Carlson, Kenneth D.
Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)
Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.
The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…
Jacobson, Jonathan; Olsen, Cara; Rice, Jennifer King; Sweetland, Stephen
This study explored relationships between black-white differences in educational achievement and black-white differences in various educational and economic outcomes. Three data sets examined the extent to which black-white differences in labor market outcomes, in educational attainment, and in mathematics and reading achievement were present for…
Full Text Available In terms of the social situation that prevails in the beginning of the twenty-first century in Ukraine, the education priority is given to forming and developing a creative and active person with a distinct subject position who is able to adapt quickly to the rapidly changing society. And, therefore, the problem of the laziness growth, which causes understandable concern is particular urgent. The change of educational goals and objectives at the present stage of the Ukrainian school education development forces the problem of labor education and forming such youth and children’s personal qualities as diligence, which is a manifestation of the habit and love of labor; conscientious, diligent and part implementing the labor action without coercion; interest in achieving positive results and acting as an effective mean of not only human life support, but also the spiritual self-realization. Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in labor education pick out the difficulties and challenges that the today’s educational community faces. In the theory and practice of children’s school and labor education the certain contributions were made by A. Makarenko. «Children are the future citizens of society and their value in this society is determined how active they will be able to take part in their work, how well they are prepared to this work. Our society needs creative person, so children should treat labor not only as a forced burden, and as an activity, which is strenuous, tension, but gives a pleasure, and is perceived as socially useful» (A. Makarenko. Labor is considered to be mutual support, respect for working people, a sense of team building. Nowadays in secondary school vocational education is carried out due to a variety of pedagogical means. They are educational work, vocational training classes, technical creativity, and agricultural work, productivity, self-service, socially useful work in their spare time. Vocational education
This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market
This paper interrogates education's relationship to labor through a consideration of sex education's relationship to sexual labor. Beginning with a basic question--why does sex education exist as a federally funded project?--the author examines sex education's relationship to normativity and sexual labor throughout its history as a federally…
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders
This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....
Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…
The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by
Viewing science education as a site of biopolitical engagement—intervention into forces that seek to define, control, and exploit life (biopower)—requires that science educators ask after how individuals and populations are governed by technologies of power. In this paper, I argue that microanalyses, the analysis of everyday practices and discourses, are integral to biopolitical engagement, are needed to examine practices that constitute subjectivities and maintain oppressive social conditions. As an example of a microanalysis I will discuss how repetitive close-ended lab/assessment tasks, as well as discourses surrounding careers in science, can work to constitute students as depoliticized, self-investing subjects of human capital. I also explore the relationship between science education, (bio)labor and its relation to biopolitics, which remains an underdeveloped area of science education. This paper, part of my doctoral work, began to take shape in 2011, shortly after the 2008 economic crisis achieved a tiny breached in the thick neoliberal stupor of everyday (educational) life.
Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…
Леся Василівна Старовойт
Full Text Available The article deals with a topical problem of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during labor process. There were considered the diverse aspects of problem of personal creative activity. The special attention was paid to importance of combining labor, creation and artistic activity in educational process. On the base of experimental research there was considered the modern state of artistic and creative development of pupils in elementary school. By analysis of the theory and practice of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during labor education there was determined inexpediency of excessive reproductive approach to the labor activity of children that impedes emotional, spiritual and esthetic development transforming the work of children into the boring and ineffective one. There was determined the criteria of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during the labor education. During the study there were defined principles that reveal content, essence and nature of creation. There were defined peculiarities of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren at the lessons of labor education and distinguished the main sings that characterize mechanism of creative activity of junior schoolchildren. There was grounded pedagogical expediency of artistic and creative approach to the work with junior schoolchildren
Kryvusha Svitlana H.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the features of definition and the tendencies of labor productivity changes in the education sector at the macro level. The need to study the problem of labor productivity in the sphere of education is substantiated. Several contemporary researches on the economic nature of non-market educational services are provided. A comparative analysis of the dynamics of labor productivity in the sphere of education, market and non-market services, and the sphere of production of goods was carried out. The tendencies in the ratio of productivity and increase of wages are analyzed. Emphasis has been given to increasing the role of education, which has a significant impact on the overall indicator of productivity growth at the macro level.
Kerr, Mary Margaret; Brown, Elizabeth Levine
This article describes a study conducted collaboratively with 19 special educators to learn about their emotional practice through the emotional labor framework. Emotional labor refers to the management of emotional expression in the workplace. Specifically, the study sought to (a) deconstruct the stressors these special educators perceived, (b)…
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…
Nollen, Stanley D.
In this study a model for the supply of college educated labor is developed from human capital theory. A demand model is added, derived from neoclassical production function theory. Empirical estimates are made for white males and white females, using cross-sectional data on states of the U.S., 1960-70. In human capital theory, education is an…
José Raimundo Carvalho
Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".
Full Text Available The article deals with the labor dimension of the training process, as generalizing component in the preparation of learners, given the dialectical unity of its instructional, educational and developmental functions; establishing the relationship of the same with the four pillars of education for the twenty-first century, declared by UNESCO. Given that job training requires fostering knowledge as a basis for an operating instrumental performance marked by its polytechnic-labor character, supplemented by adequate and appropriate attitude of social coexistence that integrates qualities like respect, cooperation, responsibility and awareness of producers.
Smith, William C.; Ikoma, Sakiko; Baker, David P.
Education and health are both capital investments in national development, often viewed as independent factors on a country's labor force supply and productivity. This study uses the 2010-2011 Third Integrated Household Survey in Malawi to propose an Education-enhanced Health Human Capital (EHHC) model where education influences labor force supply…
I investigate how the educational demands of local labor markets shape high school course offerings and student course taking. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 linked to the U.S. Census 2000, I focus on local economic variation in the share of jobs that do not demand a bachelor’s degree. I find that schools in local labor markets with higher concentrations of subbaccalaureate jobs devote a larger share of their course offerings to career and technical education (CTE) courses and a smaller share to advanced college-preparatory courses compared to schools in labor markets with lower concentrations of subbaccalaureate jobs, even net of school resources. Students in labor markets with higher concentrations of subbaccalaureate jobs take greater numbers of CTE courses, and higher-achieving students in these labor markets are less likely to take advanced math and Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate courses. These course-taking disparities are largely due to school course offerings. This study shows how local economic inequalities shape high school curricular stratification, and suggests that school curricula linked to the educational demands of local jobs delimits the college preparation opportunities of high-achieving students. PMID:29531407
Full Text Available Background: Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. Objective: We document variation by maternal education in mothers' labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding over the first nine years after the birth of a child. Methods: We use the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N~3000 to predict longitudinal labor force participation in a recent longitudinal sample of mothers who gave birth in large US cities between 1998 and 2000. Families were followed until children were age 9, through 2010. Results: Labor force participation gradually increases in the years after birth for mothers with high school or less education, whereas for mothers with some college or more, participation increases between ages 1 and 3 and then remains mostly stable thereafter. Mothers with less than high school education have the highest rates of unemployment (actively seeking work, which remain high compared with all other education groups, whose unemployment declines over time. Compared with all other education groups, mothers with some college have the highest rates of labor force participation, but Contribution: Simple conceptualizations of labor force participation do not fully capture the dynamics of labor force attachment for mothers in terms of intensity, timing of entry, and type of work hours, as well as differences by maternal education.
This paper addresses the convergence of inequality across social and economic dimensions in the United States. Chief among these are wealth accumulation, labor, and education. Specifically, I discuss the transference of wealth to the top of the income hierarchy, the automation and polarization of labor, and threats to public education.…
Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann; Lei Zhang
Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market advantage of vocational education decreases with age, we employ a difference-in-differences approach that compares employment rates across different a...
Employing child as a labor is categorized as a violation to the human right. But it seems unavoidable in developing country to prevent children entering labor market. Many extensive literatures on the determinant of child labor have been found, but yet, there is limited research on the impact of children work on socioeconomic outcomes. This paper investigates the impact of child labor on child’s education by using the Indonesian Labor Survey/SAKERNAS 2002 data at the district level.
Maritza Zayas Molina
Full Text Available Different transformation s are assume d i n the Secondary School that require the teacher ́s professional performa nce in two different subjects , Labor Education and Informatics , to be able to solve social and environment problems of the school context, taking into account the technological development achieved. This Issue is of great importance for the fulfilment of b asic and comprehensive training of students in that level.
This study aims to calculate the growth rates of labor productivity of 30 countries categorized into four groups, including G7 countries, western developed countries, eastern developed countries and eastern developing countries, during 1981 – 2005 and examine the influences of education, health and technological progress on the growth rate of labor productivity. The findings reveal that the growth rates of labor productivity of every country, except the Philippines, were greater than four per...
Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Larouche, Alexandre; Trandafir, Mircea
While many studies examine the effect of primary education quality on labor market outcomes in developing countries, little is known about the effects at higher levels. We exploit the quasi-experiment provided by a large-scale education reform launched in Senegal in 2000 to investigate how quality...... improvements at the university level affect employment. Our difference-in-difference estimates suggest that young high-skilled workers experienced a nine percentage-point employment gain relative to older workers. They are also more likely to have “better” jobs (in the service industry or government......), suggesting a reduction in the mismatch between the quality of high-skill labor demanded and supplied....
Lesa Natacha Rodríguez Pérez
Full Text Available The search of alternatives to organize and improve the formation process in higher education through the unbreakable fusion between instruction and education constitutes a challenge in the professional culture of university teachers. It is worthy if you bet for a constant interaction among teachers. Taking into consideration this aspiration, the present work, by the scientific way, contributes to the socialization of experiences from the pedagogical staff. Due to this, the authors of the investigation propose: to design a system of budgets for the achievement of the educative labor and the political and ideological work as part of the professional culture. The investigation carried out was sustained on the integral character that primes in this determination, due to its aim it must be directed towards the progress of dimensions: educative, instructive, and developing, necessary to the students’ integral formation.
Morales Zúñiga Luis Carlos
Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación que existe entre la educación superior, la dinámica del mercado laboral, y la formación de docentes, en un nuevo contexto histórico-social caracterizado por la liberalización de la economía, y el avance de una concepción mercantil de la educación en Costa Rica. Se describe la relación que existe entre la desregulación de la oferta de educación superior, sobre todo privada, y la consecuente saturación de profesionales en el mercado laboral. Se analiza con especial interés la situación de los profesionales de la educación en este contexto, sobre todo, las condiciones laborales que enfrenta este sector educativo, como consecuencia de la aplicación de la lógica de mercado.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between higher education, labor market dynamics, and teacher training in a new historical and social context characterized by the liberalization of the economy, and advancing of a merchant conception of the education practice in Costa Rica. It describes the relationship between deregulation of the supply of higher education, especially private, and the resulting saturation of professional manpower in the labor market. It is analyzed with special interest, the status of the professionals of education in this context, especially the working conditions faced by this sector of the working class as a result of the application of market logic in the educational field.
The study recommended; education for attitudinal change and mobilization of the society, effective law enforcement, strengthening school based support and joint work with non-governmental organizations to tackle child domestic labor and to enhance the education of girls attending primary school evening program in ...
... target households; 2. Strengthening policies on child labor, education, and sustainable livelihoods, and... formal, nonformal and vocational education opportunities to provide children with alternatives to child... education for all children and mobilizing a wide array of actors to improve and expand education...
This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…
Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses the problem of wastage of the qualified labor force, which takes place both during the education process and when trained personnel try to find jobs in the local market. Methods Secondary sources were used, mainly the Statistical yearbooks of the National Association of Universities and Higher Education Institutions (ANUIES in Spanish. Also, the 2000 Population Census was used to estimate the different sources of labor market wastage. The formulas were modified to estimate educational and labor wastage rates. Results Out of every 1000 students who started a medical training in 1996, over 20% were not able to finish the training by 2000. Furthermore, out of every 1000 graduates, 31% were not able to find a remunerated position in the labor market that would enable them to put into practice the abilities and capacities obtained at school. Important differences can be observed between generalists and specialists, as well as between men and women. In the case of specialists and men, lower wastage rates can be observed as compared to the wastage rates of generalists and women. A large percentage of women dedicate themselves exclusively to household duties, which in labor terms represents a wastage of their capacity to participate in the production of formal health services. Conclusion Women are becoming a majority in most medical schools, yet their participation in the labor market does not reflect the same trend. Among men, policies should be formulated to incorporate doctors in the specific health field for which they were trained. Regarding women, specific policies should target those who are dedicated full-time to household activities in order to create the possibility of having them occupy a remunerated job if they are willing to do so. Reducing wastage at both the educational and labor levels should improve the capacity of social investment, thereby increasing the capacity of the health system as a whole
Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruiz, José Arturo; Bejarano, Rosa
BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the problem of wastage of the qualified labor force, which takes place both during the education process and when trained personnel try to find jobs in the local market. METHODS: Secondary sources were used, mainly the Statistical yearbooks of the National Association of Universities and Higher Education Institutions (ANUIES in Spanish). Also, the 2000 Population Census was used to estimate the different sources of labor market wastage. The formulas were modified to estimate educational and labor wastage rates. RESULTS: Out of every 1000 students who started a medical training in 1996, over 20% were not able to finish the training by 2000. Furthermore, out of every 1000 graduates, 31% were not able to find a remunerated position in the labor market that would enable them to put into practice the abilities and capacities obtained at school. Important differences can be observed between generalists and specialists, as well as between men and women. In the case of specialists and men, lower wastage rates can be observed as compared to the wastage rates of generalists and women. A large percentage of women dedicate themselves exclusively to household duties, which in labor terms represents a wastage of their capacity to participate in the production of formal health services. CONCLUSION: Women are becoming a majority in most medical schools, yet their participation in the labor market does not reflect the same trend. Among men, policies should be formulated to incorporate doctors in the specific health field for which they were trained. Regarding women, specific policies should target those who are dedicated full-time to household activities in order to create the possibility of having them occupy a remunerated job if they are willing to do so. Reducing wastage at both the educational and labor levels should improve the capacity of social investment, thereby increasing the capacity of the health system as a whole to provide services
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…
Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger; Zhang, Lei
Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market…
Hawley, Willis D.; Rosenholtz, Susan J.
While desegregation is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for ensuring either equity or quality education for minorities, the evidence is convincing that it is "educationally more difficult" to improve student achievement in segregated schools. Desegregation offers the opportunity to enhance the quality of education, particularly when…
Bodovski, Katerina; Kotok, Stephen; Henck, Adrienne
Although communist ideology claimed to destroy former class stratification based on labor market capitalist relationships, de facto during socialism one social class hierarchy was substituted for another that was equally unequal. The economic transition during the 1990s increased stratification by wealth, which affected educational inequality. This study examines the relationships among parental education, gender, educational expectations, and mathematics achievement of youths in five post-socialist Eastern European countries, comparing them with three Western countries. We employed the 8 th -grade data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1995 and 2007. The findings point to the universal associations between parental education and student outcomes, whereas gender comparisons present interesting East-West differences. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Huntington, Noelle; Molino, Janine; Barbaresi, William
To determine whether grade at entry to special education is associated with improved reading achievement in children with reading disorders (RD) and whether the effect of grade at entry to special education differs by socioeconomic status (SES). The authors conducted a secondary data analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative cohort of children followed longitudinally from kindergarten through eighth grade (1998-2007). Using data from the fifth grade wave of ECLS-K, the authors identified children with RD (n = 290). The outcome of interest was change in score on the reading achievement test, which was developed by ECLS-K staff, between first and fifth grade. Using multiple linear regression, the authors modeled outcome as a function of a child's grade at entry to special education, controlling for several covariates. Early entry to special education (by first grade vs second or third grade) was associated with larger gains in reading achievement between first and fifth grade (p special education by first grade versus second grade gained 4.5 more points on the reading achievement test (p special education by first grade versus third grade gained 1.7 more points on the reading achievement test (p special education between children from families of low and higher SES. For children with RD, early entry to special education is associated with improved reading achievement during elementary school.
