WorldWideScience

Sample records for labor hour contract

  1. 77 FR 44059 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... receive more frequent payments than every two weeks. The Contractor shall substantiate vouchers (including...] RIN 9000-AM01 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... the authorization to use time-and-materials and labor-hour contract payment requirements. DATES...

  2. 76 FR 44884 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... under revised Alternate I. (b) Completion Voucher. The Allowable Cost and Payment, FAR clause 52.216-7.... * * * * * Payments Under Time-and-Material and Labor-Hour Contracts (Date) * * * * * (a) * * * (5) Vouchers may be... final payment under this contract, the Contracting Officer may request audit of the vouchers and...

  3. Fluctuations and rigidities in local labor markets. Part 2: reinterpreting contracts

    OpenAIRE

    G L Clark

    1983-01-01

    Local labor markets are characterized by rigidities in their patterns of adjustment to short-run fluctuations. With or without unions, fluctuations in employment, hours worked, and money wages are unlike the patterns predicted by conventional discrete-exchange labor-market theories. Moreover there are distinct geographical and industrial patterns in the observed rigidities. Neoclassical implicit contract theory has been vindicated. Or has it? Obvious empirical difficulties remain, especially ...

  4. Validity and efficacy of the labor contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.

  5. Precarious Pedagogies? The Impact of Casual and Zero-Hour Contracts in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lopes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Precarious work is associated with and characterizes the effects of neoliberal policy—the transference of economic risk onto workers, the erosion of workers’ rights, the flexibilization and casualization of work contracts, self-responsibility, financial insecurity, and emotional stress. In the Higher Education (HE sector, the number of insecure academic jobs, especially zero-hour contracts for hourly paid teaching and short-term contract research, has grown exponentially in recent years in response to the structural and fiscal changes within universities, which reflect these global shifts. This paper presents findings from a pilot study conducted with academics on casual contracts in HE institutions in England and Wales. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were undertaken with teachers (lecturers and tutors on hourly paid and zero-hour contracts to examine the relationship between their contractual situations and pedagogical practices. The research broadly seeks to contribute to ongoing discussions concerned with the impact of neoliberalism on higher education and specifically highlights the case of contingent lecturers as casualties of the casualization of the academic labor force.

  6. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  7. The shape of uterine contractions and labor progress in the spontaneous active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat

    2015-03-01

    Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (PR ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.

  8. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  9. 78 FR 80369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Service Contracts Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and- materials, and labor-hour contracts), which already require... contract costs and labor can significantly fluctuate each year or how this type of labor can be comingled... of direct labor hours expended on the services performed is extremely concerning, particularly in a...

  10. Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can

  11. Labor progress indices and dynamics of the individual uterine contraction during the active stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob; Odeh, Marwan; Kaminsky, Svetlana; Shnaider, Oleg; Megel, Yuri; Barnea, Ofer

    2014-03-01

    To obtain and study new data on the dynamics of the labor process and to develop a contraction-based index of labor progress. This study was carried out at the Delivery Room, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, Israel, using a new device (Birth Track). We continuously monitored cervical dilatation (CD) and head descent (HD) in 30 nulliparaous women during active labor with (augmented group) and without (study group) oxytocin augmentation. This led to the development and validation of progress indices based on features extracted from continuous monitoring. There were no significant differences between the average of each parameter in the study and augmented groups, except for HD velocity. Average HD velocity was faster in the study group. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that head station (HS) amplitude and Toco amplitude were the best parameters for predicting HD velocity in both groups. In the study group, average HD velocity was also significantly related to Toco rate and contraction efficiency. In the augmented group, only a weak correlation with Toco rate was seen, and no correlation with contraction efficiency. With the assistance of the Birth Track device, we can obtain continuous data on the labor process and indices to estimate the labor progress process without the use of vaginal (manual) examination. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Termination of Dynamic Contracts in an Equilibrium Labor Market Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cheng

    2005-01-01

    I construct an equilibrium model of the labor market where workers and firms enter into dyamic contracts that can potentially last forever, but are subject to optimal terminations. Upon a termination, the firm hires a new worker, and the worker who is terminated receives a termination compensation from the firm and is then free to go back to the labor market to seek new employment opportunities and enter into new dynamic contracts. The model permits only two types of equilibrium terminations ...

  13. 3D power Doppler ultrasound assessment of placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miki; Noguchi, Junko; Mashima, Masato; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Hata, Toshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    To assess placental perfusion during spontaneous or induced uterine contraction in labor at term using placental vascular sonobiopsy (PVS) by 3D power Doppler ultrasound with the VOCAL imaging analysis program. PVS was performed in 50 normal pregnancies (32 in spontaneous labor group [SLG], and 18 in induced labor group with oxytocin or prostaglandin F2α [ILG]) at 37-41 weeks of gestation to assess placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor. Only pregnancies with an entirely visualized anterior placenta were included in the study. Data acquisition was performed before, during (at the peak of contraction), and after uterine contraction. 3D power Doppler indices such as the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were calculated in each placenta. There were no abnormal fetal heart rate tracings during contraction in either group. VI and VFI values were significantly reduced during uterine contraction in both groups (SLG, -33.4% [-97.0-15.2%], and ILG, -49.6% [-78.2--4.0%]), respectively (P power Doppler indices (VI, FI, and VFI) during uterine contraction (at the peak of contraction) showed a correlation greater than 0.7, with good intra- and inter-observer agreements. Our findings suggest that uterine contraction in both spontaneous and induced labors causes a significant reduction in placental perfusion. Reduced placental blood flow in induced uterine contraction has a tendency to be marked compared with that in spontaneous uterine contraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the non-invasive assessment of placental perfusion during uterine contraction in labor using 3D power Doppler ultrasound. However, the data and their interpretation in the present study should be taken with some degree of caution because of the small number of subjects studied. Further studies involving a larger sample size are needed to assess placental perfusion and vascularity using PVS during normal and

  14. Experimental labor markets and policy considerations: Incomplete contracts and macroeconomic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno

    2012-01-01

    This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 2543... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.84 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. Where applicable, all contracts awarded by recipients in excess of $2000 for construction...

  16. Psychological contracts: a new strategy for retaining reduced-hour physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Jennifer K

    2010-01-01

    As a retention strategy, healthcare organizations offer reduced-hour schedules to physicians seeking better work-family balance. However, this quantitative study of 94 full-time and reduced-hour female physicians in the Boston area found that working fewer hours helps physicians achieve better balance but does not improve their burnout or career satisfaction, or impact their intention to quit or leave the field of medicine. Instead, the findings demonstrate that psychological contract fulfillment, which reflects the subjective nature of the employment relationship, is more important than work hours, an objective job condition, in predicting intention to quit and these other outcomes. A fine-grained analysis is initiated uncovering the multidimensionality of the psychological contract construct. To integrate successful reduced-hour arrangements for physicians, medical managers are directed to the importance of understanding the composition of reduced-hour physicians' psychological contracts, specifically, their need to do challenging work, receive high levels of supervisor support, and promotion opportunities.

  17. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  18. Optimal Labor Contracts with Asymmetric Information and More than Two Types of Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena MARINESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discuss the optimal labor agreements between workers and firms in the situation of asymmetric information. Using a standard adverse selection model, we analyze the optimality of the labor contracts when it is the firm which has private information affecting the results of the contractual relationship. We propose an alternative procedure to solve the optimization problem, using the informational rents as variables. In the last part of the paper we derive and comment the features of the optimal labor contracts in asymmetric information.

  19. The role of collective labor contracts and individual characteristics on job satisfaction in Tuscan nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainieri, Milena; Smaldone, Pierluigi; Rosa, Antonella; Carroll, Kathleen

    2017-08-23

    The role played by remuneration strategies in motivating health care professionals is one of the most studied factors. Some studies of nursing home (NH) services, while considering wages and labor market characteristics, do not explicitly account for the influence of the contract itself. This study investigates the relationship between the labor contracts applied in 62 Tuscan NHs and NH aides' job satisfaction with two aims: to investigate the impact of European contracts on employee satisfaction in health care services and to determine possible limitations of research not incorporating these contracts. We apply a multilevel model to data gathered from a staff survey administered in 2014 to all employees of 62 NHs to analyze two levels: individual and NH. Labor contracts were introduced into the model as a variable of NH. Findings show that the factors influencing nursing aides' satisfaction occur at both the individual and NH levels. Organizational characteristics explain 16% of the variation. For individual characteristics, foreign and temporary workers emerge as more satisfied than others. For NH variables, results indicate that the labor contract with the worst conditions is not associated with lower workers' satisfaction. Although working conditions play a relevant role in the job satisfaction of aides, labor contracts do not seem to affect it. Interestingly, aides of the NHs with the contract having the best conditions register a significantly lower level of satisfaction compared to the NHs with the worst contract conditions. This suggests that organizational factors such as culture, team work, and other characteristics, which were not explicitly considered in this study, may be more powerful sources of worker satisfaction than labor contracts. Our analysis has value as a management tool to consider alternative sources as well as the labor contract for employee incentives.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

  20. 77 FR 1689 - Public Availability of Federal Labor Relations Authority FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY Public Availability of Federal Labor Relations Authority FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Federal Labor Relations Authority. ACTION: Notice of Public... the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), the Federal Labor Relations Authority...

  1. 76 FR 26296 - Public Availability of Federal Labor Relations Authority FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY Public Availability of Federal Labor Relations Authority FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Federal Labor Relations Authority. ACTION: Notice of Public... the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), the Federal Labor Relations Authority...

  2. 76 FR 40937 - Public Availability of National Labor Relations Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Public Availability of National Labor Relations Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: National Labor Relations Board. ACTION: Notice of public availability... Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is...

  3. 77 FR 5062 - Public Availability of National Labor Relations Board's FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Public Availability of National Labor Relations Board's FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: National Labor Relations Board. ACTION: Notice of public availability... Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is...

  4. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...

  5. Did the Labor Contracts between the UAW and the Big Three Automakers Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John J.; Furdek, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the Fall 2007, there were landmark labor contracts agreed upon between the United Autoworkers (UAW) and the Big Three Automakers--General Motors, Ford Motor Company, and Chrysler LLC. The impetus for these truly historic labor agreements was to afford the automakers to remain competitive in the global market while labor was to be protected.…

  6. The Effects of Progressive Taxation on Labor Supply when Hours and Wages Are Jointly Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends a standard intertemporal labor supply model to account for progressive taxation as well as the joint determination of hourly wages and hours worked. We show that these two factors can have implications for both estimating labor supply elasticities as well as for using these elasticities in tax analysis. Failure to account for…

  7. [Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-44 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment. 52.222-44 Section 52.222-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-44 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price... Contract Act—Price Adjustment (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to both contracts subject to area...

  9. The influence of zero-hours contracts on care worker well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalier, J M; Fidalgo, A R; Morton, R; Russell, L

    2017-07-01

    Care workers have an important social role which is set to expand with the increasing age of the UK population. However, the majority of care workers are employed on zero-hours contracts. Firstly, to investigate the relationship between working conditions and employee outcomes such as engagement and general mental well-being in a sample of UK care workers and management. Secondly, to assess whether the use of zero-hours contracts affects employee well-being. A cross-sectional survey of domiciliary care and care home employees, undertaken using the Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). T-tests and multivariate linear regression evaluated the differences in scoring between those with differing contractual conditions and job roles, and associations of MSIT scores with UWES and GHQ factors. Employee understanding of their role and job control were found to be priority areas for improvement in the sample. Similarly, care workers reported greater occupational demands and lower levels of control than management. However, while zero-hours contracts did not significantly influence employee well-being, these employees had greater levels of engagement in their jobs. Despite this, a greater proportion of individuals with zero-hours contracts had scores above accepted mental health cut-offs. Individual understanding of their role as care workers appears to play an important part in determining engagement and general mental well-being. However, more research is needed on the influence of zero-hours contracts on well-being, particularly in groups with increased likelihood of developing mental health disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. 48 CFR 252.216-7002 - Alternate A, Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition... Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. As prescribed in 216.601(e...-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  11. The effects of hydrotherapy on anxiety, pain, neuroendocrine responses, and contraction dynamics during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tanner, Charles J; Swanson, Melvin; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Newton, Edward R

    2010-07-01

    Hydrotherapy (immersion or bathing) is used worldwide to promote relaxation and decrease parturient anxiety and pain in labor, but the psychophysiological effects of this intervention remain obscure. A pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to examine the effects of hydrotherapy on maternal anxiety and pain, neuroendocrine responses, plasma volume shift (PVS), and uterine contractions (CXs) during labor. Correlations among variables were examined at three time points (preimmersion and twice during hydrotherapy). Eleven term women (mean age 24.5 years) in spontaneous labor were immersed to the xiphoid in 37 degrees C water for 1 hr. Blood samples and measures of anxiety and pain were obtained under dry baseline conditions and repeated at 15 and 45 min of hydrotherapy. Uterine contractions were monitored telemetrically. Hydrotherapy was associated with decreases in anxiety, vasopressin (V), and oxytocin (O) levels at 15 and 45 min (all ps hydrotherapy for women with high baseline pain as for those with low baseline pain. beta-endorphin (betaE) levels increased at 15 min but did not differ between baseline and 45 min. During immersion, CX frequency decreased. A positive PVS at 15 min was correlated with contraction duration. Hydrotherapy during labor affects neuroendocrine responses that modify psychophysiological processes.

  12. 29 CFR 5.15 - Limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under the Contract Work Hours and Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum hourly wage required under the contract pursuant to the provisions of the Service Contract Act of... premium payment of one-half times such minimum hourly wage for all hours worked in excess of 40 hours in... this section are met. (ii) The apprentice or trainee comes within the definition contained in § 5.2(n...

  13. Electrohysterographic Characterization of Labor Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....

  14. Effect of vaginal progesterone suppository (200 mg on preventing preterm labor after the inhibition of uterine contractions: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Alavi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labor implies a childbirth before the completion of 37 weeks, and accounts for the majority of infant mortalities. Finding proper medications is essential in the treatment procedure. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of vaginal progesterone suppository (200 mg on the prevention of preterm labor after inhibiting uterine contractions. Participants were patients hospitalized in Shariati Hospital of Bandar Abbas in 2014-15. As a randomized clinical trial, the present research focused on all pregnant women who referred to Shariati Hospital in Bandar Abbas due to preterm uterine contractions in 2014-15. The inclusion criteria were: pregnancy with a singleton and passing one’s 26th-34th week of pregnancy. Through convenient sampling method, 200 women were selected to enter the study. According to the table obtained from Random Allocation software, they were randomly divided into two groups, each comprised of 100 subjects. They were monitored for 48 hours in terms of uterine contractions and then if there were no contractions and change of dilatation or cervical effacement, they were discharged. They were asked to return for a revisit one week later in their 34th week of pregnancy. SPSS (version 17 was used to analyze the data through Man-Whitney U-test, Fisher’s exact test, t-test and chi-squared test. P-value of significance was set at ≤.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the frequency of term and preterm labors (P<0.05. The Apgar score of infants in the intervention group was higher than the control (P<0.05. The rate of respiratory problems in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.001. The rate of septicemia in the infants of the intervention group was 8% as compared to the control group 20%. The weight of infants in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control (P<0.05. Prescribing vaginal progesterone suppository

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed in 22.1006(c)(1), insert the following clause: Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act...

  16. 48 CFR 52.216-30 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without Adequate Price Competition. 52.216... Price Competition. As prescribed in 16.601(e)(2), insert the following provision: Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition Without Adequate Price Competition (FEB...

  17. Strips of hourly power options. Approximate hedging using average-based forward contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Andreas; Raab, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    We study approximate hedging strategies for a contingent claim consisting of a strip of independent hourly power options. The payoff of the contingent claim is a sum of the contributing hourly payoffs. As there is no forward market for specific hours, the fundamental problem is to find a reasonable hedge using exchange-traded forward contracts, e.g. average-based monthly contracts. The main result is a simple dynamic hedging strategy that reduces a significant part of the variance. The idea is to decompose the contingent claim into mathematically tractable components and to use empirical estimations to derive hedging deltas. Two benefits of the method are that the technique easily extends to more complex power derivatives and that only a few parameters need to be estimated. The hedging strategy based on the decomposition technique is compared with dynamic delta hedging strategies based on local minimum variance hedging, using a correlated traded asset. (author)

  18. 77 FR 194 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts for Commercial Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ..., or a cost-plus term. Otherwise, the respondent thinks contracting officers are likely to read the... target cost), or both. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, the ceiling price or target price is... not possible to accurately estimate the extent or duration of the work or anticipated costs with any...

  19. 76 FR 14543 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ..., Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement... other than firm-fixed-price contracts (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and-material, and labor-hour...-reimbursement contracts and identifies the following three areas that the Defense Acquisition Regulation Council...

  20. 48 CFR 52.216-29 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. 52.216-29... Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition (FEB 2007) (a) The... Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  1. 48 CFR 52.232-7 - Payments under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Contractor to withhold amounts from its billings until a reserve is set aside in an amount that... Disputes clause of this contract. If the Schedule provides rates for overtime, the premium portion of those... Contractor shall not deduct from gross costs the benefits lost without fault or neglect on the part of the...

  2. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  3. Identification of first-stage labor arrest by electromyography in term nulliparous women after induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  5. 29 CFR 1926.15 - Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. 1926.15 Section 1926.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... FOR CONSTRUCTION General Interpretations § 1926.15 Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh...

  6. Hourly rate of direct labor - contributions to its applicability in the pricing process inserted in a competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Benedito Silva Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detailed cost analysis is currently required as a result of increasingly competitive markets. The strategic cost management, analyzed from the optic of the target costing, can be a powerful tool for companies to keep themselves competitive. In this way, this study aimed to present a meticulous analysis of the hourly rate of direct labor in the pricing process of a new product, in order to understand if its use is appropriate in a pricing process. We used the deductive method supported in a case study, and the result achieved is that the hourly rate of direct current labor cannot be used in the pricing process, otherwise will be determined unrealistic costs to the product. It is important to highlight that this analysis applies to micro and small until large corporations.

  7. Impact of recommended changes in labor management for prevention of the primary cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Claire; Roy, Sophie; Peyronnet, Violaine; Quibel, Thibaud; Nlandu, Aurélie; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    The dramatic rise in cesarean delivery rates worldwide in recent decades, without evidence of a concomitant decrease in cerebral palsy rates, has raised concerns about its potential negative consequences for maternal and infant health. In 2014, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine jointly published an Obstetric Care Consensus for safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery. We sought to assess whether modification of our protocol to implement these recommendations helped to decrease our primary cesarean delivery rate safely. This is a before-and-after retrospective cohort study at a university referral hospital. In March 2014, the threshold for defining active labor changed from 4 to >6 cm and arrest of first-stage labor from lack of cervical change despite regular contractions after 3 hours of oxytocin administration with amniotomy and epidural anesthesia to no change after 4 hours of adequate or 6 hours of inadequate contractions in women with an epidural. The definition of second-stage arrest of labor changed simultaneously from lack of progress for 3 hours with adequate contractions in women with epidural anesthesia to no progress for ≥4 hours in nulliparas or 3 hours in multiparas with an epidural. We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes over two 1 year periods: from March 2013 to February 2014 (before, preguideline) and from June 2014 to May 2015 (after, postguideline). We included all women with singleton pregnancies at ≥37 weeks' gestation, in vertex presentation, in spontaneous or induced labor, and with epidural anesthesia. We excluded women with an elective or previous cesarean delivery and those with obstetric or fetal complications. This study included 3283 and 3068 women in the before and after periods, respectively. The groups had similar general and obstetric characteristics. The global cesarean delivery rate decreased significantly from 9.4% in the preguideline to 6.9% in

  8. 78 FR 13766 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Changes to Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts and Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... raising the ceiling price or otherwise changing the scope of work for a time-and-materials (T&M) or labor... flexibility. The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) has deemed that this is not a significant.... IV. Regulatory Flexibility Act DoD, GSA, and NASA have prepared a Final Regulatory Flexibility...

  9. Job Contract at Birth of the First Child as a Predictor of Women’s Labor Market Attachment: Trajectory Analyses over 11 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Peutere

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of evidence that pre-birth employment and access to parental leave are important predictors of mothers’ labor market attachment after childbirth. This register-based study from Finland aimed to analyze in which ways the type of job contract (none, temporary, or permanent at the start of maternity leave predicts labor market attachment in the long term. The mother cohorts were followed up for 11 years. Labor market attachment was analyzed with latent class growth analysis, which makes it possible to identify subgroups with differing track and level of development. Lack of employment and having a temporary contract at baseline were associated with slower and weaker labor market attachment irrespective of mother’s age, socioeconomic status, and subsequent births. These findings suggest that the polarization of women into the core and periphery of the labor market structure tends to continue after the birth of the first child. Temporary employment might be an obstacle for having rights for a job-protected family leave and have long-term consequences on the continuity of employment and the division of paid and unpaid work in the family.

  10. 29 CFR 4.146 - Contract obligations after award, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract obligations after award, generally. 4.146 Section 4.146 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Period of Coverage § 4.146 Contract obligations after...

  11. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Jong; Moon, Hyun Jey; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed fatigue and its association with emotional labor and non-standard working hours among hotel workers. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,320 employees of five hotels located in Seoul. The questionnaire survey included questions concerning the participants' sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, emotional labor, and fatigue. Fatigue was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between fatigue and emotional labor. Among male workers, there was a significant association between fatigue and both emotional disharmony (OR=5.52, 95% CI=2.35-12.97) and emotional effort (OR=3.48, 95% CI=1.54-7.86). These same associations were seen among the female workers (emotional disharmony: OR=6.91, 95% CI=2.93-16.33; emotional effort: OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.00-5.16). These results indicate that fatigue is associated with emotional labor and, especially, emotional disharmony among hotel workers. Therefore, emotional disharmony management would prove helpful for the prevention of fatigue.

  12. Job search, hours restrictions, and desired hours of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    A structural empirical job search model is presented that incorporates the labor supply decision of individuals. The arrival of a job offer is modeled as a random draw from a wage-hours offer distribution. Subjective information is used on desired working hours to identify optimal hours from offered

  13. 23 CFR 633.207 - Construction labor and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction labor and materials. 633.207 Section 633... OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.207 Construction labor and materials. (a) Construction and materials shall be in accordance with the State highway...

  14. Observations vs. theory of household labor supply vol. I

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Keiichiro

    1986-01-01

    In this paper I shall be using three different units of laborsupply; labor supply in man units, in hourly units, and in man-hour units.The first category, labor supply in man units, indicates the quantity oflabor supplied as measured by the number of persons who are willing to work.Labor supply in hourly units refers to the quantity of percapita labor supplymeasured in hourly units. Finally, labor supply in man-hour units indicatesthe quantity of labor supplied by a group of persons measured ...

  15. Assessment Of The Effects Of Increased Intra Venous Hydration On The Course Of Labor In Nulliparous Term Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m.h. alavi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiologists have shown that increased fluids improve skeletal muscle performance in prolonged exercise. Typical orders provide for 125 mL of intravenous fluids per hour in patients taking limited oral fluids during labor. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether increased intravenous fluids affect the progress oflabor. In a prospective randomized institutional clinical trial, one-hundred ninety-four nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton gestations at term in spontaneous active labor with dilatation 2-5 em and a cephalic presentation were selected. 82 were designed to receive 250 mL per hour of intravenous normal saline in dextrose water (first group, and 112 to receive 125 mL per hour of the same solution (2nd or control group. Prerandomization variables such as mother's age, weight, previous pregnancy history, general health, sex and weight of the newborn, rupture of the membranes and presenting part were balanced between the two groups. The frequency of labor lasting> 10 hours was statistically higher in the 125mL group ([16.7%] vs [7.4%] p< 0.0002. This study showed that increasing fluid administration for nulliparous women in labor is associated with a shorter duration of the first stage and possibly less need for augmentation of uterine contraction ( [4.8% vs 6.25%] p= 0.002.Thus dehydration in labor may be a contributing factor for dysfunctional labor and need for cesarean-section, and oxytocin infusion.

  16. 75 FR 59195 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Time-and-Materials (T&M) and Labor-Hour (LH) Contracts for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... audit revealed that, Governmentwide, contracting officers had the mistaken impression that the fixed... FAR. There was a failure of management to detect the lack of compliance with these safeguards. GAO... Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35, et seq. [[Page 59197

  17. Structural Estimation of Family Labor Supply with Taxes: Estimating a Continuous Hours Model Using a Direct Utility Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for estimating family labor supply in the presence of taxes. This method accounts for continuous hours choices, measurement error, unobserved heterogeneity in tastes for work, the nonlinear form of the tax code, and fixed costs of work in one comprehensive specification. Estimated on data from the 2001 PSID, the…

  18. 29 CFR 6.4 - Subpoenas (Service Contract Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Subpoenas (Service Contract Act). 6.4 Section 6.4 Labor... STANDARDS IN FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 6.4 Subpoenas (Service Contract Act). All applications under the Service Contract Act for subpoenas ad...

  19. 29 CFR 4.133 - Beneficiary of contract services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service and laundry and dry cleaning service for personnel at military installations. Furthermore, there... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Beneficiary of contract services. 4.133 Section 4.133 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the...

  20. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction, dismantling...

  1. 29 CFR 4.122 - Contracts for operation of postal contract stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.122 Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. The Act, in paragraph (7) of section 7, exempts from its provisions “any... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. 4.122...

  2. 24 CFR 92.354 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...

  3. 48 CFR 1552.211-72 - Monthly progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., display the expended direct labor hours and costs broken out by EPA contract labor hour category for the... cumulative contract life display: the negotiated, expended and remaining direct labor hours and costs broken... consultant. (iv) Display the estimated direct labor hours and costs to be expended during the next reporting...

  4. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... child labor regulations published on September 2, 2011. The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is...

  5. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  6. 48 CFR 922.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 922.103... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITION Basic Labor Policies 922.103-5 Contract clauses. In accordance with FAR 22.101-1(e) and FAR 22.103-5, the contracting officer shall insert the...

  7. 29 CFR 1450.17 - Contracting for collection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contracting for collection services. 1450.17 Section 1450.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE... prevailing commercial practice. (3) FMCS may enter into a contract under paragraph (b)(1) of this section...

  8. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  9. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  10. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... its [[Page 31550

  11. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3 Contract clause. In addition to the clause at 48 CFR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes...

  12. [Labor market and health. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Labor Market Institutions, Mobility, and Dualization in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Svalund

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the Nordic countries, this article examines different combinations of permanent and temporary employment protection legislation, and whether such differences are reflected in patterns of labor market transitions. We find higher levels of transitions from unemployment to temporary contracts in Sweden and Finland, with lax regulation of temporary contracts and strict regulation of permanent contracts. Further, temporary employees are integrated into permanent contracts in countries with lax (Denmark or strict (Norway regulation of permanent contracts, while this is not the case in Finland and Sweden. For these countries, the study indicates a certain degree of labor market duality, with low mobility from temporary to permanent employment contracts.

  14. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Less than 24-hour duty. 785.21 Section 785.21 Labor...

  16. 78 FR 57660 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...(a)(1)(D). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The WHD administers the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Labor Standards for Federal Service Contracts ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Labor Standards for Federal Service Contracts,'' to the Office of...

  17. The Organizational-Legal Peculiarities of Application of the Remote Labor Mode and Flexible Working Hours of Scientific Workers at Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytovchenko Iryna V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the main organizational-legal peculiarities of application of the remote labor mode, establishing and accounting the flexible working hours of scientific workers at higher educational institutions and scientific institutes. In the course of research the organizational-legal peculiarities of application of the remote labor mode and flexible working hours of the scientific workers at higher education institutions were analyzed. The article suggests their integration into the activities of higher education institution with the purpose of efficient distribution of their working time, provided that the tasks set are fully executed in a timely manner. As the basic means of control of measurement of results of scientific activity it is suggested to use acts of executed works and other absolute indicators (quantity of the processed scientific sources, quantity of the written pages of scientific papers etc.. The prospective direction of further research is development of practical recommendations on the use of special reports and indicators with an assessment of their impact on the results of activities of scientific workers at higher education institutions.

