, Roman
A computer simulation study is conducted to explore the interaction of alternative segmentation strategies and the competitiveness of the market environment, a goal that can neither be tackled by purely analytic approaches nor is sufficient and undistorted real market data available to deduct findings in an empirical manner. The fundamental idea of the simulation is to increase competition in the artificial marketplace and to study the influence of segmentation strategy and varying market con...
Audra J. Bowlus; Shannon N. Seitz
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force and marital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our model, spousal abuse affects labor supply through decreases in utility from leisure as well as through reductions in productivity at work and hence the market wage. In addition, abuse is treated as...
Pridmore, Jason; Hämäläinen, Lalu Elias
textabstract(In)Aktive Marktsegmentierung: Marketing und noch zu installierende Rolle von Big- und Social-Media-Data«. Marketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to differing marketing orientations, beginning with relationship marketing and moving towards exp...
Floro, M S; Schaefer, K
This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension
Butigan, Ružica; Grilec Kaurić, Alica; Ujević, Darko
The success of high fashion designers is not only in a specificity of the products but also in specific and very well executed marketing strategy. Emphasis is placed on the design of very specific marketing program and marketing strategies that must concider all the characteristics of the high fashion market. Therefore, a scientific research problem is defined as follows: although the market of high fashion at first glance does not imply a completely different marketing approach than other fa...
Full Text Available Despite the significance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm to market segmentation, there is a need of a comprehensive literature review and a classification system for it towards identification of future trend of market segmentation research. The present work is the first identifiable academic literature review of the application of neural network based techniques to segmentation. Our study has provided an academic database of literature between the periods of 2000–2010 and proposed a classification scheme for the articles. One thousands (1000 articles have been identified, and around 100 relevant selected articles have been subsequently reviewed and classified based on the major focus of each paper. Findings of this study indicated that the research area of ANN based applications are receiving most research attention and self organizing map based applications are second in position to be used in segmentation. The commonly used models for market segmentation are data mining, intelligent system etc. Our analysis furnishes a roadmap to guide future research and aid knowledge accretion and establishment pertaining to the application of ANN based techniques in market segmentation. Thus the present work will significantly contribute to both the industry and academic research in business and marketing as a sustainable valuable knowledge source of market segmentation with the future trend of ANN application in segmentation.
Full Text Available This essay was originated in the experiences as a university lecturer, facilitator of seminars of Personal Marketing and coaching, as well as the experience assimilated into the business field.The author has seen a significant group of people have a wrong paradigm about what it is involved in Personal Marketing, which is exclusively connected to physical appearance, do not achieve their goals, wasting great opportunities by not being ready. Others, however, take one of the right paths, the best, it is through the knowledge of Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman would say (1977, "we relate to ourselves and others" and apply it strategically to Personal Marketing from an ethical and transparent perspective, allowing them to get opportunities in a Labor Market which looking for them intensively, and they as part of a Market of Human Resources want to be part of it. It is hopped that this present work contributed to whom want to improve their employment opportunities.
Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor
Trends in the labor market, as a result of global economic recession, are characterized by reduction of manpower activity, decreased number of employed and increased number of unemployed persons. As the result of economic recession more then million workplaces are expected to be lost in the European Union. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic recession on labor market in general and healthcare labor market in Croatia. In Q1/2009, the number of employed persons in the European Union declined by -1.2% compared to the same quarter of 2008, while in Croatia the number of employed persons declined by -0.4%. The comparison of quarterly employment rate in Croatia and the European Union in the period from Q2/2008 to Q1/2009 was not significantly different (p = 0.169, df = 6, t = 1.564, Student t test). Average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 in the European Union was 8.1% +/- 0.3 and it was increased by 9.4% compared to Q4/2008, while in Croatia the average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 was 8.4% +/- 0.1 and it was increased by 3.3% compared to Q4/2008. Monthly changes of unemployment rates compared between the European Union and Croatia in the six month period (Q4/2008 and Q1/2009) was significantly different (p = 0.001, df = 10, t = 4.425, Student t test). In Croatian health care system in Q1/2009 the number of employed person increased by 0.7% compared to Q1/2008, while the number of unemployed persons in the same period was reduced by -1.0%. Trends in the labor market in Croatia follow the global trends in the labor market in times of economic recession, although the increase in unemployment in Croatia was slower than in the countries of the European Union. As a result of Croatian healthcare system organization, system of financing, supply and demand on healthcare labor market, healthcare workforce in Croatia was less affected by recession than workforce in Croatia in general.