Münch, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.
We analyze the determinants of female labor market participation for different age-groups in the European Union. We show that female participation is positively affected by tertiary education at any age. But upper secondary education increases participation only up to an age of 40 while after that
Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
have been previously exposed to educationally diverse workforces significantly increases the productivity of the hiring firms. Several extensions of our baseline specification support this finding and confirm that our variable of interest affects the arrival firm's performance mainly through......This article contributes to the literature on knowledge transfer via labor mobility by providing new evidence regarding the role of educational diversity in knowledge transfer. In tracing worker flows between firms in Denmark over the period 1995–2005, we find that knowledge carried by workers who...
Aleksandr S. Senin
Full Text Available This article describes one of the problems of the national economic complex – the problem of the labor market in Russia competent experts. The article provides statistical data describing the level of wages in the sphere of education and medicine. The problems of the labor market and educational complex, recommendations to change the situation in these areas. The presented article shows that the development of the national innovation system in the framework of sustainable development requires consistent evolutionary change of priorities in the areas of research, development, testing and implementation of all types of innovation, including in the development of the educational sector. The purpose of work is to analyze the interaction of the paradoxes of the educational sector and the labor market, the study of occurrence in this connection of new scientifi c problems, considering the prevailing laws and assessing their impact on the current state of the labor market. Methodology. Such analysis techniques were used to complete this article as legal, comparative, Economics and Statistics. Conclusions / relevance. The practical signifi cance of this work lies in the fact that in the article the necessity of adapting education to the needs of modern society. This process causes the search for science-based assessments of the quality of higher education and oversee its development processes. The most important condition for improving the quality of higher education are systematic monitoring and analysis of objective data about the quality of training and preparedness of students.
Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique
A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to…
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
To account for differences between systems of education of highly educated societies, we argue that the impact of academic discipline (field of study) on labor market outcomes should be central. Three modifications of earlier typologies are needed to account for cross-national differences in the
Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak
Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees' viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities.
Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak
Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees’ viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities. PMID:25560364
Pura de la Caridad Rey Rivas
Full Text Available Due to the importance of autonomy and professional self-management as key factors in Blended Process of Formation, an integrative perspective of socio-labor-professional formation which permits to reinforce the leading role of students starting from emergent contents from the labor context and from the correct application of personal and professional resources, is needed. This will allow the students a critical contextualized interpretation of their formation process. From this perspective, the need to propose a Model of socio-labor-professional dynamics of blended process as well as a Didactic Strategy of socio-labor blended formation in Higher Education, is recognized. This permits to reveal didactic aspects that, in an integrative process, condition the logic formation of blended process from its socio-professional character as a dynamic point of the professional praxis in contexts of labor performance. This view allows students to develop a socio-labor-professional performance culture during their labor practice as well as a successful acting as a graduate. RESUMEN Por la importancia de la autonomía en el aprendizaje y de la autogestión profesional, como elementos esenciales del proceso de formación semipresencial, se precisa de una perspectiva integradora de la formación socio-laboral-profesional que permita potenciar el rol protagónico del estudiante partiendo de contenidos emergentes del contexto laboral desde la aplicación adecuada de recursos personales y profesionales que le posibilitarán una interpretación crítica contextualizada de su proceso formativo. Desde esta visión, se reconoce la necesidad de proponer un modelo de la dinámica socio-laboral-profesional de la semipresencialidad en la Educación Superior, así como una estrategia didáctica de formación socio-laboral de la semipresencialidad en la Educación Superior. Lo anterior permite la revelación de las particularidades didácticas que, en un proceso integrador
Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.
Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.
As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...
Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi
On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...
Full Text Available Eleven years after the implementation of Argentina’s Federal Law of Education, this paper offers a critical analysis of the impact this educational reform has had on the career paths and working conditions of teachers in the Argentine educational system. The changes brought about in the economic and political field, the redefinition of the relationship between State and Society, and its impact on the labor market constitute the framework or context for our study of the reform. We maintain the methodology of analyzing labor trajectories, in order to recover the voices of the protagonists, in an attempt to break with the representations built from an external view only. We have attempted, through a cooperative construction of meaning, to capture the dynamic aspects by relating the social practice of the actors with the structural aspects already mentioned.
Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben
A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of…
Alam, Shamma Adeeb
This paper examines the impact of parental illness on children's education. We find that only father's illness decreases children's school attendance. Father's illness also has long-term impacts on child education, as it decreases children's likelihood of completing primary school and leads to fewer years of schooling. However, we find no evidence that father's illness affects schooling through increased child labor. Instead, father's illness decreases household's income and reduces school attendance possibly because of the reduced ability of the family to afford education. In contrast, mother's illness and illness of other household members have no effect on children's schooling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani
Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.
Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine
Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...
This article analyzes the effect of the American Catholic Church, through its program of specialized labor education, on the growth and development of organized labor in the twentieth century. With the proclamation of Pope Pius XI's encyclical Quadragesimo Anno (1931), he requested that the Church complete the work began by Pope Leo XIII in 1891…
For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.
Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben
A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of technology in education, STEM has become a hegemonic discourse informing policy formation and educational practice. In Gramscian terms, the struggle over STEM as a discursive practice, between proponents of instrumental learning of marketable economic skills and those of education towards humanistic goals, reveals insights about the ideological characteristics of the push for STEM learning. This article explores the power dynamics behind the push for STEM learning as an ideological discourse propagated by global networks of elite policy actors and enacted by non-elite policy actors at the school level. The findings point toward a disjuncture between the discourse of elite policy actors in the US, the realities of STEM labor markets, and the actualization of this policy discourse into classroom practice. The implications of this study indicate that analyses of vertical power relations in network governance in STEM education should attend to the semiotics, materiality, and mutability of networked spaces.
Kim, Dongwoo; Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael
State-specific licensing policies and pension plans create mobility costs for educators who cross state lines. We empirically test whether these costs affect production in schools--a hypothesis that follows directly from economic theory on labor frictions--using geo-coded data from the lower-48 states. We find that achievement is lower in…
The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…
Scheirer, Mary Ann; Kraut, Robert E.
Literature linking self-concept and achievement, and evaluation research on educational programs to improve self-concept are analyzed in terms of several self-concept theories. Evidence for a causal connection between self-concept and achievement is negative. Researchers have failed to explore other theoretical approaches to educational change.…
Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Van der Velden, Rolf
Labor market rewards based on competencies are analyzed using a sample of young European higher education (HE) graduates. Estimates of monetary rewards are obtained from conventional earnings regressions, while estimates total rewards are based on job satisfaction and derived through ordered probit regressions. Results for income show that jobs…
Bjørnstad, Roger; Gjelsvik, Marit Linnea; Godøy, Anna; Holm, Inger; Stølen, Nils Martin
Because of globalization and technological progress, most OECD-countries have seen a considerable growth in the demand for labor with higher skills and educational levels the past decades. In many countries, supply has not grown correspondingly. This has resulted in increasing differences either in unemployment or in wages between high and low skilled workers. In Norway, labor supply has followed demand more closely, and unemployment and wages have stayed relatively equal. The ...
Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako
This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…
Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.
As this report illustrates, nearly one in four adult workers today has completed college, while in 1970 just one in seven had as much formal schooling. This growth, together with the higher labor force participation rates of college graduates, has generated significant increases in the college-educated work force. Other factors include women's…
José Raimundo Carvalho
Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".Apesar das recentes tendências sobre trabalho infantil serem positivas, ver ILO (2006, há importantes deficiências no entendimento do fenômeno. A exclusão da categoria "crianças desocupadas" (não trabalham e nem estudam em estudos passados, como também a ausência de informações fidedignas sobre retornos da educação são importantes omissões. Utilizando uma base de dados mais detalhada, bem como uma proxy para retornos da educação encontramos evidências que confirmam resultados tradicionais como o efeito positivo das características dos pais e a relação positiva entre o número de crianças, no trabalho infantil. Por outro lado, apontamos para novos entendimentos, como o fato da variável Índice de Massa Corporal possuir efeito positivo e a grande variação regional dos efeitos das estimativas. Por fim, sugerimos uma nova perspectiva sobre a questão das "crianças de rua" através da análise da categoria de "crianças desocupadas".
Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin
What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P <0.001). Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.
Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Achieving universal primary education is one of the Millennium Development Goals. In low- and middle-income developing countries (LMIC), child labor may be a barrier. Few multi-country, controlled studies of the relations between different kinds of child labor and schooling are available. This study employs 186,795 families with 7- to 14-year-old children in 30 LMIC to explore relations of children’s work outside the home, family work, and household chores with school enrollment. Significant negative relations emerged between each form of child labor and school enrollment, but relations were more consistent for family work and household chores than work outside the home. All relations were moderated by country and sometimes by gender. These differentiated findings have nuanced policy implications. PMID:26034342
Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla
To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.
Full Text Available The existence of national labor law system guarantees fair is one of legal reform to achieve access to justice. This study aims to analyze whether the system of labor law has given capacity to achieve access to justice as the basis for implementing international labor relations in Asia. The method of this study is a normative legal research with statute approach. The findings support that there was an inconsistency on the substance of the legal structures that affect the low legal culture. The substance of the national labor law systems have not adapted the comprehensive International Labor Organization (ILO conventions. Less robust system of national labor laws affect access to justice in the weak field of labor in the region. How To Cite: Wijayanti, A. (2016. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 17-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.144
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
Oli Negassa. Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia ... achievement in science education across selected preparatory schools of Ethiopia. The .... To what extent do students' achievements vary across grade levels, regions,.
John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)
Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.
Lynn A. Karoly
In the 21st century knowledge economy, education plays an increasingly important role in preparing new labor market entrants for the workforce and providing skill upgrading throughout the working career. The vital role of education is propelled by the rapid pace of technological change, as well as the interdependent, global economy, forces that together demand a workforce with the capacity for leadership, problem solving, and collaboration and communication in a wide range of economic sectors...
Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael
This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…
Full Text Available Objective. To describe the characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents 5-17 years with severe functioning difficulties and disability and explore their participation in child labor. Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used logistic regression to explore the association between this condition and child labor. Results. While 11.2% of Mexicans 5-17 years-old has severe functioning difficulties or disability, 13.4% work. The functioning difficulty and disability domains with the highest prevalence are experiencing anxiety (5.4% and depression (1.5% daily. Children and adolescents with severe functioning difficulties and disability are 70% more likely to do child labor [OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.2,2.4]. Educational lag doubles the likelihood of doing child labor [OR=2.2, 95%CI:1.5,3.3]. Conclusions. Guaranteeing educational opportunities and respect for the rights of children with severe functioning difficulties and disability is essential to achieve development of their full potential.
Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; England, Sarah K; Roehl, Kimberly A; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G
To identify clinical characteristics associated with high maximum oxytocin doses in women who achieve complete cervical dilation. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed within a cohort of all term women at a single center between 2004 and 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. Cases were defined as women who had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor >20 mu/min, while women in the control group had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor of ≤20 mu/min. Exclusion criteria included no oxytocin administration during labor, multiple gestations, major fetal anomalies, nonvertex presentation, and prior cesarean delivery. Multiple maternal, fetal, and labor factors were evaluated with univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Maximum oxytocin doses >20 mu/min were administered to 108 women (3.6%), while 2864 women received doses ≤20 mu/min. Factors associated with higher maximum oxytocin dose after adjusting for relevant confounders included maternal diabetes, birthweight >4000 g, intrapartum fever, administration of magnesium, and induction of labor. Few women who achieve complete cervical dilation require high doses of oxytocin. We identified maternal, fetal and labor factors that characterize this group of parturients.
Arneberg, Marie W.; Dagsvik, John K.; Jia, Zhiyang
Abstract: This paper analyzes labor market behavior of urban Eritrean women with particular reference to the impact of education, earnings and labor market opportunities. Unlike traditional models of labor supply, which assume that work can be supplied freely in the labor market, we develop a framework that explicitly takes into account the notion of job opportunities and observable sets of feasible jobs. The framework is formulated within a random utility setting in which unob...
King, Elizabeth M.
This study examined how education and postschool vocational training affect the type and extent of labor market participation of women in Peru. It also estimated monetary returns to different levels of schooling, to formal general and technical schooling, and to training. The sample, which comprised more than 5,600 women in urban and rural Peru,…
This paper examines the research on child labor, and places the phenomenon in a broader development agenda. It explains the demand for, and supply of child labor, linking these factors to others, such as the supply of education. Then it looks into the private, and social costs of, and benefits from child labor. Against this background, strategies fore reducing child labor are debated.
We use data from the West German 1970 census to explore the link between being born during or shortly after World War II and educational and labor market outcomes 25 years later. We document, for the first time, that men and women born in the relatively short period between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly and substantially lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this new finding are put ...
Sarmiento, Anthony R.
Most major workplace literacy programs involve unions. Organized labor's current leadership in worker education and training is not a continuation of earlier activities but an expansion of union interest and activity that is unprecedented in the history of organized labor. These efforts do not rely on public funding, because many unions have…
Schnepf, Sylke Viola
Data on educational access show gender parity of pupils attending primary and secondary schools in transition countries. The first aim of this analysis is to examine whether the gender balance in educational access translates also into gender equality in educational achievement. There are several and very recent international surveys available measuring pupils learning achievement and functional literacy in schools. These surveys are typically analysed in isolation from each other even though...
Crede, Julia; Wirthwein, Linda; McElvany, Nele; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Drawing on the background of positive psychology, there has only recently been a focus on adolescents' life satisfaction (LS) in the context of education. Studies examining the relationship between adolescents' academic achievement and LS have shown conflicting results and the reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of parents' education as a potential moderator of the relationship between adolescents' academic achievement and LS. A sample of German high school students (N = 411) reported parents' educational attainment, as an indicator of family socio-economic status, and students' academic achievement was operationalized by grade point average in five subjects. Results indicated that only mothers' education functioned as a moderator of the relationship between academic achievement and students' LS. The association between academic achievement and LS was only found in the group of students whose mothers had achieved the same or a higher education (at least high school diploma) as their own children. Fathers' educational attainment, however, was not a significant moderator of the respective relationship. Directions for future research and the differential influences of fathers' and mothers' education are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.
Crede, Julia; Wirthwein, Linda; McElvany, Nele; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Drawing on the background of positive psychology, there has only recently been a focus on adolescents’ life satisfaction (LS) in the context of education. Studies examining the relationship between adolescents’ academic achievement and LS have shown conflicting results and the reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of parents’ education as a potential moderator of the relationship between adolescents’ academic achievement and LS. A sample of German high school students (N = 411) reported parents’ educational attainment, as an indicator of family socio-economic status, and students’ academic achievement was operationalized by grade point average in five subjects. Results indicated that only mothers’ education functioned as a moderator of the relationship between academic achievement and students’ LS. The association between academic achievement and LS was only found in the group of students whose mothers had achieved the same or a higher education (at least high school diploma) as their own children. Fathers’ educational attainment, however, was not a significant moderator of the respective relationship. Directions for future research and the differential influences of fathers’ and mothers’ education are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:25691877
Soomro, Safeeullah, Ed.
Since many decades Education Science and Technology has an achieved tremendous recognition and has been applied to variety of disciplines, mainly Curriculum development, methodology to develop e-learning systems and education management. Many efforts have been taken to improve knowledge of students, researchers, educationists in the field of…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…
For this reason, targets have been set, and projects, programmes and schemes instituted to achieve zero level of illiteracy. One of such is maximizing access to quality education in all nooks and crannies of Nigeria. This is where the Universal Basic Education (UBE) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stand out ...
Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona
of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...... in labor force participation is described based on register data and on labor force surveys along with indicators of cohort relevant changes in education and health. Focus in the paper includes also the gender aspect to accommodate stronger cohort effects for women than for men. The impact on labor force...