  18. 23 CFR 635.117 - Labor and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.117 Labor and employment. (a) No construction work shall... construction project from the time of award of the contract or the start of work on force account until final... outside the reservation. (f) The advertisement or call for bids on any contract for the construction of a...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2210 - Service Contract Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service Contract Act. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2210 Service Contract Act. The Service Contract Act of 1965 is not applicable to contracts for the management and operation of...

  20. The Productivity Of Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    Observations on munition workers, most of them women, are organized to examine the relationship between their output and their working hours. The relationship is nonlinear: below an hours threshold, output is proportional to hours; above a threshold, output rises at a decreasing rate as hours increase. Implications of these results for the estimation of labor supply functions are taken up. The findings also link up with current research on the effects of long working hours on accidents and in...

  1. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  2. Flexibility@Work 2013: yearly report on flexible labor and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.; Heyma, A.; Prins, J.

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear evidence that the strong growth in the share of flexible labor relations between 2002 and 2007 points at a worldwide trend towards a larger share of flexible labor at the expense of traditional open-ended labor contracts. The growth in flexible labor varies too much between

  3. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  4. 29 CFR 778.315 - Payment for all hours worked in overtime workweek is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Effect of Failure to Count Or Pay for Certain Working Hours § 778... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment for all hours worked in overtime workweek is required. 778.315 Section 778.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  5. Outcomes of Nulliparous Women with Spontaneous Labor Onset Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-active versus Active Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre

  6. [Management of pre-term labor: use of nifedipine in Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, T; Diallo, F B; Diallo, Y; Camara, M K; Diallo, A; Cissoko, M; Lontsi, G R; Diallo, M S

    2010-04-01

    This purpose of this prospective and descriptive study was to evaluate the utility of a calcium-channel inhibitor, i.e. nifedipine, for management of preterm labor in our work setting in terms of safety and cost-effectiveness in comparison with betamimetics classically used for this indication. Study was carried out over a six-month period in the department of Gynecology-Obstetrics Department of Ignace Deen National Hospital in Conakry, Guinea. Pregnant women meeting the following criteria were included: 28 to 33 weeks of amenorrhea, six days of hospitalization either for preterm labor or for another diagnosis that was associated with the occurrence of preterm labor during hospitalization, and absence of contraindications for tocolysis using nifedipine. A total of 42 women were included. Pregnancy was extended for more than 48 hours after the first dose of nifedipine in 86.8% of cases. Administration of nifedipine failed in 5 cases including one case in which it was necessary to change the tocolytic and 4 cases in which delivery occurred less than 48 hours after the first dose of nifedipine. In 68% of cases, 90 mg of nifedipine were sufficient to stop uterine contractions within 48 hours. In 39.5% of cases, no side effects were observed. Adverse effects in the other cases were dizziness (39.5%) and headache (18.4%). The mean term of delivery was 36 weeks +/- 5 days of amenorrhea with a mean extension of 6.2 weeks. Apgar score was low in 30.5% of the newborns and normal in 69.5%. One newborn (2.8%) died. The results of this study indicate that nifedipine is an effective, economical and safe drug for tocolysis and that it can be used as an alternative to betamimetis in countries with limited resources. An information campaign is needed to promote use of nifedipine as a tocolytic in obstetrical facilities of our country.

  7. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  8. 77 FR 14688 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Extension of...

  9. 77 FR 11021 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... proposing to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Notice and...

  10. Effectiveness of the Twelve-Hour Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Although labor unions traditionally have fought for shorter working hours, there have been recent reversals in this trend. The Pulp and Paperboard Division of Temple-Eastex Incorporated converted to a 12-hour shift and found that safety improved, productivity increased, and overtime decreased. (JOW)

  11. Flexible forms of working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    66 Abstract - Flexible forms of working hours This diploma thesis deals with the flexible forms of working hours and its goal is to describe this issue in intelligible and comprehensive way. It is being very interesting and current theme which is to a great extent not subject to direct legal regulations and provides its contracting parties with a big amount of freedom of contract. This fact assists in bigger flexibilization of labour market and represents a significant instrument in the fight...

  12. Monitoring uterine activity during labor: a comparison of three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    EULIANO, Tammy Y.; NGUYEN, Minh Tam; DARMANJIAN, Shalom; MCGORRAY, Susan P.; EULIANO, Neil; ONKALA, Allison; GREGG, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Tocodynamometry (Toco—strain gauge technology) provides contraction frequency and approximate duration of labor contractions, but suffers frequent signal dropout necessitating re-positioning by a nurse, and may fail in obese patients. The alternative invasive intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) is more reliable and adds contraction pressure information, but requires ruptured membranes and introduces small risks of infection and abruption. Electrohysterography (EHG) reports the electrical activity of the uterus through electrodes placed on the maternal abdomen. This study compared all three methods of contraction detection simultaneously in laboring women. Study Design Upon consent, laboring women were monitored simultaneously with Toco, EHG, and IUPC. Contraction curves were generated in real-time for the EHG and all three curves were stored electronically. A contraction detection algorithm was used to compare frequency and timing between methods. Seventy-three subjects were enrolled in the study; 14 were excluded due to hardware failure of one or more of the devices (12) or inadequate data collection duration(2). Results In comparison with the gold-standard IUPC, EHG performed significantly better than Toco with regard to Contractions Consistency Index (CCI). The mean CCI for EHG was 0.88 ± 0.17 compared to 0.69 ± 0.27 for Toco (pToco, EHG was not significantly affected by obesity. Conclusion Toco does not correlate well with the gold-standard IUPC and fails more frequently in obese patients. EHG provides a reliable non-invasive alternative regardless of body habitus. PMID:23122926

  13. Monitoring uterine activity during labor: a comparison of 3 methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliano, Tammy Y; Nguyen, Minh Tam; Darmanjian, Shalom; McGorray, Susan P; Euliano, Neil; Onkala, Allison; Gregg, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Tocodynamometry (Toco; strain gauge technology) provides contraction frequency and approximate duration of labor contractions but suffers frequent signal dropout, necessitating repositioning by a nurse, and may fail in obese patients. The alternative invasive intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) is more reliable and adds contraction pressure information but requires ruptured membranes and introduces small risks of infection and abruption. Electrohysterography (EHG) reports the electrical activity of the uterus through electrodes placed on the maternal abdomen. This study compared all 3 methods of contraction detection simultaneously in laboring women. Upon consent, laboring women were monitored simultaneously with Toco, EHG, and IUPC. Contraction curves were generated in real-time for the EHG, and all 3 curves were stored electronically. A contraction detection algorithm was used to compare frequency and timing between methods. Seventy-three subjects were enrolled in the study; 14 were excluded due to hardware failure of 1 or more of the devices (n = 12) or inadequate data collection duration (n = 2). In comparison with the gold-standard IUPC, EHG performed significantly better than Toco with regard to the Contractions Consistency Index (CCI). The mean CCI for EHG was 0.88 ± 0.17 compared with 0.69 ± 0.27 for Toco (P Toco, EHG was not significantly affected by obesity. Toco does not correlate well with the gold-standard IUPC and fails more frequently in obese patients. EHG provides a reliable noninvasive alternative, regardless of body habitus. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  15. 48 CFR 622.1408 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 622.1408 Section 622.1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 622.1408 Contract...

  16. 48 CFR 2936.209 - Construction contracts with architect-engineer firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with architect-engineer firms. 2936.209 Section 2936.209 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 2936.209 Construction contracts with architect-engineer firms. As...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1002-4 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum...

  18. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  19. 48 CFR 2936.602 - Selection of firms for architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... architect-engineer contracts. 2936.602 Section 2936.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 2936.602 Selection of firms for architect-engineer contracts. ...

  20. 29 CFR 801.65 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 801.65 Section 801.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative...

  1. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 500.231 Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT...

  2. Maximum Hours Legislation and Female Employment in the 1920s: A Reasse ssment

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Goldin

    1986-01-01

    The causes and consequences of state maximum hours laws for female workers, passed from the mid-1800s to the 1920s, are explored and are found to differ from a recent reinterpretation. Although maximum hours legislation reduced scheduled hours in 1920, the impact was minimal and it operated equally for men. Legislation affecting only women was symptomatic of a general desire by labor for lower hours, and these lower hours were achieved in the tight, and otherwise special, World War I labor ma...

  3. Labor productivity and employment gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ellen B

    2017-02-01

    Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors in all of the countries analyzed, productivity gaps shrink by half, on average, when expressed on a per-hour basis. Underlying the productivity gaps that are prominently reflected in national accounts data are large employment gaps, which call into question the productivity gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. Furthermore, agriculture's continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted by the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production.

  4. Firm Reorganization : Social Control or Social Contract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Hendrik Leendert; Dolfsma, Wilfred; Blinde-Leerentveld, Rowan

    Firm reorganizations deeply affect employees. Management can reorganize in different ways, focusing on costs or acknowledging the involvement of employees. The latter implies following a social contract that complements incomplete (formal) labor contracts. Little is known about how the way in which

  5. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  6. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  7. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  8. Working hours: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Working hours across the world are falling, but considerable variation remains. In some countries people work 70% more hours per year, on average, than in other countries. Much of this variation is due to differences in the prevalence of part-time work and patterns of female labor market participation. Looking ahead, the question of how reducing working hours will affect productivity is significant. In addition, how individuals divide up their leisure and work time and what the appropriate wo...

  9. Improving Labor Productivity and Labor Elasticity at Multiproduct Japanese Cuisine Restaurant Introducing Cell-Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura , Takeshi; Takenaka , Takeshi; Ohura , Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Part III: Sustainable Services; International audience; This study examined improvement of labor productivity and elasticity of labor hour on sales of a multiproduct Japanese cuisine restaurant. Conventionally, multiproduct restaurant operations include a line production system in the kitchen. Japanese chefs are assumed to be low-skilled workers with staff members supported by someone. A cell production system is introduced into a Japanese Cuisine restaurant to improve it. Results show that t...

  10. The Gender-Specific Effect of Working Hours on Family Happiness in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Rudolf; Seo-Young Cho

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses detailed longitudinal data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS) stretching from 1998 to 2008 to analyze the relationship between working hours and family happiness in Korea. The Korean labor market is characterized by high levels of gender inequality which is partly due to long working hours, a significant gender gap in earnings, yet also to traditional gender roles maintained until today. Therefore, post-marriage labor force participation rates for men are sti...

  11. Temporary Workforce Planning with Firm Contracts: A Model and a Simulated Annealing Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Al-Salamah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a model for temporary staffing when temporary employment is managed by firm contracts and to propose a simulated annealing-based method to solve the model. Temporary employment is a policy frequently used to adjust the working hour capacity to fluctuating demand. Temporary workforce planning models have been unnecessarily simplified to account for only periodic hiring and laying off; a company can review its workforce requirement every period and make hire-fire decisions accordingly, usually with a layoff cost. We present a more realistic temporary workforce planning model that assumes a firm contract between the worker and the company, which can extend to several periods. The model assumes the traditional constraints, such as inventory balance constraints, worker availability, and labor hour mix. The costs are the inventory holding cost, training cost of the temporary workers, and the backorder cost. The mixed integer model developed for this case has been found to be difficult to solve even for small problem sizes; therefore, a simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to solve the mixed integer model. The performance of the SA algorithm is compared with the CPLEX solution.

  12. Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor and School Attendance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisma, Bayu

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…

  13. 14 CFR 151.53 - Performance of construction work: Labor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Labor... § 151.53 Performance of construction work: Labor requirements. A sponsor who is required to include in a... during the performance of work under the contract, to the extent necessary to determine whether the...

  14. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that...

  15. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that, to the best of its knowledge...

  16. [Clinical study on dinoprostone suppositories 0.8 mm used in cervical ripening and labor induction of women with term pregnancy of premature rupture of the membranes: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-ying; Fan, Ling; Duan, Tao; Wang, Zi-lian; Ma, Run-mei

    2010-07-01

    To investigate safety and efficacy of dinoprostone suppositories (0.8 mm) used in cervical ripening and labor induction in women with term premature rupture of the membranes. One hundred women of term monocyesis with premature rupture of the membranes, head presentation, bishop score less than 6 (test group) and 180 women with intact fetal membranes (control group) were enrolled into this multicenter, prospective clinical study. The vaginal delivery system was inserted into the posterior fornix, and the patients were recumbent for 2 hours after insertion. The interval time from using dinoprostone suppositories to uterine contraction, to labor and delivery were recorded. The following index were also recorded and compared, including the mean inserted time of dinoprostone suppositories, fetal heart beat, meconium stained amniotic fluid, hyperstimulation of uterus and the other complications, mode of delivery, stage of labor, postpartum hemorrhage, status of neonates. Three cases in test group and 23 cases in control group weren't in labor within 24 hours. The rate of labor within 24 hours in test group was significant higher than that in control group (97.0% vs. 87.2%, P 0.05). It had no significant difference in the interval time from using dinoprostone suppositories to labor starting and the mean inserted time and the total labor time between two groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of uterine tachysystole was 11.3% (11/97) in test group and 19.1% (30/157) in control group (P > 0.05), which did not reach statistical difference (P > 0.05). There wasn't neonatal asphyxia in both groups. It was safe and efficient to use dinoprostone suppositories for cervical ripening and induction of term pregnancy with premature rupture of the membranes, however, monitoring should be intensified.

  17. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study...... of home births in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). All midwives assisting at a home birth from 2008 to 2013 were asked to provide information about home births using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Birth data from 1,612 women, from Denmark (n = 1,170), Norway (n = 263), Sweden (n...... = 138), and Iceland (n = 41) were included. The total median duration from onset of labor until the birth of the baby was approximately 14 hours for primiparas and 7.25 hours for multiparas. The duration of the different phases varied between countries. Blood loss more than 1,000 mL and perineal...

  18. Contemporary labor patterns: the impact of maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Zhang, Jun; Vanveldhuisen, Paul; Troendle, James; Beaver, Julie; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-09-01

    We sought to compare labor patterns by body mass index (BMI). A total of 118,978 gravidas with a singleton term cephalic gestation were studied. Repeated-measures analysis constructed mean labor curves by parity and BMI categories for those who reached 10 cm. Interval-censored regression analysis determined median traverse times, adjusting for covariates in vaginal deliveries and intrapartum cesareans. In the labor curves, the time difference to reach 10 cm was 1.2 hours from the lowest to highest BMI category for nulliparas. Multiparas entered active phase by 6 cm, but reaching this point took longer for BMI ≥40.0 (3.4 hours) compared to BMI .05) but decreased as BMI increased for multiparas (P < .001). Labor proceeds more slowly as BMI increases, suggesting that labor management be altered to allow longer time for these differences. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentration and the second stage of labor: outcomes associated with the interactive metronome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Meghan L; Lin, Alexander; Ou-Yang, Robin; Zei, Markus; Grobman, William

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the association between concentration, as measured by the Interactive Metronome, and a prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous patients. From September 2008 to November 2009, nulliparous women at ≥34 weeks' gestation who were planning to use an epidural were asked to perform a 1-minute Interactive Metronome clapping test. Scores and demographic information were recorded. Data were then abstracted regarding each patient's labor course. The main outcome measure was the frequency of the second stage of labor exceeding 2 hours. Only patients with epidural anesthesia who completed the second stage of labor and did not require operative delivery performed for fetal indications prior to 2 full hours of pushing were included. Of the patients whose Interactive Metronome test scores were in the last quartile, which we associated with poor concentration, 52.9% (18/34) had a second stage of labor exceeding 2 hours compared with only 31.7% (33/104) of patients whose scores placed them in the first three quartiles (p = 0.026). Nulliparous patients with poor concentration scores, as measured by the Interactive Metronome, were more likely to push greater than 2 hours in the second stage of labor. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Development of project management data calculation models relating to dismantling of nuclear facilities. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukegawa, Takenori; Ohshima, Soichiro; Shiraishi, Kunio; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Labor-hours necessary for dismantling activities are generally estimated based on experience, for example, as a form of unit productivity factors such as the relationship between labor-hours and weight of components dismantled which were obtained by actual dismantling activities. The project management data calculation models together with unit productivity factors for basic dismantling work activities were developed by analyzing the data obtained from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling project, which will be applicable to estimation of labor-hours in various dismantling conditions. Typical work breakdown structures were also prepared by categorizing repeatable basic dismantling work activities for effective planning of dismantling activities. The labor-hours for dismantling the JPDR components and structures were calculated by using the code system for management of reactor decommissioning (COSMARD), in which the work breakdown structures and the calculation models were contained. It was confirmed that the labor-hours could be easily estimated by COSMARD through the calculations. This report describes the labor-hour calculation models and application of these models to COSMARD. (author)

  1. Deviating from the standard: effects on labor continuity and career patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Deviating from a standard career path is increasingly becoming an option for individuals to combine paid labor with other important life domains. These career detours emerge in diverse labor forms such as part-time jobs, temporary working hour reductions, and labor force time-outs, used to alleviate

  2. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  3. Effects of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena on nulliparous women's pain and anxiety of labor during first stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdamian, Sepideh; Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Hajian, Sepideh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefeh

    2018-03-01

    Reducing labor pain and anxiety is one of the most important goals of maternity care. This study aimed to assess the effects of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena on pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor among nulliparous women. This was a randomized clinical trial of 110 nulliparous women. The eligible participants were randomly assigned to two groups of aromatherapy and control in an Iranian maternity hospital. The participants received 0.08 mL of Rosa damascena essence in the aromatherapy group and 0.08 mL of normal saline in the control group, every 30 min. Pain was measured 3 times, once each at three stages of cervical dilation (4-5, 6-7, and 8-10 cm). Anxiety was measured twice, once each at two stages of cervical dilation (4-7 and 8-10 cm). The tools for data collection were the Spielberger anxiety questionnaire, numerical pain rating scale, demographic and obstetric questionnaire, and an observational checklist. Data analyses included the t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Severity of labor pain and severity of anxiety were used as primary outcome measures. Labor and delivery characteristics (including number of contractions, duration of contractions in second stage, Bishop score, augmentation by oxytocin, Apgar score, and mode of delivery), demographic characteristics, and fertility information were used as secondary outcome measures. Pain severity in the group receiving aromatherapy with R. damascena was significantly lower than in the control group after treatment at each pain assessment (cervical dilation of 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10 cm; P labor. Aromatherapy with R. damascena is a convenient and effective method for pain and anxiety reduction during the first stage of labor. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial: IRCT201306258801N3. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of breast stimulation and intravenous oxytocin for the augmentation of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, P; Resnick, J C; Evens, S; Thompson, C J

    1999-06-01

    Breast stimulation to augment labor has been used for centuries in tribal societies and by midwives. In recent years it has been shown to be effective in ripening the cervix, inducing labor, and as an alternative to oxytocin for the contraction stress test. This study compared the effectiveness of breast stimulation with oxytocin infusion in augmenting labor. Women admitted to the labor ward were eligible for the study if they had inadequate labor with premature rupture of the membranes and met inclusion criteria. They were assigned to oxytocin augmentation or breast stimulation (manual or pump), and were switched to oxytocin in the event of method failure. Outcomes included time to delivery, intervention to delivery, proportion of spontaneous deliveries, and Apgar scores. One hundred participants were needed in each arm of the study to demonstrate a 2- to 3-hour difference in delivery time, with a power of 80 percent. Analysis was performed on 79 women, of whom 49 were in the breast stimulation group and 30 in the oxytocin group. Sixty-five percent of the participants failed breast stimulation and were switched to oxytocin infusion. Although augmentation start to delivery was shorter for the oxytocin group (p < 0.001), no differences in total labor time occurred between the groups. Nulliparas receiving breast stimulation had more spontaneous (relative risk 1.7, p = 0.04), and fewer instrumental deliveries than those receiving oxytocin (relative risk 0.2, p = 0.02). No significant differences in adverse fetal outcomes occurred between the study groups. The small number of participants and a variety of problems with the conduct of the study prevented the formulation of reliable conclusions from the results. However, the study provided important insights into the feasibility and problems of developing a high-quality randomized trial of augmentation by breast stimulation.

  5. 29 CFR 778.7 - Effect of Service Contract Act of 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of Service Contract Act of 1965. 778.7 Section 778.7... Considerations § 778.7 Effect of Service Contract Act of 1965. The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act of 1965, which provides for the predetermination and the specification in service contracts entered into by the...

  6. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Giorgos; Kalush, Michael; O.'Flynn, Hugh; Rossiter, Jack; Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming ...

  7. 48 CFR 22.1015 - Discovery of errors by the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery of errors by the... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1015 Discovery of errors by the Department of Labor. If the Department of...

  8. Labor productivity adjustment factors. A method for estimating labor construction costs associated with physical modifications to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report develops quantitative labor productivity adjustment factors for the performance of regulatory impact analyses (RIAs). These factors will allow analysts to modify ''new construction'' labor costs to account for changes in labor productivity due to differing work environments at operating reactors and at reactors with construction in progress. The technique developed in this paper relies on the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) for baseline estimates of the direct labor hours and/or labor costs required to perform specific tasks in a new construction environment. The labor productivity cost factors adjust for constraining conditions such as working in a radiation environment, poor access, congestion and interference, etc., which typically occur on construction tasks at operating reactors and can occur under certain circumstances at reactors under construction. While the results do not portray all aspects of labor productivity, they encompass the major work place conditions generally discernible by the NRC analysts and assign values that appear to be reasonable within the context of industry experience. 18 refs

  9. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  10. 48 CFR 1322.404-6 - Modification of wage determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts... extension beyond 90 days after bid opening from the Department of Labor Administrator, Wage and Hour...

  11. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage... carriage. The contracts excluded from the reach of the Act by this exemption are typically those where... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates. 4...

  12. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  13. Multiscale forward electromagnetic model of uterine contractions during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert; Nehorai, Arye

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing and monitoring uterine contractions during pregnancy is relevant to the field of reproductive health assessment. Its clinical importance is grounded in the need to reliably predict the onset of labor at term and pre-term. Preterm births can cause health problems or even be fatal for the fetus. Currently, there are no objective methods for consistently predicting the onset of labor based on sensing of the mechanical or electrophysiological aspects of uterine contractions. Therefore, modeling uterine contractions could help to better interpret such measurements and to develop more accurate methods for predicting labor. In this work, we develop a multiscale forward electromagnetic model of myometrial contractions during pregnancy. In particular, we introduce a model of myometrial current source densities and compute its magnetic field and action potential at the abdominal surface, using Maxwell’s equations and a four-compartment volume conductor geometry. To model the current source density at the myometrium we use a bidomain approach. We consider a modified version of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) equation for modeling ionic currents in each myocyte, assuming a plateau-type transmembrane potential, and we incorporate the anisotropic nature of the uterus by designing conductivity-tensor fields. We illustrate our modeling approach considering a spherical uterus and one pacemaker located in the fundus. We obtained a travelling transmembrane potential depolarizing from −56 mV to −16 mV and an average potential in the plateau area of −25 mV with a duration, before hyperpolarization, of 35 s, which is a good approximation with respect to the average recorded transmembrane potentials at term reported in the technical literature. Similarly, the percentage of myometrial cells contracting as a function of time had the same symmetric properties and duration as the intrauterine pressure waveforms of a pregnant human myometrium at term. We introduced a multiscale

  14. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards. 570.25 Section 570.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards...

  15. Labor-force participation patterns of older self-employed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J F

    1980-04-01

    Self-employed persons work in a less constrained environment than do most wage-and-salary employees. Generally they are not subject to compulsory retirement nor are they affected by institutional rules concerning labor supply. Data from the 1969 and 1971 interviews of the Retirement History Study show that the labor supply and retirement patterns of the self-employed are distinct from those of other workers. The self-employed (espeically "career" self-employed) nearing retirement age are less likely to be out of the labor force, and those who continue in the labor force have a wider variation in the number of hours worked per year. Downward flexibility in hours (the option for gradual retirement) may be an extremely valuable aspect of self-employed status, and one wonders whether other older workers would also choose this pattern if more flexible opportunities were available. Despite these differences, labor-supply decisions of the self-employed are found to be influenced by many of the same factors that affect the rest of the workforce--health, eligibility for social security and pension benefits, the wage rate, and the flow of asset.

  16. Direitos trabalhistas e organização dos trabalhadores num contexto de mudanças no mundo do trabalho: efeitos sobre os trabalhadores da saúde Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Artur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as principais mudanças institucionais do mundo do trabalho no Brasil, apontando seus impactos para a organização dos trabalhadores. Uma mudança central, mais recente, é a regulação da terceirização pelo Judiciário Trabalhista. Pesquisas de demandas no Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, de orientações do Ministério Público do Trabalho e de ações sindicais mostram que terceirização e jornada de trabalho são temas que têm afetado diretamente os trabalhadores da saúde. Por meio de uma abordagem sobre as bases institucionais da justiça nos contratos, concluímos que a reforma trabalhista deve tratar da desigualdade de direitos que tem marcado o mercado de trabalho brasileiro.This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  17. Alternative Work Schedules: A Labor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalusky, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)

  18. What Caused the Recession of 2008? Hints from Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Mulligan

    2009-01-01

    A labor market tautology says that any change in labor usage can be decomposed into a movement along a marginal productivity schedule and a shift of the schedule. I calculate this decomposition for the recession of 2008, assuming an aggregate Cobb-Douglas marginal productivity schedule, and find that all of the decline in employment and hours since December 2007 is a movement along the schedule. This finding suggests that a reduction in labor supply and/or an increase in labor market distorti...

  19. Holistic Contract Administration in Army Forces Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    other began. Expanding the Scope of Quality Assurance Personnel charged with administering service contracts tend to heavily emphasize ensuring... audits deterred unethical contractor labor practices while providing contractor employees assur - ances of fair treatment. A well-written QASP will...Contracting Team at Camp As Sayliyah in Qatar. Gatewood, a U.S. Government civilian employee, was the lead quality assurance specialist for the 742nd

  20. 29 CFR 785.4 - Application to Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application to Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. 785.4... Considerations § 785.4 Application to Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. The principles set forth in this part... employees performing work subject to the provisions of the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. [35 FR 15289...

  1. Labor analgesia with ropivacaine added to clonidine: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Nakamura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have led to speculation that the association between ropivacaine and clonidine might be more effective than ropivacaine alone. We examined the maternal-fetal effects of two pharmacological approaches: a low dose of ropivacaine or a lower dose of ropivacaine plus clonidine for epidural analgesia during labor. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at Department of Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Thirty-two pregnant women in American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II randomly underwent epidural analgesia using 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.125% (R group or 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.0625% plus 75 µg clonidine (RC group. Pain intensity, sensory block level, latency time, motor block intensity, duration of labor analgesia and duration of epidural analgesia were evaluated. The newborns were evaluated using Apgar scores and the Amiel-Tison method (neurological and adaptive capacity score. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding pain score, sensory block level, duration of epidural analgesia or Apgar score. The latency time, duration of labor analgesia and motor block were R group < RC group. The half-hour and two-hour neurological and adaptive capacity scores were higher in the R group. All of the R group newborns and 75% of the RC group newborns were found to be neurologically healthy at the 24-hour examination. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding pain score, sensory block level, duration of epidural analgesia or Apgar score. The latency time, duration of labor analgesia and motor block were R group < RC group. The half-hour and two-hour neurological and adaptive capacity scores were higher in the R group. All of the R group newborns and 75% of the RC group newborns were found to be neurologically healthy at the 24-hour examination

  2. Working Long Hours and Early Career Outcomes in the High-End Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Gicheva

    2013-01-01

    This study establishes empirically a positive but nonlinear relationship between weekly hours and hourly wage growth. For workers who put in over 47 hours per week, 5 extra hours are associated with a 1% increase in annual wage growth. This correlation is not present when hours are lower. The relationship is especially strong for young professionals. Data on promotions provide evidence in support of a job-ladder model that combines higher skill sensitivity of output in higher-level jobs with ...