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors will try to analyze the evolution of Romanias labor market, in the last nearly 22 years. More precisely, we will analyze the evolution of the number of employees, the number of pensioners, and the number of unemployed workers, in the mentioned period of time, and we will draw some conclusions. We consider that the dynamic of the labor market is an important indicator, showing both the economic situation, as well as its future evolution; this is why we have chosen to focus our study on it. In order to do so, using the data published by the National Institute for Statistics, and the National Agency for Labor Force Employment, we have noticed worrying evolutions for Romania's labor market: a decrease in the number of employees, an increase in the number of unemployed workers and pensioners, as well as an increase in the number of those who, although able to work, do not have and do not officially look for a workplace. In fact, this is a limit of our research, because those persons either work (abroad, or on the black market, either do look for a workplace, but are not registered as unemployed workers. Another limit of our research is related to the insufficient explanations related to the evolution of the different indicators. But our purpose was to offer an overview of the labor market for the last nearly 22 years, and to suggest some measures to be taken in the future. In order to do that, we have analyzed the evolution of the number of employees, the percentage of employees in the population able to work, the evolution of the number of unemployed workers, the evolution of the number of pensioners. Also, we have made a comparative analysis of the evolution of the number of employees and of the number of pensioners. Through this paper, we have tried to draw attention upon the worrying phenomena taking place on Romania's labor market, as well as upon the fact that our country should take urgent measures in order to
Full Text Available Abstract Self-employed workers account for between 8 and 30 % of participants in the labor markets of OECD countries (Blanchower, Self-employment: more may not be better, 2004. This paper develops and estimates a general equilibrium model of the labor market that accounts for this sizable proportion. The model incorporates self-employed workers, some of whom hire paid employees in the market. Employment rates and earnings distributions are determined endogenously and are estimated to match their empirical counterparts. The model is estimated using the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS. The model is able to estimate nonpecuniary amenities associated with employment in different labor market states, accounting for both different employment dynamics within state and the misreporting of earnings by self-employed workers. Structural parameter estimates are then used to assess the impact of an increase in the generosity of unemployment benefits on the aggregate employment rate. Findings suggest that modeling the self-employed, some of whom hire paid employees implies that small increases in unemployment benefits leads to an expansion in aggregate employment. JEL Classification J21, J24, J28, J64
Full Text Available Nowadays, companies offer product bundles with special discounts in order to sell more products. However, it is important to note that customers show different levels of loyalties to companies, and each segment of the market has unique features, which influences the customers’ buying patterns. The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a novel model for product bundling in e-commerce websites by using market segmentation variables and customer loyalty analysis. RFM model is employed to calculate customer loyalty. Subsequently, the customers are grouped based on their loyalty levels. Each group is then divided into different segments based on market segmentation variables. The product bundles are determined for each market segment via clustering algorithms. Apriori algorithm is also used to determine the association rules for each product bundle. Classification models are applied in order to determine which product bundle should be recommended to each customer. The results demonstrate that the silhouette coefficient, support, confidence, and accuracy values are higher when both customer loyalty level and market segmentation variables are used in product bundling. Accordingly, the proposed model increases the chance of success in direct marketing and recommending product bundles to customers.
Ray Chaudhuri, A.
This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,
Ray Chaudhuri, A.
This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,
Cadena, Brian C.
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288
Cadena, Brian C
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.
Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing
The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also
Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.
Berna Balcı İzgi
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a survey on women labor issues in two different sectors –industry and service sectors- in Gaziantep. The main aim is to modify the structure of women labor in Gaziantep. The main characteristics of women labour market for Gaziantep is that women labor participation is sharply decreased after marriage which is a traditional issue. Inaddition entrepreneurship is very high. Besides working years with insurance is quite low in all levels of education. The promotions system do not change with education. Education is a crucial variable in the analysis. For instance, the positions are not assigned according to the education in most of the times. This creates inefficiency in labor markets. Another important finding that the rate of entrepreneurship is very high related with other cities of Turkey. The topics of wages, working hours, the comparison of the appropriateness of the work according to education, cultural activities, satisfaction, pleasure from working have been considered from the aspect of the relationship between the working life and family life and besides, finance deficiency in entrepreneurship, and sex discrimination not clear are the main problems in different ratios. The work and the education were not found as related. The level of social coverage, trade union membership and salaried work does change with education positively
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. AIM: Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group......, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed...... before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market...
