Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
Hargens, Lowell L.
Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…
Damm, Anna Piil
of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...
Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Using matched PISA and PIAAC data from Denmark, we investigate the return to cognitive and non-cognitive skills with respect to labor market outcomes. We measure cognitive and non-cognitive skills at childhood and when the respondents have entered the labor market. Hence, we are able to split up...... the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills...
Das, Maitreyi Bordia
This paper uses data from the 61st Round of the National Sample Survey to understand the employment outcomes of Dalit and Muslim men in India. It uses a conceptual framework developed for the US labor market that states that ethnic minorities skirt discrimination in the primary labor market to build successful self-employed ventures in the form of ethnic enclaves or ethnic labor markets. ...
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between academic success and labor market outcomes among graduating pharmacy students. Unlike previous studies, this paper characterizes labor market outcome not only as an individual's starting salary, but also whether or not the student had a position secured at the time of graduation, whether or not a signing bonus was received, and the setting in which (she will practice. Methods: A standard exit survey was administered to graduating Doctor of Pharmacy students at a Midwestern, public university within two weeks of graduation. The relationship between academic success and initial labor market outcome was assessed using cross-tabulations, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no significant relationships between grade point averages and signing bonuses, starting salaries or employment offers. Students with higher grade point averages were less likely to work in chain community pharmacies, and more likely to work in a hospital or other health-system setting. Conclusions: The relationships between academic and direct measures of labor market outcomes (salary and bonuses were not necessarily positive, as standard economic theory predicts. Rather, the relationship is indirect, as it appears that students with greater academic success obtained employment in more clinical settings, which carry a different mix of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Type: Original Research
Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.
Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Maczulskij, Terhi
This paper examines the links between risky health behaviors and labor market success. We provide new evidence on the joint relationships between the most prominent forms of risky health behavior - alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity - and long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women linked to register-based individual information on earnings and labor market attachment. The twin data allow us to account for shared family and environmental factors and to measure risky health behaviors in 1975 and 1981. The long-term labor market outcomes were measured in adulthood as an average over the period 1990-2009. The sample sizes are 2156 and 2498 twins, for men and women, respectively. We find that being both a smoker and a heavy drinker in early adulthood is negatively related to long-term earnings and employment later in life, especially for men. We conclude that how and why risky health behaviors cluster and how that affects individual level outcomes call for more attention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.
Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako
This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…
Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael
We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…
Cools, Sara; Markussen, Simen; Strøm, Marte
We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents' number of children is instrumented with the sex mix of their first two children. We find that having additional children causes sizable reductions in labor supply for women, which fade as children mature and even turn positive for women without a college degree. Among women with a college degree, there is evidence of persistent and even increasing career penalties of family size. Having additional children reduces these women's probability of being employed by higher-paying firms, their earnings rank within the employing firm, and their probability of being the top earner at the workplace. Some of the career effects persist long after labor supply is restored. We find no effect of family size on any of men's labor market outcomes in either the short or long run.
Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.
From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of
Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut
Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...
Schoeni, R F
42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
To account for differences between systems of education of highly educated societies, we argue that the impact of academic discipline (field of study) on labor market outcomes should be central. Three modifications of earlier typologies are needed to account for cross-national differences in the
Plug, E.; van der Klaauw, B.; Ziegler, L.
In this paper, we examine whether children are better off if their parents have more elaborate social networks. Using data on high-school friendships of parents, we analyze whether the number and characteristics of friends affect the labor-market outcomes of children. While parental friendships
Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt
non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....
Joensen, Juanna Schroter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear evidence of a causal relationship between math and…
Arnaud CHERON; François LANGOT
The ADRES conference "Labor market outcomes: a transatlantic perspective" took place in Paris, in January 2008. It was jointly organized by the University of Le Mans and the EDHEC Business School. Approximately 40 papers were presented in plenary and parallel sessions. The plenary speakers were G. Berola, P. Cahuc, F. Kramarz, L. Ljungqvist, E. Prescott, R. Rogerson, R. Shimer, V. Rios-Rull, E. Wasmer and C. Zimmerman. A selection of the papers are published in this special issue of the "Anna...
Ann Harrison; Jason Scorse
During the 1990s, human rights and anti-sweatshop activists increased their efforts to improve working conditions and raise wages for workers in developing countries. These campaigns took many different forms: direct pressure to change legislation in developing countries, pressure on firms, newspaper campaigns, and grassroots organizing. This paper analyzes the impact of two different types of interventions on labor market outcomes in Indonesian manufacturing: (1) direct US government pressur...
Studies from countries with laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation suggest that gay and lesbian employees report more incidents of harassment and are more likely to report experiencing unfair treatment in the labor market than are heterosexual employees. Gay men are found to earn less than comparably skilled and experienced heterosexual men. For lesbians, the patterns are ambiguous: in some countries they have been found to earn less than their heterosexual counterpart...
Chen, Lu; Zhao, Na; Fan, Hongli; Coyte, Peter C
Data were used from the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the influence of informal care on labor market outcomes for married women of working aged, with emphasis on caregiving intensity. After accounting for potential endogeneity between caregiving and labor force participation (LFP) through simultaneous equations modeling, caregivers who provided more than 15 or 20 hr of caregiving per week were 4.5-7.7% less likely to be LFPs. Intensive caregivers who remained working had significantly lower (4.97-7.20) weekly hours of work. The significant positive effect of informal care on LFP only existed in the rural sample, and these women also had much lower hours of work than their urban counterparts. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that target intensive caregivers in order to allow them to balance both work and caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.
While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…
D. G. Shchipanova
Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.
Lesner, Rune Vammen
This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...
Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard
that PhDs accelerate growth. A major objective has been to direct more PhDs to the industry to use their skills to monetize knowledge. However, we have limited evidence on how PhDs are absorbed into the labor market, how the market values PhD labor, and how PhDs value the possibility to work......During the past decade, policy makers have accentuated the need for more PhDs to drive innovation and use their research skills to push the technological frontier. The public sector in Denmark has financially supported a doubling of the number of enrolled PhD students based on a strong belief...... in the private sector. The dissertation investigates determinants of labor market decisions among recent cohorts of PhDs in Denmark to assess how the increasing number of PhDs is absorbed into the economy. Based on econometric models, it examines what factors trigger individual career decisions and supply...
For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.
Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing
The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also
Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday
Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market
Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude; Khamis, Melanie; Yuksel, Mutlu
During World War II, more than one-half million tons of bombs were dropped in aerial raids on German cities, destroying about forty percent of the total housing stock nationwide. With a large fraction of the male population gone, the reconstruction process had mainly fallen on women in postwar Germany. This paper provides causal evidence on long-term legacies of postwar reconstruction and mandatory employment on women's labor market outcomes. We combine a unique dataset on city-level destruct...
Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear...... evidence of a causal relationship between math and earnings for students who are induced to choose math after being exposed to the pilot scheme. The effect partly stems from the fact that these students end up with a higher education....
Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.
Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek
Purpose: To examine the influence and participation of women in the labor market by the know-ledge economy; in negative or positive manner. Methodology: Quantitative research technique has been implied to evaluate women’s participa-tion in the labor market to minimize negative impacts of knowledge economy. Findings: Within the service and agricultural sectors, the outcomes demonstrated that knowledge economy is found to have a significant impact on the participation of women’s labor for...
Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas
The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...
Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
Outsourcing of jobs to low-wage countries has increased the focus onthe accumulation of skills - such as Math skills - in high-wage countries.In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causaleffect of advanced high school Math on labor market outcomes. The pilotscheme...... reduced the costs of choosing advanced Math because it allowedfor at more flexible combination of Math with other courses. We findclear evidence of a causal relationship between Math and earnings for thestudents who are induced to choose Math after being exposed to the pilotscheme. The effect partly stems...
We use data from the West German 1970 census to explore the link between being born during or shortly after World War II and educational and labor market outcomes 25 years later. We document, for the first time, that men and women born in the relatively short period between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly and substantially lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this new finding are put ...
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...
A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other
This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market
This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined with admin......This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined...... weight has a negative effect on wages for women but a positive effect for men, whereas in the public sector body weight has no influence on wages for either men or women....
Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.
Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic
David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa
This paper presents a complete analysis of the gender differences in three Chilean professional’s labor market: Business, Law and Medicine. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set collected for this effect. This data set contains information on labor market outcomes (including labor history), on schooling attainment and schooling performance and a complete set of variables characterizing the family background of the individuals in the sample. In addition, the survey contains an in...
Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III
Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…
Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna
This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.
Sarah A. Reynolds
Full Text Available This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers’ work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children’s lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance. These main effects did not remain significant with the inclusion of a wide range of socio-economic, demographic control variables, however. Our results were similarly null when using an IV analysis or a propensity score matching approach. We provide descriptive information on theoretical pathways by which maternal work may influence child development. Though several of these pathways (e.g. preschool, toys, maternal stress seem to be associated with both maternal work and child development outcomes, the pathways are not sufficiently strong to generate an association between maternal work and child development. We conclude that Chilean mothers’ employment in early childhood generally does not have an effect on child development.
Aromolaran, Adebayo B.
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...
Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.
An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…
Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....
In Denmark labor has been organized in independent but cooperating craft unions for more than a century. Within an extremely simple model of a small open economy facing imperfect competition, we analyze four different ways of organizing the labor market and show that the Danish model (partial...... centralization of the wage setting process) may be accounted for as the outcome of a two-stage Nash bargaining game, being robust in relation to changes in market conditions, and likely close to optimum from the point of view of society as a whole....
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination
R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)
textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or
Arneberg, Marie W.; Dagsvik, John K.; Jia, Zhiyang
Abstract: This paper analyzes labor market behavior of urban Eritrean women with particular reference to the impact of education, earnings and labor market opportunities. Unlike traditional models of labor supply, which assume that work can be supplied freely in the labor market, we develop a framework that explicitly takes into account the notion of job opportunities and observable sets of feasible jobs. The framework is formulated within a random utility setting in which unob...
This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…
Gielen, A. C.
One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to
Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial
Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.
Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.
The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze some aspects of the efficiency of labor markets in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina and compare resulting outcomes with the outcomes of labor markets efficiency in selected economies of the European Union. A particular focus of our analysis is on gender equality, due to the fact that not only gender inequality negatively affects the quality of life of individuals and society in general, but also can produce significant macroeconomic losses which negatively affect economic growth and development. When formulating policy that aims to increase the employability and income of the local population, our recommendation to governments, non-governmental and supranational institutions is to simultaneously take all necessary steps in order to provide women equal access to labor markets. This primarily refers to equality in access to newly created jobs, the uniformity of wages for a work with equal qualification, equal access to employment in formal economy, equal safety at work, equal access to social safety net etc.
Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.
Gaddis, Isis; Pieters, Janneke
This paper investigates the impact of Brazil's trade liberalization on gender differences in labor market outcomes, using difference-in-difference estimation that exploits variation in preliberalization industry composition across microregions. We find that trade liberalization reduced male and
Full Text Available We use the Labor Office data for the regions of the Czech Republic to investigate some of the structural features of the respective labor markets. We build our approach on the matching function of the search model of the labor market. In the paper we show how the regional labor markets differ with respect to vacancies, unemployment, matches between unemployed and vacancies, probability of finding a job and labor market tightness. We also demonstrate how these characteristics evolved over time. We show that the labor markets were really hit the hardest several years after the great recession began to affect the Czech Republic. We go on to estimate the matching function for the respective regional labor markets and show that the sensitivity of the probability of finding a job to the labor market tightness generally increased over time, which we interpret as a positive sign. We set our results in the framework of some of the earlier work which has been done. With all the data and estimates used we are able to pinpoint the most troubled regions as far as the structural features of the labor market are concerned.
James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk
Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...
V. I. Mukomel
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should
Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin
When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.
Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)
Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.
This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329
Cawley, John; Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C
This paper studies the association between weight and labor market outcomes among legal immigrants to the United States from developing countries using the first nationally representative survey of such individuals. We find that being overweight or obese is associated with a lower probability of employment among women who have been in the U.S. less than five years, but we find no such correlation among men who have been in the U.S. less than five years, or among women or men who have been in the U.S. longer than five years. We generally find no significant association between weight and either wages, sector of employment, or work limitations for either women or men. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed.
Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Wildeman, Christopher
Objectives: Use a unique dataset to pair probation and parole officers and their clients in Denmark in 2002-2009 to identify causal effects of these officers on labor market outcomes and recidivism. Methods: To identify these effects, we rely on data from all probationers and parolees in Copenhagen......, where a rotational assignment process randomizes clients to officers. We apply OLS models to test whether the inclusion of probation and parole officer fixed effects improves model fit, and we show the impact of officer fixed effects by generating predicted values for one individual, varying only...... the officer. Results: The first stage of the analysis shows that the assignment of a probation or parole officer is indeed random in Copenhagen—at least in regards to the vast majority of background characteristics—suggesting that we are able to identify causal effects of probationer and parolee assignment...
Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek
Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the influence and participation of women in the labor market by the know-ledge economy; in negative or positive manner. Methodology: Quantitative research technique has been implied to evaluate women’s participa-tion in the labor market to minimize negative impacts of knowledge economy. Findings: Within the service and agricultural sectors, the outcomes demonstrated that knowledge economy is found to have a significant impact on the participation of women’s labor force. The only drawback that discourages the employment of women is the concept of culture and social norms. Practical Implications: A higher participation of females in computer science, engineering and technology-oriented jobs would spur innovation and economic advances in all countries. Origi-nality Statement: The research also depicted procedures to accomplish women’s participation as a fundamental requirement for the achievement of developmental goals.
Full Text Available Key problems in transitions in Serbia can be analyzed through the processes happening at the labor market. Labor market in Serbia is divided on the formal and informal one ("gray". The basic problem is mass unemployment. The unemployment in Serbia is not frictional unemployment resulting from decisions of workers to change their jobs. This kind of unemployment is considered normal at all labor markets. Since it is not frictional, unemployment in Serbia is not short-term one. This unemployment is by its nature structural and therefore long-term. Structural unemployment always arises as a result of the illadapted structure of labor supply and demand. There is a particularly high level of long-term unemployment among young people who practically do not have any work experience. The only realistic solution for mass unemployment and low wages in the Serbian economy is increasing of productivity and overall economic efficiency. Stimulating entrepreneurship and opening of new companies to absorb an enormous number of unemployed is the central issue of the economic reform. Instead of short-term passive measures, the state should adopt active measures aimed at stimulating of entrepreneurship and creating of new jobs.
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
Taryn Ann Galloway
Abstract: Out of necessity, the earliest studies of immigrants' performance in the labor market in Western countries focused solely on men. However, as the employment rates of women in Western countries rise and approach those of men, questions about the labor market adjustments of immigrant women also become increasingly relevant. Furthermore, studies of earnings assimilation have typically analyzed only those individuals actually employed (full-time) in the labor market. Henc...
Balsa, Ana I; French, Michael T
This paper is one of only a few studies to examine potential labor market consequences of heavy or abusive drinking in Latin America and the first to focus on Uruguay. We analyzed data from a Uruguayan household survey conducted in 2006 using propensity score matching methods and controlling for a number of socio-demographic, family, regional, behavioral health, and labor market characteristics. As expected, we found a positive association between heavy drinking and absenteeism, particularly for female employees. Counter to the findings for developed countries, our results revealed a positive relationship between heavy drinking and labor force participation or employment. This result was mostly driven by men and weakened when considering more severe measures of abusive drinking. Possible explanations for these findings are that employment leads to greater alcohol use through an income effect, that the Uruguayan labor market rewards heavy drinking, or that labor market characteristics typical of less developed countries, such as elevated safety risks or job instability, lead to problem drinking. Future research with panel data should explore these possible mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Tian, Haijun; Robinson, Rebecca L; Sturm, Roland
The economic burden of depression has been documented, but the role of comorbid conditions is unclear. Depression and comorbid pain are particularly common, are associated with worse clinical outcomes and require different care than "pure'' depression. Does this comorbidity account for a large share of the adverse social outcomes attributed to depression? We analyzed the relationship between depression and comorbid pain, and labor market, financial, insurance and disability outcomes among Americans aged 55-65. Cross-sectional data were used from Wave 3 of the Health and Retirement Survey, a nationally representative sample of individuals aged 55-65 surveyed in 1996. Multivariate regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographics and chronic health conditions, estimated the associations between depression and pain, and economic outcomes. Outcomes included: employment and retirement status, household income, total medical expenditures, government health insurance, social security, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), and health limitations affecting work. Primary explanatory variables included the presence of severe pain, mild/moderate pain, or absence of pain, with or without depression. Compared to depression alone, depression and comorbid pain was associated with worse labor market (non-employment, retirement), financial (total medical expenditures), insurance (government insurance, social security) and disability outcomes (limitations in ADLs, health limitations affecting work), after covariate adjustment (p
James Heintz; Fabián Slonimczy
Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...
GAYLE ALLARD; Cristina Simón; RAQUEL MARTIN
This study explores the challenge of capturing talent from both the political and the management level in Western Europe. It begins by identifying the special characteristics of Generation Y: those born since 1980 and recently joining national labor forces. It then evaluates the rigidity of labor markets in the European countries, dividing them into most and least regulated and exploring some of the labor-market characteristics that accompany those extremes. Finally, it identifies the employm...
Cadena, Brian C.
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288
Cadena, Brian C
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.
Caliendo, Marco; Gehrsitz, Markus
This paper applies semiparametric regression models to shed light on the relationship between body weight and labor market outcomes in Germany. We find conclusive evidence that these relationships are poorly described by linear or quadratic OLS specifications. Women's wages and employment probabilities do not follow a linear relationship and are highest at a body weight far below the clinical threshold of obesity. This indicates that looks, rather than health, is the driving force behind the adverse labor market outcomes to which overweight women are subject. Further support is lent to this notion by the fact that wage penalties for overweight and obese women are only observable in white-collar occupations. On the other hand, bigger appears to be better in the case of men, for whom employment prospects increase with weight, albeit with diminishing returns. However, underweight men in blue-collar jobs earn lower wages because they lack the muscular strength required in such occupations. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno
This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...
García, Ana M
The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Indonesia is in the midst of a major financial, economic and political crisis. The immediate effects of the crisis on labor market outcomes are examined drawing on two rounds of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS...
Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…
The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative "feedback" hypothesis consistent with the same facts is that women experience labor market discrimination and respond with career interruptions and specialization in household production. This paper explores the relationship between self-reported discrimina...
Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann; Lei Zhang
Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market advantage of vocational education decreases with age, we employ a difference-in-differences approach that compares employment rates across different a...
Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.
Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become
Full Text Available Labor market activity may have an effect on global economy competitiveness. This issue has been described as "labor market efficiency" (LME, which is a constituent of The Global Competitiveness Index published by The World Economic Forum (WEF. The article's purpose is to clarify the phenomenon of LME and explain the mechanisms which help the constituents affect economy competitiveness. The structure of LME points at the meaning of labor market regime, especially after considering the fact that European Union countries operate within various models of regime. The analysis of the LME diversity may help determine what type of labor market regimes are most efficient in enhancing economy competitiveness
NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA
Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity involving work objectively factor designed to exploit natural resources and monetary system in its interest. According to Adam Smith, the work is a primary factor, the original production was considered by him as the sole source of national wealth. This factor of production can be achieved through labor market that is in a competitive market economy. Transactions in this market have as their object or labor work. Employment policy work focus on boosting production and the flexibility of labor market through an easy tax for economic entities to make hiring, increasing the occupancy of the active population. In Romania, the pressures exerted on the labor market increasingly higher while the economy is subject to extensive qualitative transformations concerning privatization, restructuring and upgrading.
Full Text Available For several years Vietnam has been receiving attention as an attractive businesslocation for foreign companies. But in spite of overall positive economicdevelopments, foreign companies in Vietnam also experience challenges, e.g.connected to bureaucracy and corruption. Another issue that is of crucialimportance for foreign companies in foreign markets are the conditions on thelabor market. This paper investigates questions about the potentials andchallenges for foreign companies on the Vietnamese labor market, and of howattractive Vietnam’s labor market is compared to India and China.Educationlevels, productivity, wage levels, and number of strikes are among theindicators that are used to compare the attractiveness of Vietnam’s labor market tothe labor markets of China and India. Furthermore the results of almost 30interviews conducted withcompanies from Austria, Germany and Switzerland ontheir experiences with doing business in Vietnam are used to shed light on thestrengths and weaknesses of the labor market in Vietnam.
Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Couverture du livre Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Auteur(s):. Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 30 janvier 2008. ISBN : 9780415436113. 384 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552503737. Téléchargez le PDF.
Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik
A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...
Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane
This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.
Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning
regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...
This paper modifies Edna Bonacich's theory of class conflict which cites the split labor market during the period of 1920-30 as the cause of racial antagonisms. The author states that Bonacich neglected the role of employers and technological advance in the creation of the split labor market. (ML)
Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Larouche, Alexandre; Trandafir, Mircea
While many studies examine the effect of primary education quality on labor market outcomes in developing countries, little is known about the effects at higher levels. We exploit the quasi-experiment provided by a large-scale education reform launched in Senegal in 2000 to investigate how quality...... improvements at the university level affect employment. Our difference-in-difference estimates suggest that young high-skilled workers experienced a nine percentage-point employment gain relative to older workers. They are also more likely to have “better” jobs (in the service industry or government......), suggesting a reduction in the mismatch between the quality of high-skill labor demanded and supplied....
Measures of individual happiness, or well-being, can guide labor market policies. Individual unemployment, as well as the rate of unemployment in society, have a negative effect on happiness. In contrast, employment protection and unemployment benefits can contribute to happiness—though when such policies prolong unemployment, the net effect on national happiness is negative. Active labor market policies that create more job opportunities increase happiness, which in turn increases productivi...
Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He
We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.
Baldwin, Stephen E.
Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)
Alina Ştefania CHENIC (CREŢU
Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis and the challenges of globalization, the paper presents and analyses relevant aspects of labor market flexicurity, especially in the Mediterranean and Anglo- Saxon model. Thus, the labor market in Spain and the United Kingdom has been studied, highlighting the reason behind existing problems, compared to other EU countries, notably in the Euro area (Italy, Greece, Portugal, Germany. Labor market flexicurity highlights labor market flexibility while, at the same time, ensuring safe transition for employees from a job to another. In this context, it should be emphasized that integration in the Economic and Monetary Union involves fulfilling a major condition in order to cope within the Union, namely labor market flexibility.
Full Text Available The paper examines the dependency of labor market on positive and negative effects of cyclic recurrence and economic development. Probable scenarios of the dynamics in employment and unemployment in dependence of changes in gross domestic product (GDP and productivity in conditions of recession and following the start of economic revival are analyzed in accordance to the open character of Bulgarian economy and the specificity of Bulgarian model of transition predetermined by the impacts of outer influences and additional inner ones on the labor market, which verification is on the basis of the data for state-of-art of labor market in years of transition to market economy. The factor predestining the level of unemployment are investigated on the basis of input flows unemployment relating to macroeconomic and other outer measures, as well as the impact which would lead to decrease in the average duration of unemployment. The accent is on the necessity of establishment of a consecutive and sustainable strategy of economic development having a clear vision about the structuring of economy and labor demand in middle-term aspect, as founding in the flexibility of labor market and employment in the country.
Lee, Sun Youn; Ohtake, Fumio
The aim of this study was to elucidate how individual differences in noncognitive skills, as measured by the Big Five personality traits, explain variation in labor market outcomes. Japanese and U.S. survey data were analyzed to examine the associations between personality traits and later outcomes in the two countries. We focused on country-specific, noncognitive determinants of annual income, which were found in agreeableness among male workers. Agreeableness seemed to contribute to annual ...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent...