  3. 29 CFR 778.319 - Paying for but not counting hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... working time under the Act, coupled with a provision that these hours will not be counted as working time... more hours have been worked, the employee must be paid overtime compensation at not less than one and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paying for but not counting hours worked. 778.319 Section...

  4. 48 CFR 22.1408 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 22.1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22.1408 Contract clause. (a) Insert the clause at 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers with...

  5. THE MODIFICATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT ASSUMING UNPREDICTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adapting a gainful occupation to technological or economical development may require the amendment of individual labor contract under which the activity is performed, taking into account the intrinsic dynamics of employment. If the parties, by agreement, determine the content of the individual labor contract, all in agreement, may agree at any time to amend it according to art. 41 para. 1 of the Labour Code. And trough the provisions of civil law – common law for the employment law – are established legal the review of the effects of the legal actdue because of the breakage contractual balance due to change in the circumstances envisaged by the parties in the moment of conclusion of the legal act (the so-called theory of unpredictability, rebus sic stantibus – exception to the principle "pacta sunt servanda". Recourse to the legal document review because its effects are other than the parties agreed to establish and be binding in the moment of conclusion of that agreement. In the present paper we will refer to administrative contracts, given the subject of this paper – namely that the common law for individual employment contract is the civil law rules applicable to civil contracts. So in this paper does not refer to former commercial contracts, since the new Civil Code was achieved unification of private law matter – giving up the commercial contracts.

  6. The Importance of Employment Contract for Umsida Quality Employees Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Fatimah Mediawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The absence of employment contracts in UMSIDA recognized cause some problems. Especially in improving the performance of employees. Issues a little more disturbing harmonious labor relations between employees and UMSIDA. In the terminology of the Labour Act, employment contract terms it is known as the Employment Agreement. Where the existence of labor agreement / contract employment is expected to harmonize the working relationship with the employer in accordance with the applicable rules. The existence of employment contracts is also a legal instrument which according to researchers ought to be put forward in efforts to increase the qualifications and competence of employees. By contract it will also avoid things that are not desirable in an employment relationship, because each party will always carry out their rights and responsibilities are aligned and balanced. Tranquility in the work and the guarantee of legal protection are expected to improve employee performance especially towards quality UMSIDA 2020. So this study explored further the urgency employment contract once its design. How To Cite: Mediawati, N., & Phahlevy, R. (2015. The Importance of Employment Contract for Umsida Quality Employees Improvement. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 141-156. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.106

  7. Explaining labor wedge trends: An equilibrium search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia A. Quintero Rojas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a search and matching model of the labor market and use this as a device to explain the long-run variation in the aggregate hours worked in several OECD countries over the period 1980-2013. The model distinguishes between hours worked per employee (intensive margin and the employment rate (extensive margin and includes a tax/benefit system. This allows us to assess the impact of the observed time-varying heterogeneity of taxes, unemployment benefits, and workers’ bargaining power on the two margins. Our method is based on an accounting procedure. Once it has been calibrated, we find that, for the ten countries of the sample, our search economy is able to explain the patterns of the two margins of aggregate hours worked over the 1980-2013 period, when it includes the cross-country heterogeneity of the labor market institutions.

  8. Contract engineers cut costs, and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's rapid expansion of technology is an important reason for considering hiring contract engineering labor for your power plant because technical specialization is an important aspect of the contract engineering industry. This paper reports that another reason is addressing peak work loads. Any amount of technical assistance is available to assist in meeting schedules. Although a typical human resources department of a utility or architect/engineer may contain a few hundred active resumes, a contract engineering firm may have upwards of 40,000 resumes on file from all parts of the country. Because contract workers know that contract agencies keep abreast of client needs, they are more apt to forward updated resumes to such agencies. Used properly, a contract engineering company's services will augment the efforts of a human resources group and, in the case of some smaller companies, actually take the place of all internal recruiting efforts

  9. Personality, preterm labor contractions, and psychological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Freund, Yael; Carmiel, Naama; Ashwal, Eran; Peled, Yoav

    2016-03-01

    Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.

  10. The assessment of labor: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2018-01-26

    In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.

  11. Positive and negative implications entailed by fixed-term employment contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Emilia Marica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, fixed-term employment contracts are seen as a stepping stone to permanent employment; they have become popular among the flexible forms of work contracts, and are the object of an increasing number of debates and assessments, investigating both the respective legislation and the specific consequences on the parties concluding a fixed-term employment contract. Despite the positive aspects of temporary employment – a positive effect on the rate of employment, and the common perception of such contracts as a preliminary step to permanent employment, as well as the flexibility they bring to the labor market – one cannot ignore the negative implications of fixed-term contracts on the nature of the employment relationship, the system of social protection, the working conditions, the economic security, and the job stability. Based on these considerations, the present paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of the individual fixed-term employment contract from the standpoints of both employers and employees. Obviously, this approach aims to explore the usefulness and importance of these contract types, as means for balancing the needs of employers and employees on the labor market, and for identifying concrete instances that justify the liberalization of fixed-term employment, despite all the inherent risks entailed by any type of non-standard work: lack of job security; reduced social protection and security for those concluding such a contract.

  12. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  13. Institutions of Higher Education Under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    The Fair Labor Standards Act contains provisions and standards concerning minimum wages, equal pay, maximum hours and overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor. These basic requirements apply to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce and also to employees in certain enterprises that are so…

  14. 29 CFR 778.407 - The nature of the section 7(f) contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... it is not in written form. Furthermore, the contract must be “bona fide.” This implies that both the making of the contract and the settlement of its terms were done in good faith. ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The nature of the section 7(f) contract. 778.407 Section...

  15. Labor law violations in Japanese public hospitals from March 2002 to March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2013-02-01

    According to the Japan Pediatric Society, the mean extra work hours of hospital pediatricians in 2010 was approximately 80 h per month, which is the certification criterion for Karoshi (death from overwork), but there is no precise picture of personnel management at hospitals because the labor authorities do not disclose detailed statistics concerning labor law violations to the public. Most local governments have a disclosure system, and the local governments that operate public hospitals were requested to disclose warning documents issued by the labor authorities from March 2002 to March 2011. A total of 208/369 public hospitals (56.4%) with ≥200 beds in Japan were warned of labor law violations. Offenses included exceeding the limit of working hours (177 hospitals) and non-payment of increased wages for night and holiday work (98 hospitals). Many public hospitals in Japan did not always pay workers including physicians for increased workload because they do not regard night and holiday duties as work hours. © 2012 The Author. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. 29 CFR 1625.11 - Exemption for employees serving under a contract of unlimited tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for employees serving under a contract of unlimited tenure. 1625.11 Section 1625.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... within the exemption can lawfully be forced to retire on account of age at age 70 (see paragraph (a)(1...

  17. Labor Patterns in Women Attempting Vaginal Birth After Cesarean With Normal Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRANTZ, Katherine L.; GONZALEZ-QUINTERO, Victor; TROENDLE, James; REDDY, Uma M.; HINKLE, Stefanie N.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; LU, Zhaohui; ZHANG, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe labor patterns in women with a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) with normal neonatal outcomes. Study Design In a retrospective observational study at 12 U.S. centers (2002–2008), we examined time interval for each centimeter of cervical dilation and compared labor progression stratified by spontaneous or induced labor in 2,892 multiparous women with TOLAC (second delivery) and 56,301 nulliparous women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed including women with intrapartum cesarean delivery, and then repeated limiting only to women who delivered vaginally. Results Labor was induced in 23.4% of TOLAC and 44.1% of nulliparous women (Plabor (Plabor (P=.099); however, TOLAC had lower maximum doses of oxytocin compared to nulliparous women: median (90th percentile): 6 (18) mU/min versus 12 (28) mU/min, respectively (Plabor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women with spontaneous labor from 4–10cm was 0.9 (2.2) hours longer (P=.007). For women who entered labor spontaneously and achieved vaginal delivery, labor patterns for TOLAC were similar to nulliparous women. For induced labor, labor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women from 4–10cm was 1.5 (4.6) hours longer (Plabor patterns were slower for induced TOLAC compared to nulliparous women. Conclusions Labor duration for TOLAC was slower compared to nulliparous labor, particularly for induced labor. By improved understanding of the rates of progress at different points in labor, this new information on labor curves in women undergoing TOLAC, particularly for induction, should help physicians when managing labor. PMID:25935774

  18. Social Norms on Working Hours, Work-Life Balance, and Fertility Choice

    OpenAIRE

    大洞, 公平; 田畑, 顕

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role played by the social norms of working hours in a household labor- leisure and fertility decision model. We suppose that social norms enforce workers not to deviate from the ideal level of working hours, which depends on past and current observations of working hours in workplaces. We show that the social norms lead to multiple equilibria: one with long working hours and a low fertility rate and another with short working hours and a high fertility rate. Our results...

  19. 77 FR 22766 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ..., Federal Supply Class or Service Code, Contractor Name and Address, Value of Contract Instrument, and the Number and Value of Direct Labor Hours will be used to facilitate the accurate identification of the function performed and to facilitate estimate the reliability of the data. The Direct Labor Hours are...

  20. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  1. On the Issue of Labor Relations Discontinuance by Staff Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to consideration of issues related to the procedure of labor law contract termination by staff reduction. The author, analyzing the judicial practice, gives practical recommendations on the procedure of employment relationships discontinuance

  2. WORKIN CONDITION OF RURAL LABOR IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contreras-Molotla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.

  3. 26 CFR 1.460-4 - Methods of accounting for long-term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... method of cost comparison (such as comparing direct labor costs incurred to date to estimated total direct labor costs) or by comparing the work performed on the contract with the estimated total work to.... Paragraph (e) of this section describes the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost method (PCCM), which...

  4. Effect of foot reflexology on pain intensity and duration of labor on primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moghimi Hanjani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integration of reflexology as one of the non-pharmacological pain relief methods in to midwifery care has become more common in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reflexology on pain intensity and the duration of labor in primiparous.Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 80 primiparous women with low risk pregnancy that referring to Karaj hospitals (Iran then randomized in two groups, intervention group which received reflexology for 40 minutes and control group. Severity of labor pain was shown by visual analogue scale (McGill questionnaire, before, half, one and two hours after intervention. Moreover, the duration of labor was determined for both groups.Results: Severity of labor pain before and immediately after intervention foot reflexology did not vary between case and control groups (p>0.05. But half, one and two hours after it, severity of labor pain in the intervention group was lower than the control group (P<0.001. Duration of labor in the intervention group significantly was lower than the control group (P<0.001.Conclusion: Reflexology can lead to decrease in labor pain as well as duration of labor. Therefore, we can use this non-invasive technique to decrease the labor pain and encourage mothers to normal vaginal delivery that is one of the aims of midwifery

  5. Size doesn't matter!: gift exchange in experimental labor markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.; Ygosse-Battisti, J.

    2009-01-01

    We study how the number of traders affects the interaction between a centralized exchange and bilateral negotiations in an experimental labor market with excess supply and incomplete contracts. In bilateral negotiations firms obtain information about employees’ performance in previous jobs. Though

  6. 29 CFR 4.162 - Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. 4.162... Compensation Standards § 4.162 Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. (a) Pursuant to the statutory... contain a provision specifying the fringe benefits to be furnished the various classes of service...

  7. Gender Identity and Labor Division In Norwegian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Economic analysis We investigate if gender identity has any effect on the division of household labor among Norwegian couples. By deriving the potential income distribution of the Norwegian population, we compare couples’ comparative advantage in market work. Our results indicate that women who have higher potential income than their spouse are more likely to increase their labor supply and work full-time, rather than reduce their hours allocated to market work in order ...

  8. A global strategy for labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  9. 77 FR 38173 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 570 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation CFR Correction 0 In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July 1, 2011, on page 302, the section heading for Sec. 570.65 is corrected to read...

  10. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. METHODS: Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5...... muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force....... seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force...

  11. Consolidating staff augmentation contracts improves teamwork and reduces costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, J.; Sibilla, L.; Gregovich, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have traditionally used multiple contracting firms to provide temporary staff augmentation personnel primarily because of two perceptions: (1) managers believe they have greater access to a higher quality, readily available pool of applicants. (2) using multiple contractors inherently keeps costs down as a result of several competitors submitting resumes for the same position. This paper provides information, based on the experiences of a leading nuclear power plant, that disproves these perceptions. It explains why consolidating several contracts for professional and technical classifications (excluding craft labor and refueling personnel) and competitively bidding and awarding the contract to a single contracting firm promotes teamwork and reduces costs

  12. 48 CFR 22.404-12 - Labor standards for contracts containing construction requirements and option provisions that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer may include in the contract a separately specified pricing method that permits an... wage determination into the contract, and must apply the specific pricing method to calculate the contract price adjustment. An example of a contract pricing method that the contracting officer might...

  13. [Effect of the music in labor and newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarro, Camila Sotilo; de Campos, Luciane Botinhon; Galli, Natália Oliveira; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Pereira, Valdina Marins

    2010-06-01

    Music has been applied for balancing energies that have been disturbed by the stress of modern life. The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of music in labor and on the newborn, when submitted to the same melodies heard by their own mothers during pregnancy. Pregnant women, Health Center users, were submitted to musical sensitization sessions since their fifth month of pregnancy. During labor, the melodies previously selected by the pregnant women were played all the time with a thirty-minute break for every two hours of music. Data collection was performed through interviews performed after labor, at different moments, and the mother' statements were qualitatively analyzed. According to the women's words, music minimized the distress of labor and made it easier for the baby to adjust in the first months of life.

  14. An examination of pharmacists' labor supply and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Mott, David A; Doucette, William R

    2011-12-01

    For the last decade, there has been a shortage of pharmacists for most of the United States. This shortage is in part because of demand-side phenomena (eg, increasing prescription drug use, increases in the complexity of drug regimens, and an aging population). However, there also may be supply-side causes. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates has increased, most graduates are women, many of whom may choose to work part-time. Because of the change in sex composition of the workforce, some researchers conclude that pharmacist shortages will be even more critical in the future. The goals of this article are to model pharmacists' decisions to work, estimate pharmacists' wages, and identify influences on the number of hours worked by pharmacists in the United States. Pharmacist labor supply is examined using a static, 3-step, empirical labor supply model that estimates the decision to work, hourly wages, and number of hours worked for U.S. pharmacists. Pharmacists have high starting wages but flat wage trajectories. Although many pharmacists are working part-time, this is true for women and men. Income effects do not dominate substitution effects, even at the high level of compensation found here. Results indicate that previous predictions brought about by the changing sex composition of the pharmacist labor force might not come to pass, and additional pharmacists may be attracted to the profession by higher wages and flexible schedules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 20 CFR 726.201 - Insurance contracts-generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance contracts-generally. 726.201 Section 726.201 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR...

  16. Preterm labor--modeling the uterine electrical activity from cellular level to surface recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Marque, C

    2008-01-01

    Uterine electrical activity is correlated to the appearance of uterine contractions. forceful contractions appear at the end of term. Therefore, understanding the genesis and the propagation of uterine electrical activity may provide an efficient tool to diagnose preterm labor. Moreover, the control of uterine excitability seems to have important consequences in the control of preterm labor. Modeling the electrical activity in uterine tissue is thus an important step in understanding physiological uterine contractile mechanisms and to permit uterine EMG simulation. Our model presented in this paper, incorporates ion channel models at the cell level, the reaction diffusion equations at the tissue level and the spatiotemporal integration at the uterine EMG reconstructed level. This model validates some key physiological observation hypotheses concerning uterine excitability and propagation.

  17. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able

  18. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, L.M.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able

  19. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  20. Identifying Factors Reinforcing Robotization: Interactive Forces of Employment, Working Hour and Wage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous studies on robotization approaching the future based on the cutting-edge technologies and adopting a framework where robotization is considered as an exogenous variable, this study considers that robotization occurs endogenously and uses it as a dependent variable for an objective examination of the effect of robotization on the labor market. To this end, a robotization indicator is created based on the actual number of industrial robots currently deployed in workplaces, and a multiple regression analysis is performed using the robotization indicator and labor variables such as employment, working hours, and wage. The results using the multiple regression considering the triangular relationship of employment–working-hours–wages show that job destruction due to robotization is not too remarkable yet that use. Our results show the complementary relation between employment and robotization, but the substituting relation between working hour and robotization. The results also demonstrate the effects of union, the size of the company and the proportion of production workers and simple labor workers etc. These findings indicate that the degree of robotization may vary with many factors of the labor market. Limitations of this study and implications for future research are also discussed.

  1. Non-invasive transabdominal uterine electromyography correlates with the strength of intrauterine pressure and is predictive of labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, H; Maner, W L; Olson, G; Saade, G R; Garfield, R E

    2004-05-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether the strength of uterine contractions monitored invasively by intrauterine pressure catheter could be determined from transabdominal electromyography (EMG) and to estimate whether EMG is a better predictor of true labor compared to tocodynamometry (TOCO). Uterine EMG was recorded from the abdominal surface in laboring patients simultaneously monitored with an intrauterine pressure catheter (n = 13) or TOCO (n = 24). Three to five contractions per patient and corresponding electrical bursts were randomly selected and analyzed (integral of intrauterine pressure; integral, frequency, amplitude of contraction curve on TOCO; burst energy for EMG). The Mann-Whitney test, Spearman correlation and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis were used as appropriate (significance was assumed at a value of p TOCO parameters were different. In addition, burst energy levels were highly predictive of delivery within 48 h (AUC = 0.9531; p TOCO, transabdominal uterine EMG can be used reliably to predict labor and delivery.

  2. The gender division of labor and second births: Labor market institutions and fertility in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Nagase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.

  3. Effect of moving dairy cows at different stages of labor on behavior during parturition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proudfoot, K. L.; Jensen, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2013-01-01

    of labor would influence calving behavior or the length of the second stage of labor. Seventy-nine multiparous Holstein dairy cows were moved from 1 of 2 group pens to 1 of 10 maternity pens adjacent to each group pen either 3 d before expected calving date or when one or more behavioral or physical signs...... of labor were observed. These signs were noted, and were used to retrospectively categorize cows into 1 of 3 movement categories: (1) moved before labor, (2) moved during early stage I labor (signs of suddenly tense and enlarged udder, raised tail or relaxed pelvic ligaments; could also be immediately...... prelabor), or (3) moved during late stage I labor (signs of viscous, bloody mucus or abdominal contractions; could also be transitioning to stage II labor). Calves were weighed within 12h of birth and remained with their dam for 3 d. The length of the second stage of labor (the time between first abdominal...

  4. 48 CFR 632.702-70 - DOS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOS policy. 632.702-70... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 632.702-70 DOS policy. The Department's policy is to provide... incremental funding of cost-reimbursement contracts. Fixed-price, labor-hour, and time-and-materials contracts...

  5. "Contract to Volunteer": South African Community Health Worker Mobilization for Better Labor Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafford, Zara; Swartz, Alison; Colvin, Christopher J

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the increasing activity around labor rights for South African community health workers (CHWs). Contextualizing this activity within broader policy and legal developments, we track the emergence of sporadic mobilizations for decent work (supported by local health activist organizations) and subsequently, the formation of a CHW union. The National Union of Care Workers of South Africa (NUCWOSA) was inaugurated in 2016, hoping to secure formal and secure employment through government and the consequent labor and occupational health protections. Various tensions were observed during fieldwork in the run up to NUCWOSA's formation and raise important questions about representation, legitimacy, and hierarchies of power. We close by offering suggestions for future research in this developing space.

  6. Investigating the effect of music on labor pain and progress in the active stage of first labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S E; Bagheri, M; Honarparvaran, N

    2013-06-01

    DESIGN AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of music-therapy on labor pain and progress in parturient primipara. Music-therapy during labor increases tolerance to pain; decreasing anxiety, it increases paturition and uterus activity and shorten labor duration. The subjects of this research were 30 women, selected voluntarily and they have been put in two experimental and control group. This research has been conducted in the form of pre-test and post-test design. The experimental group listened to a relaxing music for 30 minutes in each hour for a two-hour period a nd the control group was not exposed to music during this period. For the purpose of gathering data in both groups, the pain scales (verbal, numeric and visual) was used to measure pain. The independent variable in this research is relaxing music and the dependent variables are the pain level and delivery progress. The independent t for sensations of pain in the experimental and control group before intervention has been (p = 0.875) 0.601 in numeric and visual pain and (p independent t for the duration of delivery in control group before and after intervention shows that music has not had any effect on the rate of serotonin. The results of statistical analysis show the effect of music on the decrease of sensation of pain in the experimental group as compared with the control group.

  7. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2014-06-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.

  8. Flexible labor and innovation performance : Evidence from longitudinal firm-level data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinknecht, A.; Dekker, R.; Zhou, H.

    2009-01-01

    Firms with high shares of workers on fixed-term contracts have significantly higher sales of imitative new products but perform significantly worse on sales of innovative new products (“first on the market”). High functional flexibility in “insider-outsider” labor markets enhances a firm’s new

  9. Flexible labor and innovation performance : Evidence from longitudinal firm-level data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, H.; Dekker, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    Firms with high shares of workers on fixed-term contracts tend to have higher sales of imitative new products but perform significantly worse on sales of innovative new products ("first on the market"). High functional flexibility in "insider-outsider" labor markets enhances a firm's new product

  10. Flexible labor and innovation performance : Evidence from longitudinal firm-level data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; Kleinknecht, A.H.; Zhou, H

    2010-01-01

    Firms with high shares of workers on fixed-term contracts have significantly higher sales of imitative new products but perform significantly worse on sales of innovative new products (“first on the market”). High functional flexibility in “insider-outsider” labor markets enhances a firm’s new

  11. Comparison of delayed versus immediate pushing during second stage of labor for nulliparous women with epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillesby, Erica; Burns, Suzan; Dempsey, Amy; Kirby, Shirley; Mogensen, Kami; Naylor, Kelly; Petrella, Joann; Vanicelli, Rebecca; Whelan, Breon

    2010-01-01

    To determine if the use of delayed pushing after the onset of the second stage of labor decreases the time of active pushing and decreases maternal fatigue. Randomized clinical trial. Labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. Convenience sample of nulliparous laboring women with epidural anesthesia. Immediate or delayed pushing (2 hours) during the second stage of labor at the time of complete cervical dilatation. The length of pushing, total length of the second stage, and maternal fatigue. A total of 77 women were studied (immediate pushing group=39; delayed pushing=38). The immediate pushing group averaged 94 (± 57) minutes in active pushing, while the delayed pushing group averaged 68 (± 46) minutes, a statistically significant difference (p=.04). No significant differences were found in fatigue scores between the immediate and delayed pushing groups (p>.05). We found that by delaying the onset of active pushing for 2 hours after the beginning of the second stage of labor, the time that nulliparous women with epidural anesthesia spent in active pushing was significantly decreased by 27%. Although the delayed pushing group rested for up to 2 hours, the total time in the second stage of labor averaged only 59 minutes longer than the immediate pushing group. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. LABOR GYMNASTICS: STRETCHING EXERCISE X FLEXIONAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  13. 29 CFR 778.325 - Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. 778.325... COMPENSATION Special Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.325 Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. The same reasoning applies to salary covering straight time pay for a...

  14. Untold stories of unfree labor: Asians in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Cuba Commission Report: A Hidden History of the Chinese in Cuba. The Original English-Language Text of 1876 (Introduction by Denise Helly. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. viii + 160 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Indentured Labor, Caribbean Sugar: Chinese and Indian Migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. WALTON LOOK LAI. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. xxviii + 370 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95 The world system formed by European mercantile and industrial capitalism and the history of transcontinental labor migrations from Africa to the Americas have been amply documented. The genesis, evolution, and demise of New World slavery are subjects much scrutinized and debated, particularly since the 1960s. Enjoying a less extensive tradition of historiography are the variously devised alternative labor schemes that came on the heels of emancipation: the colonially-orchestrated efforts to contract free and voluntary workers to take the place of slaves in a system of production theoretically the moral antithesis of that earlier "peculiar institution." Yet scholarship on indentured labor systems has consistently revealed that the "freedom" of immigrant workers was merely nominal, the "voluntary" nature of their commitments arguable, and the indenture projects often only ideally a kinder, gentier form of labor extraction.

  15. 78 FR 14631 - 100th Anniversary of the United States Department of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ordinary citizens, the Department took up the cause of justice in the workplace and lifted it to the..., from the 40-hour work week and the minimum wage to family leave and pensions. As the agency once led by... combated child labor at home and abroad. Today, the Department of Labor is working to restore the basic...

  16. 48 CFR 16.601 - Time-and-materials contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts for certain commercial services. (1) Government surveillance. A time-and-materials contract..., appropriate Government surveillance of contractor performance is required to give reasonable assurance that... procedures, the fixed hourly rates for services that meet the definition of commercial item at 2.101 that are...

  17. Freedom of Movement and Position in the First Stage of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Canhoto Ferrão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the scientific evidence, in the literature published between january 2007 and february 2016, about the benefits of freedmon of movement and position in the first stage of labor. Method: Review of literature with articles researched in selected databases on plataforms b-On and EBSCOhost, using descriptors: first stage of labour/labor, ambulation, upright positions, benefits and midwife/midwives. Results: Sample with 15 studies that showed, almost unanimously, that the free movement associated with the vertical position provides numerous benefits, especially in the progression of the first stage of labor, reduction of pain and increased maternal satisfaction, in the quality of uterine contractions and maternal-fetal circulation compared to the dorsal lithotomy position. Conclusion: Woman should have the right of choice as to freedom of movement and position during first stage of labor, being informed about the benefits of this intervention by the nurse midwife who cares for her.

  18. Agricultural Returns to Labor and the Origins of Work Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Fouka, Vasiliki; Schlaepfer, Alain

    2017-01-01

    We examine the historical determinants of differences in preferences for work across societies today. Our hypothesis is that a society’s work ethic depends on the role that labor has played in it historically, as an input in agricultural production: societies that have for centuries depended on the cultivation of crops with high returns to labor effort will work longer hours and develop a preference for working hard. We formalize this prediction in the context of a model of endogenous prefere...

  19. Preschools Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This pamphlet provides general information concerning the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to employees of preschool centers. The contents include discussion of the purview of the Act regarding preschools; monetary requirements such as minimum wages and employee facilities; provisions for equal pay, overtime pay, work hours,…

  20. 48 CFR 216.601 - Time-and-materials contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition with Adequate Price Competition, with 252... contract type for non-commercial items if the price is expected to be based on adequate competition. [71 FR... of the contract or order; establishing fixed prices for portions of the requirement); and (D...

  1. The changing psychological contract at work and employee burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malach Pines, Ayala

    2002-01-01

    Today we stand in a vortex of technological, economic, and cultural changes that altered dramatically the world of labor and with it the psychological contract between employers and employees. While the effects of the changed contract at work are usually addressed from an organizational, social or economic perspective, the current article addresses it from a psychological perspective from which one noteworthy cost of the changed psychological contract is employee burnout. The article describes burnout, differentiates it from stress, and proposes an existential perspective to explain its underlying dynamic, using the results of a cross-cultural study of Israeli and American managers as an example. Recent studies on gender differences in management are used to point in the recommended for preventing employee burnout, despite the new psychological contract, namely--a democratic, egalitarian management style.