Full Text Available Gender discrimination can be explained at the level ofsegregation on the labor market by the employers' perceptions about maleand female workforce, by the level of development of a country, employersand employees.In any society, people are categorized from the attributes(stereotypical or not which are supposed to be shared with their owngroup. Usually these attributes are anticipated based on stereotypesconveyed on behalf of different groups (Goffman, 1974. Stereotypes arethose beliefs and opinions about the characteristics of men and women.The features associated with the two groups generally show us not onlyhow men and women are perceived, and also how it should be.Stereotyping can be the basis for the discriminatory treatment in mostcases (Linville, Salovey, Fisher, 1986.In this article we presented the main theories that can explain thewage discrimination and we analyzed the discriminatory attitudes ofgender on the Romanian labor market using the Economic and socialcohesion survey.
Ostry, Aleck S; Spiegel, Jerry M
Global changes in the economies of most developed nations have impacted the way healthcare is organized, even within largely public systems, and the working conditions of healthcare workers. Since the acceleration of globalization in the 1970s, service-sector workers in developed nations have faced high unemployment, increased skill requirements for most jobs, and a rise in non-traditional work arrangements. These secular shifts in service-sector labor markets have occurred against the background of an erosion of the welfare state and growing income inequality. As well, many healthcare systems, including Canada's, were severely downsized and restructured in the 1990s, exacerbating the underlying negative secular trends in the service sector, and worsening the working conditions for many healthcare workers. Globalization has altered the labor market and shifted working conditions in ways that have been unfavorable to many healthcare workers.
This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.
Katarina Pažur Aničić
Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies (ICT has led to the significant changes in many areas of human lives. One of the aspects becoming much more challenging is the education of ICT professionals. Latest statistics show that the labor market demand for ICT practitioners exceeds the number of higher education graduates in the field of ICT. This paper provides a brief overview of the past and current situation on the labor market regarding the demand for ICT professionals, as well as forecasts by 2020. Paper also provides a research of demanded competencies in ICT jobs advertisements, and their comparison with competencies defined within the e-Competence framework 3.0 and generic competencies defined by Tuning project.
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette
We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008–2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over......-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect...... on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect...
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette
We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock...
Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft
This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect......., with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...
van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M
It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.
Alvaro Julio Cuadros
Full Text Available When deciding in which segment to invest or how to distribute the marketing budget, managers generally take risks in making decisions without considering the real impact every client or segment has over organizational profits. In this paper, a segmentation framework is proposed that considers, firstly, the calculation of customer lifetime value, the current value, and client loyalty, and then the building of client segments by self-organized maps. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with an empirical study in a cane sugar mill where a total of 9 segments of interest were identified for decision making.
Lynn A. Karoly
In the 21st century knowledge economy, education plays an increasingly important role in preparing new labor market entrants for the workforce and providing skill upgrading throughout the working career. The vital role of education is propelled by the rapid pace of technological change, as well as the interdependent, global economy, forces that together demand a workforce with the capacity for leadership, problem solving, and collaboration and communication in a wide range of economic sectors...
Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann; Lei Zhang
Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market advantage of vocational education decreases with age, we employ a difference-in-differences approach that compares employment rates across different a...
Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen E.; Olsen, Karen Modesta; Steen, Christina Roe
The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that ...
We use data from the West German 1970 census to explore the link between being born during or shortly after World War II and educational and labor market outcomes 25 years later. We document, for the first time, that men and women born in the relatively short period between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly and substantially lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this new finding are put ...
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca
This paper explores the labor market and schooling effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative, which provides work authorization to eligible immigrants along with a temporary reprieve from deportation. The analysis relies on a difference-in-differences approach that exploits the discontinuity in program rules to compare eligible individuals to ineligible, likely undocumented immigrants before and after the program went into effect. To address potential endogeneity...
Arnaud CHERON; François LANGOT
The ADRES conference "Labor market outcomes: a transatlantic perspective" took place in Paris, in January 2008. It was jointly organized by the University of Le Mans and the EDHEC Business School. Approximately 40 papers were presented in plenary and parallel sessions. The plenary speakers were G. Berola, P. Cahuc, F. Kramarz, L. Ljungqvist, E. Prescott, R. Rogerson, R. Shimer, V. Rios-Rull, E. Wasmer and C. Zimmerman. A selection of the papers are published in this special issue of the "Anna...
Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng
Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.
Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude; Khamis, Melanie; Yuksel, Mutlu
During World War II, more than one-half million tons of bombs were dropped in aerial raids on German cities, destroying about forty percent of the total housing stock nationwide. With a large fraction of the male population gone, the reconstruction process had mainly fallen on women in postwar Germany. This paper provides causal evidence on long-term legacies of postwar reconstruction and mandatory employment on women's labor market outcomes. We combine a unique dataset on city-level destruct...
Lee, Sun Youn; Ohtake, Fumio
The aim of this study was to elucidate how individual differences in noncognitive skills, as measured by the Big Five personality traits, explain variation in labor market outcomes. Japanese and U.S. survey data were analyzed to examine the associations between personality traits and later outcomes in the two countries. We focused on country-specific, noncognitive determinants of annual income, which were found in agreeableness among male workers. Agreeableness seemed to contribute to annual ...
Ann Harrison; Jason Scorse
During the 1990s, human rights and anti-sweatshop activists increased their efforts to improve working conditions and raise wages for workers in developing countries. These campaigns took many different forms: direct pressure to change legislation in developing countries, pressure on firms, newspaper campaigns, and grassroots organizing. This paper analyzes the impact of two different types of interventions on labor market outcomes in Indonesian manufacturing: (1) direct US government pressur...
David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the gender differences in the Chilean labor market. We formally deal with the selection of the individuals into schooling levels and its consequences on the gender gaps. Our approach allows for the presence of not only heterogeneity in observable variables but also unobserved heterogeneity. We link this unobserved heterogeneity to unobserved scholastic ability. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set for Chile. This data set contains...
Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.
Afzal, Zabia; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Mahmood, Qamar; Ng, Edwin; Schrecker, Ted
Flexicurity, or the integration of labor market flexibility with social security and active labor market policies, has figured prominently in economic and social policy discussions in Europe since the mid-1990s. Such policies are designed to transcend traditional labor-capital conflicts and to form a mutually supportive nexus of flexibility and security within a climate of intensified competition and rapid technological change. International bodies have marketed flexicurity as an innovative win-win strategy for employers and workers alike, commonly citing Denmark and The Netherlands as exemplars of best practice. In this article, we apply a social determinants of health framework to conduct a scoping review of the academic and gray literature to: (a) better understand the empirical associations between flexicurity practices and population health in Denmark and (b) assess the relevance and feasibility of implementing such policies to improve health and reduce health inequalities in Ontario, Canada. Based on 39 studies meeting our full inclusion criteria, preliminary findings suggest that flexicurity is limited as a potential health promotion strategy in Ontario, offers more risks to workers' health than benefits, and requires the strengthening of other social protections before it could be realistically implemented within a Canadian context.
Full Text Available This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a hierarchical model on pooled survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP 2008 and 2010 to analyze the risk exposure of formal and informal workers and, subsequently, their preferences on redistribution. The analysis reveals that while economic self-interest is an influential factor for formal workers, it is (unexpectedly much less so for informal workers. Also, an increased economically insecure environment, reflected by high unemployment rates, does not motivate informal workers to an exceptional degree to turn towards the state for redistribution, despite greater exposure to economic risk. Labor market dualization does not translate into polarization at the individual level regarding redistributive preferences in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze some aspects of the efficiency of labor markets in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina and compare resulting outcomes with the outcomes of labor markets efficiency in selected economies of the European Union. A particular focus of our analysis is on gender equality, due to the fact that not only gender inequality negatively affects the quality of life of individuals and society in general, but also can produce significant macroeconomic losses which negatively affect economic growth and development. When formulating policy that aims to increase the employability and income of the local population, our recommendation to governments, non-governmental and supranational institutions is to simultaneously take all necessary steps in order to provide women equal access to labor markets. This primarily refers to equality in access to newly created jobs, the uniformity of wages for a work with equal qualification, equal access to employment in formal economy, equal safety at work, equal access to social safety net etc.
Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard
that PhDs accelerate growth. A major objective has been to direct more PhDs to the industry to use their skills to monetize knowledge. However, we have limited evidence on how PhDs are absorbed into the labor market, how the market values PhD labor, and how PhDs value the possibility to work......During the past decade, policy makers have accentuated the need for more PhDs to drive innovation and use their research skills to push the technological frontier. The public sector in Denmark has financially supported a doubling of the number of enrolled PhD students based on a strong belief...... in the private sector. The dissertation investigates determinants of labor market decisions among recent cohorts of PhDs in Denmark to assess how the increasing number of PhDs is absorbed into the economy. Based on econometric models, it examines what factors trigger individual career decisions and supply...
Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh
There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsymbaliuk Svitlana O.
Full Text Available The importance of a quick response to changes taking place in the labor market, adaptation to them of the staff policy of enterprises is determined by the need to maintain their competitiveness in the labor market. It is reasonable to monitor main trends in the labor market with a view to adapting the staff policy to changes in order to strengthen the competitive position and attract competent specialists. The aim of the article is to identify the main trends in the labor market and estimate their impact on the staff policy of enterprises in Ukraine. It is determined that the decrease in the number of economically active population, reduction in the supply of workplaces and increase in unemployment are characteristics of the Ukrainian modern labor market. At the same time, there observed a disproportionality between the supply of and demand for representatives of different professional categories. It is determined that the high turnover indices negatively characterize the staff policy and demonstrate that employers neither pay due attention to the issues of forming the employees’ engagement, loyalty nor create appropriate conditions for the fulfillment of their labor potential. The revealed tends lead to increased competition among employers in the labor market for competent specialists, which finally stimulates them to use various instruments for enhancing the enterprises’ attractiveness and the formation of a positive employer brand.
Bristow, Dennis; Gulati, Rajesh; Schneider, Kenneth C.
This paper presents the details of a student project used in introduction to marketing courses. The project is designed to involve students in the application of survey research to generate data used to make a series of marketing management decisions. Students collect data from three different segments of the car buying market and make product,…
Endresen, K W; Wintz, J C
HealthStyles is a new psychographic segmentation system specifically designed for the health care industry. This segmentation system goes beyond traditional geographic and demographic analysis and examines health-related consumer attitudes and behaviors. Four statistically distinct "styles" of consumer health care preferences have been identified. The profiles of the four groups have substantial marketing implications in terms of design and promotion of products and services. Each segment of consumers also has differing expectations of physician behavior.
Butum Lavinia Cornelia
Full Text Available The transition from student to employee status has become an important issue for labor market analysts, students and universities. Literature recognizes that the international experience represents a successful factor for future employability. In this regard, a new curricular model should include international competences in order to build the qualifications required by the global labor market. A recent study (Stan, Butum & Zodieru, 2016 highlighted the importance of youngsters’ professional training upon graduation and the crucial role of collaboration between universities, companies and governments (through education policies in increasing graduates’ accessibility to well - paid jobs and in developing an entrepreneurial career. The same study provides the results of a qualitative research that leads to the conclusion that most Romanian students have the capacity to obtain the desired job if they can swiftly gain the soft skills required by companies. It is also mentioned that the labor market has increased the demand for international competences and practical skills in recent years. The purpose of this article is to analyze the dynamics of Romanian and European students’ feedback on their universities. Beginning with the analysis of soft skills needed for the labor market and their appreciation as perceived by students, the study will examine the dynamics of students’ appreciation on international experience and other work activities that ensure the achievement of international competences and reduce the time for obtaining a job. Afterward, the paper will analyze students’ career priorities and students’ perception of university performance in providing practical and international skills needed for the labor market. The analysis will include 3-year statistic data from Trendence Graduate Barometer regarding Romanian students’ perception. The conclusions will show the dynamic of students’ expectations on provided skills and the
Kress, Bernard; Saeedi, Ehsan; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent
This paper reviews the various optical technologies that have been developed to implement HMDs (Head Mounted Displays), both as AR (Augmented Reality) devices, VR (Virtual Reality) devices and more recently as smart glasses, smart eyewear or connected glasses. We review the typical requirements and optical performances of such devices and categorize them into distinct groups, which are suited for different (and constantly evolving) market segments, and analyze such market segmentation.