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....
Full Text Available In modern societies gender gap attracts significant attention. Scientists are trying to research this issue from different aspects: demographical, sociological, economic, etc. The goal of this paper is to define the basic variables that explain variation on the labor markets in Europe from the gender point of view and to compare labor market in Serbia with European countries in order to identify the countries with the most similar gender performances, with intention to overview their experiences concerning the policy measures for gender gap reduction. Analysis is conducted through observations of activity rates, employment rates, unemployment rates, inactivity rates, and long-term unemployment rates. With use of factor analysis we have identified the main factors on the labor markets in Europe and on the basis of cluster analysis we have conducted grouping of countries on the basis of discovered factors. Identification of cluster with Serbia was conducted and also the place of the Serbian labor market in the same cluster. On the basis of quantitative results qualitative analysis was conducted to overview the experience in the field of gender differences on the labor market in the countries from the same cluster as Serbia, with special attention to Italy. Contemporary researches define labor market policy measures oriented to reduction of inequalities in the field of paid and unpaid labor. Decrease of these inequalities will consequently lead to the increase of female labor supply on the market. Final result of this research is the recommendation of policy measures in order to reduce gender differences in economic activity with final goal of creating modern society in Serbia and convergence with the most advanced countries in that field.
Full Text Available Female labor market participation is one of the central investigation topics in feminist economics’ studies. Even after an increase in the labor market participation and the decrease in the wage gap between men and women, the latter still face great difficulties on being remunerated and promoted when compared to men. Neoclassical economic models cannot explain completely these differences without making use of strong hypothesis about individual preferences and family goals. This study has as the main objective to analyze difference on the housework participation as an influencer to different conditions in the labor market for men and women. Our results show that women still have a double work shift. Among our main conclusions, we can say that women benefit more from personal income increase than with labor market participation, because their bargain power within family increases and they can decrease their housework hours.
Hill, Elizabeth T.
Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.
The potential economic outcomes resulting from a flat rate of income tax have been the subject of an ongoing academic and political debate. Many observers have suggested that the introduction of a flat tax would be beneficial for a countryâ€™s economy, having a positive influence on the labor market and the gross domestic product by enhancing incentives to work, save, invest, and take risks. A flat tax also significantly simplifies income taxation which increases tax compliance and reduces ta...
Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall
are indeed key drivers of internal migration flows in Denmark. That is, while we obtain mixed evidence with regard to the role of traditional labor and housing market variables, most of the included proxies for agglomeration economies such as the region’s population density, patent intensity, endowment......We analyze the determinants and regional implications of internal migration flows across Danish municipalities in 2006–2012. Besides assessing the role of labor market and housing market factors in driving a region’s net migration rate, we particularly focus on agglomeration factors identified...... for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies...
Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.
The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.
Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Schultz, Alan; Yiu, Julie; Godoy, Ricardo A
Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane'). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported perceived stress and child health. These associations did not vary significantly by people's Spanish skills or proximity to town. We conclude that the positive association between math skills and market and non-market outcomes extends beyond industrial nations to even highly autarkic settings.
Brosig, S.; Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Rozelle, S.; Wang, X.
The work is devoted to the dynamics of labor market participation of Chinese rural households. Based on a theoretical farm household framework the choice between four distinct labor market participation states is empirically analyzed. Using household data over the period 1995¿2002 from the province
Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane
This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324
The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)
This report reviews past, current, and projected future labor market trends for health physicists through 2005. Information is provided on degrees granted, available supply of new graduates, employment, job openings for new graduates, and salaries. Job openings for new graduates are compared to the available supply of new graduates to assess relative job opportunities in the health physics labor market. The report is divided into three sections: trends during 1983-1993, trends during the mid-1990s, and projected trends for 1997 through 2005
Goldfarb, Robert; Hamermesh, Daniel
This report describes research on the New Haven labor market carried out during the summer and fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970. The aims of the research were to develop further the theoretical approach to micro-labor economics in a local labor market and to test the feasibility of collecting data from local firms which could be used to test…
Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine
Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...
José Milton Barros Neto
Full Text Available The professional nursing practice has been constantly targeted for discussion, especially regarding the conditions of their work . The aim of this study was to understand the formation of this professional and the job market today, considering the changes in the curriculum of nursing, trends in the labor market , the demand and supply of labor this professional. It is a study of the literature review, based on a historical - critical perspective , using the databases SCIELO , VHL , BIREME , plus titles available in the library of the Centro Universitário de Maceió - CESMAC.O study was guiding question : how has initally vocational nurses face the determinations of the job market today ? It was felt that the training of nurses throughout their history, had fundamental influence of the labor market , whereas the changes in curricular courses were predetermined in the market trends that pointed according to each season . In recent decades , there has been a considerable increase in jobs , but disproportionate to the number of institutions of higher education in nursing in the country . Consequently , highlighted the growth of the informal labor relations , resulting in precarious jobs and the stagnation in labor income.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective....... Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ...
Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this paper is to characterize the theoretical aspects of strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles in agrarian enterprises; to identify individual factors of influence on labor resources and to form a scheme effective strategic management of labor resources in conjunction with marketing activities of the enterprise. Methodology / approach. In the process of writing the article, were used such methods as: logical generalization – for the theoretical substantiation of the marketing activity’s and labor resources’ essence; statistical analysis – for the estimation of such factors, as migration movement of labor resources from rural areas, which influence on the functioning of agrarian enterprises; system analysis – for research and substantiation of effective strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles as the main element of the enterprise’s activity. Results. Today in Ukraine one of the main problems of effective management of is the attraction and use of labor resources. Since labor is the main productive force in solving the issues of competitiveness, economic growth and ensuring the effective operation of the enterprise. The labor resources management is a complex process and has its own specific properties and regularities and should have systemic character and completeness based on the development of strategic management. Application of strategic management of labor resources with the marketing principles at agrarian enterprises will allow using economic, organizational and technical possibilities of production effectively. Originality / scientific novelty. An attempt to investigate the influence of interstate migration growth (decrease in the rural population as a negative factor of the labor resources reduction in agrarian enterprises, and the forecast for the prospective period was made. Practical value / implications. The forecasting level of labor
Johnson, R J; Herring, C
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.
Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina
such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially......We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records...... in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without...
This dissertation contains three independent studies that analyze labor markets in transformation. They focus on two central elements of labor markets in developing countries: non-agricultural employment in the rural economy and informal employment in the urban economy. Rural non-agricultural employment (RNAE) is being increasingly emphasized as a potential pathway out of rural poverty for people who are unable to secure their income in agriculture. By paying particular attention to th...
Nguyen , Trung Hung
This dissertation aims to investigate the Trends and Determinants of the Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam since the global economic crisis occurred in 2007 with the focus on the household's diversification; the involvement of rural individuals in Rural Non-Farm Employment; Rural Labor Market development; and assessment of a specific labor market policy.
Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey
Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse.
Careja, Romana; Andreß, H.-J.
in a multilevel design the impact that regulations in the EU member states concerning immigrants' access to domestic labor markets have on threat perceptions and on opinions about immigrants' economic role. It finds that labor market regulations have a positive effect on opinions about immigrants' economic role...... and reduce the negative relationships between precarious labor market status and opinions about the economic role. However, a robust effect of labor market regulations on threat perceptions was not found. Our results imply that labor market incorporation rules need to be accompanied by other measures......This article builds on the notion that immigrants' integration into the labor market benefits migrants and shapes natives' opinions about immigrants. Using insights from the newest literature on labor immigration and drawing upon the literature on attitudes toward immigrants, the article explores...
Full Text Available In casual labor markets, intermediaries are used in order to match employers and employees. This function is especially important when the market is imperfect and employers and employees have not formed solid networks. This paper investigates the network effects and the role of intermediaries in the seasonal agricultural labor market in the irrigated area of Adana, Turkey. The network of rural households is divided into one composed mainly of farmers and one composed mainly of seasonal agricultural workers. Our regression analyses show that the seasonal workers who do not have strong networks with farmers have difficulty finding jobs. Middlemen serve to mitigate the seasonal workers’ lack of a network and play a key role in the area’s seasonal agricultural labor market. At the same time, however, blood ties and territorial ties between middlemen and workers may cause middlemen to discriminate among seasonal workers based on their origins.
Full Text Available Labor market is affected by ecologization processes in economy both nationally and globally. Positive and negative effects of this process are analyzed in this article. We defined 5 main areas where labor market is affected by "greening" processes: 1 еcologization create new workplaces for producing "green" goods; for implementation and support of ecology-friendly technical processes; in traditional business areas, connected to "greens"; 2 іt provide changes of overall employment rate; 3 labor market structure transform due to new ecology tendencies; 4 current workplaces become "greener", especially positions, connected to ecology; 5 it causes widespread social integration. We made a conclusion that the total effect of this process on labor market will depend on many economic and political factors. Number and quality of created workplaces will highly depend on level of demand for such specialists and on elasticity of employment. It will correlate with the number of workplaces, lost in traditional industries. Sum of gross benefits and damages will be equal to number of employees, who "green" their work conditions or will be forced to change their jobs at all.
Full Text Available Implementation of the business intelligence concept is enabling new opportunities for the labor market research and management. Labor market intelligence means a competent decision making process in the labor market. Such process should be based on the comprehensive set of analytical technologies and tools. The analysis of online information available at websites of state organizations working in the labor market of the Republic of Moldova has shown that many them are still at the very beginning of the effective data using.
Full Text Available This paper represents a research regarding informatics graduates professional level adjustment to specific requirements of the IT labor market. It uses techniques and models for data warehouse technology to allow a comparative analysis between the supply competencies and the skills demand on the IT labor market.
Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.
Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.
Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R ampersand D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000
Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation procedure of regional labor market influence on sustainability of internal labor market institutions. The paper refines the categories of regional and internal labor market. Internal labor market institutions have been classified and evaluated regarding the level of their sustainability (basing on cases of the Sverdlovsk region city-forming enterprises. As a result the model of labor expenses evaluation is elaborated for enterprises concerned.
Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng
Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.
Americano, Nathalia Martins
Considering the various difficulties faced by transgender people who want a professional placement in the formal labor market, the issues discussed in the sphere of principled- normative construction suggest alternatives to resolve them fairly and effectively. This study is developed through theory analysis of the fundamental principles and guarantees prevailing in the current constitutional order and the international community. Notwithstanding the labor market being an environment where it ...
Kristensen, Nicolai; Verner, Dorte
This paper investigates the extent and nature of distortions in the labor market in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire by using quantile regression analysis on employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector. We found that the labor markets in Côte d'Ivoire do not seem to be much distorted. Unions...... may influence employment through tenure but do not seem to influence wages directly except for vulnerable minorities that seem protected by unions. Establishment-size wage effects are pronounced and highest for white-collar workers. This may be explained by the efficiency wage theory, so that, even...... in the absence of unions, segmentation and inefficiencies will still be present as long as firms seek to retain their employees by paying wages above the market clearing level. The inefficiency arising from establishment-size wage effects can be mitigated by education....
Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan
The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.
This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...
Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.
The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…
Potrafke , Niklas
Abstract This paper empirically investigates the influence of globalization on various aspects of labor market deregulation. I employ the data set by Bassanini and Duval (2006) on labor market institutions in OECD countries and the KOF index of globalization. The data set covers 20 OECD countries in the 1982?2003 period. The results suggest that globalization did neither influence the unemployment replacement rate, the unemployment benefit length, public expenditures on ALMP, the t...
We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.
Razvan Catalin Dobrea
Full Text Available The employability of of graduates is today one of the major problems both of universities and economical environment. Also, employability, inserting optimum professional and social life is a problem of each graduate. It finds today, that a large part of are young drop out of school and thus possibility of qualify at a high level or have difficulty entering the labor market. European Commission recommends for member states reforming education, especially of the university so as to ensure the professionalization of the young people, developing their professional skills and transversal, harnessing their potential, enhance the relevance of education for youth and the labor market. Bologna Declaration shows that employability (ability to engage, to maintain the service and mobility in the labor market is defining higher education, whose role is to familiarize students with the skills and competencies that individuals need to place on the job. (Bologna, 1999 This paper addresses the issue of employability of higher economic studies graduates, and analyzes a positive experience resulting from the provision of complex information, guidance, advice and orientation to students in POSDRU "Practice today to become manager of tomorrow". The paper presents the results of a complex study conducted on the impact that these services have had on the students involved, from three perspectives: students, employers, who guided activity students at the university level. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the increase in the number of students who have benefited from guidance, counseling and professional development appropriate to their needs and the number who have developed personal skills to substantiate decisions regarding their career paths and educational because of of information, advice, guidance provided in the project. These services have helped students to develop, to know better, know their own skills and abilities and to focus
The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…
Giani, Matt S.
The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which the magnitude of disparities in the labor market outcomes of college graduates stemming from socioeconomic background varies according to institutional selectivity. The data used for the study are drawn from the National Center for Education Statistics' Education Longitudinal Study of…
Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…
Horbal, N.; Shpak, M.; Shpak, Y.
The current state of the labor market in Ukraine is researched. A lot of processes are irregular and uncontrollable as a result of shadow or informal employment at the market nowadays. Different structural and cyclical influences caused high unemployment and a gap between labor market needs and labor force qualification and education. The impact of the political crisis on employment has been related to a large and growing internal flow of people leaving the areas of warfare and looking for...
Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.
Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.
As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…
Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Villagomez, E.
We analyze mobility in urban Mexico between three labor market states: working in the formal sector, working in the informal sector, and not working. We use a dynamic multinomial logit panel data model with random effects, explaining the labor market state of each individual during each time period.
Full Text Available The most important issue of labor market and its active policy is certainly a question of unemployment reduction and employment rates increase. This question is in the focus of attention of many economies over decades ago. The complexity of technology development, specialization of labor, migration and a constant need for education have rendered this area more complex and challenging to explore. It has long been known that the labor market is very asymmetrical and often unpredictable. Despite the great importance of this problem, there is no universal recipe for its solution, which could be effectively applied in neither all countries, nor in every period. In each country there are parts of the territory (regions which have recorded worse results over a longer period of time, as measured by almost all major economic indicators, including the level and rate of (unemployment, compared to the national average. This paper presents a general theoretical overview of the functioning of labor markets and their features, and will provide a short analysis of asymmetry in labor market movements (employment/unemployment between the EU Member States and their regions. .
Barry T. Hirsch
Full Text Available Abstract About 5 % of US workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998–2013. Labor markets with high unemployment have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between multiple job holding and unemployment is found within markets over time, with near-zero estimates being precisely estimated. Multiple job holding is largely acyclic. JEL Classification: J21
Rondeau, Kent V; Williams, Eric S; Wagar, Terry H
Turnover of nursing staff is a significant issue affecting health care cost, quality, and access. In recent years, a worldwide shortage of skilled nurses has resulted in sharply higher vacancy rates for registered nurses in many health care organizations. Much research has focused on the individual, group, and organizational determinants of turnover. Labor market factors have also been suggested as important contributors to turnover and vacancy rates but have received limited attention by scholars. This study proposes and tests a conceptual model showing the relationships of organization-market fit and three local labor market factors with organizational turnover and vacancy rates. The model is tested using ordinary least squares regression with data collected from 713 Canadian hospitals and nursing homes. Results suggest that, although modest in their impact, labor market and the organization-market fit factors do make significant yet differential contributions to turnover and vacancy rates for registered nurses. Knowledge of labor market factors can substantially shape an effective campaign to recruit and retain nurses. This is particularly true for employers who are perceived to be "employers-of-choice."
G L Clark
Local labor markets are characterized by rigidities in their patterns of adjustment to short-run fluctuations. With or without unions, fluctuations in employment, hours worked, and money wages are unlike the patterns predicted by conventional discrete-exchange labor-market theories. Moreover there are distinct geographical and industrial patterns in the observed rigidities. Neoclassical implicit contract theory has been vindicated. Or has it? Obvious empirical difficulties remain, especially ...
I construct an equilibrium model of the labor market where workers and firms enter into dyamic contracts that can potentially last forever, but are subject to optimal terminations. Upon a termination, the firm hires a new worker, and the worker who is terminated receives a termination compensation from the firm and is then free to go back to the labor market to seek new employment opportunities and enter into new dynamic contracts. The model permits only two types of equilibrium terminations ...
Full Text Available romotion of gender equality is the core of the European social and economic policies, but in spite of the progress achieved in recent years, the inequalities between women and men still remain in some fields of activities. Thus, equality and inclusion on the labor market must become a desideratum given the belief that the labor market should provide an opportunity for all, regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. Equality between men and women represents a common value of the EU, and a necessary condition for achieving the objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. In this context, the present paper aims to address a number of theoretical issues in relation to the concept of gender segmentation, to its forms and factors of influence.
Full Text Available Abstract Self-employed workers account for between 8 and 30 % of participants in the labor markets of OECD countries (Blanchower, Self-employment: more may not be better, 2004. This paper develops and estimates a general equilibrium model of the labor market that accounts for this sizable proportion. The model incorporates self-employed workers, some of whom hire paid employees in the market. Employment rates and earnings distributions are determined endogenously and are estimated to match their empirical counterparts. The model is estimated using the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS. The model is able to estimate nonpecuniary amenities associated with employment in different labor market states, accounting for both different employment dynamics within state and the misreporting of earnings by self-employed workers. Structural parameter estimates are then used to assess the impact of an increase in the generosity of unemployment benefits on the aggregate employment rate. Findings suggest that modeling the self-employed, some of whom hire paid employees implies that small increases in unemployment benefits leads to an expansion in aggregate employment. JEL Classification J21, J24, J28, J64
Sybirtsev Volodymyr V.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate and develop conceptual provisions for conducting the institutional reform of the national labor market. There singled out aspects of implementing the operation and development of the labor market in the context of manifestation of the internal complexity and multi-functionality inherent to it. The existence of regularities in the increase of the need for development of the institutional structure of the labor market under conditions of transforming and restructuring the system of socio-economic relations is proved. The presence of a multiplicative effect from the spread of the new institutional practices being introduced in the labor market on the institutional regulation of a wide range of economic operations, phenomena and processes is revealed. There defined the content of the process of developing the institutional space of the national labor market, which involves institutionalizing the processes of socialization of the socio-economic relations associated with productive employment, in the context of which there occurs an increase in the importance and role of human resources in the creation of economic goods, expanded social reproduction.
dependent variable are well-known and range from frequent uninterpretability of results to bias in statistical tests (see, e.g., Hanushek and Jackson...shown that logit and probit analysis yield almost identical results near the means of relevant variables ( Hanushek and Jackson, 1977: 188- 189). We choose...general and lucid treatment of these and related points, see Hanushek and Jackson (1977:Ch. 7). Step 2: Analysis of labor market impact on individual
Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.
Consistent with two models of imperfect competition in the labor market-the efficient bargaining model and the monopsony model-we provide two extensions of a microeconomic version of Hall's framework for estimating price-cost margins. We show that both product and labor market imperfections generate
Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.
Chakalova Kseniia O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical foundations of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market. The essence of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market is highlighted. The main structural elements of the suggested mechanism have been characterized, including actors and facilities, factors and resources, regulation methods and institutions of the internal labor market, the main processes of staff management in the internal labor market (planning, promotion, development, and motivation of staff, as well as the nature of interactions with the external labor market and the features of the diagnostics of efficiency of the mechanism. The political, economic, social, and organizational groups of factors, influencing the internal labor market, have been provided. The regulation methods used by each actor in the internal labor market have been presented. Indicators for evaluating efficiency of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market have been defined.
Søgaard, Jakob Egholt
In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors will try to analyze the evolution of Romanias labor market, in the last nearly 22 years. More precisely, we will analyze the evolution of the number of employees, the number of pensioners, and the number of unemployed workers, in the mentioned period of time, and we will draw some conclusions. We consider that the dynamic of the labor market is an important indicator, showing both the economic situation, as well as its future evolution; this is why we have chosen to focus our study on it. In order to do so, using the data published by the National Institute for Statistics, and the National Agency for Labor Force Employment, we have noticed worrying evolutions for Romania's labor market: a decrease in the number of employees, an increase in the number of unemployed workers and pensioners, as well as an increase in the number of those who, although able to work, do not have and do not officially look for a workplace. In fact, this is a limit of our research, because those persons either work (abroad, or on the black market, either do look for a workplace, but are not registered as unemployed workers. Another limit of our research is related to the insufficient explanations related to the evolution of the different indicators. But our purpose was to offer an overview of the labor market for the last nearly 22 years, and to suggest some measures to be taken in the future. In order to do that, we have analyzed the evolution of the number of employees, the percentage of employees in the population able to work, the evolution of the number of unemployed workers, the evolution of the number of pensioners. Also, we have made a comparative analysis of the evolution of the number of employees and of the number of pensioners. Through this paper, we have tried to draw attention upon the worrying phenomena taking place on Romania's labor market, as well as upon the fact that our country should take urgent measures in order to
Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz
Previous literature has identified considerable non-pecuniary costs to macroeconomic fluctuation and uncertainty. The present paper investigates whether and to what extent labor market institutions can mitigate those costs. We study how life satisfaction of European citizens is affected by employment protection and the level and duration of unemployment benefit payments. We differentiate between direct effects (at given macroeconomic conditions) and total effects (including the feedback throu...
Henrickson, Kevin E.
Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…
Cort, David A; Morrison, Emory
To explore whether the number and composition of first-time applicants to U.S. MD-granting medical schools, which have fluctuated over the past 30 years, are related to changes in labor market strength, specifically the unemployment rate and wages. The authors merged time series data from 1980 through 2010 (inclusive) from five sources and used multivariate time series models to determine whether changes in labor market strength (and several other macro-level factors) were related to the number of the medical school applicants as reported by the American Medical College Application Service. Analyses were replicated across specific sex and race/ethnicity applicant pools. Two results surfaced in the analyses. First, the strength of the labor market was not influential in explaining changes in applicant pool sizes for all applicants, but was strongly influential in explaining changes for black and Hispanic males. Increases of $1,000 in prevailing median wages produced a 1.6% decrease in the white male applicant pool, while 1% increases in the unemployment rate were associated with 4.5% and 3.1% increases in, respectively, the black and Hispanic male applicant pools. Second, labor market strength was a more important determinant in applications from males than in applications from females. Although stakeholders cannot directly influence the overall economic market, they can plan and prepare for fewer applications from males, especially those who are black and Hispanic, when the labor market is strong.
Gnatenko Irina A.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at implementing an implication of the theory of wave-like (cyclical evolutionary development of the economic system with regard to the regional labor market and determining the time for the most effective introduction of innovation influence according to development cycle of the labor markets in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The article schematically depicts the dissipative system of the cyclical evolutionary development of the regional labor market. The status of the regional labor market in each of the phases of the development cycle has been characterized. An evaluation of the efficiency of introducing innovations in the regional labor market, depending on the development cycle of this market, has been provided. The phase of the development cycle in which the labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions are effective has been defined, and the causal relationships that show these markets being in the «crisis» phase, have been described. It has been concluded that it would be useful to modify the existing policy of innovation impact on the regional labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in line with the development phase of the markets indicated.
This paper is an empirical attempt to quantify caste-based discrimination in thelabor market using household data taken from rural North India. In the regressionanalysis, transaction costs associated with entry into the labor market and reservationwages are estimated simultaneously along with market wages. The estimation resultsprovide evidence of the existence of transaction costs in the labor market anddiscrimination against backward classes with regard to access to regular employment. Inli...