Asawa, Kailash; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Bhat, Nagesh; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek; Jalihal, Sagar
There are several factors which influence oral hygiene behavior of an individual. Educational achievements, career aspirations and achievement motives of individuals are some of those factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether educational achievements, career aspirations and achievement motives have associations with oral hygiene behavior among dental students of Udaipur, India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all (n=200) 1st year dental students from all dental colleges of Udaipur City, India. Self-administered structured questions were used to assess their educational achievements, career aspirations and oral hygiene behavior (OHB). Achievement motives were assessed using Achievement Motive Scale developed by Lang and Fries (2006). Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression tests were used in data analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Students with better educational achievements undergone regular dental check-up (30.48%) (p=0.03) and used other oral hygiene aids (90.24%) (p=0.01). Tooth brushing frequency, time and replacement time of tooth brush were found to be significantly associated with career aspiration (p=0.007; p=0.002; p=0.00 respectively). Achievement motives did not have statistically significant association with oral hygiene behavior. Educational achievements and career aspirations appear to be associated with oral hygiene behavior of young dental students. Students with higher career aspirations practiced better oral hygiene behavior. There was no significant relationship between achievement motives and oral hygiene behavior.
Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.
Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean Experience ... of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. ... implementation of policies meant to promote education of girls and women.
The education system in Peru and many other developing countries faces several challenges, including improving education achievement and increasing education enrollment in high school. It is clear from several indicators that rural students have lower education outcomes than do urban students. In this study we used cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to determine the relationship between height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), body-mass index (BMI), and education outcomes. The sample was composed of students from 20 elementary public schools in two rural zones in Peru. The descriptive results show that there was no association between any of the anthropometric variables and achievement (mathematics and reading comprehension) or advancing to high school without repeating a grade. However, BMI was associated with dropping out of school: children with higher BMI in 1998 were more likely to be out of school by 2001. The hierarchical multivariate analysis also showed no relationship between anthropometry and achievement at the individual level, but students with relatively higher HAZ in 1998 were more likely to be drop-outs by 2001. These results contradict prior findings that showed a positive association between anthropometric variables (especially HAZ) and education achievement. The results might be explained by the fact that the study was carried out at very poor sites, at altitudes between 3000 and 3500 meters above sea level. The scarce studies about development in high altitudes suggest that the patterns for height and weight for children and adolescents are different than at sea level. Another possible explanation has to do with the fact that in the contexts studied, children who are perceived as relatively heavier (BMI) or taller (HAZ) might be expected to be out of school and start working (in fact, this was the primary reason given by children for dropping out of school).
Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.
Uranchimeg Julia Agvaantseren; Park Sae Hoon
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean higher education reform and to study of Korean and Mongolian experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. And also paper provides a description of the higher education in Mongolia in an effort to identify important financial issues and concern while comparing with Korean high education experience and tries to attract attention of policy makers for better alternative...
Walani, Salimah R
Internationally educated registered nurses comprise 5.4% of the U.S. nursing workforce. These nurses perceive unequal treatment in the workplace. However, studies comparing their wages to U.S.-educated registered nurses are limited and inconclusive. It is unclear whether there is a wage differential in the U.S. labor market. The aims of this study were to determine if there is a difference in the wages of internationally and U.S.-educated nurses and to determine the extent to which the wage gap relates to differences in the human capital, employment, and demographic characteristics of the two groups. The 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses data were used for this secondary data analysis study. The sample included 988 internationally educated nurses and 21,715 U.S.-educated nurses. Multiple regression and Oaxaca decomposition were used to find predictors of log hourly wages. Internationally educated nurses earned 5% higher log hourly wages, controlling for human capital, employment, and demographic characteristics. Male gender, working in a metropolitan area, hospital job, union representation, higher nursing experience, and higher education exerted significant positive effects on hourly wages. Oaxaca decomposition showed that 67% of the wage differential was because of the differences in the characteristics of two groups. If there is any form of discrimination against internationally educated nurses in the United States, it does not translate into wage inequality. Predictors of economic success should be explored in future research.
Full Text Available The influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman’s (1988 or Bourdieu’s (1986 theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman’s approach has its roots in structural functionalism, Bourdieu’s approach contains elements of conflict theory. A number of authors, starting with Bourdieu, attempt to explain and prove that, when connected with the education of individuals, the activity of social capital facilitates social reproduction. Other authors support the notion that social capital is, in fact, a powerful weapon that encourages social mobility. A third group of researchers emphasise that neither of these approaches in isolation can entirety explain the influences of social capital on an individual’s education (Ho, 2003. The present paper offers a review of research focusing on the influences of social capital on educational achievements, while outlining the fundamental differences between the two theoretical approaches that are most frequently used for research of this topic. The aim of the paper is to explain the influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements under Bourdieu’s and Coleman’s theoretical concepts, and to establish whether combining the approaches is possible. The conclusion and arguments show that it is legitimate to use all three theoretical approaches.
Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.
Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.
Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.
Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of the characteristics of achievement motive of future physical education teachers. Starting from understanding of the importance of achievement motive for the successful accomplishment of professional goals and roles of teachers, the aim of our research is to examine the level of achievement motive, the characteristics of its structure and differences according to gender. The instrument MOP2002 (Franceško et al., 2002a was applied, which presupposes the complex structure of this motive. The sample consisted of 373 students (263 male and 110 female of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade. The results show that their achievement motive is characterized by the tendency towards high level of presence, and its structure is in the largest degree determined by the components accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals, which is followed by orientation towards planning. The component competing with others is demonstrated in a moderate degree and it is least expressed. It was shown that female students have a larger degree of achievement motive when compared to male students, and accomplishing goals as a source of pleasure and perseverance in accomplishing goals mostly contribute to the difference in structure of achievement motive. It can be expected that the achievement motive, with the structure and degree of presence determined in our respondents, will contribute that they, as future teachers, become a good motivational model and the creators of a desirable motivational climate.
Smith, Robert L.; Troth, William A.
Investigated the achievement motivation training component of psychological education. The subjects were 54 late-adolescent pupils. The experimental training program had as its objectives an increase in academic achievement motivation, internal feelings of control, and school performance, and a reduction of test anxiety. Results indicated…
Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…
Parkerson, Jo Ann; And Others
This article evaluates five causal model of educational productivity applied to learning science in a sample of 882 fifth through eighth graders. Each model explores the relationship between achievement and a combination of eight constructs: home environment, peer group, media, ability, social environment, time on task, motivation, and…
... and its root causes, and the importance of education for all children and mobilizing a wide array of..., education, and sustainable livelihoods, and the capacity of national institutions to combat child labor... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary: Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting...
Tyaglov Sergey, G.
Full Text Available In the context of Russia's transition to innovation-oriented type of economic development is becoming particularly urgent problem of improving the quality of the workforce and professional development throughout their working life. Currently, the regional labor market characterized by increasing diversity of professions and as a result, the diversification requirements of employers at the regional level, depending on the industrial, agricultural, logistics, etc. specialization of the region. The increasing complexity of the structure and the internal differentiation of the various areas of economic activity determines the demand for workers with a broad fundamental training along with narrow professional competencies, so the mechanism of regulation of the regional bloc needs assessment of competencies of workers, institutionalized at both the state level and at the level of regional public associations, employers' associations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the state of the youth segment of the labor market, the establishment of the fact that for resolving the contradictions of the labor market and the education market (mismatch structure and quality of the training of human capital in the region, the needs of employers, the contradictions of regional professional and educational standards at the regional level, it is advisable to provide correlation of regional professional standards with the federal state educational standards, which will neutralize the contradictions, the solution of which determines the rational use of the labor potential in the regional economy.
V. I. Mukomel
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should
ABSTRACT. The doctoral thesis of Ilze Šūmane in pedagogy science, school pedagogy sub-discipline ”Learning environment facilitating educational achievements of teenagers” was worked out in the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Arts, University of Latvia, under the supervision of Dr.paed., professor Rudīte Andersone from2001 till 2011. The topicality of the research determined by the necessity to improve quality learning and education. During an effective study ...
Dyah Maya Nihayah
Full Text Available The wage have impacts on poverty, living standards and the incentive to improve labor productivity (human capital, in particular, for economic growth. Regional decentralization has implications, which, they must be developed regional endowment to get the efficiency in production process. So it is interesting to examine the importance of regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage in Indonesia. Based on this idea, the objective of this study is to examine the contribution of regional characteristics to the regional wage differential in Indonesia. Data supplied by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during 2003 – 2007. In this study used 3 model; Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Co-Varian Model and Generalized Least Squared (GLS. Then, the most effective model based on the smallest standard error was chosen to estimate regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage inIndonesia. The result showed that the regional characteristics, particularly skilled or unskilled labor, play an important role in determining the wage differentials in region. The empirical evidence presented that regional economic growth and the existing of high skilled labor in labor market have positive impact toward spatial wage. Then, skilled labor and unskilled will give negative influence in regional wage. The points out is laboring existence with level education or skilled level, despite not works or was working have influence toward the regional wage. Therefore, labor's policy is expected gets focused on given specialization corresponds to that region characteristics.
Levesque, Karen; Wun, Jolene; Green, Caitlin
The definition of CTE (career/technical education) used by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) includes, at the high school level, family and consumer sciences education, general labor market preparation, and occupational education (Bradby and Hoachlander 1999; Bradby and Hudson 2007). Most researchers focus on occupational…
Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko
The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…
Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…
Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the fact that motivation is linked directly to the learning process and educational achievement, this study endeavored to identify strategies to improve students’ educational achievement motivation at Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: To conduct this descriptive-analytical study, 368 students from Guilan University of Medical Sciences were selected using simple random sampling from 2013-2014. All of the Guilan University of Medical Sciences’ students met the general eligibility criteria except guest students. The questionnaire included five domains of economic, socio-cultural, educational, geo-regional, and personality factors in educational achievement motivation. Through using descriptive and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, the compiled data were analyzed at the significance level of 0.05. Results: Data analysis revealed that socio-cultural factors have the maximum score (64.14 ± 9.92 and geo-regional factors have the minimum score (19.01±3.63 on the participants’ educational achievement motivation. What is more, a significant difference was revealed between educational field and educational effective factors as well as educational level and educational effective factors (p<0.011, p<0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Given that the socio-cultural factors had the maximum score on the students’ educational achievement motivation, it is recommended that university officials take these factors into account, and attempt to plan to provide appropriate strategies to enhance their students’ motivation, specifically their educational achievement motivation.
Wang, Jian; Shen, Bo; Luo, Xiaobin; Hu, Qingshan; Garn, Alex C.
Purpose: Using Butler's teacher achievement goal orientation as a conceptual framework, we developed this study to validate a teachers' achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Methods: A sample of 322 Chinese physical education teachers participated in this study and completed measures of achievement goal orientations and job…
Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.
Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M
Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.
Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.
The Fair Labor Standards Act contains provisions and standards concerning minimum wages, equal pay, maximum hours and overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor. These basic requirements apply to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce and also to employees in certain enterprises that are so…
Marcelo Weishaupt Proni
Full Text Available Os propósitos centrais do artigo são: (i delimitar a importância da universidade na progressiva construção social e política da profissão Educação Física; (ii apresentar um mapeamento dos ramos de atividade econômica onde se concentram as oportunidades de emprego e das diferenças regionais no que se refere aos níveis salariais médios dos profissionais da EF; e (iii colocar em discussão a tensão que se estabelece entre a formação profissional oferecida nas universidades brasileiras e as demandas predominantes no mercado de trabalho. Pretende-se mostrar que a regulamentação da profissão produziu uma divisão entre duas "identidades profissionais" no interior da Educação Física, o que reforçou a segmentação deste mercado de trabalho altamente competitivo e marcado por situações muito desiguais. Além disso, procura-se enfatizar que o mercado de trabalho para os profissionais da Educação Física é menos estruturado que o destinado aos licenciados. E que a regulamentação da profissão procurou criar uma reserva de mercado, mas não foi suficiente para estruturar este amplo e diversificado mercado de trabalho, difundir um padrão de emprego adequado e elevar os níveis de remuneração.The main purposes of this paper are: (i to delimitate the importance of the university in the progressive social and political construction of Physical Education as a profession; (ii to present the sectors of economic activity where are concentrated the opportunities of employment and to show the regional differences about the average wages of the Physical Education workers; and (iii to discuss the tension relationship between the professional education from the Brazilian universities and the major demands in labor marketing. I intent to suggest that the professional regulation produced a division between two "professional identities" inside Physical Education, and it reinforced the segmentation in this competitive labor marketing
Phillips, Gary W.
Educators, researchers, and policymakers have considerable interest in how the American educational system compares to those in other countries. One major index for comparison is student academic achievement. This paper links the scale of the "National Assessment of Educational Progress" ("NAEP") to the scale of the "Third International…
The Role of Nomadic Education in Achieving the First Millennium Development Goal in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The paper further reviews the current awareness about nomadic education policy ... education towards sustainable livestock development as well as economic ...
Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.
The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…
Marina V. Polevaya
Full Text Available The article deals with the training of spe-cialists in the eld of labor and the house-keeper personnel management within the federal state educational standards of higher education. The analysis of the possibility of training in these specialties in the various educational standards. The necessity of focusing on the prepara-tion of these destinations within certain standards.
This paper is a survey of analyses of women's labor force growth in 12 industrialized countries, presented at a conference in Sussex, England in 1983. The main focus is on growth of the labor force of married women from 1960-1980; trends in fertility, wages, and family instability are discussed. In all countries, wages of women were lower than wages of men, although between 1960 and 1980 labor force rates of married women rose in most of the industrialized countries. 2 factors that are associated with this growth are declines in fertility and increases in divorce rates. The 12 countries studied are: 1) Australia, 2) Britain, 3) France, 4) Germany, 5) Israel, 6) Italy, 7) Japan, 8) Netherlands, 9) Spain, 10) Sweden, 11) US, and 12) USSR. The substitution variables (wages of women or their education) have strong positive effects on labor force participation in most cases, and in most cases the positive wage elasticities exceed the negative income elasticities by a sizable margin. A summary table estimating parameters of the P-function for each country, and their predictive performance in time series, are included. From 1960-1980 the average per country growth in participation of married women was 2.84% per year. Wages of working women, in this same period grew, on average, faster than wages of men in most countries, in part due to selectivity by education in labor force growth. While growth rates of real wages across countries have a weak relation with the differential growth rates of married women's labor force, the relation is strong when country parameters are taken into account. The dominance of the "discouraged" over the "added" workers in female labor force growth appears to be upheld internationally. On the average, total fertility rate dropped from 2.42 in 1970 to 1.85 in 1980. Both fertility declines and the growth of family instability appear to represent lagged effects of longer term developments in the labor force of women. Women's wages are lower than
Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.
Lytovchenko Iryna V.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the main organizational-legal peculiarities of application of the remote labor mode, establishing and accounting the flexible working hours of scientific workers at higher educational institutions and scientific institutes. In the course of research the organizational-legal peculiarities of application of the remote labor mode and flexible working hours of the scientific workers at higher education institutions were analyzed. The article suggests their integration into the activities of higher education institution with the purpose of efficient distribution of their working time, provided that the tasks set are fully executed in a timely manner. As the basic means of control of measurement of results of scientific activity it is suggested to use acts of executed works and other absolute indicators (quantity of the processed scientific sources, quantity of the written pages of scientific papers etc.. The prospective direction of further research is development of practical recommendations on the use of special reports and indicators with an assessment of their impact on the results of activities of scientific workers at higher education institutions.
Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas
Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.
Miha Marič; Mitja Jeraj
The scope of this study is to define how educational achievements of individuals in Slovenia define their “formal power” in the organizations where they work. The study is based on theoretical definitions of the concepts of formal power and education. A total of 509 people from Slovenia over 30 years of age participated in the study. We recognized a certain influence of educational achievement on the formal position in the organizational hierarchy. The main predictor of an individual’s formal...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.
Radcliffe, S A
To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.