  2. Adverse obstetric outcomes in women with previous cesarean for dystocia in second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, Nicole; Demers, Suzanne; Gauthier, Robert J; Chaillet, Nils; Brassard, Normand; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate obstetric outcomes in women undergoing a trial of labor (TOL) after a previous cesarean for dystocia in second stage of labor. A retrospective cohort study of women with one previous low transverse cesarean undergoing a first TOL was performed. Women with previous cesarean for dystocia in first stage and those with previous dystocia in second stage were compared with those with previous cesarean for nonrecurrent reasons (controls). Multivariable regressions analyses were performed. Of 1655 women, those with previous dystocia in second stage of labor (n = 204) had greater risks than controls (n = 880) to have an operative delivery [odds ratio (OR): 1.5; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1 to 2.2], shoulder dystocia (OR: 2.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 8.0), and uterine rupture in the second stage of labor (OR: 4.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 23), and especially in case of fetal macrosomia (OR: 29.6; 95% CI 4.4 to 202). The median second stage of labor duration before uterine rupture was 2.5 hours (interquartile range: 1.5 to 3.2 hours) in these women. Previous cesarean for dystocia in the second stage of labor is associated with second-stage uterine rupture at next delivery, especially in cases of suspected fetal macrosomia and prolonged second stage of labor. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Does measurement of intrauterine pressure have predictive value during oxytocin-augmented labor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Ben Willem J.; Logtenberg, Sabine L. M.; Verhoeven, Corine J. M.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Bakker, Jannet J. H.; van der Post, Joris A. M.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous randomized trial that compared monitoring uterine contractions with an intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) versus external monitoring, we demonstrated that use of an IUPC did not improve the outcome of labor. To provide insight in the lack of a positive effect, we evaluated level of

  4. Children's emotional and behavioral problems and their mothers' labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2015-01-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women’s labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict. PMID:26843783

  6. No-Fault Divorce Laws and the Labor Supply of Women with and without Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genadek, Katie R.; Stock, Wendy A.; Stoddard, Christiana

    2007-01-01

    We use a difference-in-difference-in-difference estimator to compare changes in labor force participation, weeks, and hours of work associated with no-fault divorce laws, allowing for differential responses for married women with and without children. Although other research has found that the labor supply of women in general does not respond to…

  7. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Erwin W; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M; Berden, Hubert J J M

    2015-09-01

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able to address various business questions regarding tactical workforce planning problems, e.g., with regard to annualized hours, subcontracting, and vacation planning. In a case study for a Dutch hospital two of these business questions are addressed, and we demonstrate that applying annualized hours potentially saves up to 5.2% in personnel wages annually.

  8. 29 CFR 778.202 - Premium pay for hours in excess of a daily or weekly standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... normal or regular working hours. Similarly, where the employee's normal or regular daily or weekly working hours are greater or less than 8 hours and 40 hours respectively and his contract provides for the... excess of his normal or regular daily working hours), his employer may exclude the premium portion of the...

  9. The use of the psychological contract to explain self-perceived employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychological contract and self-perceived employability (intra-organizational mobility intentions, employee development and perceived labor market opportunities). A survey was completed by 247 alumni of the Hotelschool The Hague, a hotel management

  10. Modeling Magnetomyograms of Uterine Contractions during Pregnancy Using a Multiscale Forward Electromagnetic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of uterine contractions during pregnancy is especially important in predicting the onset of labor and thus in forecasting preterm deliveries. Preterm birth can cause serious health problems in newborns, as well as large financial burdens to society. Various techniques such as electromyography (EMG and magnetomyography (MMG have been developed to quantify uterine contractions. However, no widely accepted method to predict labor based on electromagnetic measurement is available. Therefore, developing a biophysical model of EMG and MMG could help better understand uterine contractions, interpret real measurements, and detect labor. In this work, we propose a multiscale realistic model of uterine contractions during pregnancy. At the cellular level, building on bifurcation theory, we apply generalized FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN equations that produces both plateau-type and bursting-type action potentials. At the tissue level, we introduce a random fiber orientation model applicable to an arbitrary uterine shape. We also develop an analytical expression for the propagation speed of transmembrane potential. At the organ level, a realistic volume conductor geometry model is provided based on magnetic resonance images of a pregnant woman. To simulate the measurements from the SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment (SARA device, we propose a sensor array model. Our model is able to reproduce the characteristics of action potentials. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of MMG to model configuration aspects such as volume geometry, fiber orientation, and pacemaker location. Our numerical results show that fiber orientation and pacemaker location are the key aspects that greatly affect the MMG as measured by the SARA device. We conclude that sphere is appropriate as an approximation of the volume geometry. The initial step towards validating the model against real MMG measurement is also presented. Our results show that the

  11. Labor Market and Home Production: Are Men and Women Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Madalozzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Female labor market participation is one of the central investigation topics in feminist economics’ studies. Even after an increase in the labor market participation and the decrease in the wage gap between men and women, the latter still face great difficulties on being remunerated and promoted when compared to men. Neoclassical economic models cannot explain completely these differences without making use of strong hypothesis about individual preferences and family goals. This study has as the main objective to analyze difference on the housework participation as an influencer to different conditions in the labor market for men and women. Our results show that women still have a double work shift. Among our main conclusions, we can say that women benefit more from personal income increase than with labor market participation, because their bargain power within family increases and they can decrease their housework hours.

  12. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes the...

  13. Extreme working hours in Western Europe and North America: A new aspect of polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends and root causes of extreme working hours in sixteen Western European countries, Canada, and the United States between 1970 and 2010. Earlier literature has revealed increasing trends in extreme working hours in the United States and recognized the negative repercussions of this new aspect of labor market polarization. As European average working hours have declined over the past decades, scholars have turned little attention to the analysis of extreme working ho...

  14. Lessons from the Restrictions of Extending Working Hours:A Study Based on the Labor Standards Act of Japan%日本«劳动基准法»限制延时工作之借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文琦

    2014-01-01

    According to the analysis of provisions about the restrictions of extending working hours in The Labor Standards Act of Japan,this paper summarized the background and the main points of the modifications in this act,in order to put forward some experience and inspiration to perfect China's on going provisions about extending working hours:based on the concept of “work life balance”,we should make the provisions comprehensive,detailed and humanistic;based on the concept of “justice, sharing and development”,we should strengthening the rights of labor and the labor union;based on the concept of “social governance:from the heart to the people”,we should reform the execution pat-tern of the present provisions.%理性分析和探讨日本«劳动基准法»限制延时工作基准之修改背景和修改要点,结合我国实际情况,以其为鉴,提出了完善我国“延时工作制度”的对策建议,即:基于“平衡工作与生活”理念,充实内容;基于“公正、共享、发展”理念,强化权利;基于“由心及人的社会治理”理念,改革执法。

  15. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS BASED PAY EFFECTIVE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Иванович Долгий

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article examines the application of the principle of «effective contract», the contracting institution to be introduced into the system of labor relations. Purpose of the article is to offer an effective method of the contract for the design of incentives to domestic enterprises of different ownership forms, including the budget. Distinctive features of the work, reflecting its novelty is the use of a set of methods and techniques for building an effective motivational model, as well as practical experience in implementation of the proposed instruments in the activities of Russian enterprises. At the heart of the functioning of this institution are techniques improve the fairness of the forms and payroll systems. With the proposed program can be measured by the individual results of specific employees. Using the «effective contract» to be used in schools to improve the motivation of the teaching staff.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-61

  16. Preschools Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, July 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This pamphlet provides general information concerning the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to employees of preschool centers. Included is a discussion of: (1) Basic Monetary Requirements, including minimum wages and facilities furnished to the preschool employees, (2) Equal Pay Provisions, (3) Overtime, (4) Hours Worked, (5) Exemptions,…

  17. Family labor supply and proposed tax reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Das, J.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete choice static neo-classical labor supply model for married or cohabiting couples in the Netherlands. The model simultaneously explains the participation decision and the desired number of hours worked. Due to its discrete nature, institutional details of the tax system

  18. Informal Care and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From Chinese Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Na; Fan, Hongli; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-10-16

    Data were used from the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the influence of informal care on labor market outcomes for married women of working aged, with emphasis on caregiving intensity. After accounting for potential endogeneity between caregiving and labor force participation (LFP) through simultaneous equations modeling, caregivers who provided more than 15 or 20 hr of caregiving per week were 4.5-7.7% less likely to be LFPs. Intensive caregivers who remained working had significantly lower (4.97-7.20) weekly hours of work. The significant positive effect of informal care on LFP only existed in the rural sample, and these women also had much lower hours of work than their urban counterparts. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that target intensive caregivers in order to allow them to balance both work and caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The efficacy and safety of inflatable obstetric belts for management of the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Hee; Lee, Gun Ho; Park, Young Bae; Jun, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Hahn, Won Bo; Park, Sang Won; Park, Hee Jin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor. One hundred twenty-three nulliparas with a singleton cephalic pregnancy at term were randomized. Standard care was performed in the control group, and uterine fundal pressure by the Labor Assister (Baidy M-420/Curexo, Inc., Seoul, Korea) was utilized in addition to standard care in the active group. The Labor Assister is an inflatable obstetric belts that synchronized to apply uniform fundal pressure during a uterine contraction. The 62 women in the active group spent less time in the second stage of labor when compared to the 61 women in the control group (41.55+/-30.39 min vs. 62.11+/-35.99 min). There was no significant difference in perinatal outcomes between the two groups. In conclusion, the uterine fundal pressure exerted by the Labor Assister reduces the duration of the second stage of labor without attendant complications.

  20. Social and Economic Consequences of Informal Labor and Ways to Reduce It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna V. Donova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of informal employment for the Russian labor market. The author approaches informal employment from the legalism perspective. While distinguishing between formal and informal employment, the author relies on the contract criterion, i.e. presence or absence of formally established labor relations. The reasons for the existence and reproduction of informal employment relations in the Russian labor market are imperfect institutions of regulation and a complex of economic and social factors. The consequences of informal hiring for participants of the employment relationship are different. In the article are considered the positive and negative consequences of informal hiring for employees, employers and the state. It is shown that the problem of informal hiring is multilayered, not reducible only to imperfect labor market regulation institutions and requires adequate complexity of approaches. The ways to reduce the level of informality on the Russian labor market: the stimulation of an increase in the number of formal jobs and the legalization of business, especially in the smallest and micro-business; refusal of attempts of violent and excessive formalization of employment; improvement of the quality of regulation of the social and labor conditions and business climate. Special attention should be paid to estimation the balance of benefits and losses associated with informality for all participants of social and labor relations.

  1. New Directions in New Haven: A Pathbreaking New Teacher Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zastrow, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in New Haven, Connecticut, recently ratified a contract that Education Secretary Arne Duncan praised as an "important progressive labor agreement" for its provisions on teacher evaluation and school reform. This article presents a conversation with David Cicarella, president of the New Haven Federation of Teachers, about the…

  2. The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin has been best known for its roles in female reproduction. It is released in large amounts during labor, and after stimulation of the nipples. It is a facilitator for childbirth and breastfeeding. However, recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin′s role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, bonding, and maternal behaviors. This small nine amino acid peptide is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. From an innocuous agent as an aid in labor and delivery, oxytocin has come a long way in being touted as the latest party drug. The hormone of labor during the course of the last 100 years has had multiple orgasms to be the hormone of love. Many more shall be seen in the times to come!

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. The standards are published in subpart C of this part and... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General § 1926.1 Purpose and scope. (a) This part sets...

  4. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rossiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted.

  5. [Gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and health status in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Gutiérrez Vera, Anabel

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender differences in the relationship of long working hours with type of contract, psychosocial risk factors and health status in Catalonia. Cross sectional study of a representative sample of the working population in Catalonia who worked up to 60 hours per week, interviewed in the 2005 I Survey of Working Conditions in Catalonia (1624 men and 1221 women). The analysis was conducted separately by sex and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. The reference category was employees working 30-40 hours per week. In both sexes, working 41 to 60 hours per week was associated with non fixed term temporary contracts, low autonomy, low support from colleagues and high skill discretion. In addition, among women, they were also associated with high psychological demands. No relationship with self-perceived health status was observed, but working 41 to 60 hours a week was associated with job dissatisfaction in both sexes (crude odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals: cOR=1.52; 95%CI 1.05 to 2.18 for men; cOR=2.53; 95% CI 1.44 to 4.45 for women) and in women also with nervous disorders/depression (cOR=3.41; 95%CI 1.42 to 8.22). After adjustment for psychosocial risk factors, these associations disappeared among men but not in women. Long working hours are associated with non-fixed term temporary contracts and more psychosocial hazards, as well as with some health indicators, primarily among women. It is likely that the association with health status in women is partially explained by the sum of hours of paid and domestic and family work. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1471-1 - Recovery of excessive profits on government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operators, janitors, cleaners, watchmen and office equipment repairmen. (2) Bidding and general selling...) attributable to the contract or subcontract bears to the total direct productive labor of the production... things, production orders, bills or schedules of materials, purchase requisitions, purchase orders...

  7. 48 CFR 22.1003-5 - Some examples of contracts covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Food service and lodging. (e) Laundry, dry-cleaning, linen-supply, and clothing alteration and repair... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as... exclusive, illustrate some of the types of services that have been found to be covered by the Act (see 29...

  8. Can You Get a Better Deal Elsewhere? The Effects of Psychological Contract Replicability on Organizational Commitment over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on psychological contracts has focused on whether or not employees feel their employers have fulfilled the promises made to them. Instead, here we examine how perceptions of the external labor market, particularly about whether present psychological contracts could be replicated elsewhere, influence employees' attachment to their…

  9. Emergency Telemedicine: Achieving and Maintaining Compliance with the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Kimberly Lovett; Gilroy, Alexis

    2018-03-12

    Telemedicine is a growing and important platform for medical delivery in the emergency department. Emergency telemedicine outlays often confront and conflict with important federal healthcare regulations. Because of this, academic medical centers, critical access hospitals, and other providers interested in implementing emergency telemedicine have often delayed or forgone such services due to reasonable fears of falling out of compliance with regulatory restrictions imposed by the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act ("EMTALA"). This article offers insights into methods for implementing emergency telemedicine services while maintaining EMTALA compliance. Critical analysis of EMTALA and its attendant regulations. The primary means of ensuring EMTALA compliance while implementing emergency telemedicine programs include incorporating critical clinical details into the services contracts and implementing robust written policies that anticipate division of labor issues, the need for backup coverage, triaging, patient transfer protocols, and credentialing issues. With adequate up-front due diligence and meaningful contracting, hospitals and telemedicine providers can avoid common EMTALA liability pitfalls.

  10. The Construction of Academic Time: Sub/Contracting Academic Labour in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Offers a poststructuralist analysis of the UK higher education sector's academic division of labor, exploring some new contradictions from a contract researcher's standpoint. Raises political, social, and methodological questions about these divisions by exploring their class and gender dimensions. Too many academics remain silent about adverse…

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces contraction by dupuytren fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, William A; Cambrey, Alison D; Khaw, Peng T; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

    2008-11-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a common fibroproliferative condition of the hand characterized by fibrotic lesions (nodules and cords), leading to disability through progressive digital contracture. Although the etiology of the disease is poorly understood, recent evidence suggests that abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity may play a role in cell-mediated collagen contraction and tissue scarring. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ilomastat, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, in an in vitro model of Dupuytren fibroblast-mediated contraction. Nodule-derived and cord-derived fibroblasts were isolated from Dupuytren patients; carpal ligament-derived fibroblasts acted as control. Stress-release fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs) were used as a model of contraction. FPCLs were allowed to develop mechanical stress (48 hours) during treatment with ilomastat (0-100 micromol/L), released, and allowed to contract over a 48-hour period. Contraction was estimated by measuring lattice area compared with untreated cells or treatment with a control peptide. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP levels were assessed by zymography, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nodule-derived fibroblasts contracted lattices (69% +/- 2) to a greater extent than did cord-derived (55% +/- 3) or carpal ligament-derived (55% +/- 1) fibroblasts. Exposure to ilomastat led to significant inhibition of lattice contraction by all fibroblasts, although a reduction in lattice contraction by nodule-derived fibroblasts was most prominent (84% +/- 8). In addition, treatment with ilomastat led to a concomitant suppression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 activity, whereas MT1-MMP activity was found to be upregulated. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of MMP activity results in a reduction in extracellular matrix contraction by Dupuytren fibroblasts and suggest that MMP activity may be a critical target in preventing recurrent contracture caused by this disease.

  12. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor.... Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade...

  13. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...

  14. Short Analysis of the Essential Elements of the Typical Employment Contract and of its Importance in Maintaining it within the Current Social and Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina Nenu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the typical individual employment contract is the main source of individual legal labor relations, but is important to find the road of this instrument in the future. It is a result of the fact that labor market dynamics should be reflected in the new meanings of rights and obligations of the parties, which cannot be covered by legal acts, with their general and impersonal character. The purpose of the legal work relationship is a special one, connected to the personality of human beings, and, as people are different, we need individual legal acts which materialize working conditions in which each of the employees provides work. Given the ongoing flexibilization of labor relations and the emergence of new types of contracts, an essential question arises. The question is whether the classic employment contract will maintain its importance in the future, whether it will be a response to the interests of employers and employees in a world characterized by economic instability, on the one hand, and by lack of skilled labor force on the other hand. Therefore, this study aims to identify the characteristics of the typical employment contract, as they were highlighted at international and national levels and the extent to which they will be maintained in the future.

  15. Red herring: Acute back pain after combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Chuan Tay

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Symphysis pubis diastases complicate 1:300 to 1:30,000 pregnancies. Peripartum pain in chronological sequence with labor epidural analgesia often attracts instinctive causation and distress. Predisposing risk factors include macrosomia, short second stage of labor, forceps use, multiparity, small pelvis, intense uterine contractions, previous pelvic ring pathology and trauma. A gestational diabetic primigravid parturient presents with acute post-partum back pain after an uneventful analgesic labor epidural. Her pain distributed over the right paravertebral L5-S1 region without radiculopathy, worsened with positional change and accompanied by urinary incontinence, precluding child care. Spine imaging incidentally revealed a 38 mm symphysis pubis diastasis. A pelvic binder by orthopaedics aided physiotherapy and ambulation. Pubic diastases are usually conservatively managed, unless separation exceeds 5 cm when early surgery may improve functional outcomes. Although symptoms may recur in subsequent pregnancies, it does not preclude vaginal delivery. Early recognition and prompt management aim to reduce parturient morbidity and promote resumption of activity. Keywords: Symphysis pubis diasthesis, Pubic symphysis diasthesis, Post-epidural pain, Labor epidural pain, Post-partum pain

  16. Pay or conditions? The role of workplace characteristics in nurses' labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberth, Barbara; Elliott, Robert F; Skåtun, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Empirically rigorous studies of nursing labor supply have to date relied on extant secondary data and focused almost exclusively on the role of pay. Yet the conditions under which nurses work and the timing and convenience of the hours they work are also important determinants of labor supply. Where there are national pay structures and pay structures are relatively inflexible, as in nursing in European countries, these factors become more important. One of the principal ways in which employers can improve the relative attractiveness of nursing jobs is by changing these other conditions of employment. This study uses new primary data to estimate an extended model of nursing labor supply. It is the first to explore whether and how measures of non-pecuniary workplace characteristics and observed individual (worker) heterogeneity over non-pecuniary job aspects impact estimates of the elasticity of hours with respect to wages. Our results have implications for the future sustainability of an adequately sized nurse workforce and patient care especially at a time when European healthcare systems are confronted with severe financial pressures that have resulted in squeezes in levels of healthcare funding.

  17. Child labor. A matter of health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.

  18. Planning Annuaulised hours when spike in demand exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sureshkumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Manpower planning using annualised hours is an effective tool where seasonal demand for staff in industry exists. In annualised hours (AH workers are contracted to work for a certain number of hours per year. The workers are associated with relative efficiency for different types of tasks. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer linear Programming (MILP model to solve an annualised working hours planning problem when spike in demand exists. The holiday weeks for the workers are considered as partially individualised. If a worker has been assigned with more than one type of working week in a week, this will be compensated with one or more holiday week. The performance of the model is demonstrated with an example. It can be seen that this type of modelling helps to meet the spikes in demand with less capacity shortage compared with one working week in a week.

  19. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  20. Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Their Mothers’ Labor Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Richard PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children’s emotional and behavioral problems (EBP might have a negative effect on their mothers’ labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers’ labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children’s health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children’s health. This article estimates the effects of children’s EBP on their mothers’ labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children’s health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID. We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers’ probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children’s EBP on their mothers’ work hours. Findings show negative effects of children’s EBP on their married mothers’ employment and on their single mothers’ work hours.

  1. Increasing Labor Market Participation and Reducing Structural Unemployment in Rural and Urban Areas of Europe. Case Study – Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Member States ought to integrate the flexicurity values approved by the European Council into their labor market policies and apply them, making full use of European Social Fund sustain with a view to growing labor market participation and fighting segmentation and inactivity, gender inequality, at the same time as reducing structural unemployment. Actions to improve flexibility and security should be both balanced and mutually strengthen. Member States must consequently initiate a combination of flexible and reliable employment contracts, active labor market policies, effective lifelong learning, policies to promote labor mobility, and adequate social security systems to secure professional transitions accompanied by clear privileges and responsibilities for the unemployed to dynamically seek work.

  2. Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many immigrants in the Netherlands have poor Dutch language skills. They face problems in speaking and reading Dutch. Our paper investigates how these prob- lems affect their labor market performance in terms of employment, hours of work and wages. We find that for female immigrants language

  3. Do wages matter?: a backward bend in the 2004 California RN labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Michelle; Spetz, Joanne; Seago, Jean Ann; Harrington, Charlene M; Kitchener, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Using data from the 2004 California Board of Registered Nursing Survey, a two-stage least-square equation was estimated to examine the effect of wages on hours worked by female registered nurses. Wages were found to have a nonlinear effect on hours worked, with a backward bending supply curve. Wages had a positive effect on the average hours worked per week up to $24.99 per hour and a negative effect between $30.00 and $100.00 per hour when compared with the wage category of $25.00 to $29.99. Results suggest that wages are important to secure the labor supply but do not increase aggregate supply beyond a wage threshold.

  4. Oral misoprostol versus dinoprostone vaginal tablets for labor induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ibrahim Abu El aish

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induction of labour is common in obstetric practice. We conducted this study to find the appropriate and safe drug for labour induction and to compare the safety and efficacy of oral misoprostol and vaginal dinoprostone for labour induction. Methods: In a provisional, prospective and cross-sectional study, one hundred and fifty five singleton cephalic presentation full term pregnancies with medical or obstetric indication for labour induction were allocated in two groups. First group received oral 50 micrograms for nulliparas and low parity group (1-4, and 25micrograms for grand multiparas (≥ 5 misoprostol orally every 6 hours to a maximum of four doses daily. In the second group vaginal tablets of dinoprostone 3mg then 1.5mg for nulliparas and 1.5mg for low parity and grand multiparas groups were inserted in the posterior fornix, every 8 hours. Primary outcome measures were: induction success, induction-delivery interval and number of used doses. Secondary outcome measures included: maternal side effects, caesarean section rate, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Data was collected from patient case notes and analyzed using software SPSS (version 13.0 and p-value < 0.05 was used as statistical significance of differences. Results: In our study there were no significant differences in baseline parameters in the two groups nor in the indications for labor induction except misoprostol was used in premature rupture of membrane. Induction of labor succeeded in 123 (79.35% women without other interventions from other methods (80.26%misoprostol group versus 78.5% dinoprostone p=0.492. It was observed that there were no significant differences between the two groups in final outcomes nor in obstetrical complications. There was no significance in differences between misoprostol and dinoprostone groups in induction-delivery interval (15.2 ± 14.5 hours versus 16.4 ± 11.3 hours p=0.6 resp.. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that oral

  5. Comparing Efficacy of Online and In-person Versions of a Training on U.S. Federal Wage and Hour, Child Labor Laws and Hazardous Occupations Orders for Secondary School Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The New Jersey Safe Schools Program (NJSS offers courses required for secondary school vocational-career-technical education teachers to become school-sponsored structured learning experience supervisors. The Federal Wage and Hour and Child Labor Laws, Regulations and Hazardous Order Course (FWH was originally conducted in-person by U.S. Department of Labor-Wage and Hour Division from 2005-summer 2013, at which time NJSS began conducting this course in-person (October 2013-April 2015. Beginning March 2015, this course was conducted online; beta-/pilot tests were conducted winter 2014-15. Starting in May 2015, this course was offered exclusively online. This paper analyzes data from the in-person and online versions of the FWH, including overall course evaluation data comparing two versions with similar questions/constructs.Methods: NJSS modifications to FWH included adding information regarding the Fair Labor Standards Act’s Section 14(c and supplemental case studies. The online version included information/resources provided during the in-person training plus assessments to supplement each module; the online version was split into modules to allow participants scheduling flexibility. Participants were allowed multiple possible attempts to achieve a minimum passing grade of 70%, excluding two ungraded activities (crossword puzzles simply completed. Descriptive statistics evaluated user satisfaction with the online compared to the in-person version of FWH, and performance on aforementioned online assessments replacing in-person discussions/interactions.Results: Between October 2013-April 2015, 160 participants completed the training in-person; 156 had complete data. Between April-November 2015, 78 participants completed the training online; 74 participants had complete data. Other enrolled participants were in progress (not done as of 12/23/2015. Overall satisfaction was similarly high for in-person and online versions of FWH; over

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON LABOR MARKET FLEXICURITY AUSTRIA - ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Avram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Present in the European political discourse in the early '90s, the concept of flexicurity, achieved by the contraction of two terms, flexibility and security, emerged in the European Union with the adoption of the Communication "Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security" in June 2007. This study, result of the research internship undertaken in October-December 2011 at WIFO, aims to capture the main dimensions of labor market flexicurity, the quality of social partnership and the present status of the targets set by of Europe 2020 Strategy. Europe 2020 Strategy aims, among other objectives, at achieving a series of targets specific for the labor market, in the European context, such as: - Employment for the population aged between 20-64 years, - Reducing the number of early school leavers, - Increasing the share of university graduates in the population between 30-34 years, - Reducing the number of people affected by poverty and social exclusion.

  7. Labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children with spina bifida: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng

    2009-01-01

    Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.

  8. Paying by the hour: The least appealing option for clients of lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Seldeslachts, Jo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze a client's choice of contract in auctions where Dutch law firms compete for cases. The distinguishing feature is that lawyers may submit bids with any fee arrangement they wish. We find robust evidence that bids offering hourly rates are less attractive to clients. Our findings tentatively contradict lawyers' often-made argument that hourly rates are in a client's best interest.

  9. Lactate in Amniotic Fluid: Predictor of Labor Outcome in Oxytocin-Augmented Primiparas' Deliveries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiberg-Itzel

    Full Text Available One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL.To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries.A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study.AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l or low (12h (p = 0.04, post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01 and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04.The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications.

  10. Hours of Work and Gender Identity : Does Part-time Work make the Family Happier?

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account inter-dependence within the family, we investigate the relationship between part-time work and happiness. We use panel data from the new Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey. Our analysis indicates that part-time women are more satisfied with working hours than full-time women. Partnered women's life satisfaction is increased if their partners work full-time. Male partners' life satisfaction is unaffected by their partners' market hours but is increased...

  11. The Regime of Contracts under Execution within the Insolvency Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Romanian law the debtor that faces financial difficulties of a certain extent can be the object of the insolvency procedure, regulated by Law no. 85/2006 concerning the insolvency procedure. Because the insolvent debtor is no longer trustworthy to its contractual partners and cannot execute the assumed obligations, there is a risk that these contracts cease, or the services that are incumbent on contractual parties are not executed. This is why, it is very important to know within the insolvency procedure and, especially during the judicial reorganization period, what will be the treatment of contracts concluded prior to the opening of this procedure and still not executed, the so-called “contracts under execution”. Also, after clarifying the concept of contract under execution, it is important to establish who has the right to opt between their continuation, or their cancellation. On the other hand, there are presented the special rules provided by Law no. 85/2006 for some categories of contracts concluded prior to the opening of the insolvency procedure, such as: labor, lease, commission contracts, master of netting agreement or contracts concluded intuitu personae or by a debtor that is the owner of a leased building, etc.