Froelich, Markus; Puhani, Patrick
Based on a nonparametrically estimated model of labor market classifications, this paper makes suggestions for immigration policy using data from western Germany in the 1990s. It is demonstrated that nonparametric regression is feasible in higher dimensions with only a few thousand observations. In sum, labor markets able to absorb immigrants are characterized by above average age and by professional occupations. On the other hand, labor markets for young workers in service occupations are id...
Floro, M S; Schaefer, K
This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension
Meyer, Lisa B.
This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…
The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…
Gerber, Theodore P; Radl, Jonas
Russia provides an interesting context for studying the labor market experiences of the elderly because of its experience with market transition, its looming growth in the elderly dependency ratio, and its unusual pension policies that do not penalize pensioners for working. We use data from twenty surveys of the Russian population conducted from February 1991 to November 2007 to analyze the labor market participation and earnings of elderly Russians following market transition. Economic desperation, exacerbated by low pension levels, pushed some elderly to seek employment for income on the labor market. Elderly Russians with more education had more opportunities to work, and education differentials increased as market reforms progressed. The correlates of earnings operate similarly for retirement- and pre-retirement age Russians, with several exceptions: unobserved factors favoring employment are negatively associated with earnings for the elderly, occupation mediates most of the effects of education, and patterns of change over time differ somewhat. Elderly Russians are not disproportionately blocked from employment following market reforms. Following the initial transition shock, their labor market activity increased. Overall, both push and pull factors shape the employment and earnings of the elderly, affecting different segments of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben
from advantaged to disadvantaged workers. A worker can be disadvantaged in the sense that they may have less ability to aquire and utilize skills in the workplace. The model explains why passive benefits tend to fall and active benefits tend to increase during the course of unemployment spell....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....
Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Skott, Peter
Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…
FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA
Full Text Available The current economic crisis, cataloged by most economists as the worst recession of 1933, makes most of the population can not enjoy a decent standard of living and appropriate working conditions. The most serious implication that the economic crisis has on the labor market is the rising unemployment and underemployment rate increase default. The number of unemployed in Romania could increase at any time due to the economic restructuring of the country and the availability of immigrants from the Community, Romania is one of the major exporters of labor. In this time of crisis in the face of Romanian economy appears that a particular problem are twofold. It is, on the one hand, an effective demand for labor insufficient structurally that will lead in the future to under-utilization of production equipment, and on the other hand, a substitution of labor imposed by technical progress, which will lead to increased unemployment
Full Text Available Comparing the Nordic countries, this article examines different combinations of permanent and temporary employment protection legislation, and whether such differences are reflected in patterns of labor market transitions. We find higher levels of transitions from unemployment to temporary contracts in Sweden and Finland, with lax regulation of temporary contracts and strict regulation of permanent contracts. Further, temporary employees are integrated into permanent contracts in countries with lax (Denmark or strict (Norway regulation of permanent contracts, while this is not the case in Finland and Sweden. For these countries, the study indicates a certain degree of labor market duality, with low mobility from temporary to permanent employment contracts.
Poverty, Job Quality and Labor Market Dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa ... This project will explore links between labour market dynamics and the quality ... public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.
Full Text Available The gender gap in working conditions has barely improved in South Korea where various measures for gender equality have been in place for a relatively long time. Furthermore, the female employment rate is also the lowest in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. This study will evaluate the stratified structure of the labor market to identify the causes and will analyze changes in the gender employment distribution and mobility. This study conducted an empirical analysis of gender distribution and labor mobility in the South Korean labor market, utilizing long-term data (2005–2014 from the supplementary survey by employment type on the Economically Active Population of the Korea National Statistical Office. From the analysis, women showed a relatively smaller increase than men in the primary labor market, classified as the large and standard employment market, in 2014 compared with 2005, but showed a relatively greater increase than men in the secondary labor market, comprising the small–medium and non-standard employment market. Thus, gender skewness in employment distribution was greater in the stratified labor market. On the other hand, the non-economically active population more than doubled for women compared to men. From the analysis of labor mobility by gender, a higher proportion of women were employed in the peripheral labor market than in the core labor market and women were also more likely to be employed in the relatively weak peripheral labor market. These results imply that dichotomous gender equality policies for resolving the gender gap have a certain limitation in the stratified labor market. Thus, what is needed is a holistic approach that takes into account the labor market structure.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility
Full Text Available Present in the European political discourse in the early '90s, the concept of flexicurity, achieved by the contraction of two terms, flexibility and security, emerged in the European Union with the adoption of the Communication "Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security" in June 2007. This study, result of the research internship undertaken in October-December 2011 at WIFO, aims to capture the main dimensions of labor market flexicurity, the quality of social partnership and the present status of the targets set by of Europe 2020 Strategy. Europe 2020 Strategy aims, among other objectives, at achieving a series of targets specific for the labor market, in the European context, such as: - Employment for the population aged between 20-64 years, - Reducing the number of early school leavers, - Increasing the share of university graduates in the population between 30-34 years, - Reducing the number of people affected by poverty and social exclusion.
Kalleberg, Arne L.; Rosenfeld, Rachel A.
Examined interrelationships by sex between domestic work and labor market work in the United States, Canada, Norway, and Sweden. Findings suggested that Scandinavian women used their greater opportunities for part-time employment to reconcile family and labor market responsibilities. No significant effects were observed for men in any of the…
Dahlen, Heather M
I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA's individual mandate (2011-2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non-group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18-29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays.
Medoff, James L.; Wiener, Jonathan B.
Recent statistical investigations indicate that labor market imbalance has increased during the past decade and has had important deleterious effects on the nation's inflation and productivity growth records. A growing difficulty in filling skilled jobs at a given unemployment rate is reflected. Business community analysts attribute the growing…
This paper evaluates how access to paid parental leave affects labor market entrance for immigrating mothers with small children. Paid parental leave together with job protection may increase labor force participation among women but if it is too generous it may create incentives to stay out of the labor force. This incentive effect may be especially true for mothers immigrating to a country where having small children automatically makes the mothers eligible for the benefit. To evaluate the ...
Full Text Available When the economy goes in recession, the necessity of state intervention for its regulation becomes inevitable. Often, the monetary and fiscal policies undertaken by the government with the aim to achieve this target, may result with different economic configuration, probably undesirable. That’s by the other steps undertaken in the priority economic sectors. Actually, the Albanian government has taken some measure in order to reduce the informal economy (focused especially on business agent and to regulate the market labor in the country. As any reforms, the effectiveness of those initiatives will be seen after some years, but actually, some questions bring in mind: what is the impact of those in the economic performance of the agents (business-employee, and can improve their conditions? Is the labor market in able to handle the initiatives and have been those in the appropriate levels? How are the actual report private employment and state employment, and has been rise the employment rate during this time? Is the possibility that higher employment rate will be a good indicator for the improvement of the economic welfare? The configuration of the labor market in the country and its challenges will be the focus of this article.
Belot, M.V.K.; van Ours, J.C.
The development of the unemployment rate di¤ers substantially between OECD countries.In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions.In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which
Lindbeck, Assar; Snower, Dennis J.
Much of the history of economic enterprise has involved reaping the benefits from specialization of labor by dividing increasingly fragemented tasks among different employees - as vividly described already by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations. This development was greatly facilitated through the rise of "Tayloristic organizations," where standardized inputs are processed to yield standardized outputs, and where different functional tasks (e.g. administration, production, marketing, design) ...
Full Text Available The book, entitled Geographical Labor Market Imbalances represents a collective volume of outstanding scientific papers concerning regional issues, which were presented at the XXVII National Conference of Labour Economics organized by AIEL (Italian Association of Labor Economics, the Department of Law of SecundaUniversità di Napoli and the Departments of Economic and Social Sciences of the UniversitàCattolica del SacroCuore (Piacenza, 27-28 September 2012.
Nadya Araújo Guimarães
Full Text Available This article focuses on the inter-sectorial mobility of industrial workers in Brazil based on longitudinal data from the Brazilian Ministry of Labor on the number of hired and dismissed workers during the 1990s. Comparing two industries in two regional labor markets, the author argues that gender differences are important for understanding patterns of mobility in formal labor markets independent of the degree of their formality, the different patterns of women’s work permeability, and the nature of their restructuring process.
Korepanov Oleksiy S.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the labor market in Ukraine in the regional context using cluster analysis methods. The current state of the labor market in regions of Ukraine is analyzed, and a system of statistical indicators that influence the state and development of this market is formed. The expediency of using cluster analysis for grouping regions according to the level of development of the labor market is substantiated. The essence of cluster analysis is revealed, its main goal, key tasks, which can be solved by means of such analysis, are presented, basic stages of the analysis are considered. The main methods of clustering are described and, based on the results of the simulation, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are justified. In the work the clustering of regions of Ukraine by the level of labor market development using different methods of cluster analysis is carried out, conclusions on the results of the calculations performed are presented, and the main directions for further research are outlined.
Uzagalieva, Ainura; Cukrowski, J.
Roč. 59, č. 2 (2006), s. 225-246 ISSN 0012-981X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market regulations * competitiveness * international trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics
This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
We examine the impact of discrimination on labor market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labor market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon in which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers. (JEL J15, J31, J61, J64, J71)...
O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles
Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women.
Full Text Available The empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (PWD has recently attracted the attention of the Indonesian government. Several initiatives have been made to empower their life, especially the establishment of Act No. 8/2016 which enhances their right to inclusive economic activities. This study aims to map PWD in Indonesian labor market. Specifically, it analyzes the characteristics of employed and unemployed PWD. It explored Labor Force Survey (Sakernas, which began to concern on disability issue in 2016. The results show that PWD prevalence varies highly among provinces led by West Sumatera, East Nusa Tenggara, and South Sulawesi and that PWD has lower labor participation rate than that of PWOD. It may indicate the significant presence of discouraged workers among PWD.
Clemens, Michael A.; Lewis, Ethan Gatewood; Postel, Hannah M.
An important class of active labor market policy has received little rigorous impact evaluation: immigration barriers intended to improve the terms of employment for domestic workers by deliberately shrinking the workforce. Recent advances in the theory of endogenous technical change suggest that such policies could have limited or even perverse labor-market effects, but empirical tests are scarce. We study a natural experiment that excluded almost half a million Mexican 'bracero' seasonal ag...
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...
Šuvaković Đorđe, Olgin
Full Text Available This paper compares the efficiency of profit- and wage-maximizing (PM and WM monopsony in the labor market. We show that, both locally and globally, a PM monopsony may well be dominated by its WM twin, where the local and global dominance are defined with respect to a single (inverse labor supply function and a single family of such functions. This family is always divided in the two disjoint (subfamilies of the PM and WM dominance. We also analyze some major factors that explain the size of these (subfamilies. .
Vania de Fátima Barros Estivalete
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine the prospect of coordinators and members of collective enterprises members of a Brazilian social incubator about the contributions of social entrepreneurship with the female increase in the participation of women in the labor market. We conducted a descriptive and qualitative research. The analysis of the context was defined a priori by defined categories, based on a theoretical model that contemplates the dimensions: human capital, will and viability, social capital, social and institutional environment actors. The categories defined a posteriori contemplated the following categories: empowerment, recovery and personal fulfillment. Regarding women's inclusion in the labor market, the results reflected some difficulties faced by women who participate in projects, with highlights to the lack of qualification, opportunities and participation in the formal market. For many interviewees, these projects represented the first opportunity for inclusion in the labor market.
Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…
Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor
Trends in the labor market, as a result of global economic recession, are characterized by reduction of manpower activity, decreased number of employed and increased number of unemployed persons. As the result of economic recession more then million workplaces are expected to be lost in the European Union. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic recession on labor market in general and healthcare labor market in Croatia. In Q1/2009, the number of employed persons in the European Union declined by -1.2% compared to the same quarter of 2008, while in Croatia the number of employed persons declined by -0.4%. The comparison of quarterly employment rate in Croatia and the European Union in the period from Q2/2008 to Q1/2009 was not significantly different (p = 0.169, df = 6, t = 1.564, Student t test). Average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 in the European Union was 8.1% +/- 0.3 and it was increased by 9.4% compared to Q4/2008, while in Croatia the average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 was 8.4% +/- 0.1 and it was increased by 3.3% compared to Q4/2008. Monthly changes of unemployment rates compared between the European Union and Croatia in the six month period (Q4/2008 and Q1/2009) was significantly different (p = 0.001, df = 10, t = 4.425, Student t test). In Croatian health care system in Q1/2009 the number of employed person increased by 0.7% compared to Q1/2008, while the number of unemployed persons in the same period was reduced by -1.0%. Trends in the labor market in Croatia follow the global trends in the labor market in times of economic recession, although the increase in unemployment in Croatia was slower than in the countries of the European Union. As a result of Croatian healthcare system organization, system of financing, supply and demand on healthcare labor market, healthcare workforce in Croatia was less affected by recession than workforce in Croatia in general.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the ways in which social class shapes the return-to-work decisions of Finnish working-class and middle-class mothers, and how these decisions are structured by the constraints and opportunities mothers face in the local labor market. The focus of the study is in the local labor market of the city of Jyväskylä. The data consist of two semi-structured focus group interviews of 14 employed mothers of below school-age children. Using the framework of “gendered moral rationalities,” the study shows that there are similarities in mothers’ experiences, while the structural constraints mothers faced when deciding about the timing of returning back to work differ. The analysis highlights that the differences were not only dependent on social class but also on the situation in the local labor market. For working-class mothers, the most crucial issue was the financial strain that their staying at home caused to their families. For middle-class mothers, finding employment opportunities that would match their educational qualifications in the local labor market had been challenging, which affected their timing of returning back to work. The paper concludes that local labor market plays an important role in mother’s return-to-work decisions and should be explored further in differing geographical contexts.
Terzidis, Nikolaos; van Maarseveen, Raoul; Ortega - Argiles, Raquel
Recent literature documents the pervasiveness of job polarization in the labor markets of the developed world. However, relatively little is known about polarization on a sub-national level. We exploit extensive data on both genders from Statistics Netherlands to confirm polarization as an important
Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit
In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i....... The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk...... of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4...
Kenia Lara Silva
Full Text Available We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes.
Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen
In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans' county of residence. The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran's county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment.
Jonathan B. Berk
This paper studies the effect of employee job selection in a model of statistical discrimination in a competitive labor market. In an economy in which there are quality differences between groups, a surprisingly strong condition is required to guarantee discrimination against the worse qualified group --- MLRP must hold. In addition, because of the self-selection bias induced by competition, the resulting discrimination is small when compared to the magnitude of the underlying quality differe...
Mihaela Hrisanta DOBRE
Full Text Available Discrimination expresses any distinction, exclusion, restriction, preference or different treatment that disadvantages a person or group, in comparison with others in similar situations. The crowding out effect was first formulated by Bergmann (1974 and explains that an individual can obtain lower returns if he belongs to a branch dominated by the members of another group. The difference in pay between women and men is also reinforced by the segregation in the labor market, which may explain the crowding out effect. In this article we analyzed the level of segregation in the Romanian labor market starting from the workers professional status and their distribution by branch from 2003 to 2008. Crowding out effect was analyzed based on the gain function of the two groups (women and men.
Artuc, Erhan; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego
This paper assesses the impact of the rise of China on the trade of Latin American and Caribbean economies. The study proposes an index to measure the impact on trade, which suggests sizable effects, especially in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Mexico, and Paraguay. The paper uses the index and a model of labor mobility, to calculate the impact of China's growth on labor markets in Ar...
Tsymbaliuk Svitlana O.
Full Text Available The importance of a quick response to changes taking place in the labor market, adaptation to them of the staff policy of enterprises is determined by the need to maintain their competitiveness in the labor market. It is reasonable to monitor main trends in the labor market with a view to adapting the staff policy to changes in order to strengthen the competitive position and attract competent specialists. The aim of the article is to identify the main trends in the labor market and estimate their impact on the staff policy of enterprises in Ukraine. It is determined that the decrease in the number of economically active population, reduction in the supply of workplaces and increase in unemployment are characteristics of the Ukrainian modern labor market. At the same time, there observed a disproportionality between the supply of and demand for representatives of different professional categories. It is determined that the high turnover indices negatively characterize the staff policy and demonstrate that employers neither pay due attention to the issues of forming the employees’ engagement, loyalty nor create appropriate conditions for the fulfillment of their labor potential. The revealed tends lead to increased competition among employers in the labor market for competent specialists, which finally stimulates them to use various instruments for enhancing the enterprises’ attractiveness and the formation of a positive employer brand.
Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C
Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mason, Andrew D.; Baptist, Jacqueline
A majority of the poor in Indonesia come from agricultural and self-employed households. Moreover, the largest single contribution to poverty reduction between 1990 and 1993 came from within-sector welfare gains to self-employed farm households. Data show that the role of the labor market in reducing poverty has increased since the mid-1980s. Wage labor markets can be expected to play an increasingly important impact on the welfare of Indonesia's poor as the economy continues to undergo struc...
Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.
Brenke, Karl; Clemens, Marius
In the last decade the available labor force has expanded in Germany-despite the decline in the working-age population. The reason: labor market participation has increased, for women in particular and older people in general. Also noticeable was a rise in qualification level because well-educated people have a particularly high propensity to participate in the labor market. Most recently, Germany's potential labor force has grown as a consequence of many factors, including migration-from oth...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the relationship between attitudes to work, wellbeing, and labor market status among young adults in Europe and to discuss the extent to which the relationship can be understood in terms of passion or exploitation. This aim is made concrete in the following research questions: To what extent do young adults in Europe have a passionate attitude to work? Are there differences between groups with various labor market status and nationalities? Are there differences in levels of well-being between the groups of young adults with different labor market status, and differences between the countries? The results are based on an individual survey conducted with three categories of young people (18–34 years old: long-term unemployed, those in precarious employments, and those regularly employed. The study had a cross-national comparative design and the countries included were France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.
Full Text Available International mobility is a form of flexible labor market adaptation available for young Nordic nationals who have the privilege of relatively easy return if life abroad does not work out. The article considers mobility as a labor market transition and examines the pre- and post-migration situation of two Finnish return migrant groups—those who lived abroad in 1999 and in 2004—based on longitudinal register data. It considers the consequences of return for an individual migrant: is it a form of failure in labor market integration in the country of destination or rather a sign of success whereby the skills, resources, and experiences gained abroad are brought back to the country of origin. Migrants who leave Finland nowadays often opt to move to other Nordic countries and are younger, more educated, and have a better socio-economic status than previous migrant generations. The article demonstrates that international migration does not deteriorate the returnees’ labor market status. While re-entry into the Finnish labor market may take some time and flexibility, mobility seems to pay off and have beneficial consequences: return migrants earn higher taxable incomes and have lower unemployment rates than their peers who only stayed in the national labor markets..
Avraamoya, E. M.
The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…
Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Rossi, A.
The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy.The approach undertaken is prominently empirical.After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two
NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.
Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre
This paper examines the relationship between unemployment and labor market flexibility. The latter is considered in the broadest sense - as it relates to labor markets at large (external flexibility) and to practices within firms (internal flexibility). The first part of the paper addresses the argument that differences in employment performance among the advanced economies result largely from differences in labor market flexibility. Empirical evidence is considered on nominal and real wage f...
Statistical Modeling of Stochastic Dependences between Variables that Characterize Labor Market in Romania for Taking Relevant Management Decisions for a Competitive and Sustainable Development of Labor Force
Barbu Bogdan POPESCU
Full Text Available The labor market is an important component of the entire economic system and for social-economic development. However, the labor market is known as the most inflexible of markets, the existence of the phenomenon of permanent labor mobility. After 1990, the Romanian society has experienced a series of economic and social transformation, new reforms covering all areas of activity. Increasing labor resources was accompanied by a continued reduction in employment and increase in unemployment. The government tried to initiate programs, including external funding to create jobs, but compared to the massive layoffs that occurred following the restructuring of sectors, the number of new jobs created has proved insufficient. The paper presents a multiple regression model for employment and prognosis for this until 2020.
Martínez Sánchez, Rebeca
This article deals with telecommuting as the last transition of the work environment, through the history of economic thought. It is analyzed from different key aspects such as, its conceptualization and proposal for classification, workers rights, motivation, and telecommuting workers’ profiles, as well as areas of application. Telecommuting is a labor market tendency that is currently transforming the idea that humans need to leave home and move physically to a place of work;...
Radcliffe, S A
To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.
Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.; Ygosse-Battisti, J.
We study how the number of traders affects the interaction between a centralized exchange and bilateral negotiations in an experimental labor market with excess supply and incomplete contracts. In bilateral negotiations firms obtain information about employees’ performance in previous jobs. Though
Filges, Trine; Hansen, Anne Toft
This paper is a systematic review of the threat effect of active labor market programs for unemployed individuals. The threat effect is the induced change in the hazard rate of leaving unemployment prior to program participation. Studies included in the review all estimated a threat effect...... a hazard rate of 1.27 for the pooled estimate. It has thus been concluded that active labor market programs constitute a significant threat effect......., with the participants in all cases being unemployed individuals in receipt of benefit of some kind during their tenure of unemployment. Seven of these studies have been included in a meta-analysis: The meta-analysis, which has been carried out using a random effects model to account for heterogeneity, indicated...
Afzal, Zabia; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Mahmood, Qamar; Ng, Edwin; Schrecker, Ted
Flexicurity, or the integration of labor market flexibility with social security and active labor market policies, has figured prominently in economic and social policy discussions in Europe since the mid-1990s. Such policies are designed to transcend traditional labor-capital conflicts and to form a mutually supportive nexus of flexibility and security within a climate of intensified competition and rapid technological change. International bodies have marketed flexicurity as an innovative win-win strategy for employers and workers alike, commonly citing Denmark and The Netherlands as exemplars of best practice. In this article, we apply a social determinants of health framework to conduct a scoping review of the academic and gray literature to: (a) better understand the empirical associations between flexicurity practices and population health in Denmark and (b) assess the relevance and feasibility of implementing such policies to improve health and reduce health inequalities in Ontario, Canada. Based on 39 studies meeting our full inclusion criteria, preliminary findings suggest that flexicurity is limited as a potential health promotion strategy in Ontario, offers more risks to workers' health than benefits, and requires the strengthening of other social protections before it could be realistically implemented within a Canadian context.
Objectives. I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA’s individual mandate (2011–2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Results. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non–group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Conclusions. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18–29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays. PMID:26447916
Krispin, Eyal; Hiersch, Liran; Wilk Goldsher, Yulia; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Ashwal, Eran
To estimate the effect of prior successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) on the rate of uterine rupture and delivery outcome in women undergoing labor after cesarean. A retrospective cohort study of all women attempting labor after cesarean delivery in a university-affiliated tertiary-hospital (2007-2014) was conducted. Study group included women attempting vaginal delivery with a history of cesarean delivery and at least one prior VBAC. Control group included women attempting first vaginal delivery following cesarean delivery. Primary outcome was defined as the rate of uterine rupture. Secondary outcomes were delivery and maternal outcomes. Of 62,463 deliveries during the study period, 3256 met inclusion criteria. One thousand two hundred and eleven women had VBAC prior to the index labor and 2045 underwent their first labor after cesarean. Women in the study group had a significantly lower rate of uterine rupture 9 (0.7%) in respect to control 33 (1.6%), p = .036, and had a higher rate of successful vaginal birth (96 vs. 84.9%, p cesarean, prior VBAC appears to be associated with lower rate of uterine rupture and higher rate of successful vaginal birth.
Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James
Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…
Butum Lavinia Cornelia
Full Text Available The transition from student to employee status has become an important issue for labor market analysts, students and universities. Literature recognizes that the international experience represents a successful factor for future employability. In this regard, a new curricular model should include international competences in order to build the qualifications required by the global labor market. A recent study (Stan, Butum & Zodieru, 2016 highlighted the importance of youngsters’ professional training upon graduation and the crucial role of collaboration between universities, companies and governments (through education policies in increasing graduates’ accessibility to well - paid jobs and in developing an entrepreneurial career. The same study provides the results of a qualitative research that leads to the conclusion that most Romanian students have the capacity to obtain the desired job if they can swiftly gain the soft skills required by companies. It is also mentioned that the labor market has increased the demand for international competences and practical skills in recent years. The purpose of this article is to analyze the dynamics of Romanian and European students’ feedback on their universities. Beginning with the analysis of soft skills needed for the labor market and their appreciation as perceived by students, the study will examine the dynamics of students’ appreciation on international experience and other work activities that ensure the achievement of international competences and reduce the time for obtaining a job. Afterward, the paper will analyze students’ career priorities and students’ perception of university performance in providing practical and international skills needed for the labor market. The analysis will include 3-year statistic data from Trendence Graduate Barometer regarding Romanian students’ perception. The conclusions will show the dynamic of students’ expectations on provided skills and the
This paper finds that Filipino Americans face significant discrimination in the labor market. Filipino Americans face both wage discrimination and occupational discrimination. But the amount of discrimination faced by Filipino Americans depends on combinations of gender, region of residence, and level of education.
Buerhaus, Peter I; Auerbach, David I; Staiger, Douglas O
Drawing from labor economics, background information is provided for a deeper understanding of recent changes in the nurse labor market. The difference between the short and long-run supply of RNs are distinguished, and the economic forces that determine RNs' decision to be active in the labor market are explained. The ways the nurse labor market may change in the next few years are discussed.
Felder, S.; Schleiniger, R.
We explore the implication of the 'double dividend' debate for international environmental taxes. In our scenario, small open economies with different labor market distortions follow a common environmental policy and use national environmental tax revenues to finance labor tax cuts. Since the double dividend hypothesis does not hold, a high labor tax implies a low environmental tax relative to other countries. The optimal differentiation of international environmental taxes is proven to be a function of the national labor tax rates and the uncompensated elasticities of labor supply. 20 refs
Clécia Ivânia Rosa Satel
Full Text Available The paper aims to outline the profile of employed persons in Paraná labor market in the period 2003-2012 from the microdata of the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD. The results showed that Paraná's labor market predominantly occupied by male individuals, belonging to the formal market and with white skin. The participation of women, non-young people and skilled individuals among the employed has increased. Skilled individuals usually perform activities in sectors related to the sciences and arts, while the unskilled are related to production or service sector.
Harper, Lorie M.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Cahill, Alison G.
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the threshold for defining abnormal labor that is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN This study consisted of a retrospective cohort of all consecutive women admitted at a gestation of 37.0 weeks or longer from 2004 to 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. The 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles for progress in the first stage of labor were determined specific for parity and labor onset. Women with a first stage above and below each centile were compared. Maternal outcomes were cesarean delivery in the second stage, operative delivery, prolonged second stage, postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal fever. Neonatal outcomes were a composite of the following: admission to level 2 or 3 nursery, 5 minute Apgar less than 3, shoulder dystocia, arterial cord pH of less than 7.0, and a cord base excess of −12 or less. RESULTS Of the 5030 women, 4534 experienced first stage of less than the 90th percentile, 251 between the 90th and 94th percentiles, 102 between the 95th and 96th percentiles, and 143 at the 97th percentile or greater. Longer labors were associated with an increased risk of a prolonged second stage, maternal fever, the composite neonatal outcome, shoulder dystocia, and admission to a level 2 or 3 nursery (P dystocia. CONCLUSION Although women who experience labor dystocia may ultimately deliver vaginally, a longer first stage of labor is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, in particular shoulder dystocia. This risk must be balanced against the risks of cesarean delivery for labor arrest. PMID:24361789
Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.
Nickell et al. (2005) have frequently been cited as empirical evidence that labor market rigidities cause high unemployment. We find that their model is not robust. Leaving their database unchanged and changing three details in their estimation procedure, it turns out that several policy-relevant
Журавлев, Н. Ю.; Zhuravlev, N. Y.
In the article, on the basis of statistical materials examines the position of the elderly in the labor market, analyzed the main problems of the elderly population as a party to the employment relationship, as well as some of the main reasons of age discrimination.
Rodriguez Padron, B.; Burger, C.P.J.
This paper analyses how coffee-producing households responded to the low coffee prices prevailing around 2003. We provide theory on differential responses in regions dedicated to coffee growing, compared to more diversified or better accessible regions. We show how labor market effects can explain
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette
We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock...
Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…
Sokolova, G. N.
In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…
Yu Yu Chilipenok
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study aimed to describe the employee of small and medium business as a subject of the contemporary Russian social and labor relations in terms of his resource endowments. From the theoretical point of view, the study was conducted within the resource-based approach: the main resources of small and medium business employees, their behavior in the labor market as depending on the resource supply were analyzed on the data of the Russian monitoring of the economic situation and the health of the population (RLMS of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”. The employees’ well-being in the labor market was measured by the fear to lose one’s jobs, and confidence in the ability and the desire to find a new job. Based on the empirical data the authors identify average, normal levels of resource endowments, and the features of the subject of social and labor relations in the light of particular levels of different resources supply. The authors note the low economic security of small and medium business employees as a reason for the financial factor to have a decisive influence on the behavior of this category of workers in the labor market. There also conclusions about the importance of information and innovative resource and workers’ health to realize their independent position in the labor market and get ready for the labor mobility.
Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation of the Romanian labor market and trends for 2020 and the evolution of employment on regions and activity fields in 2010 in comparison to 2009. The most important areas where labour demand will increase are: sales, outsourcing, engineering, IT, finance, banking, environment protection, insurance, medicine and pharmacy, accounting. Other areas that will absorb more employees in the following five years are: hospitality industry, trade, constructions, energy field, marketing and public relations. The educational and training system will need to be reformed in order to train qualified staff for these fields.
Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of sustainable development of the labor market at a regional level. For this analysis we chose the Development Region of South West Oltenia, based on the terms of future considerations regarding Romania's territorial reorganization. To this extent, we chose to outline, taking into consideration the macroeconomic indicators pertaining to the region chosen for study, the prerequisites for a development based on sound economic principles of the labor market. Sustainable development involves combining all factors of impact for better resource management in the case of labor, which must take into account the cyclical implications of the Romanian economy.
Why did services become the dominant sector in industrialized economies? While abundant literature exists on the transition from agriculture to industry (i.e., the industrial revolution), there is no consensual explanation for the second wave of structural change. I argue that sectoral differences in regulation affecting the degree of competition in labor and goods markets explain: (a) the rise in the services sector share of output and employment, (b) international differences in cross-secto...
Full Text Available During the transition to a market economy put the urgent problem of using labor and unemployment. Increasing labor resources has been accompanied by a continued reduction in employment and a rise in unemployment. The government tried to initiating programs, including external funding, job creation, but compared to the massive layoffs that occurred following the restructuring of sectors, the number of new jobs created has proved insufficient. A significant aspect is given by the increase of population employed in agriculture, characteristic of underdeveloped countries. Modalities of intervention in support of reducing unemployment and increasing employment can be active and passive character.
Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Szu-Fu; Lo, Liang-Ming; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang
To compare the duration of second stage labor among modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes and women who delivered during the early 1990 s. Data were collected from women who underwent spontaneous labor and vaginally delivered cephalic singleton fetuses with normal neonatal outcomes at the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan from 1991-1995 (Cohort 1, n = 10,721) and 2010-2014 (Cohort 2, n = 3734). We calculated the median duration and 95th percentiles of second stage labor. The women were stratified according to analgesia and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between the maternal/pregnancy characteristics and second stage labor duration. The median second stage labor duration was significantly longer for Cohort 2 than for Cohort 1. For nulliparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 255 minutes and 152 minutes (Cohort 2) and 165 minutes and 107 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. For multiparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 136 minutes and 43 minutes (Cohort 2) and 125 minutes and 39 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. Birth weight, maternal age at delivery, and time period (2010-2014 vs. 1991-1995) were significant factors associated with the duration of second stage labor. Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Using a randomized controlled trial, this paper shows that positive earnings effects of labor market programs might be driven by an employment and/or a wage effect. The findings of this paper suggest that treated individuals in a high-intense scheme are more prone to have lowered short- term...
Callahan, Rebecca M., Ed.; Gándara, Patricia C., Ed.
The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to…
Full Text Available This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a hierarchical model on pooled survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP 2008 and 2010 to analyze the risk exposure of formal and informal workers and, subsequently, their preferences on redistribution. The analysis reveals that while economic self-interest is an influential factor for formal workers, it is (unexpectedly much less so for informal workers. Also, an increased economically insecure environment, reflected by high unemployment rates, does not motivate informal workers to an exceptional degree to turn towards the state for redistribution, despite greater exposure to economic risk. Labor market dualization does not translate into polarization at the individual level regarding redistributive preferences in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Full Text Available This document analyzes the interactions between macroeconomic regimes, employment generation and the dynamics of labor incomes in Argentina under two different macroeconomic regimes: the currency board regime of the 1990s and the high real exchange rate regime that followed. The former, characterized by a strong currency overvaluation, had a negative impact on economic activity and the labor market. However, the maintenance of a competitive real exchange rate does not by itself guarantee the sustained positive performance of the labor market, as it became evident in Argentina during the 2000s. Although the sizable depreciation of the peso –together with a positive international context- favored the expansion of output and employment, the initial concern of maintaining the real exchange rate at a competitive level was not continued with policies aimed to counteract the appreciation trend that appeared a few years after the implementation of the new regime.
Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.
This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…
Arai, Mahmood; Gartell, Marie; Rödin, Magnus; Özcan, Gülay
Using an experimental setup involving 436 case workers at the Swedish Public Employment Service (SPES) as subjects and the profile photographs and recorded voices of 75 jobseekers as treatments, we report results indicating that male case workers tend to favor jobseekers perceived as having a stereotypical Swedish appearance when they select candidates to be recommended for labor market programs (LMP). This bias represents a roughly 50-percent greater chance of being selected if you compare t...
Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip
Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…
Mihaela Roberta STANEF
Full Text Available Member States ought to integrate the flexicurity values approved by the European Council into their labor market policies and apply them, making full use of European Social Fund sustain with a view to growing labor market participation and fighting segmentation and inactivity, gender inequality, at the same time as reducing structural unemployment. Actions to improve flexibility and security should be both balanced and mutually strengthen. Member States must consequently initiate a combination of flexible and reliable employment contracts, active labor market policies, effective lifelong learning, policies to promote labor mobility, and adequate social security systems to secure professional transitions accompanied by clear privileges and responsibilities for the unemployed to dynamically seek work.
Full Text Available Population growth has already begun to fall in most of the countries. In the wider European area, therefore, population decline is likely to occur several years earlier. Regions with declining population demographic trends are affected by social and economic developments. Migration flows, in particular, are related to regional differences in labor market conditions, people moving from areas of low job growth to ones with more employment opportunities, and, over the longer-term, such differences can also affect birth and death rates. Declining regions in the EU are, therefore, characterized by low income levels, high unemployment and a large proportion of the work force employed in agriculture and industry. In addition, they tend to have a relatively small number of young people, reflecting their migration to other areas as well as low fertility rates, and a low density of population, reflecting the rural nature of many of them. The aim of this paper is to present the important consequences these trends will have regarding Albanian reality. We will see this for social welfare and taxation systems. We are also going to present here the policies to discourage illegal immigration, engaged in facilitating the entry, installment into the labor market, legal regulation, and social integration of Albanian emigrants in receiving countries. Finally, we will promote the impact of voluntary return of emigrants in the country development.
Scott, Frank A.; And Others
Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)
Full Text Available Gender discrimination can be explained at the level ofsegregation on the labor market by the employers' perceptions about maleand female workforce, by the level of development of a country, employersand employees.In any society, people are categorized from the attributes(stereotypical or not which are supposed to be shared with their owngroup. Usually these attributes are anticipated based on stereotypesconveyed on behalf of different groups (Goffman, 1974. Stereotypes arethose beliefs and opinions about the characteristics of men and women.The features associated with the two groups generally show us not onlyhow men and women are perceived, and also how it should be.Stereotyping can be the basis for the discriminatory treatment in mostcases (Linville, Salovey, Fisher, 1986.In this article we presented the main theories that can explain thewage discrimination and we analyzed the discriminatory attitudes ofgender on the Romanian labor market using the Economic and socialcohesion survey.
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette
We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008–2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over......-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect...... on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect...
106 pages The aim of this study is to explore the causes and the extent of the gender wage gap in the Turkish labor market. For this purpose, standard wage regressions are estimated using micro data from an official survey for the year 2006. A number of variables in the dataset enable a comprehensive quantitative analysis including both human capital variables and job-related variables. Furthermore, in order to examine the wage gap in detail, Oaxaca decomposition method is e...
Davalos, Maria E.; Elezaj, Ereblina; Flanagan Thurau, Julianna; Rodriguez-Chamussy, Lourdes
Labor market engagement of women is very low in Kosovo - only 12.5 percent of women of working age are employed compared to 41.3 percent of men - suggesting that women face obstacles to work and or being hired. These barriers can be related to a multiplicity of factors, including labor regulations - such as maternity provisions - but also others such as disincentives to work from taxes and ...
Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez
Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.
Martin T. Ollif
Full Text Available This essay uses a cultural studies approach to analyze the effort of the gourmet society Les Amis d'Escoffier to re-create the niche market for chefs’ services in the waning years of the Great Depression. It examines the depressed labor market for chefs after 1912 as well as aspects of the chefs’ culture that informed the unusual rules and rituals Les Amis used to educate wealthy men in gourmandaise. It concludes that, regardless of how successful the society was in its original goal, culture as well as functional response shaped the chefs’ remedy to their labor market problems.
Yeh, Bijou Y.; Lester, David
Analyzed the relationship between the participation of married women in the labor market and divorce rates in the continental states of the United States in 1980. Results showed the higher the proportion of married women working full time and the lower the proportion of married women working part time, the higher the divorce rate of the state.…
Tyaglov Sergey, G.
Full Text Available In the context of Russia's transition to innovation-oriented type of economic development is becoming particularly urgent problem of improving the quality of the workforce and professional development throughout their working life. Currently, the regional labor market characterized by increasing diversity of professions and as a result, the diversification requirements of employers at the regional level, depending on the industrial, agricultural, logistics, etc. specialization of the region. The increasing complexity of the structure and the internal differentiation of the various areas of economic activity determines the demand for workers with a broad fundamental training along with narrow professional competencies, so the mechanism of regulation of the regional bloc needs assessment of competencies of workers, institutionalized at both the state level and at the level of regional public associations, employers' associations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the state of the youth segment of the labor market, the establishment of the fact that for resolving the contradictions of the labor market and the education market (mismatch structure and quality of the training of human capital in the region, the needs of employers, the contradictions of regional professional and educational standards at the regional level, it is advisable to provide correlation of regional professional standards with the federal state educational standards, which will neutralize the contradictions, the solution of which determines the rational use of the labor potential in the regional economy.
Full Text Available The economic literature relative to Brazilian labor market informality is very disperse and presents a significant lack of organization. In that sense, the purpose of this paper is to organize and discuss on a systematic way the main pieces of literature concerning informality in the Brazilian labor market using, whenever it is possible, the international literature as a comparison point for the existing results relative to Brazil's experience. More specifically, questions related to wage differentials between formal and informal workers, labor market segmentation and the effect of institutions on the informal sector are emphasized.
Stambol, L S; Stolen, N M; Avitsland, T
The authors discuss the regional REGARD model, developed by Statistics Norway to analyze the regional implications of macroeconomic development of employment, labor force, and unemployment. "In building the model, empirical analyses of regional producer behavior in manufacturing industries have been performed, and the relation between labor market development and regional migration has been investigated. Apart from providing a short description of the REGARD model, this article demonstrates the functioning of the model, and presents some results of an application." excerpt
Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.
Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language
The problem is compounded by youthful populations, low quality education, bloated public sectors and low productivity levels in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This project will ... Morocco conforms to Egypt to a significant degree. Jordan offers an ... Impact of labor market reforms on informality in Egypt. Documents.
Torres-Olave, Blanca M.
The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.
Young, I. Phillip; Delli, Dane A.; Miller-Smith, Kimberly; Buster, Amy
Costs associated with teacher salaries are relative in that these costs are referenced to a relevant labor market rather than based on the absolute value of the services provided by teachers. Because the selection of a relevant labor market can substantially influence the costs associated with teacher salaries, a field study was conducted to…
Full Text Available One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL.To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries.A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study.AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l or low (12h (p = 0.04, post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01 and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04.The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications.
Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
This paper investigates effects on wages of a Danish field experiment intensifying Active Labor Market Policies (ALMP).We link unemployed workers who participated in an ALMP experiment called “Quickly Back” carried out by the Danish Ministry of Employment 2005-2006 in two counties to matched...... employer-employee and public transfer register data up to 2008 enabling us to analyze exact labor market transitions and jobs of the participants. Men in one of the counties experienced significant higher probability of earning higher short and long term wages after treatment. Treated men in the other...
Anguiano Tellez, M E
"This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)
Based on qualitative data gathered during a comparative doctoral research project, this article aims to shed light on the transnational mobility of women as viewed through the lens of the labor market and takes an intersectional approach to the nexus of gender, class, and ethnicity. It investigates in particular the careers of Polish women whose migratory decisions appear to have been affected by gender inequalities and injustices prevalent in the labor market in Poland, and examines accounts...
Full Text Available To sustain the welfare state, several EU countries agreed to take measures aimed at increasing the labor market participation of older workers (European Commission 2001. In this study, we developed a framework integrating individual, work, and institutional characteristics in order to explain the labor market participation of older workers. While prior studies focused mainly on individual characteristics, the present analysis investigated the impact of work and institutions more closely using the European Social Survey. Multilevel analyses across 21 countries showed that work characteristics increased the benefits from work, hence increasing the likelihood of participation among older workers, and that the generosity of institutions discouraged older workers to remain in the labor market.
Piedrahíta-Gutiérrez, Dany Leandro
Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor, and to determine whether such analgesia is associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Methodology: Comparative, retrospective, descriptive study, between January and November 2014, that included 502 healthy patients with normal pregnancies, out of which 250 received obstetric analgesia. The groups were compared as to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: Young, single and nulliparous mothers predominated; delivery was vaginal in 86 % of the cases, and by caesarean section in 14 %. Obstetric analgesia was associated with longer duration of the second stage of labor, instrumental delivery and cesarean section due to arrest of dilatation or fetal bradycardia; however, it was not related with higher incidence of postpartum hemorrhage or adverse perinatal outcomes such as meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar under 5 at one minute or under 7 at 5 minutes, the need for neonatal resuscitation or for admission to NICU. Conclusion: Obstetric analgesia increases the duration of the second stage of labor and can increase the rate of caesarean sections and instrumental delivery, but it is not associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Therefore, its use in labor is justified.
Wang, Dingran; Ye, Shenglong; Tao, Liyuan; Wang, Yongqing
To analyze the clinical outcomes following the implementation of a new standard labor procedure. This was a retrospective analysis that included a study group consisting of patients managed based on a new standard labor protocol and a control group comprising patients managed under an old standard labor protocol. The following maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared in the two groups: the indications for a cesarean section and the incidence of cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, fetal distress, neonatal asphyxia and pediatric intervention. We also compared the average number of days spent in the hospital, the incidence of medical disputes and hospitalization expenses. The cesarean section rates for the study and control groups were 19.29% (401/2079) and 33.53% (753/2246), respectively (P labor, fetal distress and intrapartum fever; the percentages of each indication were significantly different from those of the control group (P labor protocol reduced the cesarean section rate without negatively impacting maternal and neonatal outcomes. In practice, bed turnover and the hospital utilization rate should be better controlled, patient-doctor communication should be strengthened and the quality of obstetrical service should be improved.
Morales Zúñiga Luis Carlos
Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación que existe entre la educación superior, la dinámica del mercado laboral, y la formación de docentes, en un nuevo contexto histórico-social caracterizado por la liberalización de la economía, y el avance de una concepción mercantil de la educación en Costa Rica. Se describe la relación que existe entre la desregulación de la oferta de educación superior, sobre todo privada, y la consecuente saturación de profesionales en el mercado laboral. Se analiza con especial interés la situación de los profesionales de la educación en este contexto, sobre todo, las condiciones laborales que enfrenta este sector educativo, como consecuencia de la aplicación de la lógica de mercado.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between higher education, labor market dynamics, and teacher training in a new historical and social context characterized by the liberalization of the economy, and advancing of a merchant conception of the education practice in Costa Rica. It describes the relationship between deregulation of the supply of higher education, especially private, and the resulting saturation of professional manpower in the labor market. It is analyzed with special interest, the status of the professionals of education in this context, especially the working conditions faced by this sector of the working class as a result of the application of market logic in the educational field.
Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique
A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to…
Zenzmaier, Christoph; Leitner, Hermann; Brezinka, Christoph; Oberaigner, Willi; König-Bachmann, Martina
To evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes at and beyond term associated with induction of labor compared to spontaneous onset of labor stratified by week of gestational age. In this retrospective cohort study, data form 402,960 singleton pregnancies from the Austria Perinatal Registry were used to estimate odds ratios of secondary cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, epidural analgesia, fetal scalp blood testing, episiotomy, 3rd/4th-degree lacerations, retained placenta, 5-min APGAR neonatal intensive care unit. Multivariate logistic regression models based on deliveries with gestational age ≥37 + 0 were applied for adjustment for possible confounders. Induction of labor was associated with increased odds for cesarean delivery (adjusted OR; 99% confidence interval: 1.53; 1.45-1.60), operative vaginal delivery (1.21; 1.15-1.27), epidural analgesia (2.12; 2.03-2.22), fetal scalp blood testing (1.40; 1.28-1.52), retained placenta (1.32; 1.22-1.41), 5-min APGAR neonatal intensive care unit (1.41; 1.31-1.51). In a subgroup of induction of labor with the indication, "post-term pregnancy" induction was similarly associated with adverse outcomes. In Austria, induction of labor is associated with increased odds of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, due to residual confounding, currently, no recommendations for treatment can be derived.
Lubyova, M.; van Ours, J.C.
The system of active labor market policies (ALMP) in the Slovak Republic consists to a large extent of the creation of socially purposeful and publicly useful jobs and of retraining of unemployed workers. So far, the effects of these types of active labor market policies have hardly been analyzed.
Torre Fernández, Margarita
This dissertation seeks to expand and refine our understanding of sex-segregation in the labor market. The rapid changes in women’s roles that have taken place in recent decades have made traditional explanations incapable of accounting for current patterns of mobility in the labor market, and the persistence of sex-segregation in modern times. Throughout this dissertation I draw on a wide variety of sources and research methods to examine the striking movement of women out of male-dominated ...
Employing child as a labor is categorized as a violation to the human right. But it seems unavoidable in developing country to prevent children entering labor market. Many extensive literatures on the determinant of child labor have been found, but yet, there is limited research on the impact of children work on socioeconomic outcomes. This paper investigates the impact of child labor on child’s education by using the Indonesian Labor Survey/SAKERNAS 2002 data at the district level.
Schneider, Markus P. A.
This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely
Mitra, Pradeep; Muravyev, Alexander; Schaffer, Mark E.