Chae, Sujin; Lim, Kiyoung
This study aimed to examine the necessity for research ethics and learning objectives in ethics education at the undergraduate level. A total of 393 fourth-year students, selected from nine medical schools, participated in a survey about learning achievement and the necessity for it. It was found that the students had very few chances to receive systematic education in research ethics and that they assumed that research ethics education was provided during graduate school or residency programs. Moreover, the students showed a relatively high learning performance in life ethics, while learning achievement was low in research ethics. Medical school students revealed low interest in and expectations of research ethics in general; therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines for research ethics in the present situation, in which medical education mainly focuses on life ethics.
Full Text Available Improving education has been and continues to be a necessary condition in any society. Education contributes to increase the level of civilization, to develop the individual personality, but also to increase the level of the economic development. Organization and subsequent reorganization of the Romanian education system has been pursuing desiring to adapt better it better to the labor market needs and to adapt it to the international education system. The management strategies which are applied in this area should be considered adapting it to the domestic and international labor market conditions to the new education methods and techniques, used at the international level. The new trends desiring to transform the economy into a green economy require increased investments in education, in order to train the specialists in new green areas.
Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J
In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.
Derek G. Shendell
Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.
Mercier, Kevin; Doolittle, Sarah
While many teachers continue to ignore the practice of assessing student achievement in physical education, recent federal pressures to include student assessment data in teacher evaluation systems has shown that assessment of student outcomes is here to stay. Though there is a strong tradition of assessing teacher practice in physical education,…
McCullough, Ellen B
Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors in all of the countries analyzed, productivity gaps shrink by half, on average, when expressed on a per-hour basis. Underlying the productivity gaps that are prominently reflected in national accounts data are large employment gaps, which call into question the productivity gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. Furthermore, agriculture's continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted by the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production.
Thurlow, Martha L.; Wu, Yi-Chen; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Ysseldyke, James E.
Federal regulations indicate that the achievement gap must be closed between subgroups, including the gap between special education and non-special education students. We explored the ways in which achievement trends are influenced by three methods of reporting (cross-sectional, cohort-static, and cohort-dynamic). We also investigated (a) the ways…
Full Text Available Although a number of studies have attempted to determine the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of students’ academic performance, there are few studies in the literature that examine the correlates of academic achievement for physical education and sports undergraduate students. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the academic achievement of first-year physical education and sports students and their sociodemographics, attitudes towards the teaching profession, personality traits, and achievement goal orientations. The participants of the study consisted of 127 (67% male physical education and sports students, ranging in age from 16 to 30 years old when they began their studies. Participants responded to a questionnaire to determine their sociodemographic characteristics, their attitudes towards the teaching profession in their high school years, their core self-evaluations, and their achievement goal orientations. Pearson correlation analysis results showed that students’ first year grade-point average (GPA was associated with gender, high school GPA, core-self evaluations, and mastery-approach achievement goal orientation. Results of the regression analysis suggested that the three variables that predicted the students’ first year GPA were their mastery-approach scores, attitudes towards the teaching profession in high school years, and high school GPA. In order to prevent academic failure in physical education and sports students, those who do not have a mastery-approach goal orientation and who had a low high school GPA should be identified at the beginning of the academic year, so that educational interventions can be directed at these students.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination
Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier
This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.
While womenâ€™s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving womenâ€™s access to quality employment, a critica...
... Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor.... Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade...
In this thesis we explored the relationship between poor educational achievement and psychopathology. Examining the association between educational achievement and mental health problems and development of psychiatric disorders is important to investigate the potential value of educational
Leal, Marco Aurelio Navarro; Roux, Ruth
Engineering programs are commonly supported by higher education policy and planning initiatives on the grounds of a supposed saturation of the labor market by other types of educational programs. However, labor market saturation is dependent on the economic characteristics and the sociocultural capital of specific locations. The aims of this study…
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...
Full Text Available This is a study of high academic achievement found in the most unlikely places: among low-income Mexican Americans from homes with little formal education. It examines the backgrounds of 50 persons, male and female from one age cohort, who met most of the predictors for school failure or "dropping out." All came from families in which neither parent completed high school or held a job higher than skilled labor; the average father finished grade four and most were sons and daughters of farmworkers and other unskilled laborers. Most began school with Spanish as their primary language, yet all completed doctoral-level educations from the country's most prestigious institutions. This study investigates the forces that conspire to create such anomalies. Its aim is to suggest how such outcomes might be the product of design rather than accident.
Katz, E; Stark, O
"In this paper we question the pioneering work of Todaro, which states that rural-to-urban labor migration in less developed countries (LDCs) is an individual response to a higher urban expected income. We demonstrate that rural-to-urban labor migration is perfectly rational even if urban expected income is lower than rural income. We achieve this under a set of fairly stringent conditions: an individual decision-making entity, a one-period planning horizon, and global risk aversion. We obtain the result that a small chance of reaping a high reward is sufficient to trigger rural-to-urban labor migration." excerpt
f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...
Lee, Yin Jien
Norway's economy has gone through unprecedented growth in the past decade. The strong growth in GDP, employment, labor productivity, real wage, and labor immigration combines with increasing outflows from the labor force, such as early retirement scheme, sickness and disability, and old age retirement implies that Norway's labor market is tight. We hypothesize demographic changes and skilled and unskilled job composition affects tertiary education participation through wage premium and job ...
Razvan Catalin Dobrea
Full Text Available The employability of of graduates is today one of the major problems both of universities and economical environment. Also, employability, inserting optimum professional and social life is a problem of each graduate. It finds today, that a large part of are young drop out of school and thus possibility of qualify at a high level or have difficulty entering the labor market. European Commission recommends for member states reforming education, especially of the university so as to ensure the professionalization of the young people, developing their professional skills and transversal, harnessing their potential, enhance the relevance of education for youth and the labor market. Bologna Declaration shows that employability (ability to engage, to maintain the service and mobility in the labor market is defining higher education, whose role is to familiarize students with the skills and competencies that individuals need to place on the job. (Bologna, 1999 This paper addresses the issue of employability of higher economic studies graduates, and analyzes a positive experience resulting from the provision of complex information, guidance, advice and orientation to students in POSDRU "Practice today to become manager of tomorrow". The paper presents the results of a complex study conducted on the impact that these services have had on the students involved, from three perspectives: students, employers, who guided activity students at the university level. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the increase in the number of students who have benefited from guidance, counseling and professional development appropriate to their needs and the number who have developed personal skills to substantiate decisions regarding their career paths and educational because of of information, advice, guidance provided in the project. These services have helped students to develop, to know better, know their own skills and abilities and to focus
Sznitman, Sharon R; Reisel, Liza; Romer, Daniel
Although child poverty is recognized as a critical determinant of poor educational achievement in the United States, policy discussions on raising academic achievement rarely include the importance of the effects of poverty on the mental health of adolescents. This article examines the role of adolescent emotional well-being (indicators of depression) as a mediator of the effects of poverty on differences in educational achievement at the national and U.S. state levels. Differences in standardized adolescent academic achievement across 23 developed countries and 39 U.S. states were analyzed using path analytic techniques to test the hypothesis that indicators of adolescent emotional well-being mediate relations between child poverty rates and academic achievement. Child poverty rates were related to both adolescent emotional well-being and educational achievement across both U.S. states and developed countries. Path analyses showed that the status of a country's or state's adolescent emotional well-being is a strong predictor of its educational achievement and that emotional well-being mediates the relationship between poverty and educational achievement. Policies designed to ameliorate the adverse effects of poverty on mental health are critical as they are likely to improve both average educational achievement and student emotional well-being. Attention to improving mental health care not only has the potential to reduce societal and individual costs directly related to health but also to reduce the indirect costs of poor educational achievement. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available romotion of gender equality is the core of the European social and economic policies, but in spite of the progress achieved in recent years, the inequalities between women and men still remain in some fields of activities. Thus, equality and inclusion on the labor market must become a desideratum given the belief that the labor market should provide an opportunity for all, regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. Equality between men and women represents a common value of the EU, and a necessary condition for achieving the objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. In this context, the present paper aims to address a number of theoretical issues in relation to the concept of gender segmentation, to its forms and factors of influence.
Feb 8, 2010 ... American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I-II consecutive multiparous women in labor requesting pain relief were ... epidural analgesia group were satisfied with the experience of labor than those who did not receive this form of analgesia ... although lack of patient education and awareness.
Schneider, Michael; Preckel, Franzis
The last 2 decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement. Achievement is also strongly associated with the stimulation of meaningful learning by presenting information in a clear way, relating it to the students, and using conceptually demanding learning tasks. Instruction and communication technology has comparably weak effect sizes, which did not increase over time. Strong moderator effects are found for almost all instructional methods, indicating that how a method is implemented in detail strongly affects achievement. Teachers with high-achieving students invest time and effort in designing the microstructure of their courses, establish clear learning goals, and employ feedback practices. This emphasizes the importance of teacher training in higher education. Students with high achievement are characterized by high self-efficacy, high prior achievement and intelligence, conscientiousness, and the goal-directed use of learning strategies. Barring the paucity of controlled experiments and the lack of meta-analyses on recent educational innovations, the variables associated with achievement in higher education are generally well investigated and well understood. By using these findings, teachers, university administrators, and policymakers can increase the effectivity of higher education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Aromolaran, Adebayo B.
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...
Chen, Zuosong; Sun, Kaihong; Wang, Kun
This study aims to investigate the relationships among self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping and the potential mediating role of achievement goals in the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping in college physical education. The participants were 320 Chinese college students. Three validated scales were employed to assess participants' self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping in college physical education. Results showed that self-esteem had a negative effect on self-handicapping. Self-esteem had a positive effect on mastery goals, but had a negative effect on performance-avoidance goals. Mastery goals had a negative effect and performance-avoidance goals had a positive effect on self-handicapping. Moreover, mastery goals and performance-avoidance goals partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect effects on self-handicapping in college physical education. The findings indicate that improving individual's self-esteem and promoting mastery goals while reducing performance-avoidance goals may be relevant strategies to reduce self-handicapping in college physical education.
Luna, Gaye; Fowler, Michael
This ex post facto study evaluated Achieving a College Education (ACE) Plus program, a credit-based transition program between a high school district and a community college. Achieving a College Education Plus is an early outreach program. It is designed to aid at-risk students in graduating from high school and making a smooth transition to…
Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience
Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…
Sarmiento, Anthony R.
The literature shows that state federations of labor should be, and many are, actively involved in current state literacy initiatives. The United States must develop a coherent and comprehensive system of lifetime education. This will require a greater commitment of public and private resources to education and training. Too many employers are…
Golmohammadnazhad Bahrami GhR
Full Text Available Aims: In order to improve the quality of education in the scientific and educational centers, usage of communication technologies, especially the Internet, is encouraged and promoted. However, there are not still considerable researches on the role of Internet to improve the quality of education and psychological characteristics of students. The present study investigated the role of using Internet on self-efficacy, educational motivation and achievement of medical students. Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 363 of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences’ students (174 Internet users and 189 nonusers who had studied in 2013-14 academic year were selected by stratified random sampling method and entered into the study. To collect data, educational motivation scale, Sharer's self-efficacy scale (GSES, Internet using questionnaire which made by researcher and the latest educational grade point averages were used. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and independent samples T tests. Findings: The internet user students had significantly more general self-efficacy (creativity and attempt subscales in comparison to nonusers, but there was no significant difference in perseverance subscale of two groups. Internet user students had more educational achievement and motivation (task of interest subscales, educational effort, social interest, praise gaining, typifying, business continuity, competing in comparison to nonusers. However, there was no significant difference between two groups in social power subscale. Conclusion: Self-efficacy and educational achievement motivation of Internet user students is more than nonusers.
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Marcelis, Machteld; Drukker, Marjan; Delespaul, Philippe
Early social and cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder, associated with familial liability and environmental exposures, may contribute to lower than expected educational achievement. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) how differences in educational level between parents and their children vary across patients, their healthy siblings, and healthy controls (effect familial liability), and across two environmental risk factors for psychotic disorder: childhood trauma and childhood urban exposure (effect environment) and (2) to what degree the association between familial liability and educational differential was moderated by the environmental exposures. Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 629), 552 non-psychotic siblings and 326 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied. Participants reported their highest level of education and that of their parents. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Urban exposure, expressed as population density, was rated across five levels. Overall, participants had a higher level of education than their parents. This difference was significantly reduced in the patient group, and the healthy siblings displayed intergenerational differences that were in between those of controls and patients. Higher levels of childhood urban exposure were also associated with a smaller intergenerational educational differential. There was no evidence for differential sensitivity to childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity across the three groups. Intergenerational difference in educational achievements is decreased in patients with psychotic disorder and to a lesser extent in siblings of patients with psychotic disorder, and across higher levels of childhood urban exposure. More research is required to better understand the dynamics between early social and cognitive alterations in those at risk in relation to progress
Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu
The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.
Rozhan M IDRUS
Full Text Available The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities. An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories. This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.
Full Text Available The paper presents a tool for modelling monopolistic competition markets, based on Dixit-Stiglitz ideology but taking into account heterogeneity at labor market. We analyse several modifications of a two-sector general equilibrium model. In the basic one with two levels of workers qualification their shares are determined endogenously on the base of comparison between the higher wage of the skilled worker and heterogeneous education costs, also taking into account the labor mobility between the manufacture and agriculture sector. The model is generalized for the case of continuous distribution of labor qualification. The impact of the model parameters (ratio of fixed and variable costs, market size, heterogeneity in productivity, elasticity of substitution, etc. on the obtained equilibrium prices, quantities, wages, number and size of firms, social welfare is investigated.
Noraida Garbizo Flores Montes de Oca
Full Text Available The new tendencies of the superior Cuban education, require of an educational renewing practice after contributing to the integral formation of the graduate future university, by achieving it harmonize the formation of sk ills and attitudes habits knowledges and the construction of a project of professional life sustained in values. In this sense the academic year constitutes the cell of the educational work to this level. Therefore at present it works try to get evaluate the necessary question between the educational labor and the project of professional life of the university student, with emphasis in the |protagónico| role of the social actors of the educational process.
Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Pyne, Hnin Hnin
Using data from Brazil's 1996 national household survey, various dimensions of child labor were examined by gender, including participation, intensity, and type of activities; the relationships between child labor, education, and future earnings; and the risks of child labor to health and well being. Findings indicate that more boys than girls…
Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif
Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student’ critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts questionnaire was used to test critical thinking and the researcher made questionnaires were used to test computer games. T-test and one-way ANOVA were employed to analysis of the data. The findings of the study showed that playing computer games has no significant effect on critical thinking, however, there were a significant effect of playing computer games on students’ educational achievement (P<0/05. Furthermore, the results showed that the type of computer game has no significant effect on students’ disposition to critical thinking and their educational achievement. Keywords: Computer games, disposition to critical thinking, educational achievement, secondary students
Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Szu-Fu; Lo, Liang-Ming; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang
To compare the duration of second stage labor among modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes and women who delivered during the early 1990 s. Data were collected from women who underwent spontaneous labor and vaginally delivered cephalic singleton fetuses with normal neonatal outcomes at the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan from 1991-1995 (Cohort 1, n = 10,721) and 2010-2014 (Cohort 2, n = 3734). We calculated the median duration and 95th percentiles of second stage labor. The women were stratified according to analgesia and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between the maternal/pregnancy characteristics and second stage labor duration. The median second stage labor duration was significantly longer for Cohort 2 than for Cohort 1. For nulliparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 255 minutes and 152 minutes (Cohort 2) and 165 minutes and 107 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. For multiparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 136 minutes and 43 minutes (Cohort 2) and 125 minutes and 39 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. Birth weight, maternal age at delivery, and time period (2010-2014 vs. 1991-1995) were significant factors associated with the duration of second stage labor. Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The current study investigated the relationship between students' attitudes towards school, values of education, achievement motivation and academic achievement. Accordingly, the study adopted a correlation research design. To achieve the objectives of the study, 362 students using systematic sampling technique were taken from grade 9 students of…
Klasen, S.; Pieters, J.