Ja. Valentová; Jo. Abrhám
The aim of this article. The paper describes a research project focused on motivations to travel by potential and existing foreign visitors that was conducted in order to envisage the creation of a positive image and select the appropriate distribution and marketing promotional mix for the various segments of the Czech tourism market. The paper builds on research that has been already completed and yielded interestig results and further extends the researched themes and selected segments. The...
Suggests that the concept of mass customization should be seen as an integral part of market segmentation theory which offers the best way to satisfy consumers' unique needs and wants while yielding profits to companies. Proposes a new concept of "segment-based based mass customization," and offers a series of propositions which are…
STEENKAMP, JBEM; WEDEL, M
Various approaches to segmenting retail markets based on store image are reviewed, including methods that have not yet been applied to retailing problems. It is argued that a recently developed segmentation technique, fuzzy clusterwise regression analysis (FCR), holds high potential for store-image
Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason
Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…
Full Text Available The major purpose of this research is to determine the sufficiently different segments of consumers based on their impulsivity in the buying behaviour. The research was conducted in Splitsko-Dalmatinska county on the sample of 180 respondents. Based on the subject matter and research goals, the basic as well as four additional hypotheses were set. The used methodology comprised of the cluster analysis, which helped to divide three segments that were named as: ‘’rational’’, ‘’somewhat rational and somewhat impulsive’’ and ‘’impulsive’’ consumers. The variance analysis was used in order to describe the segments properly and to determine whether they are different enough with respect to demographic, socio-economic characteristics and individual differences variables. The findings confirmed the hypothesis based on the possibility of dividing different consumer segments according to the analysed variables. Correlating the demographics and individual differences factors with the impulse buy, the expected results were gained. When analyzing demographics the results indicate the segment differentiation solely in the case of age and working status. However, from the aspect of majority of individual differences variables the distinction among the segments is significant.
Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi
We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…
Marcelo Weishaupt Proni
Full Text Available Os propósitos centrais do artigo são: (i delimitar a importância da universidade na progressiva construção social e política da profissão Educação Física; (ii apresentar um mapeamento dos ramos de atividade econômica onde se concentram as oportunidades de emprego e das diferenças regionais no que se refere aos níveis salariais médios dos profissionais da EF; e (iii colocar em discussão a tensão que se estabelece entre a formação profissional oferecida nas universidades brasileiras e as demandas predominantes no mercado de trabalho. Pretende-se mostrar que a regulamentação da profissão produziu uma divisão entre duas "identidades profissionais" no interior da Educação Física, o que reforçou a segmentação deste mercado de trabalho altamente competitivo e marcado por situações muito desiguais. Além disso, procura-se enfatizar que o mercado de trabalho para os profissionais da Educação Física é menos estruturado que o destinado aos licenciados. E que a regulamentação da profissão procurou criar uma reserva de mercado, mas não foi suficiente para estruturar este amplo e diversificado mercado de trabalho, difundir um padrão de emprego adequado e elevar os níveis de remuneração.The main purposes of this paper are: (i to delimitate the importance of the university in the progressive social and political construction of Physical Education as a profession; (ii to present the sectors of economic activity where are concentrated the opportunities of employment and to show the regional differences about the average wages of the Physical Education workers; and (iii to discuss the tension relationship between the professional education from the Brazilian universities and the major demands in labor marketing. I intent to suggest that the professional regulation produced a division between two "professional identities" inside Physical Education, and it reinforced the segmentation in this competitive labor marketing
Based on qualitative data gathered during a comparative doctoral research project, this article aims to shed light on the transnational mobility of women as viewed through the lens of the labor market and takes an intersectional approach to the nexus of gender, class, and ethnicity. It investigates in particular the careers of Polish women whose migratory decisions appear to have been affected by gender inequalities and injustices prevalent in the labor market in Poland, and examines accounts...
Gambling services market is characterized by their complexity: they contain private and public goods characteristics, external effects and are politically sensitive. Therefore, understanding the contents of these services is necessary for the effective delivery of public gambling policy. Lithuanian gambling market can be distinguished according the following types of market structure: 1) Monopolistic competition – a category B slot parlors and 2) Oligopoly – betting, casinos, and 3) A natural...
Schoeni, R F
42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.
B Vengal Rao
Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a vital part of general health and is a valuable asset of every individual. The working population in India usually belong to the lower socioeconomic group. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 550 laborers of Gunj marketing yard of Raichur city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO assessment form 1997. Simplified oral hygiene index (1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.1 (± 8.02 years and the mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decayed, missing, filled teeth was 2.06 (± 1.49, 0.76 (± 2.53, 0.13 (± 0.39, and 2.95 (± 3.02, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 85.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 45.9% of the study participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries as well as a large proportion of unmet dental needs among these laborers.