This paper uses firm-level survey data to study labor reallocation and firm growth in the transition countries over 1996 - 2005, including benchmarking against developed market economies. The data shows rapid growth of the new private sector and of the micro- and small-firm sectors, with the size distribution of firms moving towards the pattern observed in comparable surveys of developed market economies. Throughout, the regional patterns suggest greater convergence in the transition countrie...
The rise of information systems, and especially the internet, has given service providers the opportunity to increase the number of services they can offer their customers. E-commerce platforms, such as Amazon and AliExpress, can offer their customers millions of products because they do not need shelf space to present all their products. Entertainment providers, such as Youtube, Spotify and Netflix, have millions of songs and movies from which the user can choose. Also in the labor market, e...
For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.
Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; Cortez, Sarah; Odibo, Anthony O; Roehl, Kimberly A; Shanks, Anthony L; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G
To estimate maternal, neonatal, and labor outcomes associated with delayed pushing. A retrospective cohort study of all consecutive women admitted to a single institution in labor at term who reached the second stage of labor. Pregnancies with multiple fetuses or major anomalies were excluded. Delayed pushing was defined as initiation of pushing ≥60 minutes after complete dilatation. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounding. Of the 5290 women who met inclusion criteria, 471 (8.9%) employed delayed pushing, and 4819 (91.1%) pushed immediately. Delayed pushing was associated with increased rates of cesarean, operative vaginal delivery, maternal fever, and lower arterial cord pH. Duration of the second stage and length of time spent pushing were significantly longer with delayed pushing. Delayed pushing is associated with lower rates of spontaneous vaginal delivery and increased adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in c...
This note describes the lottery- and insurance-market equilibrium in an economy with non-convex straight-time and overtime employment. In contrast to Hansen and Sargent (1988), the overtime-decision is a sequential one. This requires two separate insurance market to operate, one for straight-time work, and one for overtime. In addi- tion, given that the labor choice for regular and overtime hours is made in succession, the insurance market for overtime needs to open once the insurance market ...
Unemployment is one of the main economic, social and political problems facing governments in the Middle East and North Africa. The nature and ... This project will explore links between labour market dynamics and the quality of jobs in three varied settings. ... Effects of the new labor law on informality & job quality. 41985.
Blume, Kræn; Ejrnæs, Mette; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In developed countries, immigrants are more likely to be nonemployed and self-employed compared to natives. Based on register data of male immigrants in Denmark, we performed a detailed investigation of the immigrant-native difference in transition patterns across labor market states. We find...
Kjaergaard, Hanne; Olsen, Jørn; Ottesen, Bent
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of dystocia among nulliparous women without apparent co-morbidity and to examine maternal and fetal short-term outcomes after dystocia. DESIGN: A multi-center cohort study with prospectively collected data. SETTING: Nine obstetric departments with annual birth...... rates between 850 and 5,400. POPULATION: Low-risk nulliparous women in term spontaneous labor with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation. METHODS: Follow-up of 2,810 nulliparas using self-administered questionnaires supplemented with clinical records. CRITERIA FOR DYSTOCIA: Cervical dilatation...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidences of dystocia, maternal, and fetal outcomes. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of dystocia was 37% and of the diagnoses 61% were given in the second stage of labor. Women with dystocia treated by augmentation had more cesarean and ventouse deliveries, more often non...
Schneider, Ulrike; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo
This article examines whether providing informal eldercare to an older dependent person predicts employees' intentions to change jobs or exit the labor market and, if so, which particular aspects of both caregiving (e.g. time demands, physical/cognitive care burden) and their current work environment shape these intentions. We used data from a sample of 471 caring and 431 noncaring employees in Austria and split the analyses by gender. We found different aspects of informal caregiving to be associated with the intention to change jobs and with the anticipated labor market withdrawal of male and female workers. A time-based conflict between informal eldercare and paid work was significantly and positively related to the intended job change of female workers but not of their male counterparts. Flexible work arrangements were found to facilitate the attachment of female workers to their jobs and the labor market. Intentions to exit the labor market of male workers appeared to be triggered by a physical care burden rather than time demands. We studied the effects of providing informal eldercare on the turnover intention of men and women in a group of workers who were also the main carers providing support to a dependent older person with substantial care needs. The intention of male and female workers to change jobs and exit the labor market is shaped by the different characteristics of informal caregiving. Time-based conflicts between informal care and paid work are associated with a higher relative risk of anticipating job changes for female workers. Flextime facilitates the job and labor market attachment of female workers with eldercare responsibilities. The intensity of personal care provided to an older relative is significantly positively related to male workers' relative risk of anticipated labor market exit. Care to an older person in need of supervision makes the labor market exit of female workers less likely, lending thus support to the idea of the respite
Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas
This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to
[eng] 1) Informality and Overeducation in the Labor Market of a Developing Country This chapter explores the connection between labor market segmentation in two sectors, a modern protected formal sector and a traditional- unprotected-informal sector, and overeducation in a developing country. Informality is thought to have negative consequences, primarily through poorer working conditions, lack of social security, as well as low levels of productivity throughout the economy. This chapter c...
Full Text Available This essay was originated in the experiences as a university lecturer, facilitator of seminars of Personal Marketing and coaching, as well as the experience assimilated into the business field.The author has seen a significant group of people have a wrong paradigm about what it is involved in Personal Marketing, which is exclusively connected to physical appearance, do not achieve their goals, wasting great opportunities by not being ready. Others, however, take one of the right paths, the best, it is through the knowledge of Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman would say (1977, "we relate to ourselves and others" and apply it strategically to Personal Marketing from an ethical and transparent perspective, allowing them to get opportunities in a Labor Market which looking for them intensively, and they as part of a Market of Human Resources want to be part of it. It is hopped that this present work contributed to whom want to improve their employment opportunities.
Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh
There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi
We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…
Gulnara Rafaelevna Gabidullina
Full Text Available This article analyzes the problem of employment of young specialists - graduates of professional institutions. Youth employment is a national problem, because the youth is the country’s human potential. Youth employment is a pressing and long-term objective of national social and economic policy. One of the causes of youth unemployment is a discrepancy between the education markets to labor market needs. Solving problems of youth unemployment is only possible from the standpoint of an integrated, systematic approach.
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. AIM: Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group......, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed...... before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market...
Mitchell, Douglas E.; Yildiz, Selin; Batie, Michael
Community colleges employ more than one-third of the nation's higher education faculty. Nevertheless, the labor market through which faculty are recruited, selected, hired, evaluated and retained or replaced is one of the least understood aspects of these institutions. Functional management and effective policy both require a clear understanding…
Audra J. Bowlus; Shannon N. Seitz
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force and marital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our model, spousal abuse affects labor supply through decreases in utility from leisure as well as through reductions in productivity at work and hence the market wage. In addition, abuse is treated as...
Rzepka, Rafał; Zukowski, Maciej; Michalczyk, Michał; Nikodemski, Tomasz; Torbé, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Mikołajek-Bedner, Wioletta; Czajka, Ryszard
The aim of the study was to check the influence of patient control epidural analgesia on labor progress and neonatal outcome. 144 parturients were included into the clinical trial. In 73 cases patient control epidural analgesia was used and in 71 cases pethidine (meperidine) solution was given intravenously. Apgar score, umbilical artery pH, pain intensity the time of the first, second and third stage of labor the rate of episiotomy and uterine postpartum abrasions and the rate of caesarean sections and vaginal operative delivery were compared. The time of the second stage of labor was significantly longer in the study group (40.99 vs 26.49 min, p- neonatal outcome was comparable in both groups. There were no differences in the time of the first and the second stage of labor in primiparas and multiparas analyzed separately. Visual Analogue Score was lower in the study group (Ch(2)-12,48, p-0.25), especially in the subgroups of primiparas and multiparas. Patient control epidural analgesia does not affect the time of the first and second stage of labor, oxytocin augmentation of labor may be the reason of that. This method is a more effective way of relieving labor pain. An increase of operative delivery is not observed after patient control epidural analgesia on condition that low doses and concentrations of analgesic drugs are used.
Dobbelaere, S.; Lauterbach, R.; Mairesse, J.
Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms' operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in
Haferkamp, A.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.; Enste, D.
The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial
Dean R. Hyslop
This paper studies the labor supply contributions to individual and family earnings inequality during the period of rising wage inequality in the early 1980's. Working couples have positively correlated labor market outcomes, which are almost entirely attributable to permanent factors. An intertemporal family labor supply model with this feature is used to estimate labor supply elasticities for husbands of 0.05, and wives of 0.40. This implies that labor supply explains little of the rising a...
Full Text Available There is a lot of evidence that pre-birth employment and access to parental leave are important predictors of mothers’ labor market attachment after childbirth. This register-based study from Finland aimed to analyze in which ways the type of job contract (none, temporary, or permanent at the start of maternity leave predicts labor market attachment in the long term. The mother cohorts were followed up for 11 years. Labor market attachment was analyzed with latent class growth analysis, which makes it possible to identify subgroups with differing track and level of development. Lack of employment and having a temporary contract at baseline were associated with slower and weaker labor market attachment irrespective of mother’s age, socioeconomic status, and subsequent births. These findings suggest that the polarization of women into the core and periphery of the labor market structure tends to continue after the birth of the first child. Temporary employment might be an obstacle for having rights for a job-protected family leave and have long-term consequences on the continuity of employment and the division of paid and unpaid work in the family.
Torres-Olave, Blanca M.
The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…
B. van der Klaauw (Bas); A.P. van Vuuren (Aico); P. Berkhout (Peter)
textabstractIn this paper we develop a structural model for job search behavior of students entering the labor market. The model includes endogenous search effort and on-the-job search. Since students usually do not start a regular job before graduation but start job search earlier, our model is non
Klaauw, van der Bas; Vuuren, van Aico; Berkhout, Peter
In this paper we develop a structural model for job search behavior of students entering the labor market. The model includes endogenous search effort and on-the-job search. Since students usually do not start a regular job before graduation but start job search earlier, our model is non stationary
Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.
Until very recently, the pervasive existence of models exhibiting well-defined backward dynamics but ill-defined forward dynamics in economics and finance has apparently posed no serious obstacles to the analysis of their dynamics and stability, despite the problems that may arise from possible erroneous conclusions regarding theoretical considerations and policy prescriptions from such models. A large number of papers have dealt with this problem in the past by assuming the existence of symmetry between forward and backward dynamics, even in the case when the map cannot be invertible either forward or backwards. However, this procedure has been seriously questioned over the last few years in a series of papers dealing with implicit difference equations and inverse limit spaces. This paper explores the search and matching labor market model developed by Bhattacharya and Bunzel [J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Chaotic Planning Solution in the Textbook Model of Equilibrium Labor Market Search and Matching, Mimeo, Iowa State University, 2002; J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Economics Bulletin 5 (19) (2003) 1-10], with the following objectives in mind: (i) to show that chaotic dynamics may still be present in the model for acceptable parameter values, (ii) to clarify some open questions related with the admissible dynamics in the forward looking setting, by providing a rigorous proof of the existence of cyclic and chaotic dynamics through the application of tools from symbolic dynamics and inverse limit theory.
Garpiel, Susan J
There is renewed interest in second-stage labor practices as recent evidence has challenged historical perspectives on safe duration of secondstage labor. Traditional practices and routine interventions during second-stage have uncertain benefit for low-risk women and may result in cesarean birth. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement an interdisciplinary second-stage practice bundle to promote safe outcomes including method of birth and women's birth experience. Standardized second-stage labor evidence-based practice recommendations structured into a 5 Ps practice bundle (patience, positioning, physiologic resuscitation, progress, preventing urinary harm) were implemented across 34 birthing hospitals in Trinity Health system. Significant improvements were observed in second-stage practices. Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' perinatal nursing care quality measure Second-Stage of Labor: Mother-Initiated Spontaneous Pushing significantly improved [pre-implementation 43% (510/1,195), post-implementation 76% (1,541/2,028), p labor practices derived from the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses and American College of Nurse-Midwives professional guidelines achieved our goals of safely reducing primary cesarean birth among low-risk nulliparous women, and optimizing maternal and fetal outcomes associated with labor and birth. By minimizing routine interventions, nurses support physiologic birth and improve women's birth satisfaction.
Aleksandr S. Senin
Full Text Available This article describes one of the problems of the national economic complex – the problem of the labor market in Russia competent experts. The article provides statistical data describing the level of wages in the sphere of education and medicine. The problems of the labor market and educational complex, recommendations to change the situation in these areas. The presented article shows that the development of the national innovation system in the framework of sustainable development requires consistent evolutionary change of priorities in the areas of research, development, testing and implementation of all types of innovation, including in the development of the educational sector. The purpose of work is to analyze the interaction of the paradoxes of the educational sector and the labor market, the study of occurrence in this connection of new scientifi c problems, considering the prevailing laws and assessing their impact on the current state of the labor market. Methodology. Such analysis techniques were used to complete this article as legal, comparative, Economics and Statistics. Conclusions / relevance. The practical signifi cance of this work lies in the fact that in the article the necessity of adapting education to the needs of modern society. This process causes the search for science-based assessments of the quality of higher education and oversee its development processes. The most important condition for improving the quality of higher education are systematic monitoring and analysis of objective data about the quality of training and preparedness of students.
Shauman, Kimberlee A.; Noonan, Mary C.
Empirical analyses of sex differences in the career consequences of family migration have focused on adjudicating between the human capital and the gender-role explanations but have ignored the potential influence of gender inequality in the structure of the labor market. In this paper we estimate conditional difference-in-difference models with…
Balsvik, Ragnhild; Jensen, Sissel; Salvanes, Kjell G.
We analyze whether regional labor markets are affected by exposure to import competition from China. We find negative employment effects for low-skilled workers, and observe that low-skilled workers tend to be pushed into unemployment or leave the labor force altogether. We find no evidence of wage effects. We partly expect this in a Nordic welfare state where firms are flexible at the employment margin, while centralized wage bargaining provides less flexibility at the wage ma...
Bhattacharya, J.; Bunzel, H.
This paper demonstrates that cyclical and chaotic planning solutions are possible in the standard textbook model of search and matching in labor markets. More specifically, it takes a discretetime adaptation of the continuous-time matching economy described in Pissarides (1990, 2001), and computes
Full Text Available Population migration is a real phenomenon that has amplified over the last two decades and will continue to grow as major disparities between regions develop. There are many reasons that generate the trend of population movement. The reasons/ motive that are frequently invoked are the conflictual situation related issues that primarily affect individual security, political and social fragility, economic instability with effects in all areas of activity, degradation of living conditions, and the high risk of terrorism in certain areas. The population migration is not necessarily a bad thing if we are looking through the perspective of chances it offers to both people and the economy as a whole, being also an important factor for the growth of national and international trade. But, the lack of some decisions to control this phenomenon creates long-term imbalances. These imbalances are already extremely visible in the Romanian labor market. Numerous work field have a major staff lack and are need of solutions for doing business under normal conditions. Therefore, the present paper aims at highlighting the main features of the labor market, the country's risks, as well as identifying viable solutions for reducing economic and social imbalances.
Katz, Harry C., Ed.
A panel comments on the book, Working in America, and implications for the U.S. labor market, including declining traditional internal labor markets, the need for private versus public policy interventions, international labor policy, and value-based policy. Commentators include David Neumark, Peter Cappelli, Sanford M. Jacoby, Rebecca M. Blank,…
The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…
Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga
We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…
Full Text Available Industrialisation is considered as main engine of growth in economic development of the most emerging markets. This is especially true for Central Asian transitional countries as Kazakhstan, which obtained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. For enhancing country’s competitiveness potential, Kazakhstan National Program for 2010-2014 aimed to accelerate industrial-innovative development of the country. While many papers published about the importance of industrialization activities in Kazakhstan, few have focused on examining the current capacity of labor market to meet the industry demand. Main aim of this paper was to investigate if current manpower is adequate to maintain the planned rate of growth in the country. Higher level of economic production led to higher demand of engineering labor force. High demand with low frequency supply created an imbalance in the labor market that resulted what we see as shortage of technically skilled labor. Low frequency of supply is influenced by such factors as high engineers’ outflow rate, low students enrolment and graduation rates, and lack of practical skills of the graduates hired.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene
do on the labor market, though not with respect to layoffs. This result is mainly driven by the group of high school graduates and those with a primary school education only. Second generation immigrants with vocational education, males in particular, face both significantly lower arrival rates when......Using a search model for Danish labor market entrants, we are one of the first studies to test whether second‐generation immigrants have the same job‐offer arrival and layoff rates as ethnic Danes have. We contribute to the search literature by incorporating matching as a way to ensure sub...... unemployed and significantly higher layoff rates than those of their ethnic Danish twins....
Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong
Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…
Münch, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.
We analyze the determinants of female labor market participation for different age-groups in the European Union. We show that female participation is positively affected by tertiary education at any age. But upper secondary education increases participation only up to an age of 40 while after that
Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos
Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.
Katarina Pažur Aničić
Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies (ICT has led to the significant changes in many areas of human lives. One of the aspects becoming much more challenging is the education of ICT professionals. Latest statistics show that the labor market demand for ICT practitioners exceeds the number of higher education graduates in the field of ICT. This paper provides a brief overview of the past and current situation on the labor market regarding the demand for ICT professionals, as well as forecasts by 2020. Paper also provides a research of demanded competencies in ICT jobs advertisements, and their comparison with competencies defined within the e-Competence framework 3.0 and generic competencies defined by Tuning project.
Yanchus, Nancy J.; Eby, Lilian T.; Lance, Charles E.; Drollinger, Sabrina
Theory and research on emotional labor at work is applied to the study of the work-family interface to explore how emotional experiences in both the work and the family domain relate to the experience of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, and ultimately attitudinal and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence is also examined as a…
Ostry, Aleck S; Spiegel, Jerry M
Global changes in the economies of most developed nations have impacted the way healthcare is organized, even within largely public systems, and the working conditions of healthcare workers. Since the acceleration of globalization in the 1970s, service-sector workers in developed nations have faced high unemployment, increased skill requirements for most jobs, and a rise in non-traditional work arrangements. These secular shifts in service-sector labor markets have occurred against the background of an erosion of the welfare state and growing income inequality. As well, many healthcare systems, including Canada's, were severely downsized and restructured in the 1990s, exacerbating the underlying negative secular trends in the service sector, and worsening the working conditions for many healthcare workers. Globalization has altered the labor market and shifted working conditions in ways that have been unfavorable to many healthcare workers.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze changes in the development of women’s role as labor force over a 40-year period. This is done by presenting research results that concern the restructuring of the labor market over different time periods. The empirical material is from the 1960s, the heyday of the Swedish model; from the 1980s, the period that economic historians label the third industrial revolution; and from the 1990s, a period labeled the new working life that is covering the reorganization of the public sector. For the first period results from restructuring in the shipyard industry are presented as well as employment outcomes for single individuals. This industry was male dominated with very few women employed, but regional policy measures were implemented to reach a latent female labor force. The second period is covered by a study of closures and cutbacks in different industries in Sweden during 1982–1983. The proportion of women employed in the industries studied was around one third and employment outcomes had a specific gendered pattern. Women did to a lower extent than men get new permanent jobs. Permanent temporariness was introduced as a concept to describe their labor market situation. The recession that one decade later hit both female- and male-dominated sectors is illustrated by a study of the relations between labor market attachment, working life, and family conditions. The material comes from a regional research program based on a questionnaire and on register data on incomes from 1990 to 1999. The paper analyzes several areas related to work and outside of work that indicate a gendered pattern of multidimensional subordination and an increased polarization in terms of both gender and class. In conclusion, the 40 years has been a period of dramatic change in women’s situation as labor force. In times of restructuring they often entered into precarious job situations or unemployment. Women’s double burden
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca
This paper explores the labor market and schooling effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative, which provides work authorization to eligible immigrants along with a temporary reprieve from deportation. The analysis relies on a difference-in-differences approach that exploits the discontinuity in program rules to compare eligible individuals to ineligible, likely undocumented immigrants before and after the program went into effect. To address potential endogeneity...
Zheleznyak Maria, I.
Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.
Nelson, David B; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J
To evaluate perinatal outcomes in women sent home with a diagnosis of false labor at term and assess the time interval to return for delivery. This was a prospective observational cohort study of women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation without pre-existing medical complications who presented to our hospital-based triage unit with symptoms of labor and underwent a standardized evaluation. Women diagnosed as having false labor with a live singleton fetus in cephalic presentation without a prior cesarean delivery and sent home were compared with a group of similar women diagnosed to be in spontaneous labor. Women with hypertension, diabetes, and known fetal malformations were excluded. Using a perinatal composite outcome of respiratory insufficiency, intraventricular hemorrhage, culture-proven sepsis, Apgar score 3 or less at 5 minutes, phototherapy, and perinatal death, we tested the noninferiority of being sent home compared with being admitted for labor. The relationship of cervical dilatation to the time interval from discharge home to delivery was also analyzed. Between October 2012 and March 2016, a total of 3,949 women met inclusion criteria and were diagnosed with false labor, discharged, and returned to deliver, whereas 2,592 similar women were admitted in early labor. The mean interval from discharge to return was 4.9 days. Cesarean delivery rates were not different between the study groups-11% for both (P=.69), and the perinatal composite outcome rates were not significantly different between those sent home and those admitted-3.2% compared with 3.1% (P=.79). Women with more advanced cervical dilatation at discharge returned and delivered significantly earlier than those with less dilatation regardless of parity. Discharge with false labor at term after a standardized assessment in a triage unit was not associated with increased rates of adverse perinatal composite outcomes or cesarean delivery. The time interval to return for delivery was
Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Van der Velden, Rolf
Labor market rewards based on competencies are analyzed using a sample of young European higher education (HE) graduates. Estimates of monetary rewards are obtained from conventional earnings regressions, while estimates total rewards are based on job satisfaction and derived through ordered probit regressions. Results for income show that jobs…
Full Text Available Debates on gender equality policy in Sweden assume that women’s labor market participation is central to gender equality and should be promoted via special initiatives and programs. This paper examines how gender equality discourses have changed over time, analyzing Swedish state labor market policy in the 1980s and 1990s, special labor market initiatives to eliminate gender segregation and encourage nontraditional gendered work choices, and contemporary state subsidies for paid domestic work (i.e., tax deduction for domestic services. Critically interpreting these reforms reveals consistencies and continuities in how labor market participation is viewed as the key promoter of gender equality, revealing transformations in how gender equality is understood and constructed. A transition is discernible from state-funded programs and reforms to governmental agencies/authorities and state subsidies to promote enterprise and the growth of specific labor market sectors.
Héctor Alberto Botello Peñaloza
Full Text Available Introduction: This article aims to quantify racial discrimination in the labor market in Ecuador between 2010 and 2012. Methodology: Information is collected from quarterly household surveys on employment prepared by the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Ecuador, from which Mincer equations are estimated for labor income per hour. Subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition with Heckman correction is used to determine wage gaps attributable to observable and unobservable factors regarding two ethnic groups: mestizos and whites. Results: The wage gap is significant and positive for white people, and it increases during the period of analysis. 40 % of this difference is due to higher provisions in human capital. However, about 42 % of the gap remains unexplained.
Semeijn, J; Boone, C; van der Velden, R; van Witteloostuijn, A; van Velden, R.K.W.
In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain
Gabbard, Susan; Goldring, Luin
This report examines the occupational mobility of agricultural workers in two California labor markets and the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act and individual, job, and labor-market characteristics on such mobility. Interviews were conducted among a randomly selected sample of 162 households, which included 401 workers in southern…
Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.