Female labor force participation rates in urban India between 1987 and 2011 are surprisingly low and have stagnated since the late 1980s. Despite rising growth, fertility decline, and rising wage and education levels, married women's labor force participation hovered around 18 percent. Analysis of
Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Zhichun
The latest wave of basic education curriculum reform, carried out over the past ten years, has achieved significant results and promoted the development of rural education. There are still some problems in the reform of basic education in rural areas, however, such as a serious shortage of funds for rural school curriculum reform, the continuing…
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate preservice computer teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and achievement motivation levels for educational software development before and after the “Educational Software Design, Development and Evaluation (ESDDE” course. A pretest and post test design without a control group was employed. In 2008, 46 senior students (25 male and 21 female who were enrolled at Computer Education and Instructional Technology department participated in this study.The data were collected by the scale of self-efficacy beliefs towards Educational Software Development (ESD, achievement motivation scale besides student demographics form. Positively, the results revealed that the students’ self efficacy beliefs towards educational software development significantly improved after ESDDE course. Before the course, the students’ self-efficacy beliefs were significantly different according to perceived level of programming competency and gender in favor of male, however after the course there was no significant difference in self-efficacy beliefs regarding gender and perceived level of programming competency. Hence, achievement motivation levels after the course were significantly higher than before while gender and perceived level of programming competency had no significant effect on achievement motivation for ESD. The study is considered to contribute studies investigating gender and computer related self efficacy beliefs in IT education.
The present paper interrogates the dominance of formal education. As formal education system relies on ability based academic achievement as a goal, exploring post-formal approaches, such as sociocultural notion of academic achievement is the hallmark of present paper. An attempt is made to interrogate the existing cultural dominance in formal…
Rogošic, Silvia; Baranovic, Branislava
The influence of social capital on an individual's educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman's (1988) or Bourdieu's (1986) theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman's approach has its roots in structural…
Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.
In this retrospective account of their scholarly work over the past 45 years, Alexander and Helen Astin show how the struggle to achieve greater equity in American higher education is intimately connected to issues of character development, leadership, civic responsibility, and spirituality. While shedding some light on a variety of questions…
Ana Prieto Sánchez
Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to reflect about the rol that should be assumed by the management of the educational organizations, as public administration’s leaders, under a perspective of public ethics based on values, like fundamental pillars of how to achieve the common wealth. The method used was documentary, consulting authors as Aranguren (1996, Santana (2000, Arana (2000 y Camargo (1998. It could be concluded: the educational manager as ethics public leader, should encourage the social learning of values to change from a right ethics to a responsibility ethics, in order to obtain a social transformation. The education and the educational policies are the way to achieve the convivence and the common wealth, when they are practiced by the ethics manager, presents in the educational organizations.
Berna Balcı İzgi
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a survey on women labor issues in two different sectors –industry and service sectors- in Gaziantep. The main aim is to modify the structure of women labor in Gaziantep. The main characteristics of women labour market for Gaziantep is that women labor participation is sharply decreased after marriage which is a traditional issue. Inaddition entrepreneurship is very high. Besides working years with insurance is quite low in all levels of education. The promotions system do not change with education. Education is a crucial variable in the analysis. For instance, the positions are not assigned according to the education in most of the times. This creates inefficiency in labor markets. Another important finding that the rate of entrepreneurship is very high related with other cities of Turkey. The topics of wages, working hours, the comparison of the appropriateness of the work according to education, cultural activities, satisfaction, pleasure from working have been considered from the aspect of the relationship between the working life and family life and besides, finance deficiency in entrepreneurship, and sex discrimination not clear are the main problems in different ratios. The work and the education were not found as related. The level of social coverage, trade union membership and salaried work does change with education positively
Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012
This review summarizes research on the effects of technology use on mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms. The main research questions included: (1) Do education technology applications improve mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms as compared to traditional teaching methods without education technology?; and (2) What study and research…
Avraamoya, E. M.
The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…
Krapohl, E; Plomin, R
One of the best predictors of children's educational achievement is their family's socioeconomic status (SES), but the degree to which this association is genetically mediated remains unclear. For 3000 UK-representative unrelated children we found that genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms could explain a third of the variance of scores on an age-16 UK national examination of educational achievement and half of the correlation between their scores and family SES. Moreover, genome-wide polygenic scores based on a previously published genome-wide association meta-analysis of total number of years in education accounted for ~3.0% variance in educational achievement and ~2.5% in family SES. This study provides the first molecular evidence for substantial genetic influence on differences in children's educational achievement and its association with family SES.
Julio Santiago Hernández
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze the effect of migration status on labor market insertion and occupational achievement. It is of interest to know whether the observed differences between people with a different migration status (from first-generation rural migrants to natives are due to their migratory condition per se or other sociodemographic variables associated with their status that could put migrants at disadvantage in the labor market of Mexico City. We elaborate on this by using data from the Survey on Inequality and Social Mobility in Mexico City, 2009. Unlike studies of major Mexican cities during the import substitution model, wich as sumed that upward occupational mobility rates benefited almost equally the born and raised in the city and the rural migrants our results suggest the opposite: that migrants do poorly, but not for the fact that they are migrants, but because they tend to have lower economic, cultural and social capital attributes in their families of origin due to certain factors that leave them unable to capitalize on their efforts to achieve an educational and occupational performance similar or superior to that of the natives. A suggestive finding is that, even after controlling for the disadvantageous social background, female rural migrants show a consistently unfavorable performance when compared to the native women of Mexico City.
The objective of this study was to find out factors affecting the academic achievement of physics education students' in Benue State University and University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The study sought answers to four research questions. The research was carried out using a sample size of 108 students of the department of ...
This paper examines the returns to math courses relative to those in courses in other subjects for students who started their postsecondary education at community college. The limited available evidence presumes that college-level math is valuable in the labor market relative to other coursework. Using data on college transcript and earnings from…
Lewkowitz, Adam Korrick; Nakagawa, Sanae; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Rosenstein, Melissa Greer
The objective of the study was to examine whether the stage of labor dystocia causing a primary cesarean delivery (CD) affects a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) success. This was a retrospective cohort study of women who had primary CD of singleton pregnancies for first- or second-stage labor dystocia and attempted TOLAC at a single hospital between 2002 and 2014. We compared TOLAC success rates between women whose primary CD was for first- vs second-stage labor dystocia and investigated whether the effect of prior dystocia stage on TOLAC success was modified by previous vaginal delivery (VD). A total of 238 women were included; nearly half (49%) achieved vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Women with a history of second-stage labor dystocia were more likely to have VBAC compared with those with first-stage dystocia, although this trend was not statistically significant among the general population (55% vs 45%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.4, 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.5]). However, among women without a prior VD, those with a history of second-stage dystocia did have statistically higher odds of achieving VBAC than those with prior first-stage dystocia (54% vs 38%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.3], P for interaction = .043). Nearly half of women with a history of primary CD for labor dystocia will achieve VBAC. Women with a history of second-stage labor dystocia have a slightly higher VBAC rate, seen to a statistically significant degree in those without a history of prior VD. TOLAC should be offered to all eligible women and should not be discouraged in women with a prior second-stage arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carfagna, Lindsey B.
The relationship between learning and labor has long been a topic of concern for sociologists of education. In this dissertation, I conduct an ethnography of open learning in the United States following the 2008 economic crisis and argue that a new style of learning is emerging amidst changes in the labor market. I call that new style of learning…
Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...
NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA
Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity involving work objectively factor designed to exploit natural resources and monetary system in its interest. According to Adam Smith, the work is a primary factor, the original production was considered by him as the sole source of national wealth. This factor of production can be achieved through labor market that is in a competitive market economy. Transactions in this market have as their object or labor work. Employment policy work focus on boosting production and the flexibility of labor market through an easy tax for economic entities to make hiring, increasing the occupancy of the active population. In Romania, the pressures exerted on the labor market increasingly higher while the economy is subject to extensive qualitative transformations concerning privatization, restructuring and upgrading.
Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J; Otten, Sebastian
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the introduction of a Writing Center at a university, which aims at improving students' scientific writing abilities. In order to deal with the presumed limited utility of student feedback surveys for evaluating the effectiveness of educational programs, we use students' actual learning outcomes as our quality measure. Based on this objective measure, different statistical evaluation methods established in the labor market treatment literature are applied. We present and discuss the validity of these methods to evaluate educational programs and compare the results of these approaches to implications obtained using corresponding student surveys. Although almost all students reported the writing courses to be helpful, we find no significant effect of course participation on students' grades. This result highlights the need for institutions not to rely solely on student course evaluations for evidence-based policy decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC) is a policy center of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education. AMEPAC's mission is to stimulate, through studies, statewide discussion, and debate, constructive improvement of Arizona minority students' early awareness, access, and achievement throughout the educational…
Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa
To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in
Rockwell, Kimberly Lovett; Gilroy, Alexis
Telemedicine is a growing and important platform for medical delivery in the emergency department. Emergency telemedicine outlays often confront and conflict with important federal healthcare regulations. Because of this, academic medical centers, critical access hospitals, and other providers interested in implementing emergency telemedicine have often delayed or forgone such services due to reasonable fears of falling out of compliance with regulatory restrictions imposed by the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act ("EMTALA"). This article offers insights into methods for implementing emergency telemedicine services while maintaining EMTALA compliance. Critical analysis of EMTALA and its attendant regulations. The primary means of ensuring EMTALA compliance while implementing emergency telemedicine programs include incorporating critical clinical details into the services contracts and implementing robust written policies that anticipate division of labor issues, the need for backup coverage, triaging, patient transfer protocols, and credentialing issues. With adequate up-front due diligence and meaningful contracting, hospitals and telemedicine providers can avoid common EMTALA liability pitfalls.
.... This paper reviews previous military manpower research and critically examines two recruit labor supply experiments the Multiple Option Recruiting Experiment of 1979, and the Educational Assistance Test Program of 1981...
Jerry M Maniate
Full Text Available Clinician Educators (CE have numerous responsibilities in different professional domains, including clinical, education, research, and administration. Many CEs face tensions trying to manage these often competing professional responsibilities and achieve “work-work balance.” Rich discussions of techniques for work-work balance amongst CEs at a medical education conference inspired the authors to gather, analyze, and summarize these techniques to share with others. In this paper we present the CE’s “Four Ps”; these are practice points that support both the aspiring and established CE to help improve their performance and productivity as CEs, and allow them to approach work-work balance.
Full Text Available This article presents the use of information technology (IT in the education of students in Software Engineering and in English at the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at Plovdiv University. The teaching process incorporates traditional methods with applications based on the E-learning standards QTI and SCORM. The use of IT has been applied to the education of full-time and part-time Bachelor degree students from the 1st to the 4th year of studies. Based on the statistics from the teaching some conclusions have been drawn regarding the students’ performance and possible ways of enhancing their educational achievement.
Nordin, Sara; Dawson, Andreas; Ekberg, Ewa Carin
To assess dental students' achieved competencies and perceived satisfaction with their temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and orofacial pain education and to compare these with the results of their final examination in TMD and orofacial pain. Dental students from two consecutive classes (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) at the Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function at the dental school in Malmö, Sweden completed two self-evaluations, one at the beginning of semester seven and one at the end of semester eight. The questionnaire that they were given concerned achieved competencies and satisfaction with education in TMD and orofacial pain. Items focused on anatomy, physiology, and clinical training. Students estimated their competence and satisfaction on a numeric rating scale and described their idea of treating TMD and orofacial pain patients on a verbal rating scale. Outcome variables were tested with paired samples t test for differences over time and independent samples t test for between-class comparisons; both were adjusted for multiple testing with Bonferroni correction. Significant improvement in all items was observed for achieved competencies and satisfaction in both classes between semester seven and semester eight (P .05). This study has shown that expansion in undergraduate TMD and orofacial pain education at the dental school in Malmö has allowed all students to develop the same level of competence, independent of prior experience. The study also pointed out that continuous evaluation and enhancement of TMD and orofacial pain education in undergraduate dental education is beneficial.
Moberg, Julie Yoon; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, N.
Little is known about the impact of parental multiple sclerosis (MS) on offspring’s educational attainment. The objective of the study was to examine educational achievements in offspring of parents with MS compared with matched children of parents without MS in a nationwide register-based cohort...... from the Civil Registration System without parental MS matched 8:1 to the MS offspring by sex and year of birth. Information about education was linked to the cohorts from nationwide educational registries. We included 4177 children of MS parents and 33,416 reference persons. Children of MS parents.......20). There was a trend toward more MS offspring attaining health-related educations (OR 1.10; 95 % CI 1.00–1.21; p = 0.06). In conclusion, children of MS parents showed a small advantage in grade point average in final examinations in basic school, and they more often tended toward health-related educations. This study...
Dedicated educators strive to ensure the achievement of all their students. Much research has been done to determine which factors may lead to success in the classroom, particularly that of the math classroom. As the study of mathematics is fundamental for many careers, a solid foundation is vital for students. This study examined whether or not…
Chen, Su Yen; Lu, Luo
Western studies have linked adolescents' time spent on homework, structured activities, various kinds of leisure involvement, and part-time employment with their academic achievement and psychological adjustment, but little is known about the after-school pursuits of Chinese students and their associations with adolescents' development. Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study investigated how time spent on nine after-school activities during the eleventh grade helped predict educational achievement and depression symptoms during the twelfth grade, in addition to previous achievement and depression level and background variables. The findings of this study confirmed and extended the extant literature that time spent on homework, after-class academic-enrichment programs, and private cram schools positively affected adolescents' educational achievement; however, time spent on private cram schools was negatively associated with their psychological well-being. In addition, inconsistent with the findings of many Western studies, this study's results did not support a positive effect of participating in school-based extracurricular activities on educational achievement and psychological well-being. Finally, time spent on working part-time and watching TV was found to be detrimental to achievement, but time spent playing Internet games appeared to be negatively associated with depression symptoms.
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.
Valdineide dos Santos Araujo
Full Text Available The labor market demands have required from the accounting professionals to enhance their skills and competences so as to meet, effectively, the current requirements. This piece of research aimed at understanding the students´ perception of the Accounting Sciences course, of a Higher Education Federal Institution, in regard to the academic formation that they have been receiving and the professional guidance they are meant to have in order to enter the labor market. The study encompassed 105 students from the 7th and 8th morning/afternoon terms and from the 9th and 10th evening term of the Accounting Sciences course of a Federal Institution of Higher Education. As concerns the methodology, it was based on the exploratory approach with qualitative approach and the descriptive research with quantitative approach, by means of the bibliographical research and the use of questionnaire. The surveyed variables refer to the student´s profile, the professional requirements in relation to the job market demands, the students´ necessary competences and perception on the academic formation they are receiving as well as their training for entering the labor market. It was noticed that the students, in their majority, do not take part, regularly, in extracurricular activities, such as: conferences, seminars and lectures. They also do not demonstrate complete agreement regarding the fact that they are acquiring the necessary competences for entering and acting in the labor market and, in an emphatically way, they reveal disagreement in relation to the adequacy of the curricular grid of this Institution´s course to the current accountant formation. It can be concluded that the Higher Education Institution must prioritize the development of competences, skills and values that ensure the students conditions for their professional entry to the job market.
Bradley Nash Jr.
Full Text Available What are the roles for local, national, and international labor and worker organizations in struggles against intensified global integration? How do we achieve these possibilities? Inside this issue are five PEWS members' answers.
This paper proposes a new typology of educational aspirations, expectations and achievement. This typology is derived from combinations of aspirations, expectations and achievement, creating eight possible combinations of aligned and irregular profiles. To devise this new typology, data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) panel survey and matching administrative data from the National Pupil Database (NPD) was utilised. These data were collected in 2004 from a sample...
Gulnara Rafaelevna Gabidullina
Full Text Available This article analyzes the problem of employment of young specialists - graduates of professional institutions. Youth employment is a national problem, because the youth is the country’s human potential. Youth employment is a pressing and long-term objective of national social and economic policy. One of the causes of youth unemployment is a discrepancy between the education markets to labor market needs. Solving problems of youth unemployment is only possible from the standpoint of an integrated, systematic approach.
Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah
The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette
We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock...
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010
The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…
Continuous labor support is practiced in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitude of women in response to labor support based at institutional ... The reasons given for wanting companion were emotional ..... mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men.
Erdogan, Tolga; Senemoglu, Nuray
Problem-based learning (PBL) as an educational practice continues to have great impact on all levels of education and across different disciplines. The aim of this experimental study is to examine the effects of PBL on prospective teachers' academic achievements and self-regulation. The treatment group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 21)…
...), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the Generalized System of... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) October 3...
... trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) on December...
Andersen, Ida Gran; Andersen, Simon Calmar
educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general......, and for students with low parental education in particular. Our findings support the argument that the instructional strategy of schools is an important mechanism in generating educational inequality through the stratification of learning opportunities.......Research in the sociology of education argues that the educational system provides different learning opportunities for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds and that this circumstance makes the educational process an important institutional context for the reproduction of educational...
Full Text Available The pedagogical group of the first year of the pedagogical careers has verified how the teacher of Integral Practice of the Spanish Language from the class of its subject, the educational communication allows to form positive motivations towards the learning and to create the conditions psycho-pedagogical for the collective search and the joint reflections. An educational strategy is proposed to achieve protagonist participation of the students from the Integral Practice classes of the Spanish Language at the University of Sancti Spiritus Jose Marti Perez. They were applied theoretical and empirical as: inductive-deductive, analytical-synthetic and the pedagogic observation. Across participative activities in the process of education - learning in the analysis of texts has been achieved to develop the educational labor and to educate values in the students.
Osadebe, P. U.
The study evaluated the objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Delta State. It considered the extent to which each objective was achieved. A research question on the extent to which the UBE objectives were achieved guided the study. Two hypotheses were tested. A sample of 300 students was randomly drawn through the use of…
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on mathematics achievement and student attitudes towards mathematics. This study also sought determine the relationship between student achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 61 high school students at SMA Unggul Sigli. Students were divided into two groups, the treatment group $(n = 30$ namely, the Realistic Mathematics Approach group (PMR and the control group $(n = 31$ namely, the traditional group. This study was conducted for six weeks. The instruments used in this study were the achievement test and the attitudes towards mathematics questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS. To determine the difference in mean achievement and attitudes between the two groups, data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. The result showed significant differences between the Realistic Mathematics Approach and the traditional approach in terms of achievement. The study showed no significant difference between the Realistic Mathematics Approach and the traditional approach in term of attitudes towards mathematics. It can be concluded that the use of realistic mathematics education approach enhanced students' mathematics achievement, but not attitudes towards mathematics. The Realistic Mathematics Education Approach encourage students to participate actively in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Thus, Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is an appropriate methods to improve the quality of teaching and learning process.
THE LABOR MOTIVATION IN THE VILLAGE UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ALBERTO LOVERA, TUCUPITA, STATE DELTA AMACURO / LA MOTIVACIÓN LABORAL EN LA ALDEA UNIVERSITARIA PROFESOR ALBERTO LOVERA, TUCUPITA, ESTADO DELTA AMACURO
Rosa María Hurtado Matthews
Full Text Available The Mission Sucre needs to perfect the politicians and strategies that respond to the demands of the citizenship conception, personal development and committed professionals' formation with the transformations that Venezuela lives. In this context, the University Villages are inserted as maximum expression in the concretion of such demands for what requires special attention the motivation to assume them on the part of their educators in a committed, responsible way and enthusiast. In this mark, the present investigation the investigation establishes a system of actions to reinforce the labor motivation in the members of the Village University Professor Alberto Lovera, of the State Delta Amacuro and with it to achieve a positive impact in the university community and its environment.
Johnson, R J; Herring, C
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.
Nico W Van Yperen
Full Text Available During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of
Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom
During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
Full Text Available Present in the European political discourse in the early '90s, the concept of flexicurity, achieved by the contraction of two terms, flexibility and security, emerged in the European Union with the adoption of the Communication "Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security" in June 2007. This study, result of the research internship undertaken in October-December 2011 at WIFO, aims to capture the main dimensions of labor market flexicurity, the quality of social partnership and the present status of the targets set by of Europe 2020 Strategy. Europe 2020 Strategy aims, among other objectives, at achieving a series of targets specific for the labor market, in the European context, such as: - Employment for the population aged between 20-64 years, - Reducing the number of early school leavers, - Increasing the share of university graduates in the population between 30-34 years, - Reducing the number of people affected by poverty and social exclusion.
Athanasou, James A.
Reading is theorised as a key aspect of one's educational and vocational adjustment. The reading scores on the "Wide-Range Achievement Test 3" of 465 adult vocational assessment clients were examined. Reading varied across a range of social factors and the overall results were consistent with earlier studies, especially the "Adult…
Baturay, Meltem Huri; Yukselturk, Erman
Online education has expanded and is expected to continue growing rapidly in time along with technological innovations. It is obvious that there is a movement toward online learning which necessitates the need of more empirical evidence on effective learning and learners' achievement. This study investigated effect of the variables: demographics…
Horbal, N.; Shpak, M.; Shpak, Y.
The current state of the labor market in Ukraine is researched. A lot of processes are irregular and uncontrollable as a result of shadow or informal employment at the market nowadays. Different structural and cyclical influences caused high unemployment and a gap between labor market needs and labor force qualification and education. The impact of the political crisis on employment has been related to a large and growing internal flow of people leaving the areas of warfare and looking for...
Rouse, Kelly Elizabeth
Community colleges have become increasingly more important in America's higher education system. Part of this emphasis has been directly due to President Obama's 2010 directive to produce a competitive workforce in the United States by increasing the community college graduation rate by five million over the next decade (Madhani, 2010). Community colleges allow open admission for students which permits marginally prepared students to enter. These students may lack motivation, which contributes to student attrition (Williams, 2010). The focus of this study is to examine methods that may improve student learning and motivation, which could ultimately lead to higher graduation rates. This study investigates the relationship of gamification to motivation and achievement in a community college microbiology class. Gamification is defined as "the process of adding game mechanics to processes, programs, and platforms that would not traditionally use such concepts" (Swan, 2012). The goal of game-based learning is to increase student motivation and learning. The results of this investigation indicate that educational games increase motivation and achievement of students in a community college microbiology class.
Dodd, Matthew Robert
General education and Special Education students from three high schools in Rutherford County were sampled to determine the effect on their academic achievement on the Tennessee Biology I Gateway Exam in Inclusion classrooms. Each student's predicted and actual Gateway Exam scores from the academic year 2006--2007 were used to determine the effect the student's classroom had on his academic achievement. Independent variables used in the study were gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, grade point average, type of classroom (general or Inclusion), and type student (General Education or Special Education). The statistical tests used in this study were a t-test and a Mann--Whitney U Test. From this study, the effect of the Inclusion classroom on general education students was not significant statistically. Although the Inclusion classroom allows the special education student to succeed in the classroom, the effect on general education students is negligible. This study also provided statistical data that the Inclusion classroom did not improve the special education students' academic performances on the Gateway Exam. Students in a general education classroom with a GPA above 3.000 and those from a household without a low socioeconomic status performed at a statistically different level in this study.
Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)
textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard
This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.
Daniel De Abreu Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To compare clinical outcomes in laborers who have undergone open transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF and minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (MIS TLIF. Methods: 78 patients were submitted to lumbar arthrodesis by the same two spine surgeons partners from January 2008 to December 2012. Forty-one were submitted to traditional open arthrodesis and 37 to the minimally invasive procedure. Three patients were not included because they had already retired from work. The analyzed variables were length of hospitalization, length of follow-up, type of access (TILF or MIS TLIF, need for blood transfusion, percentage of improvement or worsening after surgery, pre- and postoperative VAS scale, time off work, pre-and postoperative Oswestry disability index, and general aspects of the laborers such as age, education, profession, working time, amount of daily weight carried at work, and use or not of personal protective equipment. Results: Time off work was longer in the TLIF group (average of 9.84 months compared with the MIS TLIF group (average of 3.20 months. Significant improvement in postoperative VAS and Oswestry was achieved in both groups. Average length of hospitalization was 5.73 days for the TLIF group and 2.76 days for the MIS TLIF group. Conclusions: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion presents similar results when compared to open TLIF, but has the benefits of less postoperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization times, and faster rehabilitation in laborer patients.
The prediction of level of post-high-school educational choice was investigated using the theme scores of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, sex and achievement level as predictors. Results indicated significant relationships between interests and educational choice, moderated in some cases by sex and achievement level. (Author)
Гончаров, В. А.; Самойлов, М. В.
The report provides a comparison of different models of education for university students on the issues of labor protection. New approaches to teaching discipline of «Labor protection» at the University of Economics are considered.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the ICT impact on labor productivity growth of EU developing countries. Empirical studies of the role of ICT as one of the main determinants of productivity growth, for developing countries have produced disagreement. To help clear up the subject, this paper employs a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM through a dynamic panel data approach on the sample of 25 European developed and developing countries over the period of 2001-2010. The results indicate a positive and significant impact of ICT on labor productivity growth in developed and developing countries, but the terms of impact in developing countries rely on human capital, a contribution of a higher educational level, advanced research qualifications and development activity. Comparing to developed countries, the growth accounting approach indicate that developing countries have similar relative ICT contribution to labor productivity growth, but their average growth rate of labor productivity is 6.8 times higher. The main conclusion is that education, especially of higher levels, is the critical factor of productivity and growth of EU developing countries and that must be taken as development policy implication in these countries.
Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Sadler, Sydney
Parental educational involvement in primary and secondary school is strongly linked to students' academic success; however; less is known about the long-term effects of parental involvement. In this study, we investigated the associations between four aspects of parents' educational involvement (i.e., home- and school-based involvement, educational expectations, academic advice) and young people's proximal (i.e., grades) and distal academic outcomes (i.e., educational attainment). Attention was also placed on whether these relations varied as a function of family socioeconomic status or adolescents' prior achievement. The data were drawn from 15,240 10th grade students (50 % females; 57 % White, 13 % African American, 15 % Latino, 9 % Asian American, and 6 % other race/ethnicity) participating in the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. We observed significant links between both school-based involvement and parental educational expectations and adolescents' cumulative high school grades and educational attainment. Moderation analyses revealed that school-based involvement seemed to be particularly beneficial for more disadvantaged youth (i.e., those from low-SES families, those with poorer prior achievement), whereas parents' academic socialization seemed to better promote the academic success of more advantaged youth (i.e., those from high-SES families, those with higher prior achievement). These findings suggest that academic interventions and supports could be carefully targeted to better support the educational success of all young people.
Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
A four-page synposis of data on women of Hispanic origin in the labor force is presented. Data included are numbers of Hispanic women in the labor force; percentage of Hispanics among women in labor force; percentage of Hispanic women in the labor force; median ages; unemployment rate; education level; income levels; types of jobs occupied…
Hällsten, Martin; Pfeffer, Fabian T
We study the role of family wealth for children's educational achievement using novel and unique Swedish register data. In particular, we focus on the relationship between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's educational achievement. Doing so allows us to reliably establish the independent role of wealth in contributing to long-term inequalities in opportunity. We use regression models with rich controls to account for observed socioeconomic characteristics of families, cousin fixed effects to net out potentially unobserved grandparental effects, and marginal structural models to account for endogenous selection. We find substantial associations between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's grade point averages (GPA) in the 9th grade that are only partly mediated by the socioeconomic characteristics and wealth of parents. Our findings indicate that family wealth inequality - even in a comparatively egalitarian context like Sweden - has profound consequences for the distribution of opportunity across multiple generations. We posit that our estimates of the long-term consequences of wealth inequality may be conservative for nations other than Sweden, like the United States, where family wealth - in addition to its insurance and normative functions - allows the direct purchase of educational quality and access.
Montoya Melgar, Alfredo
Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.
The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic â€“ and labor-devastating â€“ development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...
Reddy, M. Vijaya Bhaskara; Mint, Phyu Phyu
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of simulation methods in teaching Science on education students' academic achievement. 70 students (35 control, 35 experimental) who studied at Srinivasa College of education, SV University in the Department of Education. 2015-2016 academic year students were participated in this simulation based…
Gerber, Theodore P; Radl, Jonas
Russia provides an interesting context for studying the labor market experiences of the elderly because of its experience with market transition, its looming growth in the elderly dependency ratio, and its unusual pension policies that do not penalize pensioners for working. We use data from twenty surveys of the Russian population conducted from February 1991 to November 2007 to analyze the labor market participation and earnings of elderly Russians following market transition. Economic desperation, exacerbated by low pension levels, pushed some elderly to seek employment for income on the labor market. Elderly Russians with more education had more opportunities to work, and education differentials increased as market reforms progressed. The correlates of earnings operate similarly for retirement- and pre-retirement age Russians, with several exceptions: unobserved factors favoring employment are negatively associated with earnings for the elderly, occupation mediates most of the effects of education, and patterns of change over time differ somewhat. Elderly Russians are not disproportionately blocked from employment following market reforms. Following the initial transition shock, their labor market activity increased. Overall, both push and pull factors shape the employment and earnings of the elderly, affecting different segments of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BROOKS, MELVIN S.; HILGENDORF, ROBERT L.
MIGRANT LABORERS WHO PICKED STRAWBERRIES IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS IN THE SPRING OF 1958 WERE SURVEYED. THIS PARTICULAR SAMPLE WAS SELECTED FOR STUDY BECAUSE FAR MORE CHILDREN ARE INVOLVED IN THE HARVEST OF STRAWBERRIES THAN IN ANY OTHER FARM TASK OF THE AREA. MIGRANTS WHO WERE INTERVIEWED WERE SELECTED BY SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING--A PROCEDURE THAT…
GRANTZ, Katherine L.; GONZALEZ-QUINTERO, Victor; TROENDLE, James; REDDY, Uma M.; HINKLE, Stefanie N.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; LU, Zhaohui; ZHANG, Jun
Objective To describe labor patterns in women with a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) with normal neonatal outcomes. Study Design In a retrospective observational study at 12 U.S. centers (2002–2008), we examined time interval for each centimeter of cervical dilation and compared labor progression stratified by spontaneous or induced labor in 2,892 multiparous women with TOLAC (second delivery) and 56,301 nulliparous women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed including women with intrapartum cesarean delivery, and then repeated limiting only to women who delivered vaginally. Results Labor was induced in 23.4% of TOLAC and 44.1% of nulliparous women (Plabor (Plabor (P=.099); however, TOLAC had lower maximum doses of oxytocin compared to nulliparous women: median (90th percentile): 6 (18) mU/min versus 12 (28) mU/min, respectively (Plabor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women with spontaneous labor from 4–10cm was 0.9 (2.2) hours longer (P=.007). For women who entered labor spontaneously and achieved vaginal delivery, labor patterns for TOLAC were similar to nulliparous women. For induced labor, labor duration for TOLAC versus nulliparous women from 4–10cm was 1.5 (4.6) hours longer (Plabor patterns were slower for induced TOLAC compared to nulliparous women. Conclusions Labor duration for TOLAC was slower compared to nulliparous labor, particularly for induced labor. By improved understanding of the rates of progress at different points in labor, this new information on labor curves in women undergoing TOLAC, particularly for induction, should help physicians when managing labor. PMID:25935774
Full Text Available The technology of using their own mobile devices of learners for testing educational achievements, based on the model of BYOD, in an article is offered. The proposed technology is based on cloud services Google. This technology provides a comprehensive support of testing system: creating appropriate forms, storing the results in cloud storage, processing test results and management of testing system through the use of Google-Calendar. A number of software products based on cloud technologies that allow using BYOD model for testing of educational achievement are described, their strengths and weaknesses are identified. This article also describes the stages of the testing process of the academic achievements of students on the basis of Google search services with using the BYOD model. The proposed approaches to the testing of educational achievements based on using of BYOD model extends the space and time of the testing, makes the test procedure more flexible and systematically, adds to the procedure for testing the elements of a computer game. BYOD model opens up broad prospects for implementation of ICT in all forms of learning process, and particularly in testing of educational achievement in view of the limited computing resources in education
Oyarzun, Beth Allred; Morrison, Gary R.