  12. Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers’ disadvantage, as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers’ well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4:529–536

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROVISIONS OF THE APPLICABLE COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT AND THE INDIVIDUAL LABOR CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vidat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is inconceivable that a contract executed by definition in time, could remain in all respects, in its original form in which the parties have concluded (in writing. Flexicurity requirements during the execution of the individual labour contract is not, in reality, only a requirement of the legislature - which translates options employer organizations - it is an objective necessity determined that occur after the conclusion of the contract a number of circumstances, situations, goals or subjective, requiring modification of.

  14. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women’s Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Johnson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the imp...

  15. 48 CFR 1252.217-80 - Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80...

  16. 76 FR 76149 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... or Service Code, Contractor Name and Address, Value of Contract Instrument, and the Number and Value... performed and to facilitate estimate of the reliability of the data. The Direct Labor Hours are requested...

  17. Hours of Work and Gender Identity : Does Part-time Work make the Family Happier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account inter-dependence within the family, we investigate the relationship between part-time work and happiness.We use panel data from the new Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey.Our analysis indicates that part-time women are more satisfied with working hours than

  18. Cost implications of reduced work hours and workloads for resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Bhattacharya, Jay; Wolman, Dianne Miller; Ulmer, Cheryl; Escarce, José J

    2009-05-21

    Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) limits the work hours of residents, concerns about fatigue persist. A new Institute of Medicine (IOM) report recommends, among other changes, improved adherence to the 2003 ACGME limits, naps during extended shifts, a 16-hour limit for shifts without naps, and reduced workloads. We used published data to estimate labor costs associated with transferring excess work from residents to substitute providers, and we examined the effects of our assumptions in sensitivity analyses. Next, using a probability model to represent labor costs as well as mortality and costs associated with preventable adverse events, we determined the net costs to major teaching hospitals and cost-effectiveness across a range of hypothetical changes in the rate of preventable adverse events. Annual labor costs from implementing the IOM recommendations were estimated to be $1.6 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) across all ACGME-accredited programs ($1.1 billion to $2.5 billion in sensitivity analyses). From a 10% decrease to a 10% increase in preventable adverse events, net costs per admission ranged from $99 to $183 for major teaching hospitals and from $17 to $266 for society. With 2.5% to 11.3% decreases in preventable adverse events, costs to society per averted death ranged from $3.4 million to $0. Implementing the four IOM recommendations would be costly, and their effectiveness is unknown. If highly effective, they could prevent patient harm at reduced or no cost from the societal perspective. However, net costs to teaching hospitals would remain high. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  19. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women's Work Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M; Johnson, David R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women's labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the importance of career considerations were more predictive of birth outcomes as women's work hours increase. Ultimately, our findings challenge the assumption that working more hours is the direct cause for employed women having fewer children and highlight the importance of career and fertility preferences in fertility outcomes.

  20. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  1. Coresidence with elderly parents and female labor supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The female labor force participation rate in China has experienced a significant decline over the past two decades. Existing studies attribute this decline to the retreat of government protection of female employment and growing gender discrimination in the labor market, while overlooking other factors such as changing living arrangements. Objective: This paper aims to explore the causal effect of coresidence or nearby residence with parents on female labor supply in China. Methods: Based on a paired sample of middle-aged married women and their elderly parents, we apply the instrumental variable approach to correct for the endogeneity of living arrangement. Results: We show that women coresiding with their parents are 27.9 percentage points more likely to work than those living apart, and women living with their parents in the same neighborhood are 34.9 percentage points more likely to work than those living in a different neighborhood. Also, on average, coresidence or nearby residence with parents significantly increases women's work time by 20-26 hours per week. The positive impacts of this living arrangement are more prominent in urban areas than in rural areas. We also show that intergenerational coresidence allows women to share the burden of housework with their parents, thus leading to increased labor supply. Conclusions: Our study offers a fresh explanation for the drop in female labor force participation in China since 1990. Policies directed towards encouraging intergenerational coresidence would be effective in improving female labor supply. Contribution: This paper brings new evidence on the causal relationship between living arrangement and female labor supply in China.

  2. Child Labor Violations and Sweatshops in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-16

    share with you some results from GAO’s analysis of child labor and sweatshop working conditions in the United States. In particular, I will comment on the...primary federal law regulating wages and working conditions of American workers, including children. To protect children from oppressive working ... conditions , the Act limits the hours that children under age 16 can work , sets minimum age standards for work in specified occupations, and restricts

  3. 48 CFR 22.406-10 - Disposition of disputes concerning construction contract labor standards enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer a complete statement of the reasons for the disagreement with the findings. (d) The contracting...-Bacon Act that constitute a disregard of its obligations to employees or subcontractors under section 3...

  4. [Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization after exposure to maternal epidural analgesia in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Aleeca F; White-Traut, Rosemary; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To explore relationships between maternal epidural analgesia and two measures of neurobehavioral organization in infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. Prospective comparative design. Inner-city community hospital, Chicago, Illinois. Convenience sample of 52 low-risk, mainly Black and Latino, mother/infant dyads. Mothers self-selected to labor with epidural or no labor pain medication. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization was measured in term infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. A nutritive sucking apparatus generated data on total number of sucks and sucking pressure. Video recordings of infants (before and after the initial feeding) were coded for behavioral states, with analysis on frequency of alertness. Total number of sucks and sucking pressure were not related to epidural exposure, although an epidural drug dosage effect on total number of sucks was evident when gender was a factor. Unmedicated girls demonstrated more sucks than girls in the high-dosage epidural group (p=.027). Overall, girls exhibited stronger sucking pressure than boys (p=.042). Frequency of alertness was not related to epidural exposure, although longer labor was related to greater alertness (p=.003), and Latino infants were more alert than Black infants (p=.002). Results suggest attenuated neonatal nutritive sucking organization in girls after exposure to high maternal epidural dosages. In comparison to boys, girls may have enhanced neurobehavioral organization at birth. Race/ethnicity and alertness may have spurious associations in which hidden factors drive the relationship.

  6. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE TERM âTALENT FEESâ § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The...

  7. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  8. White and Black Uterine contraction labour in regularity during patIents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-02

    Apr 2, 1983 ... Period 1.immediately preceded deli- very, period 2 started }l/2 hours hefore delivery, and period 3 started 21/ 2hours before delivery. During each of these periods the number ofcontractions was first counted. Then the distances between successive contractions were measured from base to base (B-B) and ...

  9. Does money or the law reduce doctors' working hours in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Adam; Collier, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    What can be learned from a 45-year journey to reduced junior doctors' working hours? The authors investigated the impact of financially punitive measures (the 2001 New Deal contract) and legislation (Working Time Regulations) on the average working week for doctors-in-training.

  10. Questioning the role of pituitary oxytocin in parturition: spontaneous onset of labor in women with panhypopituitarism--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Shiri; Many, Ariel; Maslovitz, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin, a nanopeptide secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, has well-established uterotonic activity. Its role in initiating the vigorous and regular contractions of the first stage of labor is still controversial. We report four cases of panhypopituitarism who had spontaneous onset of labor, undermining the role of maternal oxytocin in the first phase of labor. Four women with no residual pituitary function conceived through ovulation induction and were treated throughout pregnancy with thyroid replacement therapy, desmopressin and glucocorticoids. In all cases pituitary function was undetectable in repeated blood tests. We report their course of pregnancy and delivery. All four pregnancies progressed to term with hormonal replacement therapy. All cases went into spontaneous labor. Two women delivered vaginally unassisted by pharmacological intervention and two delivered by cesarean sections during active labor due to obstetrical indications. Three suffered postpartum hemorrhage. Lactation did not ensue in all four cases. Endogenous pituitary oxytocin is probably not obligatory for initiation of labor in the first phase of parturition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  12. Parturients' need of continuous labor support in labor wards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Continuous labor support is practiced in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitude of women in response to labor support based at institutional ... The reasons given for wanting companion were emotional ..... mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men.

  13. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women’s Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the importance of career considerations were more predictive of birth outcomes as women’s work hours increase. Ultimately, our findings challenge the assumption that working more hours is the direct cause for employed women having fewer children and highlight the importance of career and fertility preferences in fertility outcomes. PMID:25506189

  14. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the Generalized System of... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) October 3...

  15. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) on December...

  16. The origins of a coming crisis : renewal of the Churchill Falls contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feehan, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The renewal clause of the 1969 power contract between Hydro-Quebec and the Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation (CFLCo) takes effect in 2016. The contract concerns the development and sale of electricity from the Churchill Falls hydro site and has been a matter of discontent in Newfoundland and Labrador because it stipulates that almost all of the power be sold to Hydro-Quebec on a very long-term basis at very low and declining prices. The government of Newfoundland and Labrador has challenged the contract in several ways since the 1970s, all unsuccessfully. During the renewal period, the price is preset at 2 mills (0.2 cents) per kilowatt hour. Even in the late 1960s, this price was extraordinarily low and not achievable from any new energy source. The average wholesale price of electricity in Ontario in 2004 was 52.2 mills per kilowatt hour. With 30 million megawatt hours of electricity involved in this renewal, the potential gap between the value of the power and the amount paid to CFLCo was about $1 billion a year by 2004 and rising. This paper presents the results of the first systematic investigation into how such an extraordinary onerous condition got into the contract. It considers the process that led to the contract and related arrangements. It also presents uncited archival documentation that gives new and revealing facts about the origins of the renewal clause. The findings give rise to questions of business ethics and law. This paper also reviews the early discussions and the interrelated commercial and political challenges that had to be overcome for the two provinces to come to an agreement on a comprehensive Letter of Intent. The contract negotiations and events that led to the renewal clause were outlined along with the implications for Hydro-Quebec, CFLCo and the government of Newfoundland. 13 refs., 2 appendices

  17. [Demography and labor shortage. Future challenges of labor market policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J

    2013-03-01

    For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.

  18. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  19. Educación Superior y Mercado Laboral: Relación Ética Humanista Educación Superior y Mercado Laboral: Relación Ética Humanista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Cervera Delgado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Every time and to a lesser extent the Mexican labor market is distinguished for its permanence and stability in employment in the public and productive sectors. This is attributed mainly to the impact that technological innovation and the generation of the knowledge has had in the world. Both the agricultural and industrial production, once pillars of the economy, have yielded in favor of services and commerce. In this sense, it is more difficult to find lasting and stable employment. In the world, sub-contracting, the division of economies and tele-working (networking have increased. For example, there are fewer permanent jobs in the factories, fewer tenured professors in the educative institutions and fewer safe contracts for young people. The gap in social inequality grows due to the diversity of capacities and the ability to obtain income in the labor market. For that reason, in the present paper, it is found that higher education plays an important role, considered not only as a cultural and political institution, but also as recognition of its economic role. In addition, actual demands from the labor market and higher education also need a new relationship in a context of humanistic ethics. Cada vez en menor medida el mercado laboral mexicano se distingue por la permanencia y estabilidad del empleo en el sector público y en el sector productivo. Esto se le atribuye principalmente al impacto que han tenido la innovación tecnológica y la generación del conocimiento en el mundo. Tanto la producción agrícola como industrial, otrora pilares de la economía, han cedido el paso a favor de los servicios y el comercio. En este sentido, resulta cada vez más difícil encontrar empleos duraderos y estables. En el mundo, se ha incrementado la subcontratación, la terciarización de la economía y el teletrabajo. Por ejemplo, son menos los trabajadores de planta en las fábricas, de profesores de base en las instituciones educativas y de

  20. Labor Supply Heterogeneity and Demand for Child Care of Mothers with Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apps, Patricia F.; Kabátek, J.; Rees, Ray; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a static structural model of hours of market labor supply, time spent on child care and other domestic work, and bought in child care for married or cohabiting mothers with pre-school age children. The father's behavior is taken as given. The main goal is to analyze the

  1. The US healthcare workforce and the labor market effect on healthcare spending and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing

    2014-06-01

    The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also

  2. Psychological Contract in High Performance Companies: The Pain and the Pleasure of being a Contemporary Worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rebello Neves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Broader changes in capitalist production structure outlined a scenario marked by fierce competition between companies, which is demanding a workforce increasingly committed and willing to devote much of his time to organizations (GREEN, 2001. This intense dedication of the worker involves aspects ranging from the increase in working hours, through the way of thinking in the organization, seen as an extension of their lives, until the option for work at the expense of personal life. It is in this context that organizations of traditional work have given way to organizations using the systems characterized by high work performance. These systems provide workers greater autonomy and control over their work processes, which give them greater responsibilities to solve technical and operational problems (APPELBAUM, 2002. Although there are many recent studies that address this new dynamic work (HUGHES, 2008; WOOD and MENEZES, 2011 they mostly tend to focus on explaining the characteristics of high performance work systems. However, few studies are devoted to better understand the motivations that lead individuals to work intensified pace and long hours, apparently voluntarily. Evidence of the growing adoption of high performance work systems, in the current context of labor relations, as well as the attractiveness that organizations adopting the exercise over a significant group of workers, motivated this research aimed to know the terms psychological contracts established between professional and high performance organizations.

  3. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  4. Effects of pushing techniques during the second stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refika Genç Koyucu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Although the duration of the second stage of labor was longer compared to valsalva pushing technique, women were able to give birth without requiring any verbal or visual instruction, without exceeding the limit value of two hours and without affecting fetal wellness and neonatal results.

  5. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  6. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the value of availability and dispatchability in IPP contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporeale, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Consolidated Edison's resource plan relies on power from Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for a portion of future generation requirements. The additional restriction of obtaining this capacity through a bidding process requires the utility to evaluate a large number of potential contracts with different combinations of price, availability, and dispatchability. This paper discusses the theoretical considerations and outlines the methodology adopted for Consolidated Edison's first request for proposal. The value of an IPP contract is a function of the variable energy cost compared to the system avoided costs. For example, there is a value for availability only in those hours when contract cost is below the avoided cost and there is a penalty for non-dispatchability only in those hours when the contract cost is higher than the avoided cost. The best method to determine the value of an IPP contract would be to simulate the operation of the system with and without the IPP purchase using a perfect production cost model. In reality no model is perfect and there are trade-offs because not all aspects of system operation are captured. Performing a detailed production cost simulation for every proposal would be burdensome. Therefore, it was decided that a simplified methodology was needed. An additional benefit of a simplified approach is that the IPPs could score their own proposals and use this value as input into their final pricing scheme. The method developed relies on detailed production cost simulations to generate hourly avoided costs. A comparison of these avoided costs to the IPP variable costs becomes the basis for the calculation of the value of availability or dispatchability. This methodology can be applied consistently to all supply side resources; baseload or peaking, gas, oil or coal fired. This allows for the evaluation of all bid proposals on an equal basis

  8. Women's Experiences with and Preference for Induction of Labor with Oral Misoprostol or Foley Catheter at Term

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Eikelder, Mieke L G; van de Meent, Marieke M; Mast, Kelly; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Jozwiak, Marta; de Graaf, Irene M; Scholtenhuis, Marloes A G Holswilder-Olde; Roumen, Frans J M E; Porath, Martina M; van Loon, Aren J; van den Akker, Eline S; Rijnders, Robbert J P; Feitsma, A Hanneke; Adriaanse, Albert H; Muller, Moira A

    2017-01-01

    Objective We assessed experience and preferences among term women undergoing induction of labor with oral misoprostol or Foley catheter.  Study Design In 18 of the 29 participating hospitals in the PROBAAT-II trial, women were asked to complete a questionnaire within 24 hours after delivery. We adapted a validated questionnaire about expectancy and experience of labor and asked women whether they would prefer the same method again in a future pregnancy. Results The questionnaire was completed...

  9. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor

  10. Morphological signs of the intravital contraction (retraction of thrombotic emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Khismatullin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To establish whether contraction (retraction of thrombi and thrombotic emboli occurs in vivo using structural signs of blood clot compression, such as compressive deformation of erythrocytes and redistribution of fibrin on the surface of a clot. Methods. Three postmortem pulmonary thrombotic emboli were examined by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin as well as with Mallory’s method. Results. In 2 studied pulmonary emboli, extracted 7 and 15 hours after patients’ death, polyhedral erythrocytes (polyhedrocytes were revealed that were formed as a result of mechanical deformation under the action of contractile forces generated by activated platelets. In addition, the uneven distribution of fibrin within the emboli was found with displacement of fibrin to the periphery of the emboli, which is characteristic for contracted blood clot. In the first and the «oldest» clot extracted 38 hours after the patient’s death, the described contraction signs were absent, which was likely related to the postmortem autolysis or intravital pathological impairment of contraction. Conclusion. Thrombotic emboli ex vivo have morphological signs of contraction, suggesting intravital compression of the primary thrombi and/or thrombotic emboli, which might be an important pathogenetic mechanism for modulation of impaired blood flow at the sites of thrombotic occlusion of a vessel; the presence or absence of compressed erythrocytes inside and predominant location of fibrin on the periphery of a thrombus or embolus can potentially serve as additional pathomorphological criteria of death coming prescription.

  11. The effects of labor on differential gene expression in parturient women, placentas, and fetuses at term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Labor and its associated pain are thought to have unique impacts on parturient women. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of labor and associated pain on differential gene expression profiles in the maternal, fetal, and placental compartments. We used microarrays to analyze maternal blood (MB, fetal cord blood (CB, and placental tissue samples in pregnant women after term vaginal deliveries (laboring group and in term pregnant women after scheduled Ceasarean sections (nonlaboring group. The upregulated genes in the MB of the laboring group are involved in cytokine and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, regulation of the networks of toll-like receptor 4, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Upregulated genes in the CB of the laboring group are involved in responding to stress and stimuli by regulating the network genes of the T-cell receptor beta locus and the FK506 binding protein 8. Differentially expressed genes in the placenta of the laboring group are involved in nitric oxide transport, gas transport, response to hydrostatic pressure, oxygen transport, acute phase responses, and the tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway, which are important during the transient hypoxemia and hypoperfusion that occur in the placenta during uterine contractions. Interestingly, few of the genes exhibited simultaneous changes in all three compartments, indicating that different pathways and complex interactions may be involved in human labor. In conclusion, human labor and its associated pain elicit unique gene regulatory changes in MB, placenta, and CB.

  12. Determinants of racial discrimination in the labor market in Ecuador, 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alberto Botello Peñaloza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article aims to quantify racial discrimination in the labor market in Ecuador between 2010 and 2012. Methodology: Information is collected from quarterly household surveys on employment prepared by the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Ecuador, from which Mincer equations are estimated for labor income per hour. Subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition with Heckman correction is used to determine wage gaps attributable to observable and unobservable factors regarding two ethnic groups: mestizos and whites. Results: The wage gap is significant and positive for white people, and it increases during the period of analysis. 40 % of this difference is due to higher provisions in human capital. However, about 42 % of the gap remains unexplained.

  13. Medium- and long-term consequences of pollution on labor supply: evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoh Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We use a natural experiment in Indonesia to study the medium- and long-term effects of air pollution on labor supply. We find that exposure to air pollution reduces hours worked and while the medium-term effects are larger in magnitude, some effects do persist in the long term. More interestingly, we are able to provide some insight regarding the underlying channels that contribute to the reduced labor supply. Own health seems to be the only responsible channel in the long term, while in the medium term, a different channel based on dependent caregiving is the most important. JEL Classification: J22, Q53

  14. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  15. Time’s Deadly Arrow: Time and Temporality in Narratives of Immaterial Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine von Dirke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the discourse on time and temporality in non-fictional and fictional accounts of paid, white collar labor, or, in the broader terminology of Maurizio Lazzarato, immaterial labor since the last quarter of the twentieth century. More specifically, it brings the critique of neoliberal capitalism by two influential social philosophers, Richard Sennett and Oskar Negt, in dialogue with fictional narratives of white collar labor: Rainer Merkel’s novel, Das Jahr der Wunder (The Year of Miracles, 2001, W.E. Richartz’s Büroroman (Office Novel, 1976 and Wilhelm Genazino’s A bschaffel-trilogy (1977-1979. Sennett and Negt’s non-fictional accounts contrast living and working conditions under the current hyper-flexible, neoliberal market economy to an earlier mode of a socially responsible capitalism. The latter is often nostalgically depicted as a golden age of a state-regulated labor market designed to protect the majority of the working population from exploitation and economic hardship. Yet, narratives on the working world published during the 1970s call into question the assumption that state-regulated work hours offer better conditions for lived time and the constitution of subjecthood.

  16. 48 CFR 1352.216-71 - Level of effort (cost-plus-fixed-fee, term contract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Optionperiod II Optionperiod III xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Total Direct Labor xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx (c) The hours specified above are provided as estimates only. If the actual...

  17. [Pregnancy and labor associated with encephalopathy in neonates during the early neonatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V

    1992-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Emancipating Labor Internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic – and labor-devastating – development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...

  19. Child labor in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegmann David

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a report on child labor in the U.S. that reviewed the positive and negative aspects of work for youth. Working was found to provide young people with valuable lessons about responsibility, punctuality, interacting with people and learning about money management, increasing self-esteem and helping them become independent and skilled. Research findings suggested that working during high school may contribute to increased rates of employment and better wages up to a decade after high school completion. Research concerning the hazards associated with work indicated that, each year, tens of thousands of young people are seen in hospital emergency departments for work-related injuries, hundreds require hospitalization, and more than 70 die of work-related injuries. Long work hours during the school year were associated with problem behaviors. The report points out some important questions: updating regulations on allowable work hours, eliminating less stringent regulation of agricultural work, revising outdated rules against hazardous work, developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for monitoring the injuries, illnesses, and hazards, building workplace health and safety information into school-based programs, and developing criteria for designating "commendable workplaces for youth."

  20. 77 FR 24990 - Public Availability of the Department of Labor FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Questions regarding the service contract inventory should be directed to Gladys M. Bailey in the DOL/ Office of Acquisition Management Services on (202) 693-7244 or bailey.gladys@dol.gov...

  1. Process Improvement to Enhance Quality in a Large Volume Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ashley M; Bohannon, Jessica; Porthouse, Lisa; Thompson, Heather; Vago, Tony

    The goal of the perinatal team at Mercy Hospital St. Louis is to provide a quality patient experience during labor and birth. After the move to a new labor and birth unit in 2013, the team recognized many of the routines and practices needed to be modified based on different demands. The Lean process was used to plan and implement required changes. This technique was chosen because it is based on feedback from clinicians, teamwork, strategizing, and immediate evaluation and implementation of common sense solutions. Through rapid improvement events, presence of leaders in the work environment, and daily huddles, team member engagement and communication were enhanced. The process allowed for team members to offer ideas, test these ideas, and evaluate results, all within a rapid time frame. For 9 months, frontline clinicians met monthly for a weeklong rapid improvement event to create better experiences for childbearing women and those who provide their care, using Lean concepts. At the end of each week, an implementation plan and metrics were developed to help ensure sustainment. The issues that were the focus of these process improvements included on-time initiation of scheduled cases such as induction of labor and cesarean birth, timely and efficient assessment and triage disposition, postanesthesia care and immediate newborn care completed within approximately 2 hours, transfer from the labor unit to the mother baby unit, and emergency transfers to the main operating room and intensive care unit. On-time case initiation for labor induction and cesarean birth improved, length of stay in obstetric triage decreased, postanesthesia recovery care was reorganized to be completed within the expected 2-hour standard time frame, and emergency transfers to the main hospital operating room and intensive care units were standardized and enhanced for efficiency and safety. Participants were pleased with the process improvements and quality outcomes. Working together as a team

  2. New labor management guidelines and changes in cesarean delivery patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Joshua I; Stout, Molly J; Tuuli, Methodius G; Woolfolk, Candice L; López, Julia D; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-12-01

    In 2010 the Consortium on Safe Labor published labor curves. It was proposed that the rate of cesarean delivery could be lowered by avoiding the diagnosis of arrest of dilation before 6 cm. However, there is little information on the uptake of the guidelines and on changes in cesarean delivery rates that may have occurred. The objective of the study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) among patients laboring at term, rates of arrest of dilation disorders have decreased, leading to a decrease in the rate of cesarean delivery; (2) in the second stage, pushing duration prior to diagnosis of arrest of descent has increased, also leading to a reduction in the rate of cesarean delivery for this indication. As a secondary aim, we investigated changes in maternal and neonatal morbidity. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of all patients presenting at ≥37 weeks' gestation from 2010 through 2014 with a nonanomalous vertex singleton and no prior history of cesarean delivery. Rates of cesarean delivery, arrest of dilation, and changes in rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity were calculated in crude and adjusted models. Cervical dilation at diagnosis of the arrest of dilation, time spent at the maximal dilation prior to diagnosis of arrest of dilation, and time in the second stage prior to the diagnosis of arrest of descent were compared over the study period. There were 7845 eligible patients. The cesarean delivery rate in 2010 was 15.8% and, in 2014, 17.7% (P trend = .51). In patients undergoing cesarean delivery for the arrest of dilation, the median cervical dilation at the time of cesarean delivery was at 5.5 cm in 2010 and 6.0 cm in 2014 (P trend = .94). In these patients, there was an increase in the time spent at last dilation: 3.8 hours in 2010 to 5.2 hours in 2014 (P trend = .02). There was no change in the frequency of patients diagnosed with the arrest of dilation at labor management that have occurred over the initial years

  3. Contract-Based Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowdsourcing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP and mobile users (MUs, crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize their own benefits. This paper investigates the incentive mechanism between the above two parties to create mutual benefits. By modeling MCNs as a labor market, a contract-based crowdsourcing model with moral hazard is proposed under the asymmetric information scenario. In order to incentivize the potential MUs to participate in crowdsourcing tasks, the optimization problem is formulated to maximize the SP’s utility by jointly examining the crowdsourcing participants’ risk preferences. The impact of crowdsourcing participants’ attitudes of risks on the incentive mechanism has been studied analytically and experimentally. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for the crowdsourcing incentive.

  4. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  5. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide for adequate monitoring of contractor performance? (3) Is the statement of work written so that it... contract? (4) Will the contractor be evaluating a competitor's work? (5) Does the contract allow the...

  6. Duty hours and pregnancy outcome among residents in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Steven G; Morgan, Maria A; Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay; Williams, Sterling B

    2003-11-01

    To assess the present status of resident duty hours in obstetrics and gynecology, identify existing policies concerning work schedules during pregnancy, and evaluate pregnancy outcome in female house officers. A questionnaire-based study was administered to residents taking the 2001 Council on Residency Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology examination. More than 90% of the residents reported that their institution had a maternity leave policy. The leave was usually 4-8 weeks long and was paid. Nearly 95% of residents reported that they had to take over the work of residents on maternity leave. Most women residents worked more than 80 hours weekly throughout pregnancy, and few took time off before delivery. Most pregnancies occurred during the fourth year of training and did not seem to be adversely affected by the long work hours. This study, performed before the institution of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident duty hour policies, demonstrated that, although women house officers continued to work more than 80 hours per week during pregnancy, most had a good pregnancy outcome. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of preterm labor, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction in female residents than in spouses or partners of male residents.