The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…
Okazaki, Atsuko; Fukushima, Risa; Nagashima, Sayuri; Mazda, Yusuke; Tamura, Kazumi; Terui, Katsuo; Tanaka, Motoshi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of labor epidural analgesia (LEA) on maternal and neonatal outcomes among parturients aged 40 years or older. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all laboring, singleton and cephalic deliveries at ≥36 weeks' gestation at the Saitama Medical Center from April 2003 to September 2012. Women aged ≥40 years who received LEA (≥40 with LEA group) were compared with women aged ≥40 years who delivered without LEA (≥40 without LEA group) and women <40 years who received LEA (<40 with LEA group). Extracted outcomes included mode of delivery, oxytocin augmentation, duration of labor, amount of estimated blood loss, umbilical artery pH, Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. This study included 4441 women. There were 74 women in the ≥40 with LEA group, 369 in the ≥40 without LEA group, and 601 in the <40 with LEA group. The maternal outcomes of emergency cesarean delivery rate (9.5%, 12.5%, 9.0%), instrumental delivery rate (33.8%, 10.3%, 28.3%), duration of labor (521 min, 321 min, 565 min), and estimated blood loss (524 g, 351 g, 412 g) were reported for the ≥40 with LEA, ≥40 without LEA, and <40 with LEA groups, respectively. Neonatal outcomes were not different between these groups. LEA use was not associated with emergency cesarean delivery in the multivariable analysis. Our study showed that parturients aged ≥40 with LEA can expect similar LEA-associated labor outcomes to younger parturients with LEA. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Stone, James R., III
Describes a study which sought to establish outcome standards very important for secondary marketing education. Business people, former students, and marketing educators were asked to judge the standards identified from the literature in terms of importance to secondary marketing education. (CT)
Koedel, Cory; Grissom, Jason A.; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael
Educators in public schools in the United States are typically enrolled in defined-benefit pension plans, which penalize across-plan mobility. We use administrative data from Missouri to examine how the mobility penalties affect the labor market for school leaders, and show that pension borders greatly reduce leadership flows across schools. Our…
Berna Balcı İzgi
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a survey on women labor issues in two different sectors –industry and service sectors- in Gaziantep. The main aim is to modify the structure of women labor in Gaziantep. The main characteristics of women labour market for Gaziantep is that women labor participation is sharply decreased after marriage which is a traditional issue. Inaddition entrepreneurship is very high. Besides working years with insurance is quite low in all levels of education. The promotions system do not change with education. Education is a crucial variable in the analysis. For instance, the positions are not assigned according to the education in most of the times. This creates inefficiency in labor markets. Another important finding that the rate of entrepreneurship is very high related with other cities of Turkey. The topics of wages, working hours, the comparison of the appropriateness of the work according to education, cultural activities, satisfaction, pleasure from working have been considered from the aspect of the relationship between the working life and family life and besides, finance deficiency in entrepreneurship, and sex discrimination not clear are the main problems in different ratios. The work and the education were not found as related. The level of social coverage, trade union membership and salaried work does change with education positively
Full Text Available An aging population and the corresponding shrinkage of the labor force will create a significant drag on economic growth and may jeopardize the economic well-being of some of the elderly. Thus working longer is an imperative – but extending working lives has proven difficult, both because workers do not want to work longer and because employers are lukewarm about employing older workers. As measures that can be taken to motivate workers to work longer, the paper proposes providing retirement incentives and attractive, flexible working arrangements. To induce employers to hire old workers, it suggests removing the obstacles imposed by restrictive labor market institutions, an increase in the human capital of workers via life-long learning, and addressing age-discrimination. Chances for extending working lives will also increase as the health of elderly workers is improved.
Full Text Available The technological revolution of recent years about the spectacular development of the Internet has made its presence felt in the economy. Electronic commerce is already a major component of the economy and thus influences the labor market. In this article, we present electronic commerce as an alternative to increase the number of employees. Given that only 6% of Romanian currently use electronic commerce, its growth potential is huge and in terms of thoughtful strategies it can be achieved their guidance to specific regions. Attracting companies operating on the Internet in a given region can be done by providing incentives and beneficial effects will be felt not only through the number of employees but also through the services used by these companies.
Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N
Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzúa
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the gender differences in the Chilean labor market. We formally deal with the selection of the individuals into schooling levels and its consequences on the gender gaps. Our approach allows for the presence of not only heterogeneity in observable variables but also unobserved heterogeneity. We link this unobserved heterogeneity to unobserved scholastic ability. In the analysis, we utilize a new and rich data set for Chile. This data set contains...
GRANTZ, Katherine L.; GONZALEZ-QUINTERO, Victor; TROENDLE, James; REDDY, Uma M.; HINKLE, Stefanie N.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; LU, Zhaohui; ZHANG, Jun
Objective To describe labor patterns in women with a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) with normal neonatal outcomes. Study Design In a retrospective observational study at 12 U.S. centers (2002–2008), we examined time interval for each centimeter of cervical dilation and compared labor progression stratified by spontaneous or induced labor in 2,892 multiparous women with TOLAC (second delivery) and 56,301 nulliparous women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed including women with intrapartum cesarean delivery, and then repeated limiting only to women who delivered vaginally. Results Labor was induced in 23.4% of TOLAC and 44.1% of nulliparous women (Plabor (Plabor (P=.099); however, TOLAC had lower maximum doses of oxytocin compared to nulliparous women: median (90th percentile): 6 (18) mU/min versus 12 (28) mU/min, respectively (Plabor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women with spontaneous labor from 4–10cm was 0.9 (2.2) hours longer (P=.007). For women who entered labor spontaneously and achieved vaginal delivery, labor patterns for TOLAC were similar to nulliparous women. For induced labor, labor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women from 4–10cm was 1.5 (4.6) hours longer (Plabor patterns were slower for induced TOLAC compared to nulliparous women. Conclusions Labor duration for TOLAC was slower compared to nulliparous labor, particularly for induced labor. By improved understanding of the rates of progress at different points in labor, this new information on labor curves in women undergoing TOLAC, particularly for induction, should help physicians when managing labor. PMID:25935774
Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy
Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…
-, 05/2008 (2008), s. 1-33 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market * international trade * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.deg.uac.pt/~ceeapla/pt/pdf/papers/Paper05-2008.pdf
Full Text Available The First World War was an immense economic shock also for the Finnish economy. As the war began, Finland, as the Grand Duchy of Russia, was cut off from its main export market in Western Europe. During the first war years, however, Russian war-related demand boosted Finnish exports and industry (metal and textiles. This boom ended in bust after the Russian revolution. Furthermore, the Finnish Civil War in 1918 aggravated the crisis. The peg of the Finnish currency markka to the ruble (until 1917 and a deficit in state finances fueled inflation: the price level increased about elevenfold before the markka was stabilized in the early 1920s. Because the labor movement lost the civil war, its political position was rather weak after 1918. This paper analyzes these turbulent years from the viewpoint of the labor market in examining the development of nominal and real wages of manufacturing workers, focusing on the four main industries: sawmill, paper and pulp, metal and textile industries. We show that the asymmetrical shocks they faced caused great variation in their wage and employment development. A comparison with Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States shows that the relative position of manufacturing workers (real earnings/real GDP per capita developed more favorably in the deflation economies (Sweden, the UK, and the USA than in the inflation economies (Finland and France.
Ajanaku, Femi I.; And Others
The work experience of the African-American woman is often overlooked. In this article, the development/underdevelopment model, usually applied to the depressed situation of the Third World, is used to assess the dynamics of race, class, and gender for African-American females in the labor market. (SLD)
This article identifies limits of the dominant labor market perspective (LMP) in research on teacher recruitment and retention and describes how research that incorporates a social network perspective (SNP) can contribute to the knowledge base and development of teacher education, staffing, and professional development approaches. A discussion of…
Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi; Lan, Ya-Jia
A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (36 marketing group, 331 public service/safety group, 903 production laborer group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for marketing group public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. OSI-R profile from for marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. The authors combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.
Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.
The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that large firms located in the Danish setting will be less likely to engage in employer–employee communication...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...
Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla
To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effects of labor stimulation with oxytocin on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method: descriptive and analytical study with 338 women who gave birth at a tertiary hospital. Obstetric and neonatal variables were measured and compared in women submitted and non-submitted to stimulation with oxytocin. Statistics were performed using Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Student t-test; and crude Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: stimulation with oxytocin increases the rates of cesarean sections, epidural anesthesia and intrapartum maternal fever in primiparous and multiparous women. It has also been associated with low pH values of umbilical cord blood and with a shorter duration of the first stage of labor in primiparous women. However, it did not affect the rates of 3rd and 4th degree perineal lacerations, episiotomies, advanced neonatal resuscitation, 5-minute Apgar scores and meconium. Conclusion: stimulation with oxytocin should not be used systematically, but only in specific cases. These findings provide further evidence to health professionals and midwives on the use of oxytocin during labor. Under normal conditions, women should be informed of the possible effects of labor stimulation with oxytocin.
Full Text Available Inspired by Adam Smith and Friedrich Hayek, economists promoting free markets postulate the existence of invisible forces that drive economic growth. Simulations with Sociodynamica allowed the emergence of market forces in virtual economies, showing that the synergistic working of division of labor in complex settings favors a stable state where all actors benefit (win-win interaction. By visualizing the detailed dynamics underlying this phenomenon in a simple virtual economy, the elements underpinning the synergistic effect on economic output produced by the division of labor between agents could be dissected. These are heterogeneity or spatial or temporal heterogeneous environment and/or agents; complementary activities of agents, with divergent optimization options; and synchrony. Markets help synchronize agent’s actions. The larger the contact horizon between participants of the market is, the more efficient the market forces act. These features allow for social processes that increase the information available and increase simultaneously the capacity of producing useful economic work, that is, synergy. This insight, although trivial if viewed a posteriori, improves our understanding of the source and nature of synergies in real economic markets and might render economic and natural sciences more consilient.
Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben
A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of…
Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben
A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of technology in education, STEM has become a hegemonic discourse informing policy formation and educational practice. In Gramscian terms, the struggle over STEM as a discursive practice, between proponents of instrumental learning of marketable economic skills and those of education towards humanistic goals, reveals insights about the ideological characteristics of the push for STEM learning. This article explores the power dynamics behind the push for STEM learning as an ideological discourse propagated by global networks of elite policy actors and enacted by non-elite policy actors at the school level. The findings point toward a disjuncture between the discourse of elite policy actors in the US, the realities of STEM labor markets, and the actualization of this policy discourse into classroom practice. The implications of this study indicate that analyses of vertical power relations in network governance in STEM education should attend to the semiotics, materiality, and mutability of networked spaces.
Conclusion: Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia.
Ahn, Sanghoon; Fukao, Kyoji; Ito, Keiko
Applying a common empirical approach to comparable industry-level data on production, trade, and labor markets for Japan and South Korea, this paper aims to investigate the impacts of outsourcing on different sectors of the labor market focusing on differences in educational attainment. While outsourcing measures used in previous studies only take account of the outsourcing of intermediate inputs, this paper, utilizing the Asian International Input-Output Tables, incorporates the outsourcing ...
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.
We simultaneously analyze two mechanisms of the managerial labor market: CEO turnover and monetary remuneration schemes.Sample selection models and hazard analyses applied to a random sample of 250 firms listed on the London Stock Exchange over a six-year pre-Cadbury period show that managerial
-, č. 348 (2008), s. 1-47 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market * unemployment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp348.pdf
Full Text Available The excessive compensation packages of CEOs of U.S. corporations in recent years have brought to the foreground the issue of fairness in economics. The conventional wisdom is that the free market for labor, which determines the pay packages, cares only about efficiency and not fairness. We present an alternative theory that shows that an ideal free market environment also promotes fairness, as an emergent property resulting from the self-organizing market dynamics. Even though an individual employee may care only about his or her salary and no one else’s, the collective actions of all the employees, combined with the profit maximizing actions of all the companies, in a free market environment under budgetary constraints, lead towards a more fair allocation of wages, guided by Adam Smith’s invisible hand of self-organization. By exploring deep connections with statistical thermodynamics, we show that entropy is the appropriate measure of fairness in a free market environment which is maximized at equilibrium to yield the lognormal distribution of salaries as the fairest inequality of pay in an organization under ideal conditions.
Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo
Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
position, chronic disease and long-term sickness absence prior to baseline. DISCUSSION: The project will generate new knowledge on risk factors for loss of labor market attachment. The results will potentially contribute in identifying factors that could be targeted in future interventions for maintaining......BACKGROUND: As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical...... and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. METHODS/DESIGN: Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively...
Full Text Available This article studies childbearing dynamics by labor-market status of co-residing parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on the life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women, as well as to a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. The context is a universalistic welfare state geared towards gender and social equality where formal social rights are largely independent of a person's civil status, citizenship, and country of origin. We investigate the extent to which the associations of parents' labor-market status with childbearing in Sweden differ between women and men and by country of origin. We find that the patterns of association are fairly similar on both of these individual dimensions. As measured by the way the labor-market activity of parents is related to their subsequent childbearing, we find evidence of equality by gender and at least some evidence of integration of immigrants into the dynamics of Swedish society.
Interviews with 31 men and 43 women in Scotland indicated that most felt participation in adult education had direct or indirect effects on their labor market progress. A significant number had unintended labor market outcomes. Although many women were in low-paying jobs, only 10% had reservations about job satisfaction compared to one-third of…
Full Text Available Health workforce misdistribution is a major challenge faced by almost all countries. A more profound understanding of the dynamics of the health labor market provides evidence for policy makers to balance health workforce distribution with solid evidence. However, one major deficit of existing theoretical and empirical studies is that they often ignore the intra-regional spillovers of the health labor market. This study builds a theoretical “supply–demand–spillover” model that considers both intra-regional supply and demand-side factors, and inter-regional spillovers, hence providing a theoretical reference point for further in-depth studies. Using spatial econometric panel models, the effect of all determinants and spillovers were empirically measured based on a Chinese panel data set, shedding light on health workforce policies in China.
Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman
This paper presents a framework for applying prediction markets to corporate decision-making. The analysis is motivated by the recent surge of interest in markets as information aggregation devices and their potential use within firms. We characterize the amount of outcome manipulation that results...
Ansah, John P; Matchar, David B; Malhotra, Rahul; Love, Sean R; Liu, Chang; Do, Young
Using Singapore as a case study, this paper aims to understand the effects of the current long-term care policy and various alternative policy options on the labor market participation of primary informal family caregivers of elderly with disability. A model of the long-term care system in Singapore was developed using System Dynamics methodology. Under the current long-term care policy, by 2030, 6.9 percent of primary informal family caregivers (0.34 percent of the domestic labor supply) are expected to withdraw from the labor market. Alternative policy options reduce primary informal family caregiver labor market withdrawal; however, the number of workers required to scale up long-term care services is greater than the number of caregivers who can be expected to return to the labor market. Policymakers may face a dilemma between admitting more foreign workers to provide long-term care services and depending on primary informal family caregivers.
Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen E.; Olsen, Karen Modesta; Steen, Christina Roe
The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that ...
Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.
Swiss policy makers created a unique link between unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs) by making benefit payments conditional on program attendance after 7 months of unemployment duration. We evaluate the effect of ALMPs and benefit entitlement on the duration of
B Vengal Rao
Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a vital part of general health and is a valuable asset of every individual. The working population in India usually belong to the lower socioeconomic group. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 550 laborers of Gunj marketing yard of Raichur city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO assessment form 1997. Simplified oral hygiene index (1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.1 (± 8.02 years and the mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decayed, missing, filled teeth was 2.06 (± 1.49, 0.76 (± 2.53, 0.13 (± 0.39, and 2.95 (± 3.02, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 85.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 45.9% of the study participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries as well as a large proportion of unmet dental needs among these laborers.
Full Text Available In the present study, labor markets were analyzed, in particular, the reasons of low labor force rate to make sense based on the data of Turkish economy. While in the advanced economies, the labor force rate is quite high and has small fluctuations around a certain extent over a long-term. In the Turkish economy, prominently falls in a long-term. Turkey is ranked at 18th by population size and ranked at 17th by GDP in the world and although its population effectively provides labor force rate, it will be highly effective on its economic growth. The study based on cointegration analysis with long-term labor data with respect to the economy of Turkey concluded that labor variables concern with GDP and cointegration in a long-term. In particular, when the presence of strong relation between the growth and the non-institutional population is produced, it is emphasized that the present relation between the growth and the labor variable isn’t strong enough.
Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija; Liukko, Jyri
To study labor market positions of rejected disability pension applicants and to examine which characteristics predict ending up in these positions after the rejection. Nationwide Finnish register data was used to describe employment, unemployment and disability pension trajectories of rejected applicants (n = 5740) from four years before to four years after the rejection. Demographic, occupational and health-related determinants of labor market position after the rejection were examined among those employed and not employed at the time of the rejection. The proportion of the employed steeply decreased and that of unemployed increased before the rejection of a disability pension application. Four years after the rejection, 30% of the rejected applicants were employed, 24% were unemployed and 30% received disability pension. Employment at the time of the rejection, younger age, shorter unemployment history, public sector employment and milder work disability increased future employment. Manual work, public sector employment and previous long-term unemployment predicted future unemployment. Apart from higher age, associations with receiving disability pension were relatively weak. For many rejected disability pension applicants return to work is challenging. Special efforts should be targeted to support the remaining work ability and to promote employment opportunities of the rejected applicants. Implications for Rehabilitation Employment, unemployment and receiving disability pension were equally common labor market positions four years after the rejection. Rejected DP applicants with unemployment history need special efforts to increase their employability. As a disability pension application, even if rejected, clearly indicates some degree of work ability problems, rehabilitation should be targeted at this time point to support employment.
Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui
This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els
Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, 13-17 April). Economics and business administration post-graduates in transition from university to work: Labor market success factors. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association (AERA),
Dinga, Marián; Münich, Daniel
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2010), s. 354-367 ISSN 0927-5371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Univerzity Karlovy(CZ) 7810/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : labor market * unemployment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2010
Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.
Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…
McGowan, Meghan L; Lin, Alexander; Ou-Yang, Robin; Zei, Markus; Grobman, William
To analyze the association between concentration, as measured by the Interactive Metronome, and a prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous patients. From September 2008 to November 2009, nulliparous women at ≥34 weeks' gestation who were planning to use an epidural were asked to perform a 1-minute Interactive Metronome clapping test. Scores and demographic information were recorded. Data were then abstracted regarding each patient's labor course. The main outcome measure was the frequency of the second stage of labor exceeding 2 hours. Only patients with epidural anesthesia who completed the second stage of labor and did not require operative delivery performed for fetal indications prior to 2 full hours of pushing were included. Of the patients whose Interactive Metronome test scores were in the last quartile, which we associated with poor concentration, 52.9% (18/34) had a second stage of labor exceeding 2 hours compared with only 31.7% (33/104) of patients whose scores placed them in the first three quartiles (p = 0.026). Nulliparous patients with poor concentration scores, as measured by the Interactive Metronome, were more likely to push greater than 2 hours in the second stage of labor. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…
Full Text Available An increasingly important role in economic activity has the human resources. These are represented of population, also planning and management of such resources are extremely important, almost as important as raw materials and energy resources. Without people, any activity of exploitation of deposits is not possible, as otherwise there can be not possible any economic action or otherwise. The labor market in Romania has undergonesignificant changes in the process of economic transition, manifested by reducing the active and occupied people, by maintaining relatively steady unemployment rate and increasing youth unemployment and the long term unemployment, being affected mainly by the limited capacity of creation new jobs. In parallel with the reduction in employment people, it occurred significant changes in employment structure by sectors, industries, regions, types of ownership, age and occupational status.
Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Labor market programs that are found to shorten unemployment duration might not be societal efficient if participants do not find suitable jobs in terms of stability, wages, occupation, etc. This paper investigates whether a program, that previously has been shown to lower unemployment duration...... of leisure time and human capital accumulation/removal of frictions, respectively. Second, we show that the positive effects are heterogenous across earnings distributions. Taxing leisure time primarily affects low earners while human capital accumulation and removing frictions tend to help high earners....
Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W G
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo
Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market income progression over 5 years were evaluated using a difference in difference model. With a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.73-2.89), individuals diagnosed with hypothyroidism had a significantly increased risk of disability pension. This remained significant when adjusting for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P pension.
Neal, Jeremy L.; Lowe, Nancy K.
Oxytocin augmentation and cesarean rates among low-risk, term, nulliparous women with a spontaneous onset of labor in the United States approximate 50% and 26.5%, respectively. This indicates that the quality of obstetrical care is much less than optimal in this nation. Exorbitant oxytocin use, the intervention most commonly associated with preventable adverse perinatal outcomes, jeopardizes birth safety while the high cesarean rate in this high-volume group compromises population health and increases health care costs. Dystocia, characterized by the slow, abnormal progression of labor, is the most commonly reported indication for primary cesareans, accounting directly for approximately 50% of all nulliparous cesareans and indirectly for most repeat cesareans. Diagnoses of dystocia are most often based on ambiguously defined delays in cervical dilation beyond which labor augmentation is deemed justified. Dystocia is known to be over-diagnosed which undoubtedly contributes to contemporary oxytocin augmentation and primary cesarean rates. Labor attendants would benefit from an evidence-based framework for homogenous labor assessment. To this end, we present a physiologically-based partograph for `in-hospital' use in assessing the labors of low-risk, term, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. This tool incorporates several evidence-based labor principles that combine to give needed clinical meaning to `dystocia' as a diagnosis. It is hypothesized that our partograph will safely limit diagnoses of dystocia to only the slowest 10% of low-risk, nulliparous women. This should, in turn, safe-guard against unnecessary, injudicious, and potentially harmful use of oxytocin when labor is already adequately progressing while also indicating when its use may be justified. We further hypothesize that cesareans performed for dystocia in this population will decrease by ≥ 50%. No significant influence on other labor process or labor outcome variables is expected with
Martin, P L
"A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt
Heinrich H. Nax
Full Text Available We propose a dynamic model of decentralized many-to-one matching in the context of a competitive labor market. Through wage offers and wage demands, firms compete over workers and workers compete over jobs. Firms make hire-and-fire decisions dependent on the wages of their own workers and on the alternative workers available on the job market. Workers bargain for better jobs; either individually or collectively as unions, adjusting wage demands upward/downward depending on whether they are currently employed/unemployed. We show that such a process is absorbed into the core with probability one in finite time. Moreover, within the core, allocations are selected that are characterized by surplus splitting according to a bargaining solution such that (i firms and workforce share total revenue according to relative bargaining strengths, and (ii workers receive equal workforce shares above their individual outside options. These results bridge empirical evidence and provide a rich set of testable predictions.
King, Elizabeth M.
This study examined how education and postschool vocational training affect the type and extent of labor market participation of women in Peru. It also estimated monetary returns to different levels of schooling, to formal general and technical schooling, and to training. The sample, which comprised more than 5,600 women in urban and rural Peru,…
Full Text Available The mobility of labor, defined as responsiveness and adaptation of persons or groups of persons on the challenges of the social and economic environment is therefore a social phenomenon depending on time and space. A high mobility increases opportunities for workers to find a job and employers to find persons with an adequate level of skills, thus boosting employment and economic growth. In recent years, in Romania there has been an accentuation of existing gaps, compared with the European Union countries, as regards the occupational structure of employment. In this context, the paper proposes an analysis of the evolution of labor mobility in the main sectors of the Romanian economy. Also, it was pursued the Markovian modeling of employees’ mobility on the labor market and its forecast in Romania, under the impact of rapid and profound social and economic changes, and the correlation between them as well, with a view to make forecasts of the Romanian economy evolution in the short term.
Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret
The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.
Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee
This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…
Sun, Min; Ni, Yongmei
Purpose: Knowledge about principals' leadership roles in charter schools' success has become more important as the number of charter schools increases and as we have learned more about the influence of principal leadership on school effectiveness. To contribute to the limited empirical literature on the principal labor market, this study explores…
Dobbelaere, S.; Kiyota, K.; Mairesse, M.
Allowing for three labor market settings, this paper relies on an extension of Hall's econometric framework for simultaneously estimating price-cost mark-ups and scale economies. Using an unbalanced panel of 17,653 firms over the period 1986-2001 in France, 8,725 firms over the period 1994-2006 in
Gustavo Sandoval Betancour
Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.
Laysa Karoline Cardoso
Full Text Available It is about a case study in an APAE the south of Santa Catarina, to know about the adopted actions from the institution in the empowerment to the inclusion of people with intellectual deficiency in the labor market. Nowadays the number of people with intellectual deficiency in the formal market is significantly smaller than the number of people with another kinds of deficiency and, in this direction, it is intended to enhance the consideration to the importance of this people empowerment. The design is from a qualitative nature and to the data collection was used the documentary analysis and the semi-directed interviews were done with the teachers and the multi-professional team involved in the professional empowerment. The data were analyzed based on the contents analysis. These are conclude as barriers to the inclusion to the labor market: the low profile from the students to the available job vacancy. Untying difficulty from the student’s family concerning about the earned benefit and family overprotection.
Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.
"Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." excerpt
Laut, Kristina Grønborg; Hjort, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas
system delay also impacts ability to stay in the labor market. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether system delay is associated with duration of absence from work or time to retirement from work among patients with STEMI treated with PPCI. We conducted a population-based cohort study...... including patients ≤67 years of age who were admitted with STEMI from January 1, 1999, to December 1, 2011 and treated with PPCI. Data were derived from Danish population-based registries. Only patients who were full- or part-time employed before their STEMI admission were included. Association between...... system delay and time to return to the labor market was analyzed using a competing-risk regression analysis. Association between system delay and time to retirement from work was analyzed using a Cox regression model. A total of 4,061 patients were included. Ninety-three percent returned to the labor...
Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet
The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.
A comparison is made of some of the notable features of the Japanese and U.S. labor markets. In Japan, as compared to the United States, for example, levels of employment tenure are higher, employer-employee attachment stronger, earnings-tenure profiles more steeply sloped, layoffs and dismissals much less frequent, and joint consultation and…
Changes in the volume of female migration to Santiago and in the employment patterns of migrant women are analyzed in relationship to changes in the female labor market from 1950 onward, with special emphasis on the years 1970-90. Data sources include published works, the censuses of 1952 to 1982, a 1962 survey on in-migration to Santiago, employment surveys conducted by the University of Chile and the National Institute of Statistics, special tabulations for subsamples of the 1970 and 1982 censuses, and household employment survey information from the fourth quarter of 1993. In 1973 Chile embarked on a process of structural adjustments that affected social expenditures and employment, profoundly modifying urban labor markets. The Chilean economy is currently in a phase of consolidating its productive transformation, with positive results for economic growth and recuperation of employment, but with no reduction of poverty. The explanation of the growth in poverty should be sought in modifications in the conditions of employment of the Chilean population during the productive transformation. Modernization processes such as increased education and access to fertility control contributed to an increase in the number of highly educated women in nonmanual occupations in Santiago, but have not significantly influenced the volume or direction of female migration or modified the disadvantageous occupational profile of migrant women. Gender considerations including cultural norms governing female sexual behavior and nuptiality appear to exercise a decisive influence on the occupational status of migrant women in Santiago. Low status, single women migrating to Santiago have been concentrated in domestic service in part because of their need to find work providing safe living quarters. After 1975, migrant women encountered an increasing proportion of urban women working and looking for work and a structural transformation of domestic service marked by massive absorption of
Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne
At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.
Criveanu Radu Cătălin
Full Text Available The education reform has generated in the years 2011 and 2012 the most disastrous results in thehistory of transition from school (pre - university education to active life (through continuation of studiesor by insertion on the labor market, changing social parameters for this period. If from economic outlook,in 2011 the 28,000 young people of the 100,000 who failed to obtain the bachelor’s degree produced a 74million Ron loss for the economy (cost of paying the unemployment benefits, in terms of social equity itwas initiated the relocation of educational and occupational hierarchies. The year 2012 growsexponentially the unemployment among young people and deepens the budget deficit affected by theincreasing amounts for the social benefits.In this context, the present article aims to analyze the effects of the rising unemployment on thelabor market and to identify the best solutions for its balance in the period 2014 - 2020, complementarysolutions for the ones proposed by members of the European Council, signers of the Declaration datedJanuary 30th 2012, which aimed “to favorably strengthen growth and friendly increase employment”.
Minaya, Veronica; Scott-Clayton, Judith
Over the past few years, a multitude of studies have examined the labor market returns to community college credentials, taking advantage of new administrative datasets that link college transcripts to quarterly earnings records and allow for comparisons of students' earnings before and after enrollment. These studies, however, typically follow…
Alvarado, Andrew; And Others
This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…
Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani
Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.
Maria Eugenia Letelier G.
Full Text Available Este artigo pretende situar a relação entre escolaridade e inserção no mercado de trabalho num período marcado pelo impacto das transformações produtivas (1988 e 1995, a partir da análise de dados do mercado de trabalho e escolaridade da População Economicamente Ativa - PEA - referentes à Grande Santiago (Chile e Grande São Paulo (Brasil. Considera-se que, nesse período, foi elaborado um discurso que ressaltava o valor econômico da educação, sem suficiente sustentação empírica que ajudasse a verificar como a população é afetada pela dinâmica do mercado de trabalho e pelo aumento da oferta do sistema educacional. A competitividade internacional como meta é tida como tendência que dificulta a identificação das condições estruturais em que está inserida a relação entre educação e trabalho não permitindo, assim, conhecer a dinâmica dos atores sociais que se confrontam numa sociedade que constrói consensos excludentes em relação a numerosos setores. Para estes um maior nível educacional não assegurará melhores condições de vida enquanto não se modificarem as desigualdades originadas na estrutura do mercado de trabalho, pois justamente nesse período de transformações estão sendo geradas novas segmentações que tendem a aprofundar a desigualdade.This article discusses the relationship between schooling and entry into the labor market during a period marked by the impact of production transformations (1988 and 1995, analyzing data on the labor market and educational levels of the Economically Active Populations in Greater Santiago (Chile and Greater São Paulo (Brazil. In this period, a discourse was developed highlighting the economic value of education, but in had insufficient empirical support to help verify how the population is affected by labor market dynamics and increased accessibility of the educational system. As a goal, international competitiveness is viewed as a tendency which makes it
McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others
To determine whether current automotive mechanic training programs provide adequate exposure to the knowledge and skills needed to properly service and repair motor vehicles, data were gathered on the tasks, service and repair establishments, job market, labor force, and training programs. Primary sources of data are reports prepared by various…
Bloemen, H.G.; Kalwij, A.S.
This paper develops a simultaneous analysis of the timing of births and labor market transitions of women in the Netherlands. The results show that an increase in the years of schooling of a woman causes her to schedule births later in life but it does not significantly affect her completed
Ainsworth, Robert G.
This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…
Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton
Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...
Løngaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jacob Bue; Fink, Per
follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). CONCLUSION: MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment......BACKGROUND: Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment...... treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National...
Luciane Boreki Lucinda
Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective: To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods: The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results: Thirty-one patients (72.1% presented stress and twelve (27.8% did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%; resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%; quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4% and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%. All women researched presented stress. Conclusion: The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market.
This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…
Jastrow, Nicole; Demers, Suzanne; Gauthier, Robert J; Chaillet, Nils; Brassard, Normand; Bujold, Emmanuel
To evaluate obstetric outcomes in women undergoing a trial of labor (TOL) after a previous cesarean for dystocia in second stage of labor. A retrospective cohort study of women with one previous low transverse cesarean undergoing a first TOL was performed. Women with previous cesarean for dystocia in first stage and those with previous dystocia in second stage were compared with those with previous cesarean for nonrecurrent reasons (controls). Multivariable regressions analyses were performed. Of 1655 women, those with previous dystocia in second stage of labor (n = 204) had greater risks than controls (n = 880) to have an operative delivery [odds ratio (OR): 1.5; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1 to 2.2], shoulder dystocia (OR: 2.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 8.0), and uterine rupture in the second stage of labor (OR: 4.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 23), and especially in case of fetal macrosomia (OR: 29.6; 95% CI 4.4 to 202). The median second stage of labor duration before uterine rupture was 2.5 hours (interquartile range: 1.5 to 3.2 hours) in these women. Previous cesarean for dystocia in the second stage of labor is associated with second-stage uterine rupture at next delivery, especially in cases of suspected fetal macrosomia and prolonged second stage of labor. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Paccagnella, Gianluca; Sansone, Laura; Barbara, Favaron; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista
The effect of epidural analgesia on labor and effective breastfeeding is still being debated. The aim of this study is to define its impact on the trend of labor, the newborns' well-being, and early breastfeeding. We considered first-term physiologic pregnant women who delivered by the vaginal route. We divided them into two groups: group A received epidural analgesia during labor, whereas group B received no analgesia. We recorded maternal age, gestational age, modality of delivery, length of labor, and length of active labor. All newborns received skin-to-skin contact; early breastfeeding was encouraged. We recorded data on birth weight and length, Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, type of crying, neonatal reactivity, and time between birth and exposure to the breast. Statistical significance was considered for panalgesia, and 245 patients agreed to participate in our study. Only 128 patients met inclusion criteria. We randomized them in 64 women in group A and 64 women in group B. Data on maternal age, gestational age, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and length, and Apgar score showed no significant differences. Total length of labor was 363.58±62.20 minutes in Group A versus 292.30±64.75 minutes in group B (pneonatal parameters we found a statistically significant difference only for length of first breastfeeding, with a mean duration of analgesia has little effect on trend of labor and duration of first breastfeed and none on neonatal outcome. A new protocol of epidural analgesia may solve these side effects.
Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina
We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us...... school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas....
Lynn A. Karoly
In the 21st century knowledge economy, education plays an increasingly important role in preparing new labor market entrants for the workforce and providing skill upgrading throughout the working career. The vital role of education is propelled by the rapid pace of technological change, as well as the interdependent, global economy, forces that together demand a workforce with the capacity for leadership, problem solving, and collaboration and communication in a wide range of economic sectors...
Teixeira, Ana F; Dias, Sónia F
This study aims at examining how factors relating to immigrants' experience in the host country affect psychological distress (PD). Specifically, we analyzed the association among socio-economic status (SES), integration in the labor market, specific immigration experience characteristics, and PD in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrant individuals residing in Lisbon, Portugal. Using a sample (n = 1375) consisting of all main immigrant groups residing in Portugal's metropolitan area of Lisbon, we estimated multivariable linear regression models of PD regressed on selected sets of socio-economic independent variables. A psychological distress scale was constructed based on five items (feeling physically tired, feeling psychologically tired, feeling happy, feeling full of energy, and feeling lonely). Variables associated with a decrease in PD are being a male (demographic), being satisfied with their income level (SES), living with the core family and having higher number of children (social isolation), planning to remain for longer periods of time in Portugal (migration project), and whether respondents considered themselves to be in good health condition (subjective health status). Study variables negatively associated with immigrants' PD were job insecurity (labor market), and the perception that health professionals were not willing to understand immigrants during a clinical interaction. The study findings emphasized the importance of labor market integration and access to good quality jobs for immigrants' psychological well-being, as well as the existence of family ties in the host country, intention to reside long term in the host country, and high subjective (physical) health. Our research suggests the need to foster cross-national studies of immigrant populations in order to understand the social mechanisms that transverse all migrant groups and contribute to lower psychological well-being.
Valdineide dos Santos Araujo
Full Text Available The labor market demands have required from the accounting professionals to enhance their skills and competences so as to meet, effectively, the current requirements. This piece of research aimed at understanding the students´ perception of the Accounting Sciences course, of a Higher Education Federal Institution, in regard to the academic formation that they have been receiving and the professional guidance they are meant to have in order to enter the labor market. The study encompassed 105 students from the 7th and 8th morning/afternoon terms and from the 9th and 10th evening term of the Accounting Sciences course of a Federal Institution of Higher Education. As concerns the methodology, it was based on the exploratory approach with qualitative approach and the descriptive research with quantitative approach, by means of the bibliographical research and the use of questionnaire. The surveyed variables refer to the student´s profile, the professional requirements in relation to the job market demands, the students´ necessary competences and perception on the academic formation they are receiving as well as their training for entering the labor market. It was noticed that the students, in their majority, do not take part, regularly, in extracurricular activities, such as: conferences, seminars and lectures. They also do not demonstrate complete agreement regarding the fact that they are acquiring the necessary competences for entering and acting in the labor market and, in an emphatically way, they reveal disagreement in relation to the adequacy of the curricular grid of this Institution´s course to the current accountant formation. It can be concluded that the Higher Education Institution must prioritize the development of competences, skills and values that ensure the students conditions for their professional entry to the job market.
Flávio Benevett Fligenspan
Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing international trade in labor-intensive sectors in the 2000s, with a special reference to the Brazilian case. Therefore, we use the constant market share analysis to compare several countries’ export performance. It was observed that Asian countries emerged strengthened from this period. Brazil had a mediocre performance, losing market-share in global markets. Moreover, competition from Asian economies and even from the small Central American countries, such as Guatemala and El Salvador, has undermined the penetration of Brazilian exports in its major trade partners, which are North America and South America.
Full Text Available The paper presents a tool for modelling monopolistic competition markets, based on Dixit-Stiglitz ideology but taking into account heterogeneity at labor market. We analyse several modifications of a two-sector general equilibrium model. In the basic one with two levels of workers qualification their shares are determined endogenously on the base of comparison between the higher wage of the skilled worker and heterogeneous education costs, also taking into account the labor mobility between the manufacture and agriculture sector. The model is generalized for the case of continuous distribution of labor qualification. The impact of the model parameters (ratio of fixed and variable costs, market size, heterogeneity in productivity, elasticity of substitution, etc. on the obtained equilibrium prices, quantities, wages, number and size of firms, social welfare is investigated.
Full Text Available Productivity is a primary objective of increasing competition in modern economy and any increase in productivity level helps development of organization in the competitive market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between operating leverage, financial leverage, compound leverage as independent variables and productivity indices including labor and capital productivities as dependent variables. The study includes 102 companies accepted in Tehran Stock Market based on screening, systematic deletion, over the period 2005-2010. The required data are gathered through official financial statements, committee reports, and other available documents in Tehran Stock Market. Stepwise regression and Pearson correlation are used to analyze the data. The results of the study have indicated that there were significant relationships between independent variables including leverage ratios with labor productivity. In addition, there is also a significance relationship between leverage ratios with capital productivity of total assets.
Steiger, Thomas L.; Form, William
Data suggest that it is premature to conclude that management has succeeded in appropriating workers' knowledge, accountability, and responsibility for work. The labor market has become fluid and dynamic and no longer conforms to the traditional construct of an internal labor market. A refinement of labor process theory is in order. (JOW)
A labor market tautology says that any change in labor usage can be decomposed into a movement along a marginal productivity schedule and a shift of the schedule. I calculate this decomposition for the recession of 2008, assuming an aggregate Cobb-Douglas marginal productivity schedule, and find that all of the decline in employment and hours since December 2007 is a movement along the schedule. This finding suggests that a reduction in labor supply and/or an increase in labor market distorti...
Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.
The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of economic Super Sectors in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each Super Sector to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the scenario earthquake on economic sectors and provides a baseline for the indirect and interactive analysis of an input-output model of the regional economy. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by the North American Industry Classification System. According to the analysis results, nearly 225,000 business
KAMBAYASHI Ryo; MURATA Keiko; UENO Yuko
1. Research Theme It has been pointed out that the existence or rise in unemployment rate caused by 'mismatch' in labor market is one of the major factors for recent continuous high unemployment rate in our country. Such 'mismatch' has often been regarded as coming from technical problems, which are basically independent from business cycles. Many countermeasures have been taken by now, without any remarkable results. This paper thus discusses the importance of technical issues as a backgroun...
This study is concerned with decomposing the gender pay gap in the Czech Republic. It aims not only to compare male and female wage-equations but also to uncover the gender pay gap structure. The decision of many women not to participate in the labor market can be influenced by potentially low wages. Their entry into the labor market could increase the gender pay gap in large measure. The advantage of this study is that it uses a selection method to estimate the male and female wage equations...
Marcelo Weishaupt Proni
Full Text Available Os propósitos centrais do artigo são: (i delimitar a importância da universidade na progressiva construção social e política da profissão Educação Física; (ii apresentar um mapeamento dos ramos de atividade econômica onde se concentram as oportunidades de emprego e das diferenças regionais no que se refere aos níveis salariais médios dos profissionais da EF; e (iii colocar em discussão a tensão que se estabelece entre a formação profissional oferecida nas universidades brasileiras e as demandas predominantes no mercado de trabalho. Pretende-se mostrar que a regulamentação da profissão produziu uma divisão entre duas "identidades profissionais" no interior da Educação Física, o que reforçou a segmentação deste mercado de trabalho altamente competitivo e marcado por situações muito desiguais. Além disso, procura-se enfatizar que o mercado de trabalho para os profissionais da Educação Física é menos estruturado que o destinado aos licenciados. E que a regulamentação da profissão procurou criar uma reserva de mercado, mas não foi suficiente para estruturar este amplo e diversificado mercado de trabalho, difundir um padrão de emprego adequado e elevar os níveis de remuneração.The main purposes of this paper are: (i to delimitate the importance of the university in the progressive social and political construction of Physical Education as a profession; (ii to present the sectors of economic activity where are concentrated the opportunities of employment and to show the regional differences about the average wages of the Physical Education workers; and (iii to discuss the tension relationship between the professional education from the Brazilian universities and the major demands in labor marketing. I intent to suggest that the professional regulation produced a division between two "professional identities" inside Physical Education, and it reinforced the segmentation in this competitive labor marketing
Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.
Between 1983 and 1989, employment of nuclear engineers in the nuclear energy field increased almost 40 percent while the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees awarded decreased by almost one-fourth. There were, on average, more job openings for new graduates than there were new graduates available to fill the jobs during the 1980s. This trend reversed in the l990s as nuclear engineering employment in the nuclear energy field decreased from 11,500 in 1991 to 9,400 in 1995. During roughly the same period, the annual number of nuclear engineering degrees increased by 11 percent. As a result, from 1990 through 1995, the number of new graduate nuclear engineers available in the labor supply far exceeded the number of job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. This oversupply of new graduates was particularly acute for 1993 through 1995. During 1996--1997, a relative improvement is expected in job opportunities in the nuclear energy field for new graduates; however, a large oversupply is still expected (almost twice as many graduates available for employment as there are job openings). For 1998 through 2000, some improvement is expected in the relative number of job opportunities for new graduates in the nuclear energy field. Nuclear engineering jobs in the nuclear energy field are expected to decrease only slightly (by less than 150) during this period. Also a 10--15% decrease in the annual number of degrees and available supply of new graduates is expected. Overall, an oversupply is expected (140 graduates available per 100 job openings for new graduates in the nuclear energy field), but this is still a substantial improvement over the current period. For 2001 through 2005, if enrollments and degrees continue to decline, the labor market for new graduates is expected to be approximately balanced. This assumes, however, that the number of degrees and the available supply of new graduates will decrease by 25% from 1995 levels
Full Text Available This paper contributes to analyses of sustainable enterprise with focus on quality of present and future employment, maintenance of human capital and constituting characteristics of institutional arrangements between the social partners. We add by proving that a specific option from the toolkit of flexible work schedules reduces unemployment risk over the business cycle, while providing mutual insurance of employers and employees. In labor market practice this option is known as working time accounts. Working time accounts are exceptionally widespread and wellinstitutionalized in Germany. We also introduce a risk elimination model of working time accounts and thus contribute to closing the jobs miracle research gap that has become evident since the global financial and economic crisis.
Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M
Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.
Dmitry Aleksandrovich Pokrovsky
Full Text Available This paper is addressed to explanation of differentiation of economics in structure of labor market and income distribution. In order to this aim the author develops a model of endogenous formation of entrepreneurship in economics with heterogeneous agents. The nature of heterogeneity is non- trivial distribution of entrepreneurial abilities across individuals. The impact of form and support of distribution of abilities as well as structure of preferences are studied. The key result is impact of an elasticity of substitution and an elasticity of distribution function on share of entrepreneurs and income inequality in opposite way. This effect must be taken into account when arbitrary economic policy is developed. Also author consider two transformation of support of distribution of entrepreneurial abilities: 1 tension and compression, 2 shift. Economies which are equivalence in sense of first type of support transformation have the same share of entrepreneurs in population and the same level of income inequality. In the second case economy with less able individuals in average has bigger share of entrepreneurs in population and it is more differentiated in income
Lim, F.K.S.; Carrasco, L.R.; McHardy, J.; Edwards, D.P.
Conservation interventions are being implemented at various spatial scales to reduce the impacts of rising global population and affluence on biodiversity and ecosystems. While the direct impacts of these conservation efforts are considered, the unintended consequences brought about by market feedback effects are often overlooked. Perverse market outcomes could result in reduced or even reversed net impacts of conservation efforts. We develop an economic framework to describe how the intended...
The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.
Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen
This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.
This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.
Heesen, Michael; Böhmer, Johannes; Klöhr, Sven; Hofmann, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Straube, Sebastian
Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has gained popularity, but it is still unclear whether adding a background infusion confers any benefit. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, and ISI WOS was performed to identify randomized controlled double-blind trials that compare PCEA-only with PCEA combined with a continuous infusion (PCEA + CI) in parturients. The data were subjected to meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Our primary outcome was the incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes were incidences of spontaneous vaginal and cesarean deliveries, duration of labor, analgesic outcomes, maternal outcomes (visual analog scale scores for pain, maternal satisfaction, nausea, pruritus, hypotension), and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score, umbilical artery pH). We identified 7 trials with a low risk of bias, reporting on 891 parturients, for inclusion in our systematic review. The risk of instrumental vaginal delivery was increased in the PCEA + CI group, risk ratio (RR) 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.56, P = 0.02; I = 0%); the RR for cesarean delivery was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13, I = 0%). The second stage of labor was prolonged (weighted mean difference 12.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 5.1-19.5 minutes, P = 0.0008; I = 0%) in the PCEA + CI group. Fewer patients in the PCEA + CI group required physician-administered boluses (RR 0.35 [95% confidence interval 0.25-0.47, P neonatal outcomes (Apgar scores analgesia. Further high-quality studies involving a sufficient number of patients are required.
Sandström, A; Altman, M; Cnattingius, S; Johansson, S; Ahlberg, M; Stephansson, O
The associations between duration of second stage of labor, pushing time and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes are not fully established. Therefore, we aimed to examine such relationships. A population-based cohort study including 42 539 nulliparous women with singleton infants born in cephalic presentation at ⩾37 gestational weeks, using the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden, and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 2008 to 2013. Poisson regression was used to analyze estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome measures were umbilical artery acidosis (pH pushing pushing ⩾60 min increased rates of acidosis from 0.57 to 1.69% (adjusted RR 2.55 (95% CI 1.51 to 4.30)). Prolonged durations of second stage of labor and pushing are associated with increased RRs of adverse neonatal outcomes. Clinical assessment of fetal well-being is essential when durations of second stage and pushing increases.