Buerhaus, Peter I; Auerbach, David I; Staiger, Douglas O
Drawing from labor economics, background information is provided for a deeper understanding of recent changes in the nurse labor market. The difference between the short and long-run supply of RNs are distinguished, and the economic forces that determine RNs' decision to be active in the labor market are explained. The ways the nurse labor market may change in the next few years are discussed.
King, Elizabeth M.
This study examined how education and postschool vocational training affect the type and extent of labor market participation of women in Peru. It also estimated monetary returns to different levels of schooling, to formal general and technical schooling, and to training. The sample, which comprised more than 5,600 women in urban and rural Peru,…
Full Text Available International mobility is a form of flexible labor market adaptation available for young Nordic nationals who have the privilege of relatively easy return if life abroad does not work out. The article considers mobility as a labor market transition and examines the pre- and post-migration situation of two Finnish return migrant groups—those who lived abroad in 1999 and in 2004—based on longitudinal register data. It considers the consequences of return for an individual migrant: is it a form of failure in labor market integration in the country of destination or rather a sign of success whereby the skills, resources, and experiences gained abroad are brought back to the country of origin. Migrants who leave Finland nowadays often opt to move to other Nordic countries and are younger, more educated, and have a better socio-economic status than previous migrant generations. The article demonstrates that international migration does not deteriorate the returnees’ labor market status. While re-entry into the Finnish labor market may take some time and flexibility, mobility seems to pay off and have beneficial consequences: return migrants earn higher taxable incomes and have lower unemployment rates than their peers who only stayed in the national labor markets..
Andres Rodriguez Veloso
Full Text Available This article approaches the kids market, focusing on the Bottom of the Pyramid. A case study is developed within the toy industry. Because few studies have been developed on this subject (kids marketing, the option of this study is to focus on basic marketing strategies, market segmentation and positioning. Results exemplify how can a company structure its marketing strategy in order to have a clear focus on a given segment of the kids market.
Full Text Available Fetal primary small bowel volvulus is extremely rare but represents a serious life-threatening condition needing emergency neonatal surgical management to avoid severe digestive consequences. We report a case of primary small bowel volvulus with meconium peritonitis prenatally diagnosed at 27 weeks and 4 days of gestation during threatened premature labor with reduced fetal movements. Ultrasound showed a small bowel mildly dilated with thickened and hyperechogenic intestinal wall, with a typical whirlpool configuration. Normal fetal development allowed continuation of pregnancy with ultrasound follow-up. Induction of labor was decided at 37 weeks and 2 days of gestation because of a significant aggravation of intestinal dilatation appearing more extensive with peritoneal calcifications leading to the suspicion of meconium peritonitis, associated with reduced fetal movements and reduced fetal heart rate variability, for neonatal surgical management with a good outcome.
Mottet, Nicolas; Ramanah, Rajeev; Riethmuller, Didier
Fetal primary small bowel volvulus is extremely rare but represents a serious life-threatening condition needing emergency neonatal surgical management to avoid severe digestive consequences. We report a case of primary small bowel volvulus with meconium peritonitis prenatally diagnosed at 27 weeks and 4 days of gestation during threatened premature labor with reduced fetal movements. Ultrasound showed a small bowel mildly dilated with thickened and hyperechogenic intestinal wall, with a typical whirlpool configuration. Normal fetal development allowed continuation of pregnancy with ultrasound follow-up. Induction of labor was decided at 37 weeks and 2 days of gestation because of a significant aggravation of intestinal dilatation appearing more extensive with peritoneal calcifications leading to the suspicion of meconium peritonitis, associated with reduced fetal movements and reduced fetal heart rate variability, for neonatal surgical management with a good outcome. PMID:29230337
Full Text Available Effective marketing management system in every company, including service companies, assumes existence of adequate information infrastructure which enables production of information relevant for making of different types of marketing decisions. Information based decisions are necessary in every phase of the management process, both on strategic and operative level.