  7. Optimal life-cycle profiles of fertility and labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, R

    1984-01-01

    A model of life cycle fertility is developed using the language and framework of optimal control theory. The chief characteristic of children that distinguishes them from other consumer durables is, in the language of the optimal growth theory, the "irreversibility of investment." As the good does not depreciate in the ordinary sense, the stock must be monotonically nondecreasing over time. The optimal profile of fertility is, for this reason, characterized by the same type of "bang-bang" behavior found in many optimal growth problems. Yet, the fertility decision is complicated considerably by several other factors. Chief among these is the intrinsic relation to the labor-supply decision, for having children implies inevitable constraints on the mother's or father's time. Thus, optimal labor-supply decisions also must be considered. The model is developed in stages, proceeding from very simple to the more complex models. 1 section introduces the impact of fertility on the future demands for home time. It is shown that optimal fertility profiles follow turnpike paths similar to those in the growth-theory literature. A subsequent section introduces labor-supply and human-captial considerations. As the models become more complex, solutions become harder to derive and are often only outlined. The analysis provides some theoretical basis for expecting certain shapes of the life-cycle profiles of fertility, labor supply, and wages. Fertility profiles may be of 2 shapes--one beginning at a high rate, falling to a lower rate, then to zero; and one beginning at zero, rising to a moderate rate, then falling back down to zero. Labor supply profiles can be of a number of different shapes, but the impact of childbearing is to lower hours worked during the early childrearing period. As the children mature, hours worked rise (or at least fall more slowly) as home time responsibilities lessen, although the level to which they rise will probably be lower than before the 1st birth

  8. Work Hours Offer in Colombia: an Approach to its Determinants, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eduardo Rangel Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When participating in the job market, an individual must determine the amount of work hours to offer, a situation illustrated by economic theory through the income and substitution effects. This paper reports the results of the econometric estimation of a three-stage model of the hours of individual work for Colombia, based on the 2012 Quality of Life Survey. In the first stage, a model of the probability of being employed is made; then, a Mincer Equation corrected by selection bias is estimated and, finally, an equation of work hours is estimated using the Tobit model, in terms of wages predicted to correct endogeneity. Results show that the substitution effect takes precedence over the income effect; that age (up to a threshold, being head of household, having children under five years of age, being married or living in a common-law marriage and, finally, having a written employment contract, have a positive effect on the number of hours offered; on the other hand, unearned income has a negative effect on the number of hours offered.

  9. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and tramadol for pain relief in active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Makkar, Jeetinder; Jain, Kajal; Bhatia, Nidhi; Jain, Vanita; Mal Mithrawal, Sanwar

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of paracetamol in comparison with tramadol for pain relief during active labor. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Maternity Wing of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Sixty laboring, primiparous, full-term parturients with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy in spontaneous labor and cervical dilatation of 3-5 cm. Parturients were randomized into 2 groups to receive either 1 mg/kg of tramadol intramuscularly (group T; n = 29) or 1 g of paracetamol intravenously (group P; n = 30). Same doses of the drugs were repeated after 4 hours of initial dose. Primary outcome of the study was to assess the analgesic efficacy of the 2 drugs as measured by visual analog scale (VAS) score. Secondary outcome recorded was duration of labor, presence of any maternal, or fetal adverse events during the study. Both the groups showed comparable VAS scores at all times of observation. Lower mean VAS scores were reported in both the groups till 120 minutes only. The duration of first stage of labor was shorter in group P (248.00 ± 98.171 vs 340.63 ± 111.592 minutes; P = .003). The duration of second stage of labor was comparable between the 2 groups. Higher incidence of maternal side effects such as nausea/vomiting and sedation was associated with the use of tramadol. Neonatal outcome was comparable. Intravenous paracetamol provides comparable analgesia as intramuscular tramadol during active labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... 106- 200 (2002), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the... of benefits under CBTPA and AGOA, respectively. In addition, the Andean Trade Preference Act, as... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION...

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.107 - Are there any exceptions to the use of a contract city-pair fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regard to scheduling travel during normal working hours; (c) A non-contract carrier offers a lower fare... mission requirements; or (e) Smoking is permitted on the contract air carrier and the nonsmoking section...

  12. Epidural Neostigmine versus Fentanyl to Decrease Bupivacaine Use in Patient-controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labor: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jessica L; Ross, Vernon H; Nelson, Kenneth E; Harris, Lynnette; Eisenach, James C; Pan, Peter H

    2017-07-01

    The addition of opioids to epidural local anesthetic reduces local anesthetic consumption by 20% but at the expense of side effects and time spent for regulatory compliance paperwork. Epidural neostigmine also reduces local anesthetic use. The authors hypothesized that epidural bupivacaine with neostigmine would decrease total hourly bupivacaine use compared with epidural bupivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia. A total of 215 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, laboring parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia consented to the study and were randomized to receive 0.125% bupivacaine with the addition of either fentanyl (2 μg/ml) or neostigmine (2, 4, or 8 μg/ml). The primary outcome was total hourly local anesthetic consumption, defined as total patient-controlled epidural analgesia use and top-ups (expressed as milliliters of 0.125% bupivacaine) divided by the infusion duration. A priori analysis determined a group size of 35 was needed to have 80% power at α = 0.05 to detect a 20% difference in the primary outcome. Of 215 subjects consented, 151 patients were evaluable. Demographics, maternal and fetal outcomes, and labor characteristics were similar among groups. Total hourly local anesthetic consumption did not differ among groups (P = 0.55). The total median hourly bupivacaine consumption in the fentanyl group was 16.0 ml/h compared with 15.3, 14.6, and 16.2 ml/h in the 2, 4, and 8 μg/ml neostigmine groups, respectively (P = 0.55). The data do not support any difference in bupivacaine requirements for labor patient-controlled epidural analgesia whether patients receive epidural bupivacaine with 2 to 8 μg/ml neostigmine or epidural bupivacaine with 2 μg/ml fentanyl.

  13. Managing wind turbine reliability and maintenance via performance-based contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Tongdan; Ding, Yi; Guo, Huairui

    2012-01-01

    between system cost, reliability and spare parts stocking. This analytical insight into the system performance allows the turbine manufacturer to optimize design, production, and after-sales services. The study aims to create a theoretical basis to facilitate the transition of the maintenance paradigm......Performance-based contracting (PBC) is reshaping the acquisition, operation, and maintenance of capital equipment. Under the PBC scheme, we propose a holistic approach for lowering the cost of wind turbine ownership while meeting the availability requirement. Our effects are focused on integrated...... firms who design and market wind turbines, and also provide maintenance and repair service. PBC differs from conventional service contracts in that the wind farmers compensate the service provider for the system performance, not the spare parts and repair labor. We explore the analytical relationship...

  14. Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension

  15. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working

  16. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Taek; Lee, Goeun; Kwon, Jongho; Park, Jung-Woo; Choi, Hyunrim; Lim, Sinye

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working hours and various health effects in Korean

  17. Psychoprophylaxis during labor: associations with labor-related outcomes and experience of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla

    2010-06-01

    To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.

  18. Critical Review on Labor Factors and Country Competitiveness: Comparison between Indonesia and Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Wahyuni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to critically compare labor factors and country competitiveness of Jordan and Indonesia that affecting its country attractiveness in the textile industry. This study is a mix between qualitative quantitative approaches. The data were collected from the published materials of Better Work data, BAPPENAS, and in depth – interview with certified social compliance auditors, factory managers, and some workers to earn more information on textile industry in Indonesia and Jordan. The result of this study indicated that there are several labor factors that could boost up the Indonesian’s performance in Textile industry, i.e. working hours, occupational safety and health, compensation and benefits, and also discrimination.

  19. Is automation labor-displacing? : Productivity growth, employment, and the labor share

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autor, David; Salomons, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041575

    2018-01-01

    Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries.

  20. Cervicometry in the evaluation of preterm labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoles Mendez, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    One of the current problems of greater importance in perinatal medicine is the preterm labor, because besides elevating the perinatal morbidity and mortality, it causes neurological damage and affects growing in the newborns. In this paper not only the value of cervicometry is highlighted as a screening method in population with high risk of preterm newborns, but also its importance to predict the occurrence threat of the last condition when uterine contractions exist, reason why the appropriate technique, approaches, indications and the advantages of this procedure are described, as well as the cut level for the cervical length is determined in its different modalities. As a result, a care protocol for pregnants with prematurity risk based on the use of cervicometry was introduced, which is considered a valuable screening tool in the selected population

  1. The effects of residential real-time pricing contracts on transco loads, pricing, and profitability: Simulations using the N-ABLE trademark agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Scholand, Andrew J.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2007-01-01

    An agent-based model is constructed in which a demand aggregator sells both uniform-price and real-time price (RTP) contracts to households as means for adding price elasticity in residential power use sectors, particularly during peak-price hours of the day. Simulations suggest that RTP contracts help a demand aggregator (1) shift its long-term contracts toward off-peak hours, thereby reducing its cost of power and (2) increase its short-run profits if it is one of the first aggregators to have large numbers of RTP contracts; but (3) create susceptibilities to short-term market demand and price volatilities. (author)

  2. [Civil competence assessment of the mental disorders involved in contract dispute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin-Ting; Pang, Yan-Xia; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Tang, Tao; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2009-04-01

    To search the criteria for evaluating the civil competence of the mental disorders involved in contract dispute. Data on the interviewee's mental status and the forensic expertise were collected retrospectively. And 6 indexes were selected and graded: awareness of situation, factual understanding of issues, appreciation of likely consequences, rational manipulation of information, functioning in one's own environment and communication of choice. All of the data were analyzed by SPSS. Fifty six cases were included and interviewee's civil competence was graded to three levels: full civil competence, diminished civil competence, and no civil competence. These cases included two types of contract: the real estate related contract (38 cases) and the labor related contract (14 cases). All of the 6 indexes were well correlated to the forensic expertise. The related coefficient was from 0.703 to 0.834, and the interrelated coefficient of the 6 items was also high, from 0.712 to 0.877. It is feasible to divide the civil competence of the mental disorders into three grades. As the basis, these 6 indexes mentioned above are representative and can be applied in further standardized and quantified assessment of civil competence.

  3. LABOR SUBSTITUTABILITY IN LABOR INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN LABOR

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES) is estimated to address factor substitutability in Florida agriculture during 1960-1999. By adopting a profit maximization model of induced innovation theory, the MES's between hired and self-employed labor and the MES's between labor and capital provide implications for future immigration policies.

  4. Labor management in a patient with on willebrand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaqib, S.

    2007-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder involving a deficiency or abnormal function of a blood clotting protein called von Willebrand factor (VWF). Deficiency of VWF, therefore, shows primarily in organs with small blood vessels such as the skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the uterus. This case report describes management of a patient presenting with type II von Willebrand disease in labor. She had history of lifethreatening hemorrhage from an operation for deviated nasal septum and had a risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) within 48 hours of delivery, which was avoided by appropriate planning and timely management. (author)

  5. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  6. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Garam

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  7. Labor migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  8. TODAY THE GLOBAL LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shchipanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  9. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuzova, M

    1991-12-01

    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  10. Maternal labor force participation and differences by education in an urban birth cohort study - 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pilkauskas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. Objective: We document variation by maternal education in mothers' labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding over the first nine years after the birth of a child. Methods: We use the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N~3000 to predict longitudinal labor force participation in a recent longitudinal sample of mothers who gave birth in large US cities between 1998 and 2000. Families were followed until children were age 9, through 2010. Results: Labor force participation gradually increases in the years after birth for mothers with high school or less education, whereas for mothers with some college or more, participation increases between ages 1 and 3 and then remains mostly stable thereafter. Mothers with less than high school education have the highest rates of unemployment (actively seeking work, which remain high compared with all other education groups, whose unemployment declines over time. Compared with all other education groups, mothers with some college have the highest rates of labor force participation, but Contribution: Simple conceptualizations of labor force participation do not fully capture the dynamics of labor force attachment for mothers in terms of intensity, timing of entry, and type of work hours, as well as differences by maternal education.

  11. Castor oil for induction of labor in post-date pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Ronit; Hochner, Hagit; Savitsky, Bella; Porat, Shay; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith

    2018-02-01

    Castor oil is a substance used for labor induction in an inpatient setting. However, its efficacy as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in an outpatient setup is unknown. Efficacy of castor oil as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in outpatient settings. Eighty-one women with a low-risk post-date singleton pregnancy with a Bishop score≤7, without effective uterine contractions were randomized to the intervention, 60ml of castor oil, or the control, 60ml of sun-flower oil. The primary outcome was proportion of women entering the active phase of labor 24, 36, 48h after ingestion. Secondary outcomes included meconium stained amniotic fluid, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing, cesarean section rate, instrumental deliveries, birth weight, 5min Apgar score, chorioamnionitis, hypertensive complications, retained placenta, and post-partum hemorrhage. Intervention and control groups included 38 and 43 women, respectively. No differences in baseline characteristics, except for age were noted. The observed interaction between castor oil and parity was significant (p interaction =0.02). Multiparous women in the intervention group exhibited a significant beneficial effect on entering active labor within 24, 36 and 48h after castor oil consumption compared with the placebo (Hazard Ratio=2.93, p=0.048; Hazard Ratio=3.29, p=0.026; Hazard Ratio=2.78, p=0.042 respectively). This effect was not noted among primiparous women. No differences in rate of obstetric complications or adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. Castor oil is effective for labor induction, in post-date multiparous women in outpatient settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Contract Faculty in Canada: Using Access to Information Requests to Uncover Hidden Academics in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, universities are undergoing a process of corporatization where business interests, values and practices are assuming a more prominent place in higher education. A key feature of this process has been the changing composition of academic labor. While it is generally accepted that universities are relying more heavily on contract faculty,…

  13. Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs; Tuntinen tilaustehon ja -vesivirran maeaeritys ja tariffien vaatimukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippinen, I.; Pirhonen, J.; Ahtila, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Maekelae, V.M. [Komartek Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs', which was carried out by the Helsinki University of Technology and Komartek Oy. The report consists of two parts. Part A presents the study of the Helsinki University of Technology, in which the consumption of domestic hot water in different size houses were clarified. Part B presents the tariff calculations carried out by Komartek Oy. In the part of the Helsinki University of Technology, the consumption of hot household water has been measured in different sized houses in order to determine their real demand of district heat and heat exhanger capacity. Including earlier measurements, measurements were carried out in 35 buildings. The size of the houses varied from a two-family house to a house of 204 flats. The domestic hot water flows and water temperatures to and from the heat exchanger were measured continuously during periods of a day and a week. To find out the congruence between reality and the dimensioning standards, the measurement results have been compared with the current dimensioning standards. It became evident in the study, that the current dimensioning standards are considerably oversized. Measured maximum heat consumptions were in general less than half of the dimensioned maximums. Operation times for the maximum loads were very short timed, ranging from some tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. The maximum peak loads were either in the mornings or in the evenings. However, no special week-days with clear maximum loads were found during week measurements. In second part was studied how the domestic hot water consumption will influence on the incomes of a DH company and payments of different kinds of customers. Domestic hot water was calculated as a one hour maximum. It was found out that there were outstanding differences in payments of different sizes of customers between different tariffs when the total

  14. Training in two-tier labor markets: The role of job match quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to continue productive job matches, we hypothesize that the negative effect of holding a temporary contract on the probability to be trained diminishes with the quality of the job match. Using a recent longitudinal survey from the Netherlands, we find that temporary workers indeed participate less frequently in firm-sponsored training. However, this effect is fully driven by mismatches: holding a temporary contract does not significantly decrease the probability to receive training for workers in good job matches. Depending on match quality, a temporary job can either be a stepping stone or a dead-end. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  16. Long working hours in Korea: results of the 2010 Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Long working hours adversely affect workers' safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation limiting the working week to 40 h, to improve quality-of-life and to increase business competitiveness. In the present study, we explored the characteristics of work in Korea and compared our data of the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) with those of the first KWCS. We found that the average number of hours worked weekly has been reduced but the proportions of workers who work for more than 48 h per week has increased over the 4 yr between the two Korean surveys in all categories studied (male, female, employee, self-employed, and employer). We also found that self-employed and employers work much longer hours than do employees, who are protected by the Labor Standards Act. This was particularly true in the accommodation and food service sectors. In conclusion, Korean workers work longer than do workers of EU countries. The use of average figures masks differences in the numbers of working hours among those engaged in various types of employment, or in certain work sectors. Therefore, the Korean government should not simply monitor reductions in average weekly working hours, but should identify employees working for over 60 h weekly, and reduce their working time.

  17. Relationship Banking in Labor Bank

    OpenAIRE

    三村, 聡

    2012-01-01

    As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...

  18. Pelletized vs. natural iron ore technology: energy, labor, and capital changes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakela, P.

    1978-09-01

    Total energy requirements per ton of iron-in-ore for natural and pelletized ore were calculated by a hybrid energy analysis. Energy requirements for ore preparation were subsequently considered as one energy input (embodied) to blast furnaces. Total energy requirements per ton molten iron were calculated for each year from 1955 through 1975 to identify changes attributable to the shift in iron ore preparation. Four results were found. (1) In practice, the lean ores are energetically superior. Pelletized ore requires more energy at the mine than natural ore, but pellets produce offsetting energy savings in the blast furnace. (2) Labor changes followed a similar pattern: man-hours per ton of molten iron increased at the mine with pelletization, but decreased at the blast furnance. Net labor required per ton of molten iron has decreased with pelletization. (3) Capital investments per ton of molten iron have increased greatly at iron ore mines with pelletization and decreased moderately at blast furnaces. New capital investment per ton of molten iron has increased with pelletization. (4) In the iron and steel industry, relatively low-priced energy held a substantial advantage over high-priced labor between 1950 and 1969. The industry, however, discovered that capital investments in pellet plants could save both labor and energy up to 1963; after 1963 capital and energy weresubstituted for labor. A sharp reversal of substitutional advantage occurred in 1970; energy jumped to the most costly factor. Thus capital presently shows a strong substitutional advantage over high-priced energy and intermediately-priced labor.

  19. 77 FR 59670 - Electronic Filing of H-2A and H-2B Labor Certification Applications Through the iCERT Visa Portal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) and Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... administration of certain employment-based immigration programs that require a labor certification. 8 U.S.C. 1184....pdf and Office of Management and Budget, Contracting Guidance to Support Modular Development (Jun. 14...

  20. Alcohol, indomethacin, and salbutamol. A comparative trial of their use in preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, G

    1979-02-01

    In a comparative trial, ethanol effectively arrested preterm labor for 48 hours for more in 32% of cases, a beta-adrenergic agent (salbutamol) in 60% of cases (not statistically significant), and a combination of ethanol and indomethacin in 70% of cases (statistically significant, P less than 0.5). Labor was delayed for 14 days or more in 36, 60, and 50%, respectively (not statistically significant). The numbers studied were small, and tests of statistical significance were of doubtful value. Salbutamol was more acceptable to patients and the staff than ethanol. The trial was suspended and eventually abandoned due to reports of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors causing premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. In this series no problems were encountered with the use of indomethacin.

  1. Acoso laboral - daño psíquico Laboral abuse - psychological damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.

  2. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  3. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  4. Randomized comparison of oral misoprostol and oxytocin for labor induction in term prelabor membrane rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, K D; Bennett, K A; Crane, J M; Hutchens, D; Young, D C

    1999-12-01

    To compare labor induction intervals between oral misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin in women who present at term with premature rupture of membranes. One hundred eight women were randomly assigned to misoprostol 50 microg orally every 4 hours as needed or intravenous oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time from induction to vaginal delivery. Sample size was calculated using a two-tailed alpha of 0.05 and power of 80%. Baseline demographic data, including maternal age, gestation, parity, Bishop score, birth weight, and group B streptococcal status, were similar. The mean time +/-standard deviation to vaginal birth with oral misoprostol was 720+/-382 minutes compared with 501+/-389 minutes with oxytocin (P = .007). The durations of the first, second, and third stages of labor were similar. There were no differences in maternal secondary outcomes, including cesarean birth (eight and seven, respectively), infection, maternal satisfaction with labor, epidural use, perineal trauma, manual placental removal, or gastrointestinal side effects. Neonatal outcomes including cord pH, Apgar scores, infection, and admission to neonatal intensive care unit were not different. Although labor induction with oral misoprostol was effective, oxytocin resulted in a shorter induction-to-delivery interval. Active labor intervals and other maternal and neonatal outcomes were similar.

  5. Kinky Choices, Dictators and Split Might : A Non-Cooperative Model for Household Consumption and Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van der Wiel, K.M.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    It is unlikely that husbands and wives always agree on exactly what public goods to buy. Nor do they necessarily agree on how many hours to work with obvious consequences for the household budget. We therefore model consumption and labor supply behavior of a couple in a non-cooperative setting by

  6. Incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la capacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En España coexisten dos sistemas públicos de salud: el universal, gestionado por las comunidades autónomas y financiado con impuestos, y el laboral, gestionado por las Mutuas y financiado por cuotas a la Seguridad Social, los cuales se reparten la responsabilidad de gestión de la incapacidad laboral. Esta doble dependencia dificulta la gestión de esta importante prestación sanitaria y social. Una gestión que es diferente en función de la etiología (común o profesional y su pronóstico (temporal o permanente. Para poder comprender mejor la naturaleza de la incapacidad laboral, y que su investigación sea útil para mejorar su gestión médica y social, conviene adoptar una perspectiva longitudinal (life course research, analizando trayectorias de incapacidad en los individuos, y no solo episodios aislados. Una trayectoria de incapacidad que debemos analizar junto a la trayectoria laboral de esa misma persona. Para analizar conjuntamente las trayectorias laboral y de incapacidad disponemos de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales de la Seguridad Social desde 2004. Una muestra de 873.008 afiliados (un 4%, aproximadamente en 2009 entre los que se produjeron 163.136 episodios de incapacidad temporal (IT iniciados en 2009, las cuales evolucionaron entre 2009 y 2012 a 4.738 casos de incapacidad permanente (IP. Un 2,9% en total, que fue del 12,6% en caso de tumores malignos (282 IP de 2.234 IT y del 9,2% en el caso de enfermedades cardiovasculares (344 IP de 3.532 IT. En un contexto de incremento de la esperanza de vida y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas (vivimos más pero con más incapacidad necesitamos analizar longitudinalmente las trayectorias de incapacidad para poder prevenir los años de vida laboral perdidos por IP, los cuales, como sabemos, están relacionados con la trayectoria laboral (1.

  7. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...

  8. International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

  9. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  10. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  11. Combined Spinal-Epidural Analgesia for Laboring Parturient with Arnold-Chiari Type I Malformation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark K. Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of laboring parturients with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation poses a difficult challenge for the anesthesiologist. The increase in intracranial pressure during uterine contractions, coughing, valsalva maneuvers, and expulsion of the fetus can be detrimental to the mother during the process of labor and delivery. No concrete evidence has implicated high cerebral spinal fluid pressure on maternal and fetal complications. The literature on the use of neuraxial techniques for managing parturients with Arnold-Chiari is extremely scarce. While most anesthesiologists advocate epidural analgesia for management of labor pain and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, we are the first to report the use of combined spinal-epidural analgesia for managing labor pain in a pregnant woman with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. Also, we have reviewed the literature and presented information from case reports and case series to support the safe usage of neuraxial techniques in these patients.

  12. The effect of inflatable obstetric belts in nulliparous pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia during the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woon; Kim, Yoon Ha; Cho, Hye Yon; Shin, Hee-Young; Shin, Jong Chul; Choi, Sea Kyung; Lee, Keun-Young; Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Pil-Ryang

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor. Between July 2009 and December 2010, 188 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy at term were enrolled and only one dropped. The participants were randomized to receive either standard care (control group, n = 91) or uterine fundal pressure by the Labor Assister (Baidy M-520/Curexo, Inc., Seoul, Korea; active group, n = 97) during the second stage of labor in addition to standard care. The Labor Assister is an inflatable obstetric belt that is synchronized to apply constant fundal pressure during a uterine contraction. The primary endpoint was duration of the second stage of labor in women who delivered vaginally (control, n = 80 versus active, n = 93). It was not analyzed in women who delivered by cesarean section (n = 14) and delivered precipitously (n = 1). The secondary outcomes are perinatal outcomes and perineal laceration. Participants received patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The 93 women in the active group spent less time in the second stage of labor when compared to the 80 women in the control group (46.51 ± 28.01 min versus 75.02 ± 37.48 min, p labor without complications in nulliparous women who receive patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  13. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  14. Signs of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  17. "No-hire" clauses in healthcare sector contracts: their use and enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, W Eugene

    2006-01-01

    In today's healthcare industry, many hospitals utilize outside agencies for both business and clinical functions. This Article acknowledges the prevalence of outsourcing contract labor in the healthcare arena and focuses on the restrictive provisions included in these employment contracts, particularly "no-hire" clauses. No-hire clauses are often included in contracts between healthcare providers and professional groups that provide clinical service employees to the provider, such as a medical practice group providing physicians to a hospital or an agency providing nurses to a nursing home. These clauses usually provide that the healthcare provider may not directly hire an employee provided by the professional group, nor may it contract with another professional group that later hires the employee. The purpose of a no-hire clause is two-fold: to protect the professional group's investment of time and moneyfor recruiting, training, and establishing the employee's clinical practice, and to give the professional group leverage to retain its employees. While noncompete clauses in employment contracts have traditionally been the subject of litigation, no-hire clauses raise distinct legal issues. Case law provides conflicting views as to the enforceability of these provisions. Some courts find no-hire clauses to be per se illegal restrictions on trade, while others will permit them when they are reasonable within a specific context. The author proposes that a multifactor test be applied on a case-by-case basis to determine the reasonableness of the no-hire provision in a given employment contract and suggests drafting improvements to facilitate enforcement.

  18. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  19. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  20. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  1. Métodos para indução do parto Methods for labor induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olímpio Barbosa de Moraes Filho

    2005-08-01

    choice for labor induction and thus collaborate with the reduction in cesarean section rates, it is necessary that an accessible, cheap, safe, effective, easy to be used method with good acceptability is available. Although several methods of labor induction reported in medical literature do exist, it is known that there is no ideal method. However, among them, two are highlighted. The first is oxytocin, which has the advantages of promoting physiologic uterine contractions of labor and reverting uterine hypercontractility when suspended. The other method is misoprostol, nowadays the most used, which ripens the uterine cervix and induces uterine contractions of labor. However, there are still some controversies regarding its ideal dose, route and safety.

  2. The effect of barusiban, a selective oxytocin antagonist, in threatened preterm labor at late gestational age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 seconds...

  3. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  4. Hacia un nuevo modelo laboral en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards a new labor model in SpainThe article starts with confirming the acceleration process in reforms of labor regulations-intensive and extensive-which is faced bySpain that has considered even the reform of constitutional framework. It should be noted that measures taken in the Spanish reform are aimed at increasing the employability of workers and with regard to promotion of employment stability; we find the incorporation of a new contractual modality, literally called “employment contract for indefinite time to support entrepreneurs”.Meanwhile, as the most important novelties are located the following: elimination with general character of administrative authorization for collective dismissals, the expansion of the proper reasons of economic dismissals, with the corresponding reduction effect of the judicial control as justification for business measure and the possible reduction in the practice of dismissal cost, the generalization of compensatory amount for unfair dismissal after 33 days of salary per year of seniority with limit of the 24 monthly salary, the complete suppression of processing salaries when the employer chooses indemnified extinction in case of unfair dismissal, among others. All this range of regulatory changes is analyzed critically by the author who, starting from the Spanish legislation, studies the most relevant legal concepts.

  5. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Alcohol and labor supply: the case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne

    2009-10-01

    At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.

  7. Migrants at the Russian labor market: occupations, mobility, intensity of labor and wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mukomel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should

  8. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  9. Payroll accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Hodžová, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Main topic of my thesis is the Payroll Accounting. The work summarizes most of the areas that are related to this topic and the knowledge necessary in calculating the final determination of wages. Beginning the thesis mentions specific chapters from the Labor code which explain the facts about the start, changes and the termination of the employment contract then more detailed description of the arrangements performed outside of the employment contract and then working hours and mini...

  10. Optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm under labor taxes and labor mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ponce Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is developed a theoretical model to study the incentives that a labor tax might induce in terms of the optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm. In particular, we analyze the interaction of a labor tax that tends to reduce the wage due the firm is induced to shift backwards the tax burden to its employees minimizing the possible increase in the payroll costs and a fall of profits. However a lower wage might not be an optimal response to the establishment of a labor tax because it increases the labor turnover and as a result the firm faces both: an output’s opportunity cost and a labors turnover cost. The firm thus optimally decides to respond to the qualification and labor taxes by increasing the after tax wage.