Full Text Available Las diferencias que existen dentro del mercado laboral ecuatoriano, en las diferentes ramas de actividad, evidencian los niveles de formación que los trabajadores deben tener para evitar efectos negativos. Por tal motivo, en este estudio se analiza el papel que las características personales, laborales y geográficas desempeñan en la probabilidad de obtener un contrato temporal frente a uno indefinido. El análisis es realizado por rama de actividad, para determinar qué características posibilitarán la existencia del contrato temporal en cada una de ellas. Para lograr este objetivo, se estiman modelos de regresión logística utilizando los datos de la Encuesta de Empleo, Desempleo y Subempleo desde el 2º trimestre del año 2007 al 2º trimestre del año 2010, elaborada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC. || The differences that exist inside the labor Ecuadorian market, in the different branches of activity, demonstrate the training levels that the workers must have to avoid negative effects. However, in this study, the role played by individual, jobs and residence characteristics are analyzed on the probability of having a fixed-term employment versus permanent employment. It is analyzed concretely by branch of activity, to check which are the characteristics that would make it possible the existence of the fixed-term employment in each of them. To achieve this aim, there are estimated models of logistic regression using the information of the Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment from 2nd quarter of 2007 to the 2nd quarter of 2010, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC.
L. R. Rita Lima
Full Text Available The gender inequality has been present throughout human history, where the role of women in the family environment overtopped their occupation in other sectors. The discrimination and the culture of factors hinder the participation of women in equal or higher level of men in the labor market, however women have higher levels of study than men, which proves the inequality suffered by this genre. Currently, we have taken advances on the world stage, with women placed in new environments, as well as greater access to command positions in companies. We still need many advances for the men and women be treated in the same way how predict the laws. In this study we sought to analyze and discuss the role and the current position of woman in the labor market and in other spheres.
Chan, Tak Wing; Ermisch, John
We use household survey data from the UK to study how close middle-aged men and women in partnerships live to their parents and their partner's parents. We find a slight tendency for couples to live closer to the woman's parents than the man's. This tendency is more pronounced among couples in which neither partner has a college degree and in which there is a child. In other respects, proximity to parents is gender-neutral, with the two partners having equal influence on intergenerational proximity. Better-educated couples live farther from their parents. And although certain family characteristics matter, intergenerational proximity is primarily driven by factors affecting mobility over long distances, which are mainly associated with the labor market, as opposed to gender or family circumstances.
Moghimi-Hanjani, Soheila; Mehdizadeh-Tourzani, Zahra; Shoghi, Mahnaz
Reflexology is a technique used widely as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques. The present study aimed to review and determine the effect of foot reflexology on anxiety, pain and outcomes of the labor in primigravida women. This clinical trial study was conducted on 80 primigravida mothers who were divided randomly into an intervention group (Foot reflexology applied for 40 min, n=40) and control group (n=40). The pain intensity was scored immediately after the end of intervention and at 30,60 and 120 min after the intervention in both groups, based on McGill Questionnaire for Pain Rating Index (PRI). Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed before and after intervention in both groups. Duration of labor phases, the type of labor and Apgar scores of the infant at the first and fifth minute were recorded in both groups. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods (t-test and chi-square test) were applied in analyzing data. Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120 min after intervention) and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly (Preflexology reduces labor pain intensity, duration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using this non-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals of midwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginal delivery.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes how the frictions in the labor market simultaneously affect the economic growth and the long run unemployment. To this goal, we develop a schumpeterian model of endogenous growth: agents have the choice between employment and R and D activities. Unemployment is caused by the wage-setting behavior of unions. We show that: (i Increases in the labor costs or in the power of trade unions lead to higher unemployment and lower economic growth. (ii Efficient bargain allows to increase employment, at the price of a lower growth rate. These theoretical predictions are consistent with the insights from our empirical analysis based on 183 European Regions, between 1980-2003
thanks to Marjorie McElroy for encouraging my efforts to adapt the theory and techniques of Western labor economics to the case of the Soviet Union. All...34 Journal of Labor Economics 3:1, pt. 2 (January 1985): S328-S354. SCHULTZ, T. Paul. "Testing the Neoclassical Model of Family Labor Supply and...FemaJe Labor Force Participation and Wage Determination in a Developing Country." Paper presented at the Duke University Labor Economics Workshop
This thesis focused on how to develop export during the development process from labor-intensive industry to technology-intensive industry. The situation of wage, labor-intensive industry and technology-intensive industry development are backgrounds. The objective of this thesis was to analyze the problems of the case company and to provide the case company with strategies. The approach used in this thesis is case study. The data acquisition includes interviews, online chatting and telep...
Gurven, Michael; Winking, Jeffrey; Kaplan, Hillard; von Rueden, Christopher; McAllister, Lisa
Children may be viewed as public goods whereby both parents receive equal genetic benefits yet one parent often invests more heavily than the other. We introduce a microeconomic framework for understanding household investment decisions to address questions concerning conflicts of interest over types and amount of work effort among married men and women. Although gains and costs of marriage may not be spread equally among marriage partners, marriage is still a favorable, efficient outcome under a wide range of conditions. This bioeconomic framework subsumes both cooperative and conflictive views on the sexual division of labor. We test hypotheses concerning marriage markets, assortative mating, and men's labor motivations among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and find that: (1) men and women both value work effort in marital partners, (2) marital labor contributions are complementary, (3) work effort is correlated between spouses, (4) total production is correlated with total reproduction, and (5) better hunters have higher fitness gains within marital unions.
Full Text Available We study differences in behavior across countries in a labor market context. To this end, we conducted a bilateral gift-exchange experiment comparing the behavior of subjects from five high-income OECD countries: Germany, Spain, Israel, Japan and the USA. We observe that in all countries, effort levels are increasing while rejection rates are decreasing in wage offers. However, we also find considerable differences in behavior across countries in both one-shot and repeated relationships, the most striking between Germany and Spain. We also discuss the influence of socio-economic indicators and the implications of our findings.
Full Text Available Background: Obstructed labor is the leading cause of hospitalization, comprising up to 39% of all obstetric patients in developing countries. It is the single most important cause of maternal death and is one of the three leading causes of perinatal mortality. Objectives: To study the different parameters of obstructed labor cases, like its frequency, etiology, management, and complications. This will help to formulate a positive strategy to prevent obstructed labor and its consequences. Materials and Methods: 313 patients admitted with features of obstructed labor were studied. By clinical examination, diagnosis of cephalopelvic disproportion, malposition, malpresentation, obstruction in birth canal, overdistended bladder, hematuria, rupture of uterus, and supermolding of fetal head was done. Screening for maternal exhaustion, dehydration, genital sepsis, pyrexia, rupture of uterus, postpartum hemorrhage, vesico-vaginal fistula, and shock was carried out. Deaths as a consequence of obstructed labor were noted. Diagnosis of asphyxiated or dead fetus or neonatal death was done. Mode of delivery and time interval between referral, admission, intervention done, and related feto-maternal outcome were noted. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info software. Results: Majority of the patients (87.86% were from low socioeconomic group, 88.82% were from rural areas, 16.16% were illiterate, and 27.79% were unbooked. The commonest cause of obstructed labor was cephalopelvic disproportion (55.59%. Other causes were malposition (23%, malpresentation (18.21%, fetal congenital abnormality (1.28%, myoma (0.32%, and non-dilatation of cervix (1.60%. The commonest mode of delivery was cesarean section (85.94%. Instrumental deliveries formed 9.58%. Destructive operation was done in 1.92% cases. Rupture uterus was seen in 8 (2.56% cases, out of which hysterectomy was done in 5 cases and repair in 3 cases. The common maternal complications were sepsis [pyrexia
Hasegawa, Junichi; Farina, Antonio; Turchi, Giovanni; Hasegawa, Yuko; Zanello, Margherita; Baroncini, Simonetta
We aimed to clarify whether the short-term adverse neonatal outcomes associated with epidural analgesia are due to the epidural analgesia itself or to the instrumental delivery. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidural analgesia, labor length, and perinatal outcomes. A total of 350 pregnant women at term who delivered under epidural analgesia (cases) were compared with 1400 patients without epidural analgesia (controls). Vacuum extraction (6.5 vs. 2.9 %) and cesarean section (19.9 vs. 11.1 %) were more frequently performed in the cases than controls (p neonatal variables stratified by mode of delivery were not different in cases and controls, except for a slightly lower umbilical arterial pH in spontaneous delivery for the cases group. However, the Apgar scores and umbilical arterial pH were significantly lower in the neonates delivered by vacuum extraction compared with those in the neonates delivered by spontaneous delivery or cesarean section, regardless of whether epidural analgesia was performed. A multivariable analysis showed that vacuum extraction much more consistently affected the arterial pH than the analgesia itself (the β coefficients were -0.036 for epidural analgesia vs. -0.050 for vacuum extraction). Epidural analgesia was associated with slowly progressing labor, thus resulting in an increased rate of instrumental delivery. This instrumental delivery appears to adversely affect the neonatal outcomes more strongly than the analgesia itself.
Marks, Gary N.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of university and vocational education, and other influences on a variety of labour market outcomes for Australian youths aged between 16 and 25. The six labour market outcomes investigated are: occupational status, hourly and weekly earnings, employment, unemployment and full-time work. The…
Moraloglu, Ozlem; Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Tasci, Yasemin; Karakaya, Burcu Kısa; Yilmaz, Yasar; Cakir, Ebru; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim
To assess the effects on neonatal and maternal outcomes of different pushing positions during the second stage of labor in nulliparous women. This prospective study included 102 healthy, pregnant, nulliparous women who were randomly allocated to either of two positions: a squatting using bars (n = 51), or a supine position modified to 45 degree of semi-fowler (n = 51) during the second stage of labor. Duration of the second stage of labor, maternal pain, postpartum blood loss, abnormal fetal heart rate patterns that required intervention, and newborn outcomes were compared between the two groups. The trial showed that women who adopted the squatting position using bars experienced a significant reduction in the duration of the second stage of labor; they were less likely to be induced, and their Visual Analog Scale score was lower than those who were allocated the supine position modified to 45 degree of semi-fowler during second stage of labor (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences with regard to postpartum blood loss, neonatal birth weight, Apgar score at one and five minutes, or admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. In healthy nulliparous women, adopting a squatting position using bars was associated with a shorter second stage of labor, lower Visual Analog Scale score, more satisfaction, and a reduction in oxytocin requirements compared with adopting the supine position. For Turkish women, the squatting position is easy to adopt as it is more appropriate in terms of Turkish social habits and traditions.
Kocourek, D.; Pertold, Filip
Roč. 61, č. 5 (2011), s. 467-483 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : early retirement * labor market participation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1226_kocourek.pdf
Armani, Marta; Gaggiano, Carla; Dallaglio, Sara; Romanini, Enzo; Sospiri, Carmen; Magnani, Cinzia
This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between epidural analgesia and perinatal outcomes and at verifying the advisability of procedural changes in assistance to labor. From January to December 2012, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on 1,963 laboring pregnant women admitted to the Parma University Hospital. We considered two groups: Group 1 received epidural analgesia and Group 2 received no analgesia. Women with elective cesarean sections, multiple pregnancies or deliveries at <34 weeks were excluded. We recorded maternal data (age, type of delivery, obstetric procedures, premature rupture of membranes, screenings for Group-B Streptococcus) and neonatal data (birth weight, gestational age, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, diagnosis at discharge). Of the 1,963 laboring women, 287 requested analgesia and 1,676 did not. We found no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of cesarean section, clavicle fracture, and 1-minute Apgar score between 4 and 7. By contrast, we observed a higher rate of instrumental deliveries (p<0.01), fetal occiput posterior position (p<0.05), neonatal cephalohematoma (p=0.01) in Group 1 than in Group 2 . In Group 1 we also found a higher number of newborns with 1-minute Apgar score of 3 or less (p=0.016). In addition, a significantly higher number of women in Group 1 had fever during labor (p=0.003, odds ratio 5.01). Our results suggest that strategies should be activated to overcome or limit the side-effects of analgesia in labor through prospective and multidisciplinary studies.
The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with
Women’s labor market participation rates differ substantially between ethnic groups in many Western countries, with ethnic minority women often having lower participation rates than women from the native majority group. This is perceived as problematic due to the negative consequences for these
This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women’s labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict. PMID:26843783
Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.
Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149
Objective To observe the effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural application of 0.125% bupivacaine combined with anisodamine on the labor stage, and modes of delivery and neonatal Apgar's score. Methods A total of 220 primiparaes with full-term pregnancy, monocyesis and fetal head presentation without any obstetrical or systematic complications were chosen and divided into analgesic group and control group (110 in each group). The mixture of bupivacaine and anisodamine was in...
Dualé, Christian; Nicolas-Courbon, Aurélie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Lemery, Didier; Bonnin, Martine; Pereira, Bruno
To investigate whether maternal satisfaction (MS) is taken into consideration as an outcome criterion in clinical research on analgesia for labor. A systematic review of articles reporting analgesia for labor from a panel of 17 influential journals was undertaken. A total of 116 articles were analyzed, including 282 within-study groups. The scope of MS, the type of outcome measure used, and the time of measurement were noted. Each available observation was assigned an ordinal value of MS (ordMS), according to data distribution. The factors influencing ordMS were identified by multivariable analysis. The methods used to assess MS were very variable, even within the different measurement tools reported. The weighted distribution of ordMS was 17.8%, 21.8%, 31.2%, and 29.3% for levels "poor," "fair," "good," and "excellent," respectively. In comparative studies, statistical differences for analgesia were related to statistical differences for MS (Pvalue was high (0.87). Power to detect a difference in MS between treatment groups was low in general, but it influenced reporting of a significant difference for MS (Pinitial cervical dilatation, and the within-study percentage of nulliparous women. The techniques alternative to epidural analgesia negatively influenced ordMS. A standard and validated tool to assess MS in clinical research on analgesia for labor is still to be developed. Power should be improved by acting on sample sizes or sensitivity of the outcome.
Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Nohr, Ellen A
To examine the effect of a brief course in self-hypnosis for childbirth on duration of the labor and other birth outcomes. A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark. A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women. A hypnosis group receiving three 1-h lessons in self-hypnosis with additional audio-recordings to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-h lessons in various relaxation methods and mindfulness with audio-recordings for additional training, and a usual-care group receiving only the usual antenatal care were compared. Duration of labor, birth complications, lactation success, caring for the child, and preferred future mode of delivery. No differences were found across the three groups on duration from arriving at the birth department until the expulsive phase of second stage of labor, the duration of the expulsive phase, or other birth outcomes. Fewer emergency and more elective cesarean sections occurred in the hypnosis group. No difference was seen across the groups for lactation success or caring for the child but fewer women in the hypnosis group preferred a cesarean section in future pregnancies because of fear of childbirth and negative birth experiences. Learning self-hypnosis to ease childbirth taught as a brief course failed to show any effects on duration of childbirth and other birth outcomes. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Vaziri, Farideh; Arzhe, Amene; Asadi, Nasrin; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab
There are concerns about the harmful effects of the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor. Comparing the effects of spontaneous pushing in the lateral position with the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor on maternal and fetal outcomes. Inclusion criteria in this randomized clinical trial conducted in Iran were as follows: nulliparous mothers, live fetus with vertex presentation, gestational age of 37 - 40 weeks, spontaneous labor, and no complications. The intervention group pushed spontaneously while they were in the lateral position, whereas the control group pushed using Valsalva method while in the supine position at the onset of the second stage of labor. Maternal outcomes such as pain and fatigue severity and fetal outcomes such as pH and pO2 of the umbilical cord blood were measured. Data pertaining to 69 patients, divided into the intervention group (35 subjects) and control group (34 subjects), were analyzed statistically. The mean pain (7.80 ± 1.21 versus 9.05 ± 1.11) and fatigue scores (46.59 ± 21 versus 123.36 ± 43.20) of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference (P pushing in the lateral position reduced fatigue and pain severity of the mothers. Also, it did not worsen fetal outcomes. Thus, it can be used as an alternative method for the Valsalva maneuver.
Barth, Erling; Zweimuller, Josef
The paper compares the industry wage structures of Austria, Norway, the union sector of the U.S. as well as the non-union sector of the U.S. We make comparable regressions for each country, and are thus able to compare the sectoral earnings patterns controlling for the usual individual characteristics. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the patterns of the inter-industry pay structure is largely independent of labor market institutions: High paying industries in a non-union environment t...
Smith, J P
A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.
Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.
This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.
This report examines the level and changes in female and male participation rates, employment segregation, and female wages relative to male wages across the world economy. It funds sufficient evidence to support the view that labor markets in developing countries are transformed relatively quickly in the sense that gender differentials in employment and pay are narrowing much faster than they did in industrialized countries. However, the report evaluates the inefficiencies arising from persi...
The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by
Saveanu Tomina Gabriela
Full Text Available This paper reflects theoretical and empirical interrogations regarding concepts which gain interest in recent research in relation to school results and school-to-work transition of high education graduates: school-engagement, valorization of work, work ethics and school social capital. The initiative of such approach is linked to the identification of the obstacles and implicitly the mechanisms which facilitate an easier school-to-work transition of high education graduates of economic studies. In the current research we followed which are the motivations regarding work, and the measures of school engagement, identifying that students with higher academic engagement present greater interest in general criteria related to work and are less intrinsically motivated. The research findings in this area on the one hand confirm the importance of school-engagement for the students from tertiary education. On the other hand, it suggests, besides the mediated effect on school results on the successful insertion on the labor market, also a direct impact on their work engagement of these graduates. In addition to these aspects less visible and less studied, research in this field revealed other obstacles that occur in the successful integration of graduates in the workplace. It was found that both employers and young graduatesâ€™ employees assigned increased importance for the success in the workplace to transversal skills that are considered less developed through tertiary educational system. In addition, experience at the workplace, the practical training and voluntary involvement in different actions can also be useful tools in preparing students for the labor market. The data, both qualitative and quantitative, analyzed in this paper were collected within the project "Practical training of economists students. Inter-regional partnership in the labor market between universities and the business environmentâ€. PRACTeam project is coordinated by
Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger; Zhang, Lei
Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market…
Greenland’s population and employment have historically been stable, but its growth performance is not impressive. Greenland enjoys rather stable fishing exports, and it receives two-thirds of its import capacity as a grant from Denmark. Non-fishing labor contributes to either private consumption...... or government consumption. The first is import-intensive and the second is labor-intensive. Greenland’s imports cannot exceed the sum of the grant and net fishing exports. A large public sector guarantees stable employment. A larger private-government consumption ratio is hypothesized as a way to increase...
Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph
Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584
Master's thesis in Economic analysis We investigate if gender identity has any effect on the division of household labor among Norwegian couples. By deriving the potential income distribution of the Norwegian population, we compare couples’ comparative advantage in market work. Our results indicate that women who have higher potential income than their spouse are more likely to increase their labor supply and work full-time, rather than reduce their hours allocated to market work in order ...
The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…
Borghans, Lex; de Grip, Andries; Heijke, Hans
The problem of planning and making labor market forecasts by occupation and qualification in the context of a constantly changing labor market was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: assumptions, benefits, and pitfalls of the labor requirement model of projecting future imbalances between labor supply and demand for certain…
Integration of foreign workers into European Union (EU) labor markets was evaluated. Three indicators of labor market integration were analyzed: unemployment rate, employment rate, and self- employment rate. Results were drawn from the Labor Force Survey data compiled by Eurostat. Findings indicated that, in all EU countries, the unemployment rate…
Full Text Available The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays. The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor market employment in the 55+ group increased in 10 years by 20%. Effective management of the community of older people is necessary to keep the balance in economy. Many examples of good case practices from chosen European countries point an important role of education in this process. Education is a tool that aims to support older people in functioning on the job market and increase employers’ awareness of changes and solutions that need to be implemented in their companies. Customized forms of employment are another instrument of increasing job activity of older people. They let employers adjust the time, place of work, job description and form of payment according to the employer’s and employee’s preferences. Though, the most significant instrument is reduction of unemployment benefits for people who are qualified to take job activity. In this case one of the solutions is applying temporary benefits that stimulate active job hunting. The mentioned activities, to ensure their efficiency, should be supported by adequate law regulations.
Jurie Van Vuuren
Full Text Available Previous research suggests that the market driving behaviour of firms is linked to exceptional performance. However, the elements of market driving, its antecedents and outcomes, have so far not been empirically measured. The primary objectives of this study are to identify factors that describe market driving, develop a conceptual model, and then consider influencing factors and performance indicators drawn from the entrepreneurship and marketing literature. The model has been empirically tested using a sample of managers in the South African healthcare industry. A fully structured questionnaire was used to address the objective of this study. The realised sample of n=328 was used to analyse the conceptual model applying a partial least squares path modelling approach (PLS-PM. The results revealed that market driving is a firm behaviour and is distinguished by three distinct concepts: market sensing, influencing customer preferences and alliance formation. Three out of four antecedents: strategic orientation, entrepreneurial capital and entrepreneurial behaviour, influenced market driving ability positively. The study also demonstrated that market driving behaviour positively influences firm performance and relative competitive strength
Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J
Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Picchio, M.; van Ours, J.C.
Recent human capital theories predict that labor market frictions and product market competition influence firm-sponsored training. Using matched worker-firm data from Dutch manufacturing, our paper empirically assesses the validity of these predictions. We find that a decrease in labor market
Brock, Clifton O; Govindappagari, Shravya; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia
Objective The objective of this study is to determine the maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with attempting operative vaginal delivery (OVD) compared with the alternative of a laboring repeat cesarean delivery (LRCD) in women attempting a trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC). Methods This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective study designed to assess perinatal outcomes of OVD in women with a prior uterine scar. The study includes women who attempted TOLAC and reached +2 station with a fully dilated cervix. Composites on neonatal and maternal morbidity were compared between women in whom OVD was attempted and those who underwent LRCD by fitting multivariate logistic regression models. Results In total, 6,489 women attempting TOLAC reached 2+ station with a fully dilated cervix. Of these, 5,640 (86.9%) had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 762 (11.7%) underwent attempted OVD, and 87 (1.3%) had an LRCD. Compared with attempting OVD, LRCD was associated with greater neonatal morbidity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-5.15) and less maternal morbidity (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14-0.55). Maternal morbidity of OVD is driven by perineal injury. Conclusion In laboring women with a previous uterine scar, attempting OVD is associated with greater maternal and less neonatal morbidity than LRCD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for those with
Inna V. Donova
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of informal employment for the Russian labor market. The author approaches informal employment from the legalism perspective. While distinguishing between formal and informal employment, the author relies on the contract criterion, i.e. presence or absence of formally established labor relations. The reasons for the existence and reproduction of informal employment relations in the Russian labor market are imperfect institutions of regulation and a complex of economic and social factors. The consequences of informal hiring for participants of the employment relationship are different. In the article are considered the positive and negative consequences of informal hiring for employees, employers and the state. It is shown that the problem of informal hiring is multilayered, not reducible only to imperfect labor market regulation institutions and requires adequate complexity of approaches. The ways to reduce the level of informality on the Russian labor market: the stimulation of an increase in the number of formal jobs and the legalization of business, especially in the smallest and micro-business; refusal of attempts of violent and excessive formalization of employment; improvement of the quality of regulation of the social and labor conditions and business climate. Special attention should be paid to estimation the balance of benefits and losses associated with informality for all participants of social and labor relations.