This paper investigates how initial inequality can causally affect economic growth when moral hazard problems exist in credit markets.Two regimes of the credit markets aiming at overcoming the moral hazard problems are analyzed.The formal one such as bank relies on intermediary between borrowers and
Loarie, Thomas M; Applegate, David; Kuenne, Christopher B; Choi, Lawrence J; Horowitz, Diane P
Market segmentation analysis identifies discrete segments of the population whose beliefs are consistent with exhibited behaviors such as purchase choice. This study applies market segmentation analysis to low myopes (-1 to -3 D with less than 1 D cylinder) in their consideration and choice of a refractive surgery procedure to discover opportunities within the market. A quantitative survey based on focus group research was sent to a demographically balanced sample of myopes using contact lenses and/or glasses. A variable reduction process followed by a clustering analysis was used to discover discrete belief-based segments. The resulting segments were validated both analytically and through in-market testing. Discontented individuals who wear contact lenses are the primary target for vision correction surgery. However, 81% of the target group is apprehensive about laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). They are nervous about the procedure and strongly desire reversibility and exchangeability. There exists a large untapped opportunity for vision correction surgery within the low myope population. Market segmentation analysis helped determine how to best meet this opportunity through repositioning existing procedures or developing new vision correction technology, and could also be applied to identify opportunities in other vision correction populations.
Zanden, van der L.D.T.; Kleef, van E.; Wijk, de R.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have
Verhoef, PC; Spring, PN; Hoekstra, JC; Leeflang, PSH
Although the application of segmentation and predictive modeling is an important topic in the database marketing (DBM) literature, no study has yet investigated the extent of adoption of these techniques. We present the results of a Dutch survey involving 228 database marketing companies. We find
Chan, K.A.; Menkveld, A.J.; Yang, Z.
This paper uses the perfect market segmentation setting in China's stock market to compare the information content of the stock trades of domestic and foreign investors. We study 76 firms that issue both A-shares (for domestic investors) and B-shares (for foreign investors) and compare the price
Full Text Available Strategic marketing instruments such as segmentation and targeting can benefit performing arts institutions and render their offer more competitive. To segment classical performing arts audiences, however, the traditionally used variable is social class. In this paper, it is argued that such often suggested traditional segmentation criteria can prove to be context-insensitive and as such cannot be applied invariably across different settings. Based on an analysis of Czech National Theater audiences and its motivations, we propose the sought benefit of the theater visit as an alternative segmentation basis that may prove to be more context-sensitive.
Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.
The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that large firms located in the Danish setting will be less likely to engage in employer–employee communication...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...
Chen, Lu; Zhao, Na; Fan, Hongli; Coyte, Peter C
Data were used from the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the influence of informal care on labor market outcomes for married women of working aged, with emphasis on caregiving intensity. After accounting for potential endogeneity between caregiving and labor force participation (LFP) through simultaneous equations modeling, caregivers who provided more than 15 or 20 hr of caregiving per week were 4.5-7.7% less likely to be LFPs. Intensive caregivers who remained working had significantly lower (4.97-7.20) weekly hours of work. The significant positive effect of informal care on LFP only existed in the rural sample, and these women also had much lower hours of work than their urban counterparts. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that target intensive caregivers in order to allow them to balance both work and caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available An aging population and the corresponding shrinkage of the labor force will create a significant drag on economic growth and may jeopardize the economic well-being of some of the elderly. Thus working longer is an imperative – but extending working lives has proven difficult, both because workers do not want to work longer and because employers are lukewarm about employing older workers. As measures that can be taken to motivate workers to work longer, the paper proposes providing retirement incentives and attractive, flexible working arrangements. To induce employers to hire old workers, it suggests removing the obstacles imposed by restrictive labor market institutions, an increase in the human capital of workers via life-long learning, and addressing age-discrimination. Chances for extending working lives will also increase as the health of elderly workers is improved.
Héctor Alberto Botello Peñaloza
Full Text Available Introduction: This article aims to quantify racial discrimination in the labor market in Ecuador between 2010 and 2012. Methodology: Information is collected from quarterly household surveys on employment prepared by the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Ecuador, from which Mincer equations are estimated for labor income per hour. Subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition with Heckman correction is used to determine wage gaps attributable to observable and unobservable factors regarding two ethnic groups: mestizos and whites. Results: The wage gap is significant and positive for white people, and it increases during the period of analysis. 40 % of this difference is due to higher provisions in human capital. However, about 42 % of the gap remains unexplained.