  11. 24 CFR 891.155 - Other Federal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and mechanics (other than volunteers under the conditions set out in 24 CFR part 70) employed by... employment of laborers and mechanics shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work Hours and Safety... displaced person must be provided relocation assistance at the levels described in, and in accordance with...

  12. Extending the Multi Regional Input-Output framework to labor related impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardadi, Gilang; Pizzol, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    -O framework to social impacts. These challenges are addressed in this study where the Exiobase database was extended with new data on five quantitative indicators available from the International Labor Organization: employment; working hours; salary; occupational accident cases; and unemployment....... This required modeling steps, such as the disaggregation of data from sector to product group level, and filling the data gaps for missing countries by primary data collection or interpolation. A characterization step where indicator values are converted into social impacts on human productivity and human well...

  13. Health and Safety of Hyderabad Industries’ Labor. Causes and Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Khoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Labor’s health and safety (H&S is a matter of concern for all industries. Occurrence of accidents in industries is becoming a common issue. Both white collar and blue-collar workers are not shielded from materials that damage their health. This study identifies the critical factors affecting labor’s H&S in Hyderabad, Pakistan industries. The awareness of labor regarding prevention and consequences that affect workers’ H&S is also a matter of interest of this research. The severity of factors was determined through questionnaire survey from experts, H&S supervisors and managerial staff of industries. For the descriptive analysis the software SPPS 24.0 was used. This research also includes interviews form industry laborers about awareness regarding H&S critical factors. The results show that, Improper PPE use, operating machines that are poorly maintained, long term exposure to high intensity noise, working extended and irregular hours and lack of knowledge of working instruments are the critical causes of accidents. Also 60.9%, 73.9%, 69.6%, 78.3% and 89% of workers are not aware about these causes and their consequences. Thus, this research is a road map for industrial employers, law makers, local, provisional and federal Government of Pakistan in order to help minimizing the workplace accidents and the providing of safe and secure working environment for laborers.

  14. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  15. Platelets stimulate fibroblast-mediated contraction of collagen gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundahl Joachim

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelets are thought to play a role in a variety of inflammatory conditions in the lung, some of which may lead to fibrosis. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that whole platelets and platelet lysate can mediate remodelling of extracellular matrix in vitro by affecting fibroblast-mediated contraction of a collagen gel. We also sought to determine to what extent platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β contribute to this effect. Methods Washed platelets, isolated from healthy blood donors, and platelet lysate (freezing and thawing, were cast together with human lung fibroblasts in three-dimensional collagen gels. The gels were then released and cultured for four days. PDGF and TGF-β1 concentrations were measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. Results Both platelets and platelet lysate augmented fibroblast-mediated gel contraction in a time and concentration dependent manner (19.9% ± 0.1 (mean ± SEM of initial area vs. 48.0% ± 0.4 at 48 hours; P 1 and PDGF-AA/AB were released in co-culture. PDGF-AA/AB had a maximum release at 24 hours whereas TGF-β1 release increased with longer culture periods. Neutralising antibodies to these mediators partially inhibited platelet-induced gel contraction. Conclusion We conclude that platelets may promote remodelling of extracellular matrix in vitro and that PDGF and TGF-β partially mediate this effect, also indicating a role for other mediators. The findings may be an important mechanism in regulating repair processes after injury.

  16. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  17. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...

  18. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...

  19. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...

  20. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  1. Obstetric and perinatal outcome in induction of labor compared with expectant management for prelabor rupture of the membranes at term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, U.; Mushtaq, R.; Mushtaq, M.

    2015-01-01

    To compare the management outcome of induction of labor with expectant management in patients with term pre labor rupture of membranes (PROM). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 25th July 2010 to 25th January 2011. Methods: A total of 384 patients were selected for this study, which were divided into two groups by lottery method. Patients in group A were induced with tablet prostaglandin E2 and group B patients were managed expectantly for 24 hours. The outcome of mothers and neonates was recorded on a pre-designed proforma. Results: The mean duration between PROM to onset of active labor in group A was significantly less (8.4 ± 2.3 hours) as compared to group B in which it was (9.6±2.1 hours) (p = 0.000). The mean duration between PROM to delivery in group A was significantly less in group A (17.4 ± 2.0) versus group B (22.2 ± 2.0 hours) (p = 0.000). The spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) rate was considerably higher (p=0.056) in group A in which 161 (83.8%) patients delivered by SVD and 31 (16.1%) patients by LSCS. In group B, 146 (76.0%) patients delivered by SVD and 46 (23.9%) patients by LSCS. In group A, 8 (4.1%) patients developed chorioamnionitis and 13 (6.7%) patients in group B (p = 0.262). In group A there were 178 (92.7%) neonates with APGAR score of > 5 at 1 minute in contrast to 173 (90.1%) in group B with (p = 0.363). Similarly in group A at 5 minutes, there were 178 (92.7%) neonates with APGAR score of > 7 and 173 (90.1%) in group B (p = 0.460). There were 9 (4.6%) cases of neonatal sepsis in group A, in comparison with 12 (6.2%) patients in group B (p = 0.501). Conclusion: The mean duration of labor in induced patients was less as compared to patients with expectant management. (author)

  2. Description and search labor for information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  3. ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS IN PREGNANCY, LABOR AND POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Arustamyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute cerebrovascular accidents are rare and serious complication of pregnancy, labor and puerperium, leading to an increase in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. More than 12% of maternal mortality is related to stroke. Aim: To assess the impact of pregnancy on the incidence of stroke, as well as the impact of cerebrovascular disorders on pregnancy, labor and puerperium. Materials and methods: We retrospectively and prospectively analyzed the course of pregnancy, labor and puerperium in 136 female patients with strokes of various etiologies. The diagnosis of stroke and cerebrovascular disorders was verified with magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, conventional and multiaxial computerized tomography, ophthalmoscopy, electroencephalography, electrocardiography and echocardiography (trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and electrocardiogram monitoring, ultrasound assessment of extra and intracranial vasculature with duplex scanning, cerebral angiography and laboratory assessments. Results: The analysis of 92 strokes that occurred during pregnancy, labor and postpartum showed that 38% of the cases (n=35 were caused by various cerebrovascular abnormalities. In 18.5% of the cases (n=17, acute cerebrovascular accidents occurred in patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia. Most often (84.8%, or 78/97 of cases strokes or other cerebrovascular accidents developed in II and III trimesters. The most severe cases were patients with intracranial hemorrhages (n=31. In this group, there were 5  deaths of mothers, 1  antenatal and 1  neonatal fetal deaths. In 90% of these cases (28/31, intracranial hemorrhage in pregnancy was related to manifestation of intracerebral vascular abnormality (arteriovenous malformations, arterial aneurysms, cavernomas. We observed a 4-fold rate of arteriovenous malformation ruptures during pregnancy (21 cases vs. 5. The rates of arterial aneurysm and cavernoma ruptures

  4. When your contract manufacturer becomes your competitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruñda, Benito; Vázquez, Xosé H

    2006-09-01

    PC maker Lenovo started out as a distributor of equipment made by IBM and other companies; now it has formed a joint venture with IBM and will eventually affix its own logo to its computers. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) started out manufacturing vehicles for Volkswagen and GM; now it's preparing to sell its own cars in China, Europe, and North America. Lenovo and SAIC represent a host of formerly anonymous makers of brand-name products that are breaking out of their defined roles and pushing the brands themselves aside. In this article, the authors explore the double-edged relationships original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) forge with their contract manufacturers (CMs). On the one hand, an OEM can reduce its labor costs, free up capital, and improve worker productivity by outsourcing all the manufacturing of a product. The company can then concentrate on value-adding activities--research and development, product design, and marketing, for instance. On the other hand, an OEM that retains a contract manufacturer may find itself immersed in a melodrama replete with promiscuity (the ambitious CM pursues liaisons with other OEMs), infidelity (the OEM's retailers and distributors shift their business to the upstart CM), and betrayal (the brazen CM transmits the OEM's intellectual property to the OEM's rivals or keeps it for itself when the contract is up). OEMs cannot simply terminate their outsourcing arrangements--they need contract manufacturers in order to keep specializing, adding value, and staying competitive. But OEMs can manage these relationships so that they don't become weak or the CMs too strong. Doing so requires modesty about revealing trade secrets; caution about whom one consorts with; and a judicious degree of intimacy, loyalty, and generosity toward partners and customers.

  5. 26 CFR 1.162-28 - Allocation of costs to lobbying activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following example. Example. (i) Three full-time employees, A, B, and C, work in the Washington office of... include costs attributable to full-time, part-time, and contract employees. Labor costs include all..., to assume that all full-time personnel spend 1,800 hours per year on a taxpayer's trade or business...

  6. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  7. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...

  8. Comparison of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine with sufentanil for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor: a randomized clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-zhong; CHANG Xiang-yang; LIU Xia; HU Xiao-xia; TANG Bei-lei

    2010-01-01

    Background Ropivacaine and levobupivacaine have been introduced into obstetric analgesic practice with the proposed advantages of causing less motor block and toxicity compared with bupivacaine. However, it is still controversial whether both anesthetics are associated with any clinical benefit relative to bupivacaine for labor analgesia. This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy, motor block and side effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine at lower concentrations for patient-controlled epidural labor analgesia. Methods Four hundred and fifty nulliparous parturients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. A concentration of 0.05%, 0.075%, 0.1%, 0.125% or 0.15% of either bupivacaine (Group B), ropivacaine (Group R) or levobupivacaine (Group L) with sufentanil 0.5 μg/ml was epidurally administered by patient-controlled analgesia mode. Effective analgesia was defined as a visual analogue scale score was ≤30 mm. The relative median potency for each local anesthetic was calculated using a probit regression model. Parturients demographics, sensory and motor blockade, obstetric data, maternal side effects, hourly volumes of local anesthetic used, and others were also noted. Results There were no significant differences among groups in the numbers of effective analgesia, pain scores, hourly local anesthetic amount used, sensory and motor blockade, labor duration and mode of delivery, side effects and maternal satisfaction (P >0.05). The relative median potency was bupivacaine/ropivacaine: 0.828 (0.602-1.091), bupivacaine/levobupivacaine: 0.845 (0.617-1.12), ropivacaine/levobupivacaine: 1.021 (0.774-1.354), respectively. However, a significantly less number of effective analgesia and higher hourly local anesthetic use were observed in the concentration of 0.05% than those of ≥0.1% within each group (P<0.05). Conclusions Using patient-controlled epidural analgesia, lower concentrations of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine

  9. Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…

  10. Challenges in Albania for improving Labor Market Information System and Labor Market Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshat Zeneli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.

  11. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...

  12. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Garam Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...

  13. Effect of Maintenance Therapy with Isoxsuprine in the Prevention of Preterm Labor: Randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Azin; Rajaee, Minoo; Amirian, Malihe; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Jahanshahi, Keramat Allah; Faghihi, Armaghan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Isoxsuprine (Vasodilan) is a beta-adrenergic that directly affects the vascular smooth muscle and results in peripheral vascular dilation. Isoxsuprine relaxes the uterine smooth muscles and is used for treatment of pre-term labor and dysmenorrhea. Isoxsuprine is used extensively in hospitals and private clinics in Iran; however, few studies have reported its safety and efficacy in the prevention of pre-term labor. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maintenance therapy with oral isoxsuprine for the prevention of pre-term labor. Methods: We undertook a blinded prospective randomized trial of 70 women with singleton pregnancies who presented in pre-term labor between 26 to 34 weeks of gestation. After arresting the contractions with intravenous magnesium sulfate, the patients were randomized into two groups, with the treatment group receiving oral isoxsuprine until 34 weeks of gestation. Response to treatment was assessed by the progression of the pregnancies in both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Our results showed that 14 (40%) of the patients in the case group and 12 (34.29%) of patients in the control group had pre-term births, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.621). Also four women (11.43%) in the case group and five women (14.29%) in the control group delivered before 34 weeks (P=0.721). Conclusion: Oral isoxsuprine was not effective as a maintenance treatment in preventing pre-term births or in delaying delivery until after 34 weeks. Larger studies are needed to identify the best treatment for pre-term labor. PMID:26396726

  14. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market

  15. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  17. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Framing labor contracts : Contract versus network theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegt, R.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 18th century the ‘contractual model’ has become both a paradigm of social theories (f.i. ‘rational choice’) and a dominant model of structuring labour relations. Its presupposition of the subjectivity of individual actors as a given is criticized with reference to network-based theories

  19. INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT SUSPENSION IN CASE OF ACTIVITY INTERRUPTION AND / OR THE TEMPORARY ACTIVITY REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Monica Matiaş

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial reasons determined by the current crisis have imposed to the Romanian legislator that, in the flexible regulatory context concerning the labour reports, has to intervene to reduce the loss. The legal framework available to the employer in this situation refers to the provisions of the art. 52, 1st paragraph, letter c, art.52, 3rd paragraph, art.53 and 122, 3rd paragraph, all from Law no.40/20111, for Law no.53/2003 modification and amendment concerning the Labour code. Under conditions of economic crisis, it is natural that employers have the necessary means to efficiently organize their activity, meanwhile keeping its staff on these periods. This does not mean that, during the suspension period the employees can not resign, no need to terminate the suspension provided for in Article 52 line 3 of the Labour Code in order to intervene in the individual labor contract termination. From the employer’s perspective there is no ban imposed to him by art. 60 of the Labour Code in relation to this type of suspension, so that the latter may proceed to dismiss the employee during the unilateral suspension of his labor contract arranged under Article 52 line 3 of the Labour Code.

  20. Labor Laws and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...

  1. THE LEVEL OF WAGE AND LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN HOTEL INDUSTRY: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanda Karina Astari Fatma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wage a phenomenon that happen today is high wage and high competitiveness. Wage theory that was developed by Rees (1973 and Katz (1980 explain that wage cannot only be seen only as a production cost but also as a part of an effort to increase the labor prosperity and motivation. This theory is a wage efficiency theory, which stated that company’s revenue can increase despite paying wage above the market wage equilibrium. Even though here the two experts had calculated the problem of labor’s quality but they have not reach empirical testing by developing certain model. Therefore, the researchers saw this gap as an opportunity to unravel the phenomena happening to labor and make an effort to develop an empirical model to see the influence of wage to productivity and variable that can measure the quality of labor and other variables that affect wage and productivity simultaneously. The factors used are the difference in individual characteristic, human capital, and quality of work life. The approach of this research is constructivism approach through quantitative analysis technique with simultaneous equation system. Analysis unit in this research is labor in hospitality industry. Estimation results of research shows that education, training, experience, work hour and productivity have significant positive influence to wage, while age and work status is not significant. Quality of work life, and wage have significant positive influence to productivity, while education, experience, age and work status have no significant influence. Important finding from research that training has significant influence to productivity but negatively. Overall, findings of this research show that positive effect of training to productivity will be bigger in organization that willing to invest in work environment that support the labor.

  2. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2003-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  3. Labor Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  4. The Effect of Non-Pharmacological Methods of Labor Pain Relief on Mothers’ Perceived Stress: ARandomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojghan Mirghafourvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Childbirth is the most stressful event for the women both mentally and physically affecting their physiological and psychological indicators during labour. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of non-pharmacological methods of labor pain relief in mothers’ perceived stress conducted in Alavi hospital of Ardabil, 2013.  Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled trial, 320 mothers were allocated into two groups by stratified block randomization . The intervention group (n=158 received continuous support throughout the labour process, positioning and movement, music, aromatherapy, showering andconsumption of a light diet or water.The control group received only a routine care. The perceived stress scale (PSS was employed to collect data in three stages at the beginning of the active phase, before the intervention, six hours after birth and then eight weeks postpartum. The two groupswere compared using General Linear Model with controlling the baseline scores. Results: There were 14 participants loss to follow-up. The mean of perceived stress score in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group at 6 hours [adjusted mean difference: -1.0 (95% confidence interval: -0.01 to -1.9]. However, there was no difference between two groups in terms of perceived stress score at 8 weeks postpartum (p=0.692.  Conclusion: Non-pharmacological methods of labor pain relief are an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress level in mothers during labor and therefore use of this intervention is recommended.

  5. Baixa dose de misoprostol sublingual (12,5 µg para indução do parto Low dose of sublingual misoprostol (12.5 µg for labor induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sofia de Moraes Barros Gattás

    2012-04-01

    -randomized clinical trial during the period from July to December 2009. We included 30 pregnant women with an indication for labor induction at term, carrying a live fetus, with a Bishop score of six or less, cephalic presentation, estimated fetal weight of less than 4,000 g and an amniotic fluid index greater than five. We excluded women with a previous uterine scar, non-reassuring fetal status, congenital anomalies, multiple pregnancy, intrauterine growth restriction, genital bleeding, and contraindications of vaginal delivery. A tablet of 12.5 µg sublingual misoprostol was administered every six hours, until the beginning of labor, with the maximum of eight doses. RESULTS: Labor was successfully induced in 90% of pregnant women. The mean interval between the first dose and the onset of uterine contractions and delivery was 14.3±11.7 hours and 25.4±13 hours, respectively. The frequency of vaginal delivery was 60%. Uterine tachysystole occurred in two pregnant women, being reversed in both cases without the need for cesarean section. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was observed in four patients, and an Apgar score of less than 7 at five minutes in only one newborn. CONCLUSION: Maternal and perinatal outcomes were favorable after induction of labor with sublingual misoprostol at a dose of 12.5 µg every six hours. However, controlled trials are needed to compare this regimen with other doses and routes of administration.

  6. Tendon Contraction After Cyclic Elongation Is an Age-Dependent Phenomenon: In Vitro and In Vivo Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Michael; Bedi, Asheesh; Walsh, Christopher P; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    Tendons are viscoelastic tissues that deform (elongate) in response to cyclic loading. However, the ability of a tendon to recover this elongation is unknown. Tendon length significantly increases after in vivo or in vitro cyclic loading, and the ability to return to its original length through a cell-mediated contraction mechanism is an age-dependent phenomenon. Controlled laboratory study. In vitro, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) from Sprague-Dawley rats of 3 age groups (1, 3, and 12 months) underwent 2% cyclic strain at 0.17 Hz for 2 hours, and the percentages of elongation were determined. After loading, the RTTfs were suspended for 3 days under tissue culture conditions and photographed daily to determine the amount of length contraction. In vivo, healthy male participants (n = 29; age, 19-49 years) had lateral, single-legged weightbearing radiographs taken of the knee at 60° of flexion immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after completing eccentric quadriceps loading exercises on the dominant leg to fatigue. Measurements of patellar tendon length were taken from the radiographs, and the percentages of tendon elongation and subsequent contraction were calculated. In vitro, cyclic loading increased the length of all RTTfs, with specimens from younger (1 and 3 months) rats demonstrating significantly greater elongation than those from older (12 months) rats (P = .009). The RTTfs contracted to their original length significantly faster (P fashion, with younger animals contracting faster. In vivo, repetitive eccentric loading exercises significantly increased patellar tendon length (P 30 years). Cyclic tendon loading results in a significant increase in tendon elongation under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Tendons in both conditions demonstrated an incomplete return to their original length after 24 hours, and the extent of this return was age dependent. The age- and time-dependent contraction of tendons, elongated after repetitive

  7. Labor and health status in economic evaluation of health care. The Health and Labor Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.

    1996-01-01

    A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several

  8. 10 CFR 440.19 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...

  9. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to

  10. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  11. Improving mining technology and organization of labor in the light of medical-biological aspects of physical health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, P.V.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Davydova, N.N.; Dyatlova, L.A. (Kuzbasskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Transfer to a contract-bonus system in mines of the Severokuzbassugol' and Leninskugol' associations (USSR) increased coal mining productivity by 42.2-54.4%, but, at the same time, problems concerning miners' health were noted. Presents data on the productivity and labor conditions of contract teams working at coal mining and in development faces. The influence of noise and vibration induced stresses on organisms of underground workers is analyzed. Investigations showed that 3 stages of exhaustion are likely to develop and that the most vulnerable are the cardiovascular system and the respiratory tract. The 3 stages of exhaustion and ability to recover were studied on mining machine operators and drivers of heading machines. Data showed that during the 1985-89 period, 972 miners received disability certificates; the rate of disability was 2.6 miners per 1 Mt of coal; 40.5% of miners over 40 years working on labor-intensive jobs had three or more chronic diseases which could cause permanent disability. In the structure of disability, cardio-vascular system cases accounted for 25%, osseous-muscular system cases for 20% and pulmonary diseases for 13%. Stresses the need for every mine to maintain its own medical center equipped with inhalation therapy, psychological relief, acupuncture and physiotherapy facilities.

  12. Robust Optimization Approach for Design for a Dynamic Cell Formation Considering Labor Utilization: Bi-objective Mathematical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, robust optimization of a bi-objective mathematical model in a dynamic cell formation problem considering labor utilization with uncertain data is carried out. The robust approach is used to reduce the effects of fluctuations of the uncertain parameters with regards to all the possible future scenarios. In this research, cost parameters of the cell formation and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty and a mixed-integer programming (MIP model is developed to formulate the related robust dynamic cell formation problem. Then the problem is transformed into a bi-objective linear one. The first objective function seeks to minimize relevant costs of the problem including machine procurement and relocation costs, machine variable cost, inter-cell movement and intra-cell movement costs, overtime cost and labor shifting cost between cells, machine maintenance cost, inventory, holding part cost. The second objective function seeks to minimize total man-hour deviations between cells or indeed labor utilization of the modeled.

  13. Foreign labor and regional labor markets: aggregate and disaggregate impact on growth and wages in Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....

  14. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children�s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

  16. Effects of delayed pushing during the second stage of labor on postpartum fatigue and birth outcomes in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Man-Lung; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Li, Hsin Yang; Shey, Kuang-Shing; Gau, Meei-Ling

    2009-03-01

    This article studied differences in postpartum fatigue and birth outcomes between women who pushed immediately and those who delayed pushing during the second stage of labor. Data were collected from primiparous women in their 38th to 42nd gestational week who did not receive epidural analgesia during labor and were free of complications during pregnancy. Using a quasi-experimental design, 72 participants selected by convenient sampling were assigned based on individual participant's preference to either an experimental or control group. For the experimental group, pushing was delayed until the point after full cervical dilation at which (a) the mother felt a strong physical pushing reflex, (b) the fetal head had both descended to at least the +1 level in the pelvis and turned to the occiput anterior position, and (c) uterine contractions were at least 30 mmHg. For the control group, the physician instructed mothers to begin pushing after full cervical dilation at the point when the fetal head was in the occiput anterior position and uterine contractions were at least 30 mmHg. The authors administered the Modified Fatigue Symptom Checklist at 1 and 24 hr after delivery to measure participant's fatigue levels. Birth outcomes were assessed based on medical chart data. Findings showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of 1- and 24-hr postpartum fatigue scores. The duration of the second labor stage (experimental group, 70.31 +/- 37.17 min; control group, 129.06 +/- 75.69 min) also differed significantly. The group that pushed immediately recorded higher cesarean and instrument-assisted birth rates. No significant differences were observed in terms of perineal tears, maternal/neonatal complications, or neonatal Apgar scores. Results of this study provide important insights for caregivers working in the delivery room and suggest that current care procedures change to include the delayed pushing during the second stage of labor. By delaying pushing

  17. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  18. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject...

  19. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  20. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  1. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  2. Labor inclusion of individuals with disabilities: Managers' conceptions as a contributing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brite, Roberta; Nunes, Francisco; Souza, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the managers' conceptions involved in the process of labor inclusion in 18 supermarkets with 5,000 employees, 300 of whom with disabilities. A group of 90 managers working with people with disability completed a Conceptions of Disability Inventory (CDI) about their conceptions of people with disabilities. Their responses were categorized as follows: (a) disability as a spiritual manifestation; b) disability as a deviation from normality; (c) disability based on assumptions of inclusion; (d) disability assessed from performance criteria; (e) disability assessed from the connection established with the work organization; (f) disability conceived by contracting benefits, and (g) disability based on the perception of the need for training. Based on the outcomes of the Pearson Correlation Matrix, significant linear correlations were found in seven managers' conceptions of disability. The results also indicate that the managers' conceptions contributed to differentiated inclusionist actions based on their perceptions related to people with disabilities. This study data contributes to identifying the best practices in labor inclusion. The outcomes of the present study could lead to development of a public policy aimed towards humanizing job alternatives for people with disability.

  3. Work Hours as a Moderator of the Relationship between Developmental Human Resource Management Practices and the Psychological Contract: A Multilevel Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Håkensen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose & background – The purpose of this study was to examine if part-time and full-time employees differ in terms of psychological contract content according to level of developmental HRM practices. The study adds to an ongoing research project Organizational antecedents of psychological contracts and work-related outcomes , run by Sabine Raeder, University of Oslo in cooperation with José María Peiró, University of Valencia, Spain. Design & methodology – A survey of 463 employees from 35...

  4. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart E of... - List of Regional Offices, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), U.S. Department...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Compliance Programs (OFCCP), U.S. Department of Labor (USDL) E Exhibit E to Subpart E of Part 1901... REGULATIONS PROGRAM-RELATED INSTRUCTIONS Civil Rights Compliance Requirements Pt. 1901, Subpt. E, Exh. E Exhibit E to Subpart E of Part 1901—List of Regional Offices, Office of Federal Contract Compliance...

  6. 29 CFR 794.142 - Special compensation when overtime in excess of 12 daily or 56 weekly hours is worked in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unless all the straight time compensation due him for the nonovertime hours under his contract (express or implied) or under any applicable statute has been paid (§ 778.315 of this chapter). In computing...

  7. Sexual division of labor: energetic and evolutionary scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    This article examines comparative energetic data on hunter-gatherers in the context of evolutionary scenarios of the sexual division of labor, with respect to both specific task allocation and overall levels of daily physical activity. The division of labor between men and women, well marked in contemporary foraging societies, was once posited as the "true watershed" for the evolution of the genus Homo. Some research on brain-wiring even links sex differences in cognitive and spatial abilities to sex-specific foraging activities. Most recent evolutionary arguments posit that men focus on hunting and women on gathering activities to realize potentially conflicting mating and parenting goals. A range of cooperative strategies (male/female and female/female) for child provisioning is also under investigation. Attention to energetic and reproductive trade-offs has usefully challenged the proposition that women are excluded from big-game hunting due to constraints of foraging ecology and reproduction. Simplistic assumptions about gender roles are thus increasingly questioned in anthropology, as well as in archaeology. Current models in behavioral ecology explore ways in which foraging practices vary with ecological circumstances, aiming to derive testable hypotheses from fine-grained data on the behavior of contemporary hunter-gatherers. Data on overall physical activity levels (PAL) can also serve to evaluate relative male/female workloads in modern groups, reconstruct hominid energy requirements and activity profiles, and examine changes with subsistence intensification. Male/female PAL ratios show that a task-specific division of labor does not readily extrapolate to 24-hour energy expenditure and that male/female differences in workloads were not necessarily reduced with the transition to agriculture. With respect to gender roles and PAL, a shift away from facile stereotypes of human behavior is evident. The challenge is to incorporate a range of behavioral

  8. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heus, Roel; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A

    2010-08-09

    Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist) and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker) as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?

  9. New Approach To Hour-By-Hour Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Q. Q.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Fine hourly forecast in single station weather forecast is required in many human production and life application situations. Most previous MOS (Model Output Statistics) which used a linear regression model are hard to solve nonlinear natures of the weather prediction and forecast accuracy has not been sufficient at high temporal resolution. This study is to predict the future meteorological elements including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in a local region over a relatively short period of time at hourly level. By means of hour-to-hour NWP (Numeral Weather Prediction)meteorological field from Forcastio (https://darksky.net/dev/docs/forecast) and real-time instrumental observation including 29 stations in Yunnan and 3 stations in Tianjin of China from June to October 2016, predictions are made of the 24-hour hour-by-hour ahead. This study presents an ensemble approach to combine the information of instrumental observation itself and NWP. Use autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model to predict future values of the observation time series. Put newest NWP products into the equations derived from the multiple linear regression MOS technique. Handle residual series of MOS outputs with autoregressive (AR) model for the linear property presented in time series. Due to the complexity of non-linear property of atmospheric flow, support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced . Therefore basic data quality control and cross validation makes it able to optimize the model function parameters , and do 24 hours ahead residual reduction with AR/SVM model. Results show that AR model technique is better than corresponding multi-variant MOS regression method especially at the early 4 hours when the predictor is temperature. MOS-AR combined model which is comparable to MOS-SVM model outperform than MOS. Both of their root mean square error and correlation coefficients for 2 m temperature are reduced to 1.6 degree Celsius and 0.91 respectively. The

  10. Custom dairy heifer grower industry characteristics and contract terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2003-09-01

    This study examines a national survey of professional custom heifer growers. Sixty-five respondents from 23 states provided information on operation size and characteristics, management practices, and contract terms. Responding operation current heifer inventories ranged from 30 to 20,000 heifers and the average operation had more than 1200 heifers on-farm. The regional pattern of operation size was similar to the regional pattern of dairy farm size with heifer grower operations in the West and South regions being larger, on average, than those in the Midwest and Northeast regions. On average, 71% of total income was derived from the heifer-growing enterprise. Operations in the Northeast region derived the highest percentage of income from heifer growing while operations in the South region derived the least income from heifer growing activities. Many operations entered business to utilize excess facilities, labor, or feed. A majority of the operations had two to five dairy farm clients. Sixty-nine percent of respondents used some form of written contract. Just over 50% of the respondents indicated that a set daily charge per heifer per day was the primary type of contract payment. Although the most common charge was dollars 1.50 per heifer per day, average daily charge was dollars 1.52/heifer. Operations that took heifers from prior to weaning through to prefresh charged a weighted average daily charge of dollars 1.60 per heifer. Explaining price charges as a function of characteristics and contract terms revealed that size and number of clients were negatively related to price while specialization in heifer growing was positively related to price charged.

  11. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The association between working hours and sleep disturbances according to occupation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to explore the relationship between working hours and sleep disturbance according to occupation and gender among Korean workers. Data were derived from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2011 by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. From a total of 50,032 workers, 34,783 salaried contract workers were selected. Work hours were categorized as 60 h/week. The outcome variable was sleep disturbance, which was assessed by a single question item (During the past 12 months, have you experienced sleep disturbance or insomnia?). Multiple survey logistic regression models were performed after adjusting with age, education level, marital status, self-rated health, salary, shift work, smoking and alcohol drinking. Gender and occupation were stratified in these models. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance in male non-manual workers with long work hours (>60 h/week) was 3.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.956-4.653]. In female non-manual workers who work 49-60 working hour per week, the OR was 1.525 (95% CI 1.034-2.249). Long working hours can be a risk factor for sleep disturbance in Korean workers. The association was especially prominent in male non-manual workers.

  13. Multiple Challenges of Flexible Workforce Management: the contract managers experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Torres de Magalhães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a survey that had the purpose to evaluate the human resources (HR practices adopted by a Brazilian industrial corporation from the viewpoint of contracting out managers to deal with four flexible workforce management challenges: qualification; quality; commitment; standardization of outsourcing services. These HR practices are still little discussed by scholars. So, this is the main contribution of this article. It is also virtually nonexistent in the literature studies that encompass analysis about HR practices to deal with major challenges of outsourcing throughout the viewpoint of contracting out managers. We performed 15 semi-structured interviews with contracting out managers. It was also performed a documental analysis about the rules of outsourcing practices of the corporation. We found management practices to deal with each of the four challenges presented. The management of contracts and the provision of training programs were the most prominent of the related practices. The results show that Brazillian labor laws contribute to the segregation of temporary workers, because the companies avoid a more direct relationship fearing legal constraints. Although several efforts were put to improve the work conditions of the flexible workforce, these workers are still stigmatized, seen and treated as less important than direct employers; this causes negative impacts on commitment. The decision to use flexible workforce by companies is still mainly due to cost savings. Therefore, there is still a long way to improve HR practices related to temporary workers in order to avoid losses for all the social actors envolved.

  14. Child labor in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M N; Prabhu, S V; Mistry, H N

    1985-01-01

    Of the world's largest child labor force in India, Bombay has over 30,000 working children, most of them migrants. In a prospective study of 73 working children from a part of Dharavi, the biggest slum in Asia, 68% were working as hotel boys; 22% had started working before their 10th birthday, a large number doing so to increase the family income, but earning less than Rs. 100 ($11) per month. Forty percent worked more than 12 hours a day and only 16% continued schooling. Two-thirds depended entirely on their employers for food which was adequate and no child in the study was malnourished. Overall incidence of anemia and vitamin deficiency was 10% each. Only 7% had ailments related to their occupation. Because this was a cross-sectional study no conclusions can be drawn regarding long term and residual effects. Preventing children from working is likely to make worse their own as well as their families' problems unless substitute sources of income or welfare are available. Legal protection and other services near their working places are essential for those who have to work.

  15. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  16. Foley Catheter for Induction of Labor at Term: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the optimal Foley catheter balloon volume (30-mL vs. 80-mL and the maximum time for cervical ripening (12 hours vs. 24 hours to improve vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours of induction.We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a teaching hospital in China. Women with a term singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membrane and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6 were randomly allocated, in 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive either one of the four treatments: (1 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, (2 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours, (3 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, and (4 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included cesarean section rate and maternal/neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis.Five hundred and four women were recruited and randomized (126 women in each group; nine women did not receive the assigned intervention. More women achieved vaginal delivery within 24 hours in 12-hour Foley catheter groups than in the 24-hour Foley catheter groups (30-mL/12 hours: 54.5%, 30-mL/24 hours: 33.1%, 80-mL/12 hours: 46.4%, 80-mL/24 hours: 24.0%, p < 0.001. Cesarean section rates and the incidence of chorioaminonitis were comparable among four groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, both ripening time and balloon size did not affect the proportion of women delivered vaginally within 24 hours of induction.For women with an unfavorable cervix at term, induction of labor with a Foley catheter is safe and effective. Higher balloon volume (80-mL vs. 30-mL and longer ripening time (24 hours vs. 12 hours would not shorten induction to delivery interval or reduce cesarean section rate.Chinese Clinical trial registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003044.

  17. Wo(men) at work? The impact of cohabiting and married partners' earning on women's work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Triebe, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of women's labor supply in the household context. The main focus is on the effect of a change in male partner's wages on women's work hours. This is linked to the broader question of whether married and cohabiting women make different economic decisions and respond differently to changes in their partners' wages. In addition, this study seeks to connect the working behavior of married and cohabiting individuals to the "tax-splitting" benefit for marrie...

  18. La flexibilidad laboral: significados y consecuencias Labour Flexibility: Meanings and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Martínez Pastor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Los objetivos del articulo son 1 analizar las consecuencias de la flexibilidad laboral en el curso vital de los individuos, 2 asi como saber si la flexibilidad ha socavado o reforzado la importancia de las clases sociales, de la educacion y del genero en distintos aspectos concernientes al curso vital, sobre todo relacionados con el empleo en Espana. La peculiaridad espanola con respecto a la flexibilidad radica en la alta proporcion de contratos temporales. La mayor diferencia entre estos contratos y los indefinidos es su menor coste de despido. La manera en la que el Estado del Bienestar ha introducido la flexibilidad ha logrado un equilibrio de riesgos entre generaciones, por lo que no puede decirse que haya unos claros ganadores o perdedores. Los datos indican que los efectos de la flexibilizacion sobre el curso vital de los individuos son mucho mas modestos de lo que las hipotesis preven. Asimismo, la flexibilización no ha mermado la importancia de las clases sociales ni de los niveles de estudio para explicar la posición de los individuos en el mercado laboral, aunque tampoco hay una clara evidencia de que las brechas entre los individuos de distintas clases ocupaciones o con distintos niveles de estudio hayan aumentado en Espana.

    The objectives of the paper are 1 to analyse the effects of labour flexibility on individuals from a lifecourse perspective and 2 to know whether flexibility has undermined or reinforced the effects of social classes, education and gender on several aspects concerning the life-course, above all those related to employment in Spain. The peculiarity of the Spanish case lies in the proportion of fixed-term contracts. The greatest difference between these contracts and permanent contracts is not the job to be done, or even its temporary or permanent nature, but rather the lower layoff cost. The way that the Welfare State has introduced flexibilisation has achieved a balance of risks between the generations

  19. Gender Equality in Labor Markets: A Survey About the Industry and Service Sectors in Gaziantep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Balcı İzgi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a survey on women labor issues in two different sectors –industry and service sectors- in Gaziantep. The main aim is to modify the structure of women labor in Gaziantep. The main characteristics of women labour market for Gaziantep is that women labor participation is sharply decreased after marriage which is a traditional issue. Inaddition entrepreneurship is very high. Besides working years with insurance is quite low in all levels of education. The promotions system do not change with education. Education is a crucial variable in the analysis. For instance, the positions are not assigned according to the education in most of the times. This creates inefficiency in labor markets. Another important finding that the rate of entrepreneurship is very high related with other cities of Turkey. The topics of wages, working hours, the comparison of the appropriateness of the work according to education, cultural activities, satisfaction, pleasure from working have been considered from the aspect of the relationship between the working life and family life and besides, finance deficiency in entrepreneurship, and sex discrimination not clear are the main problems in different ratios. The work and the education were not found as related. The level of social coverage, trade union membership and salaried work does change with education positively

  20. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  1. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...

  2. Analysis of current labor market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yurchyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.

  3. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  4. Effect of Intravenous Dexamethasone on Preparing the Cervix and Labor Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Laloha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of corticosteroids is one of the methods put forward for the strengthening and speeding up the process of labor. After identification of glucocorticoid receptors in human amnion, the role of corticosteroids in starting the process of labor has been studied in numerous studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous Dexamethasone on preparing the cervix and on labor induction. A randomized, clinical, and double – blind trial was conducted on 172 women divided into a control and an experimental group. The inclusion criteria were that they had to be primparous, in or before the 40th week of pregnancy, and with Bishop scores (B.S.s of 4 or lower. The exclusion criteria were diabetes, preeclampsia, macrosomia, twin pregnancy, rupture of the membrane (ROM, breech, and women suffering from background diseases. The B.S.s of the women was measured in charge of the study, and each woman was intravenously injected with eight milligrams of Dexamethasone or eight milligrams of distilled water. Four hours after the injections, the B.S.s of the participants was measured, and they were put under the conditions of labor induction using oxytocin. Information was collected in checklists A and B. The patients were compared with respect to B.S., the time the induction started, the average interval between the start of induction and the beginning of the active phase of childbirth, and the average length of time between the start of the active phase and the second stage of childbirth. The first and five minutes Apgar scores of the two groups of women were compared. The frequencies, the means,  and the standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS – 16 software, and analysis of the results was performed with the Student’s t- test and the chi-square test with PPPP

  5. Partner's Resources and Adjusting Working Hours in the Netherlands: Differences over Time, between Levels of Human Capital, and over the Family Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We study to what extent adjustments in labor market participation, defined as employment entry and exit, and as increases and reductions of weekly working hours, depend on resources of the partner. Moreover, we investigate whether the influence of the partner depends on historical period, human capital, and children. We are especially interested…

  6. Union Contracts and Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Bredeson

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I report the results of an investigation that examined the impact of teacher union contracts on the development of professional learning communities in schools. There are three primary sources of data used in the study: 1 100 written teacher union contract documents; 2 structured interview data from 21 educators (school superintendents, principals, directors of staff development, and teacher union representatives; and 3 focus group interview data from educational leaders in schools. The analysis and discussion focus on five areas related to teacher professional development with implications for policy and practice: explicit language covering opportunities for teaching learning in their work; governance and decision making structures, that is, specific provisions covering wages, hours, and conditions of employment; the description of legitimate and sponsored activities for the professional development of teachers; and the resources supporting the on-going professional growth of teachers. The findings indicate that rethinking, restructuring, and organizational re-culturing in schools are initial expressions of a new unionism that has the potential to lead to the development of more powerful professional learning communities in schools.

  7. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  8. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  9. PENENTU UPAH REGIONAL: TENAGA KERJA TERDIDIK (SKILLED LABOR DAN TIDAK TERDIDIK (UNSKILLED LABOR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The wage have impacts on poverty, living standards and the incentive to improve labor productivity (human capital, in particular, for economic growth. Regional decentralization has implications, which, they must be developed regional endowment to get the efficiency in production process. So it is interesting to examine the importance of regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage in Indonesia. Based on this idea, the objective of this study is to examine the contribution of regional characteristics to the regional wage differential in Indonesia. Data supplied by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during 2003 – 2007. In this study used 3 model; Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Co-Varian Model and Generalized Least Squared (GLS. Then, the most effective model based on the smallest standard error was chosen to estimate regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage inIndonesia. The result showed that the regional characteristics, particularly skilled or unskilled labor, play an important role in determining the wage differentials in region. The empirical evidence presented that regional economic growth and the existing of high skilled labor in labor market have positive impact toward spatial wage. Then, skilled labor and unskilled will give negative influence in regional wage. The points out is laboring existence with level education or skilled level, despite not works or was working have influence toward the regional wage. Therefore, labor's policy is expected gets focused on given specialization corresponds to that region characteristics.

  10. Insurance-markets Equilibrium with Sequential Non-convex Straight-time and Over-time Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    This note describes the lottery- and insurance-market equilibrium in an economy with non-convex straight-time and overtime employment. In contrast to Hansen and Sargent (1988), the overtime-decision is a sequential one. This requires two separate insurance market to operate, one for straight-time work, and one for overtime. In addi- tion, given that the labor choice for regular and overtime hours is made in succession, the insurance market for overtime needs to open once the insurance market ...

  11. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  12. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-3 - Convict Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...

  14. Collective labor supply and housework with non-participation of women in paid labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2009-01-01

    Back to overview Collective Labor Supply and Housework with Non-Participation of Women in Paid Labor (with B. van Praag and H. Maassen van den Brink) We estimate a collective time allocation model, where two-earner households behave as if the spouses maximize a household utility function, and where

  15. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... reduce or eliminate the amount of diacetyl in some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have.... Hilda L. Solis, Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation... in part II of this issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed...

  16. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...

  17. Influences of Women's Employment on the Gendered Division of Household Labor over the Life Course: Evidence from a 31-Year Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mick

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on data from a panel study of White women spanning 31 years, the analyses examine the influence of women's employment on the gendered division of household labor. Multiple dimensions of women's employment are investigated, including accumulated employment histories, current employment status, current employment hours, and relative income.…

  18. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  19. Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…

  20. Terbutaline versus salbutamol for suppression of preterm labor: A randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motazedine, Shabhodokht

    2010-01-01

    Preterm labor (PTL) is a common medical problem during pregnancies and is associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity. Beta-adrenergic agonists are among the most commonly used tocolytic agents. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness, safety and adverse effects of terbutaline with those of salbutamol in the prolongation of pregnancy beyond 48 hours and until 37 weeks of gestation. Patients and Two hundred women with PTL were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous terbutaline (250 μg) or intravenous salbutamol (0.1 mg) followed by oral terbutaline (20 mg/d) or oral salbutamol (24 mg/d) as maintenance. The efficacy, side effects and complications after 48 hours and until 37 weeks of gestation were analyzed and compared.There was no significant difference between the two groups in success rate within 48 hours (P= .091). Gestational age at delivery (P=.031) and the number of days for which the gestation was prolonged (P=.024) were significantly higher in those receiving terbutaline. Adverse effects, including tachycardia (P=.007) and anxiety (P=.006), were experienced more in the salbutamol group. Birth weight was significantly lower in the salbutamol group (P=.001).Terbutaline provided more effective tocolysis with fewer adverse effects and a better neonatal outcome. However, terbutaline and salbutamol are equally effective in the first 48 hours (Author).

  1. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  2. Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury: Reproducible, Quantitative, Physiological Models to Impair Skeletal Muscle's Capacity to Generate Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jarrod A; Lowe, Dawn A

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of muscle regeneration an experimental injury model is required. Advantages of eccentric contraction-induced injury are that it is a controllable, reproducible, and physiologically relevant model to cause muscle injury, with injury being defined as a loss of force generating capacity. While eccentric contractions can be incorporated into conscious animal study designs such as downhill treadmill running, electrophysiological approaches to elicit eccentric contractions and examine muscle contractility, for example before and after the injurious eccentric contractions, allows researchers to circumvent common issues in determining muscle function in a conscious animal (e.g., unwillingness to participate). Herein, we describe in vitro and in vivo methods that are reliable, repeatable, and truly maximal because the muscle contractions are evoked in a controlled, quantifiable manner independent of subject motivation. Both methods can be used to initiate eccentric contraction-induced injury and are suitable for monitoring functional muscle regeneration hours to days to weeks post-injury.

  3. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with preliminary...

  4. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  5. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  6. Quits and job changes among home care workers in Maine: the role of wages, hours, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Figuring out how to make home care jobs more attractive has become a top policy priority. This study investigates the impact of wages, hours, and benefits on the retention of home care workers. Using a 2-wave survey design and a sample of home care workers from Maine, the factors associated with turnover intentions, actual turnover, and job-to-job transitions are examined. The analysis uses actual data on hours, wages, and benefits at current and subsequent jobs and controls for perceived rewards and work conditions, personal characteristics, and local labor market conditions. Although the analysis finds that improved work conditions and non-pecuniary rewards of home-based direct care work have significant negative effects on turnover intentions, compensation accounts for more actual job turnover. Higher wages, more hours, and travel cost reimbursement are found to be significantly associated with reduced turnover. Although wages and hours appear to have stronger effects, health benefits do appear to have some significance in predicting job-to-job transitions. Although improving compensation presents budgetary challenges to home care agencies, for this low-income workforce, the ability to earn higher wages and work more hours may be more of an imperative than improved work conditions.

  7. Sin tiempos: entre la jornada de trabajo femenino y la maternidad en un contexto laboral flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Gómez Rubio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address some of the current problems affecting Chilean women ranked middle class socially and economically and resident of Santiago, in their integration into the labor dynamics. Therefore, interviews were processed using discourse analysis, establishing three lines of argument: work and employment conditions in relation to the risks and consequences for working women, female labor flexibility, and finally, motherhood as beginning and end of the double workday. The results generated show that the presence of intra and extra organizational factors affect how women perform social evaluations of work and employment, leading to a consequent insecurity of both work and employment, due mainly to more flexible working hours. It is about maintaining the quality of life, the justification that legitimizes the double day of work, and the tensions arising from this situation.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Coe, Neil

    This article examines the circumstances under which CSR initiatives facilitate and/or constrain labor agency in GPNs. Using a case study of Nike’s CSR approach in the football manufacturing industry of Pakistan, we explore how the CSR measures advocated in a new, emerging policy paradigm on CSR...... in GPNs affect labor agency at Nike’s main football supplier factory in Pakistan. We argue that international companies may undermine labor agency in GPNs through their sourcing policies, but that their CSR policies could have a potential, albeit limited, positive impact on labor agency in GPNs which...

  9. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  10. The Role of the Family in Immigrants' Labor-Market Activity: Evidence from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Joan Y. Moriarty; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    We use Census of Population microdata for 1980 and 1990 to examine the labor supply and wages of immigrant husbands and wives in the United States in a family context. Earlier research by Baker and Benjamin (1997) posits a family investment model in which, upon arrival, immigrant husbands invest in their human capital while immigrant wives work to provide the family with liquidity during this period. Consistent with this model, they find for Canada that immigrant wives work longer hours upon ...

  11. Adjustment Costs, Firm Responses, and Micro vs. Macro Labor Supply Elasticities: Evidence from Danish Tax Records*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Friedman, John N.; Olsen, Tore; Pistaferri, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    We show that the effects of taxes on labor supply are shaped by interactions between adjustment costs for workers and hours constraints set by firms. We develop a model in which firms post job offers characterized by an hours requirement and workers pay search costs to find jobs. We present evidence supporting three predictions of this model by analyzing bunching at kinks using Danish tax records. First, larger kinks generate larger taxable income elasticities. Second, kinks that apply to a larger group of workers generate larger elasticities. Third, the distribution of job offers is tailored to match workers' aggregate tax preferences in equilibrium. Our results suggest that macro elasticities may be substantially larger than the estimates obtained using standard microeconometric methods. PMID:21836746

  12. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to “work” in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design. The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  13. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Grossi, Nina R; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2018-01-09

    Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to "work" in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job) performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design). The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  14. The effect of aromatherapy with lavender essence on severity of labor pain and duration of labor in primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoreh; Pirak, Arezoo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lavender essence inhalation on severity of labor pain and duration of labor. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 pregnant women in two groups. The experimental group received 2 drops of Lavender essence inhaled at three stages (4-5, 6-7, 8-9 cm cervical dilation) and severity of the labor pain and duration of labor was measured before and after intervention. The control group was treated with distilled water as a placebo in the similar ways, too. The results showed that difference in the labor pain before and after intervention in two groups was significant (P = 0/001). But there was no difference in mean duration of the active phase and the second stage of labor between the two groups. Lavender essence aromatherapy may be an effective therapeutic option for pain management for women in labor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A computational model of the ionic currents, Ca2+ dynamics and action potentials underlying contraction of isolated uterine smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Chiu Tong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine contractions during labor are discretely regulated by rhythmic action potentials (AP of varying duration and form that serve to determine calcium-dependent force production. We have employed a computational biology approach to develop a fuller understanding of the complexity of excitation-contraction (E-C coupling of uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC. Our overall aim is to establish a mathematical platform of sufficient biophysical detail to quantitatively describe known uterine E-C coupling parameters and thereby inform future empirical investigations of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms governing normal and dysfunctional labors. From published and unpublished data we construct mathematical models for fourteen ionic currents of USMCs: Ca2+ currents (L- and T-type, Na+ current, an hyperpolarization-activated current, three voltage-gated K+ currents, two Ca2+-activated K+ current, Ca2+-activated Cl current, non-specific cation current, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, Na+-K+ pump and background current. The magnitudes and kinetics of each current system in a spindle shaped single cell with a specified surface area:volume ratio is described by differential equations, in terms of maximal conductances, electrochemical gradient, voltage-dependent activation/inactivation gating variables and temporal changes in intracellular Ca2+ computed from known Ca2+ fluxes. These quantifications are validated by the reconstruction of the individual experimental ionic currents obtained under voltage-clamp. Phasic contraction is modeled in relation to the time constant of changing [Ca2+]i. This integrated model is validated by its reconstruction of the different USMC AP configurations (spikes, plateau and bursts of spikes, the change from bursting to plateau type AP produced by estradiol and of simultaneous experimental recordings of spontaneous AP, [Ca2+]i and phasic force. In summary, our advanced mathematical model provides a powerful tool to

  16. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  17. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  18. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  19. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  20. Enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction/exercise is mediated by AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Munk-Hansen, Nanna; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2017-01-01

    muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity in wild type (WT) mice, respectively. These effects were not found in AMPKα1α2 muscle-specific knockout mice. Prior in situ contraction did not increase insulin sensitivity in m. soleus from either genotype. Improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity....... Collectively, our data suggest that the AMPK-TBC1D4 signaling axis is likely mediating the improved muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction/exercise and illuminates an important and physiological relevant role of AMPK in skeletal muscle.......Earlier studies have demonstrated that muscle insulin sensitivity to stimulate glucose uptake is enhanced several hours after an acute bout of exercise. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (AICAR), we recently demonstrated that prior activation of AMPK is sufficient to increase...

  1. Reflexiones sobre la incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la incapacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Eloy Díaz Salazar

    Full Text Available Numerosos agentes intervienen en la gestión de la incapacidad laboral, tanto temporal como permanente, y se hace necesario una actuación sinérgica entre todos ellos; del mismo modo, se considera que existen posibles actuaciones o cambios que pueden ayudar a disminuir el gasto y duración de los procesos, y proceder a la reincorporación laboral lo antes posible y de la forma más beneficiosa para el paciente, y, por ende, para la sociedad.

  2. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  3. Labor epidural analgesia: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.

  4. 78 FR 17721 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... Department of Labor, which is the point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Chapters of U.S. FTAs. The... of the U.S. Department of Labor serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The... for travel expenses. Authority: The authority for this notice is granted by the FACA (5 U.S.C. App. 2...

  5. Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...

  6. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  7. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-α translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator β-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-α translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-δ translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-α translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment

  8. 48 CFR 2922.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...

  9. Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  10. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  11. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  12. 76 FR 78874 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Title 41 Positive Law Codification-Further...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Labor Standards. Apply Service Contract Labor Standards clauses and minimum wage and fringe benefit... Rate Requirements clauses and minimum wage requirements to all contract service calls or orders for... contracts. (a) Apply both the Service Contract Labor Standards statute and the Construction Wage Rate...

  13. The integrated supplier: key to cost management and multi-franchise capitation contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C

    1996-05-01

    Capitation...most healthcare providers do not work under it, comprehend it, or even want it, yet supply capitation contracting seminars are popping up everywhere creating the feeling that the bandwagon is leaving, and it might be time to get on board. Not true. Supply capitation is not for all organizations. Capitation contracting is not easy and there are not many successful models to help the uninitiated. If a panacea is sought for reducing supply costs, capitation is only one component of a systematic strategy to reduce materiel costs. This article suggests a direction using the Group Health Materiel Management (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, WA) experience as a point of reference. It advocates a systematic approach that focuses on expense reduction in: cost of goods, holding cost of inventory, labor cost associated with all materiel processes, distribution cost (transportation and par stock pick, pack, and replenishment), product utilization, variation in product standards, and waste stream byproducts. At Group Health (GH) these issues are primarily addressed through the use of: information systems, supplier certification/selection processes, group purchasing compliance, supply channel management, supply capitation contracting programs, standardization, and utilization management. Because of managed care organizational structure, Group Health Cooperative supply capitation contracting, as performed at GH, is discussed not as a quick fix solution but in the spirit of sharing our experience with others who may be considering it as a cost savings tactic in the context of a broad-based materiel management strategy. This article highlights the experiences of GH beginning with materiel management's business process assumptions toward multiple-franchise supply capitation.

  14. The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets : Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic

  15. Contraction mode and whey protein intake affect the synthesis rate of intramuscular connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Klejs Rahbek, Stine; Farup, Jean

    2016-01-01

    either WPH or maltodextrin [carbohydrate (CHO)] immediately after completion of unilateral shortening and lengthening knee extensions. Ring-13C6-phenylalanine was infused, and muscle biopsies were obtained. IMCT protein FSR was measured at 1–5, as well as 1–3 and 3–5 hours after contractions and nutrient...

  16. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.

  17. U.S. labor wants higher wages, improved benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that labor has spelled out its goals for higher wages and improved benefits during the next 3 years in the U.S. petroleum industry, mainly refining and petrochemicals. Delegates to the national bargaining conference of the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers (OCAW) union approved the goals, including a greater voice in work force training, during sessions at Denver. Among other things, OCAW bargainers will seek: Three year contracts to run from Feb. 1, 1993, to Jan. 31, 1996, Wage increases of $1.25/hr in each of the first 2 years and a 6.5% increase in the third year, Assumption of employers of 90% of medical-hospital insurance premium costs, with an agreement to jointly pursue enactment of a national health care program, Unpaid leave amounting to 12 weeks/year for each employee to attend to family illness or emergencies, Increased pay differentials for shift work, and Improved vacation schedules providing an extra week of vacation for employees with 15-20 years of service

  18. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  19. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  20. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...