While distance education continues to grow in higher education, students express the concern that they feel isolated. The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of a cooperative learning strategy would affect social presence and achievement. Each group completed an individual assignment and a cooperative learning assignment…
Butum Lavinia Cornelia
Full Text Available The transition from student to employee status has become an important issue for labor market analysts, students and universities. Literature recognizes that the international experience represents a successful factor for future employability. In this regard, a new curricular model should include international competences in order to build the qualifications required by the global labor market. A recent study (Stan, Butum & Zodieru, 2016 highlighted the importance of youngsters’ professional training upon graduation and the crucial role of collaboration between universities, companies and governments (through education policies in increasing graduates’ accessibility to well - paid jobs and in developing an entrepreneurial career. The same study provides the results of a qualitative research that leads to the conclusion that most Romanian students have the capacity to obtain the desired job if they can swiftly gain the soft skills required by companies. It is also mentioned that the labor market has increased the demand for international competences and practical skills in recent years. The purpose of this article is to analyze the dynamics of Romanian and European students’ feedback on their universities. Beginning with the analysis of soft skills needed for the labor market and their appreciation as perceived by students, the study will examine the dynamics of students’ appreciation on international experience and other work activities that ensure the achievement of international competences and reduce the time for obtaining a job. Afterward, the paper will analyze students’ career priorities and students’ perception of university performance in providing practical and international skills needed for the labor market. The analysis will include 3-year statistic data from Trendence Graduate Barometer regarding Romanian students’ perception. The conclusions will show the dynamic of students’ expectations on provided skills and the
Full Text Available Background Undernutrition is among the most significant public health problems in the world. It is an important underlying cause of illness and death in Africa and imposes a huge cost both in human and economic terms. The aim of this study is to assess the level of undernutrition and its determinants among daily laborers working in cobblestone projects, Yeka Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A workplace-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 cobblestone daily laborers from February 20 to April 1, 2015. Systematic random sampling method was employed (with proportional allocation in three cobblestone project sites. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements (weight and height were used to collect the data. The data was entered by Epi Info version 3.5.3 then transferred to SPSS version 20 for data analysis. Results Overall, 423 respondents (of which 300, or 71%, were male participated in this study, making the response rate 100%. Among the study participants, 141 (33.3%; 95% CI: 28.8 - 38.0 were underweight (BMI<18.50. Males were more likely to experience underweight than their female counterparts: 112 (37.3% versus 29 (23.6%. Educational status, family size, income, dietary diversity and smoking had statistical significance with undernutrition in multivariate analysis. Study participants who had no education were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR = 7.83; 95% CI (3.78, 16.22] compared with those above secondary level education. Daily laborers with a larger family size (≥3 were three times [AOR=2.88; 95%CI; 1.54-5.40] more likely to be undernourished compared to low family size (≤2. Daily laborers who had low monthly income (<1500 ETB were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR= 9.77; 95%CI (4.92, 19.39] than those with high income (≥2500 ETB. Daily laborers who smoke were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR = 2.02; 95% CI (1.06 – 3
Acheson, Kris; Taylor, Justin; Luna, Kera
An area of research that may shed light on the pressing problem of FL teacher attrition is emotion labor. Emotion labor (or emotional labour), a construct stemming from research in the fields of communication and psychology and focusing mainly on service professionals, has recently been taken up in education literature. Although student emotions…
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette
We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008–2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over......-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect...... on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect...
Lewis, Gary J; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert
Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on parental ratings of behavior problems across childhood (age 4) and adolescence (ages 12 and 16) as predictors of educational achievement at age 16 using a longitudinal classical twin design. Shared-environmental influences on anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Genetic influences on the externalizing behaviors of conduct problems and hyperactivity at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Moreover, novel genetic and (to a lesser extent) nonshared-environmental influences acting on conduct problems and hyperactivity emerged at ages 12 and 16, adding to the genetic prediction from age 4. These findings demonstrate that genetic and shared-environmental factors underpinning behavior problems in early childhood predict educational achievement in midadolescence. These findings are consistent with the notion that early-childhood behavior problems reflect the initiation of a life-course persistent trajectory with concomitant implications for social attainment. However, we also find evidence that genetic and nonshared-environment innovations acting on behavior problems have implications for subsequent educational achievement, consistent with recent work arguing that adolescence represents a sensitive period for socioaffective development. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African
Rogosic, Silvia; Baranovic, Branislava
The influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman’s (1988) or Bourdieu’s (1986) theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman’s approach has its roots in structural functionalism, Bourdieu’s approach contains elements of conflict theory. A number of authors, starting with Bourdieu, attempt to explain and prove ...
Brenke, Karl; Clemens, Marius
In the last decade the available labor force has expanded in Germany-despite the decline in the working-age population. The reason: labor market participation has increased, for women in particular and older people in general. Also noticeable was a rise in qualification level because well-educated people have a particularly high propensity to participate in the labor market. Most recently, Germany's potential labor force has grown as a consequence of many factors, including migration-from oth...
Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.
Full Text Available Background and objective: Due to the unpredictability of events in routine clinical psychiatry and replacing experience with assignments including therapeutic relationship with patients, using modern methods of measurement in this environment without students' acceptance and satisfaction is not possible. To determine the effect of portfolio application on satisfaction and educational achievement of nursing students in psychiatry clerkship, we conducted the present study. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 60 nursing students who were spending psychiatry clerkship in Ebn-Sina psychiatry hospital in Mashhad (Summer of 2015 were studied. They were allocated to two portfolio and educational goals (The usual method of evaluation group non-randomly. Before the intervention, educational objective was the same for both groups. Data collection tools included a questionnaire of nursing students satisfaction and a written functional (educational achievement test. Data analysis was performed by SPSS (11.5 version software and the independent t-test, Fisher's exact test and chi-square tests. Results: In this research, 51.7% (n = 31 participating nursing students were male and were 48.3% (n = 29 female. The independent t-test results showed a significant difference between the mean of the nursing student satisfaction in the Portfolio (34.3 ± 2.5 and educational goals (30.5 ± 4.2 groups (p<0.001. Also, there was a difference between the mean of educational achievement in the Portfolio (61.8 ± 14/7 and educational goals (53.0 ± 14.2 group (p<0/02. Conclusion: Using Portfolio in training can increase nursing student satisfaction and educational achievement. Therefore, it is recommended that nursing teachers use it to assess clinical education.
Full Text Available Background In modern education, physical space is considered as a dynamic factor in students' educational activities. This study was conducted to investigating the impact of lighting educational spaces on learning and academic achievement of elementary students. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study (2015-2016, a total of 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Cluster sampling was done by appropriate allocation and questionnaires were randomly divided among students. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning environment lighting and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed using SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that lighting educational spaces has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz, Iran (P
Kenia Lara Silva
Full Text Available We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes.
Yadira Rodríguez Faría
Full Text Available The present investigation proposes a psychological strategy to stimulate the training of labor competitions in students of Psychology in semi presence conditions based upon an educative necessity diagnosis felt by students and their potentialities and the educative context. ANSE Model was the main technique for the diagnosis, using specifically the Central Group, Research of problems and Nominal Group, besides observation, were used no structural interviews, revision of documents, and content analysis. The psychological strategy was validated by means of the Expert Criteria Method. The system of actions created were the based for the training process of labor competitions in students of psychology in semi presence conditions with the professor labor.
M. I. Neimark
Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of spontaneous labor in female patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Subjects and methods. The results of physiological labor analgesia were analyzed in 140 patients. The parturients were divided into 3 groups: 1 40 parturients in whom analgesia was performed by the intravenous administration of promedol; 2 40 parturients in whom analgesia was done by the fractional administration of 0.2% ropivacaine hydrochloride into the epidural space; 3 40 parturients in whom analgesia was carried out with intravenous paracetamol 2000—3000 mg. In all the patients, the investigators estimated central hemodynamic parameters by echocardiography, the efficiency of labor analgesia according to the scale described by N. N. Rasstrigina and B. V. Shnaider, as well as blood glucose levels, fetal status by a cardiotocographic technique, and neonatal status by Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes of life. Results. Analgesia quality assessment established that the best analgesic effect was achieved in the patients in Group 2 where 75.0% of the parturients had 8—10 scores. A comparative analysis of carbohydrate metabolic parameters also ascertained that the most steady-state and physiological glycemic level was recorded in Group 2 patients throughout the study. In addition, epidural analgesia versus other analgesic techniques provides the most steady-state hemodynamic parameters during labor, which promotes improved labor and has a beneficial effect on fetal and neonatal states. Conclusion. Glycemic levels during labor and delivery can be optimized in patients with DM only if adequate analgesia is achieved. By ensuring adequate labor analgesia, epidural analgesia normalizes glycemic and central hemodynamic parameters, favors elimination of delivery abnormalities, and has a beneficial effect on fetal and neonatal states. Key words: epidural analgesia, diabetes mellitus, spontaneous labor.
AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL
Full Text Available In recent years, economists and specialists in human resources have shown a growing interest for more efficient wage policy, one that proves to be judiciously developed and in accordance with the specific activity of each entity. Therefore, an effective wage policy should be part of the general policy of the firm and should answer, on the one hand to the general requirements of increasing the efficiency of the activity and on the other hand to provide stimulation and motivation for the staff so to achieve not only individual performance but bring along added value to the overall business performance. This article is part of a broader research conducted by authors in the field of wages and labor market flexicurity. In elaborating this article we have appealed to an exhaustive analysis of EU law regarding remuneration of labor, in general, and labor flexicurity, in particular, the opinions of experts in the field were considered and their opinions, or some legal texts, the most significant ones, were presented in this work in a summary form. A critical documentary work on Community regulations and Romanian legislation, foreign specialized literature and the one published in our country was performed while conducting the research. The theoretical approach of flexicurity is different from state to state within the European Union in relation to the development and diversification of the labor market of each state. In some countries the efforts can focus on the firms for retraining, requalification, while in others the focus should be put on training during periods of inactivity or unemployment.
The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…
Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne
This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher educators…
Díaz Fuentes, Claudia M; Martinez Pantoja, Leonardo; Tarver, Meshawn; Geschwind, Sandy A; Lara, Marielena
We address immigrant day laborers' experiences with occupational safety in the construction industry in New Orleans, and opinions about content and method of communication for educational interventions to reduce occupational risks. In 2011, we conducted seven focus groups with 48 Spanish-speaking day laborers (8 women, 40 men, 35 years on average). Focus group results are based on thematic analysis. Most employers did not provide safety equipment, threatened to dismiss workers who asked for it, and did not provide health insurance. Attitudes toward accepting unsafe work conditions varied. Women faced lower pay and hiring difficulties than men. Day laborers preferred audio format over written, and content about consequences from and equipment for different jobs/exposures. Day laborers have common occupational experiences, but differences existed by gender, literacy and sense of control over safety. Day laborer information preferences and use of media needs further studying. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:476-485, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 106- 200 (2002), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the... of benefits under CBTPA and AGOA, respectively. In addition, the Andean Trade Preference Act, as... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION...
Koryakova Irina Konstantinovna
of their lawyers, the AFL and CIO carried on the active campaign to obtain that purpose. In defiance of the provisions of the Taft-Hartley law, the CIO and the AFL published in labor and commercial newspapers the statements urging the members of trade unions to support those politicians in the federal elections who got the approval of labor organizations leadership. Consequently, the court case finally reached the halls of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court decided that labor had the right to use money on financing its political activities with regard to the federal elections. But at the same time the Supreme Court refused to resolve the issue of the correspondence of the Taft-Hartley law with the U.S. Constitution. Although the AFL and the CIO could not achieve their main goal they managed to obtain at least part of it, having got the opportunity to spend trade union money on the socalled educational campaigns. Labor acted persistently and even offensively and its fight revealed that the united and concerted actions, on the one hand, and resorting to the active and bold methods of activities, on the other hand, could bring the victory.
Geske, Andrejs; Ozola, Antra
The results of IEA (The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) PIRLS 2006 (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) has showed that Latvia has the 6th largest gender gap in reading literacy scores and that is an indication of a serious problem of education in this country. The purpose of the paper is to…
Stark, Mary Ann; Miller, Michael G
To determine nurses' perceived barriers to the use of hydrotherapy in labor. While effective in relieving pain, reducing anxiety, encouraging relaxation, and promoting a sense of control, hydrotherapy is rarely used during labor. Comparative descriptive survey design. A national convention and perinatal listserves. Intrapartum nurses (N=401) attending a national convention (Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses, 2007; n=225) and members of perinatal listserves (n=176) were recruited. A questionnaire was designed for this study (Nurses' Perception of the Use of Hydrotherapy in Labor). The questionnaire was available in paper format and online. Institutional but not individual characteristics (age, education, and role) were associated with Nurses' Perception of the Use of Hydrotherapy in Labor. Nurses who reported higher epidural rates (r=.45, p=.000) and Cesarean section rates (r=.30, p=.000) reported more barriers. There was no difference in perception of barriers for nurses at hospitals providing different levels of care; there were significant differences when primary care providers were considered. Intrapartum nurses in facilities where certified nurse-midwives do most deliveries reported significantly fewer barriers than nurses who worked in facilities where physicians attended most deliveries (F=6.84, df=2, p=.000). The culture of the birthing unit in which nurses provide care influences perception of barriers to the use of hydrotherapy in labor. Providing hydrotherapy requires a supportive environment, adequate nursing policies and staffing, and collaborative relationships among the health care team.
Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Amery, Hamideh; Emadzadeh, Ali; Babazadeh, Saber
In recent decades, many studies have been carried out on the importance of Kolb experiential learning theory (ELT) in teaching-learning processes and its effect on learning outcomes. However, some experts have criticized the Kolb theory and argue that there are some ambiguities on the validity of the theory as an important predictor of achievement. This study has been carried out on dental students' educational achievement in relation to their dominant learning styles based on Kolb theory in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran). In a cross sectional study, Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI Ver. 3.1) as well as a questionnaire containing students' demographic data, academic achievement marks including grade point average (GPA), theoretical and practical courses marks, and the comprehensive basic sciences exam (CBSE) scores were administered on a purposive sample of 162 dental students who had passed their comprehensive basic sciences exam. Educational achievement data were analyzed in relation to students' dominant learning styles, using descriptive and analytical statistics including χ2, Kruskal-Wallis and two-way ANOVA tests. The dominant learning styles of students were Assimilating (53.1%), Converging (24.1%), Diverging (14.2%) and Accommodating (8.6%). Although, the students with Assimilating and Converging learning styles had a better performance on their educational achievement, there was no significant relationship between educational achievement and dominant learning style (P≥0.05). Findings support that the dominant learning style is not exclusively an essential factor to predict educational achievement. Rather, it shows learning preferences of students that may be considered in designing learning opportunities by the teachers.
Autor, David; Salomons, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041575
Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries.
Gertrude Sebunya Muwanga
Full Text Available This is an empirical investigation of the homogeneity of gender disaggregated labor using the Douglas, single/multi-factor translog production functions; and labor productivity functions for the USA. The results based on the single factor translog model, indicated that: an increase in the capita/female labor ratio increases aggregate output; male labor is more productive than female labor, which is more productive than capital; a simultaneous increase in quantity allocated and productivity of the leads to an increase in output; female labor productivity has grown slower than male labor productivity; it much easier to substitute male labor for capital compared to female labor; and the three inputs are neither perfect substitutes nor perfect complements. As a consequence, male and female labor are not homogenous inputs. Efforts to investigate the factors influencing gender disaggregated labor productivity; and designing policies to achieve gender parity in numbers/productivity in the labor force and increasing the ease of substitutability between male labor and female labor are required.
Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A; Sallam, Atiya A; Ariffin, W A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Amran, Adel A; Surin, Johari
A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education.
Anderson, C. Arnold
This paper relates the scholastic performance findings of the International Educational Achievement (IEA) Studies to social characteristics. It explores the relationship of national school achievement to economic development, national communication systems, and national social and cultural indices. This is the final article in a symposium on the…
The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.
Basim, H. Nejat; Begenirbas, Memduh; Can Yalcin, Rukiye
One of the most indispensable and important elements of education is teachers whose personality closely affects training and education. In this context, this study examined the effects of teachers' personality traits on their emotional exhaustion in a mediating model which centers around emotional labor. Data were obtained from 798 teachers…
Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho
This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.
Bodovski, Katerina; Byun, Soo-yong; Chykina, Volha; Chung, Hee Jin
We utilised four waves of TIMSS data in addition to the information we have collected on countries' educational systems to examine whether different degrees of standardisation, differentiation, proportion of students in private schools and governmental spending on education influence students' math achievement, its variation and socioeconomic…
Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.
The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES) is estimated to address factor substitutability in Florida agriculture during 1960-1999. By adopting a profit maximization model of induced innovation theory, the MES's between hired and self-employed labor and the MES's between labor and capital provide implications for future immigration policies.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes demographic and socio-economic characteristics of female labor in Bantul District. The characteristics are measured by their education, ages, marital status, number of children, house location, distance from workplace, and salary. The contribution of female labor to their families are analyzed by arithmetic mean. To model the behaviour of female labor work intensity, this paper uses salary, number of children, distance to work location, husband income, and dummy variables on free rice program, health insurance program, and house location. Using a multiple regression model, it finds that variables significantly increase work intensity are salary and husband’s income, while those significantly decreases work intensity are number of children, distance to workplace, and rice free program.
The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.
Sundean, David A.; Salopek, Thomas F.
The Wide Range Achievement Test scores of educable mentally handicapped children in primary and elementary classes were correlated with their Binet or Wechsler IQ scores. It was found that the WISC was a better differential predictor of achievement in reading, spelling and arithmetic at the elementary level only. (Author)
Edmonds, Joyce K; Miley, Kathleen; Angelini, Kimberly J; Shah, Neel T
Postponing hospital admission until the active phase of labor is a recommended strategy to safely reduce the incidence of primary cesarean births. Success of this strategy depends on women's decisions about when to transfer from home to the hospital, a process that is largely absent from research about childbirth. This study aimed to determine the decision-making criteria used by women about when to go to the hospital after the self-identification of labor onset at home. A qualitative study was conducted at an academic medical center with a sample of 21 nulliparous women who went into spontaneous labor at home and had term, singleton, and vertex-presentation births. The purposive sample consisted of women who decided to stay at home or go to the hospital in early labor. Birth narratives from in-depth interviews conducted in the postpartum period using a semistructured interview guide were subjected to content analysis. The verbatim transcriptions of the interviews were coded and categorized into a set of decision criteria. Criteria used by women in deciding to go to the hospital or stay at home in early labor included the degree of certainty with the self-identification of labor onset, ability to cope with labor pain, influence of social network members, health care provider advice, and concerns about travel to the hospital. Perception of childbirth risk and the need for reassurance about the normalcy of symptoms and fetal well-being also influenced women's decisions. Women use a common set of criteria in deciding when to arrive at the hospital during labor. Antenatal education and telephone triage interventions that incorporate the considerations of women deciding to seek or delay hospital admission in childbirth may facilitate health seeking in more advanced labor. Symptom recognition education about early labor onset and progression could reduce decisional uncertainty. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Martin, P L
"A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt
Rogers, John S.; Terriquez, Veronica
This article explores the potential role of low-wage service sector unions in engaging in equity-minded school reform. The members of many such unions are parents of children attending poorly resourced public schools. In seeking to address the interests of their members, labor unions can draw upon resources, organizing strategies, and political…
Full Text Available Change educational goals and objectives at the present stage of development of the Ukrainian school education determines the problem of the formation of children and youth such personal qualities as diligence, which finds expression in the love and habit of labor, conscientious, thorough and timely implementation of the labor action without coercion, interest in achieving positive results and serves as an effective means not only for human sustenance, but also spiritual self-realization. Hard work is the basis of the physical and intellectual development; lays the foundation for the formation of skills of the labor action, creativity, moral values attitude to work; foster self-expression and self-esteem (V. Sukhomlinsky. The most favorable in this aspect is primary school age, when the foundations of thinking, intelligence, creative ideas, forming the spiritual world of the child, understanding their beauty and self-worth of labor. The implementation of these objectives triggers the need for review and thoughtful understanding of the past and its objective evaluation, a thorough study of the historical experience of previous generations in respect of methods, tools, ways of formation of diligence in primary care education according to modern socio-economic conditions and processes. The main objective is to characterize the labor climate of the time, based on the educational regulations of the study period; to analyze the nature of main ideas of labor education and formation of diligence of foreign scientists. In every society at different stages the development was provided for the training of the next generations to participate in social work, was carried out purposeful work on the formation of their hard work. Not standing back from these questions and foreign teachers of the second half of XIXth – early XXth centuries put forward some ideas regarding the use of manual labor as a means of formation of diligence. Describing diligence as "a
Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Amery, Hamideh; Emadzadeh, Ali; Babazadeh, Saber
Background and Objectives: In recent decades, many studies have been carried out on the importance of Kolb experiential learning theory (ELT) in teaching-learning processes and its effect on learning outcomes. However, some experts have criticized the Kolb theory and argue that there are some ambiguities on the validity of the theory as an important predictor of achievement. This study has been carried out on dental students’ educational achievement in relation to their dominant learning styles based on Kolb theory in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran). Methods: In a cross sectional study, Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI Ver. 3.1) as well as a questionnaire containing students’ demographic data, academic achievement marks including grade point average (GPA), theoretical and practical courses marks, and the comprehensive basic sciences exam (CBSE) scores were administered on a purposive sample of 162 dental students who had passed their comprehensive basic sciences exam. Educational achievement data were analyzed in relation to students’ dominant learning styles, using descriptive and analytical statistics including χ2, Kruskal-Wallis and two-way ANOVA tests. Results: The dominant learning styles of students were Assimilating (53.1%), Converging (24.1%), Diverging (14.2%) and Accommodating (8.6%). Although, the students with Assimilating and Converging learning styles had a better performance on their educational achievement, there was no significant relationship between educational achievement and dominant learning style (P≥0.05). Conclusion: Findings support that the dominant learning style is not exclusively an essential factor to predict educational achievement. Rather, it shows learning preferences of students that may be considered in designing learning opportunities by the teachers. PMID:26156915
D. G. Shchipanova
Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.
Fogleman, Kelly A; Herring, Amy H; Kaczor, Diane; Pusek, Susan N; Jo, Hyejin; Thorp, John M
Whether pre-term birth culminates as a result of a de novo pathologic process or is more simply early activation of physiologic mechanisms is unknown. Exploration of the onset of labor in term women with classical risk factors for early delivery might provide insights into the mechanisms leading to pre-term birth. This study examines whether sociodemographic factors known to increase the risk of pre-term birth also affect the length of term gestations. From a large prospective cohort composed of women delivering from 1995-2000, a sample was selected of 441 women from Central North Carolina, US, who delivered singletons after 37 weeks gestation. An algorithm was designed to identify induced labors and gestational age was censored at the time of induction. Gestational age was assigned by sonography and menstrual dating. Data were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The main outcome measure was time to spontaneous labor. Women with 12 years of education had longer periods of gestation than women with less than 12 years of education, HR = 0.57 [0.39, 0.84]. Shorter gestational periods were found for women with pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in a previous pregnancy, HR = 3.70 [1.60, 8.52], even after adjusting for confounders. Smoking was not associated (p > 0.1) with the timing of labor at term. By studying the timing of spontaneous parturition at term we identified that there is little overlap in risk factors that affect timing of delivery between spontaneous term and pre-term births.
Din, Feng S.; Calao, Josephine
Investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony PlayStation educational video games for 40 minutes daily for 11 weeks learned better than peers who did not play such games. Found that the experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in spelling and decoding on the Wide Range Achievement Test-R3. Found no…
Hällsten, Martin; Pfeffer, Fabian T.
We study the role of family wealth for children’s educational achievement using novel and unique Swedish register data. In particular, we focus on the relationship between grandparents’ wealth and their grandchildren’s educational achievement. Doing so allows us to reliably establish the independent role of wealth in contributing to long-term inequalities in opportunity. We use regression models with rich controls to account for observed socioeconomic characteristics of families, cousin fixed effects to net out potentially unobserved grandparental effects, and marginal structural models to account for endogenous selection. We find substantial associations between grandparents’ wealth and their grandchildren’s grade point averages (GPA) in the 9th grade that are only partly mediated by the socioeconomic characteristics and wealth of parents. Our findings indicate that family wealth inequality – even in a comparatively egalitarian context like Sweden – has profound consequences for the distribution of opportunity across multiple generations. We posit that our estimates of the long-term consequences of wealth inequality may be conservative for nations other than Sweden, like the United States, where family wealth – in addition to its insurance and normative functions – allows the direct purchase of educational quality and access. PMID:29200464
This paper finds that Filipino Americans face significant discrimination in the labor market. Filipino Americans face both wage discrimination and occupational discrimination. But the amount of discrimination faced by Filipino Americans depends on combinations of gender, region of residence, and level of education.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Dubey, Amaresh
In an empirical microeconomic analysis that allows individual heterogeneity, we test four main hypotheses from the recent macroeconomic literature on child labor: the substitution, subsistence, capital market and parental education hypotheses. Using four Indian data sets, we find that at most two......-thirds of the increase in school-enrollment from 1982/83 to 1999/00 is explained by increased household incomes and increased parental education. Hence, more than one-third is left unexplained, which opens room for explanations related to access to schools or traditions and norms. An increased need for and value...
... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...
Full Text Available Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based and disintegrated (nonequity-based value chains. We also assume that globalization can both impede and enable labor empowerment. Based on these premises the key question is, how can labor leverage effective power against management in global corporate networks? This question is split into two subquestions: a How can labor theoretically reorganize from national unions and industrial relations institutions into global labor networks that allow prolabor improvement in global workplaces? b How and why has labor in a globalized economy secured the core International Labor Organization (ILO international labor right to organize companies and conduct collective bargaining? The Global Labor Network perspective is adopted as an analytical framework. Empirically, a comparative case methodology is applied comprising four more or less successful industrial disputes where labor achieved the right to organize and undertake collective bargaining. The disputes took place in affiliated factories of foreign transnational corporations located in Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. The conclusion is that the combination of global labor capabilities and global labor strategizing must generate strategic labor power that adequately matches the weaknesses of the counterpart’s global corporate network in order to achieve prolabor outcomes. The most efficient solidarity action was leveraged
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... child labor regulations published on September 2, 2011. The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is...
Seginer, R.; Vermulst, A.A.
This study tested a four-step model consisting of family background, perceived parental support and demandingness, educational aspirations, and academic achievement. The model was estimated on data collected from eighth graders (N = 686) growing up in two cultural settings: transition to modernity
Lewis, Gary J.; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert
Background: Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence.…
Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan
The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…
José Milton Barros Neto
Full Text Available The professional nursing practice has been constantly targeted for discussion, especially regarding the conditions of their work . The aim of this study was to understand the formation of this professional and the job market today, considering the changes in the curriculum of nursing, trends in the labor market , the demand and supply of labor this professional. It is a study of the literature review, based on a historical - critical perspective , using the databases SCIELO , VHL , BIREME , plus titles available in the library of the Centro Universitário de Maceió - CESMAC.O study was guiding question : how has initally vocational nurses face the determinations of the job market today ? It was felt that the training of nurses throughout their history, had fundamental influence of the labor market , whereas the changes in curricular courses were predetermined in the market trends that pointed according to each season . In recent decades , there has been a considerable increase in jobs , but disproportionate to the number of institutions of higher education in nursing in the country . Consequently , highlighted the growth of the informal labor relations , resulting in precarious jobs and the stagnation in labor income.
Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.
Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…
Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi
We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…
The focus of this research is bridging the achievement gap for students living in poverty through quality education. Such a study is important because the percentage of students affected by poverty is increasing and the persistent gap in achievement evidences that the right to quality education for students in poverty is not being met. This is…
Hill, Elizabeth T.
Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)
Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.
McQuillan, David James
In recent years, providers of massage therapy education have, in growing numbers, started to use online technologies to support the learning processes of their students. Using a narrative review of the existing online learning literature, this paper aims to provide a solid pedagogical foundation for these early explorations. It identifies five key factors—instructional pedagogy, quality of instruction, interaction and communication, individual learner qualities, and the online interface—that contribute to student satisfaction and achievement in the online context. The relationships between those factors and the experience of the online learner are discussed with reference to maximization of student satisfaction and achievement. PMID:21589705
Rapid fertility decline, a strong expansion of female education, and favorable economic conditions should have promoted female labor force participation in developing countries. Yet trends in female labor force participation (FLFP) have been quite heterogeneous, rising strongly in Latin America, stagnating in many other regions, while improvements were modest in the Middle East and female participation even fell in South Asia. These trends are inconsistent with secular theories such as the Fe...
Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin
In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…
Full Text Available The article analyzes the diverse manifestations generated by the stress in the labor environment and its implication with the individual's health, for the sake of achieving a understanding of the phenomenon for the formative programs of the companies. The articulates it approaches two of the factors fundamental stress generators, among other essential aspects, as well as to some strategies to organizational level and singular, that can be used as part of the labor formation of the workers for the confrontation of the stress, revealing a solution that integrates to the organizational subjectivity in all their expression dimensions.
Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn
Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....
Griffith, J E; Frase, M J; Ralph, J H
The American education system is being challenged to raise the academic achievement of students to prepare them for the jobs of the future. Yet many demographic, as well as economic and social factors, are making the task more difficult. Low birth rates, especially among non-Hispanic whites, along with high immigration rates, have increased the share of minority and non-English students in public schools. The rise in single-parent families has increased the number of poor students and migration from the cities to the suburbs has concentrated poor and minority students in inner city schools. These same children will make up a greater share of the future labor force. At the same time, the aging of the general population may lessen the commitment of homeowners- -whose taxes pay between 1/3 and 1/2 of education costs. The aging labor force may bring a shortage of qualified teachers, particularly in specialized subject areas. Poor and minority students generally have below average academic skills and are more likely to drop out of high school than non-minority students. However, the skills of American students rank below those of most other industrialized nations, calling into question the ability of Americans to succeed in an increasingly international economic system. How can schools be improved and minority student achievement be enhanced? Reforms of education finance systems, court-ordered integration, and stiffer requirements for teachers and for graduation from high school are among many attempts to meet the immense challenges faced by American schools.
Full Text Available The fact is that natural rubber has a strategic role as it is one of the commodities industry tropical crops. In addition, it also has important and strategic role in sup-porting the national economy, primarily as a source of livelihood of millions of rub-ber farmers in rural areas. This study analyzed the potential of using family labor in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indo-nesia. The total sample used for the study was 280 respondents of households. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The multiple regression analysis used to identify the determinants of labor force participation decision regarding work in the rubber smallholding in the study area such as rubber production (kg per year per hectare, number of family workers, age of family head, location of dwelling, education of family head, and average years of schooling of family workers. Based on the analysis, only two factors affected significantly family labor force participation outside their smallholdings, namely number of family labor and education of family head.
Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Navarro, Iñaki; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Gutiérrez, Álvaro
Division of labor is a widely studied aspect of colony behavior of social insects. Division of labor models indicate how individuals distribute themselves in order to perform different tasks simultaneously. However, models that study division of labor from a dynamical system point of view cannot be found in the literature. In this paper, we define a division of labor model as a discrete-time dynamical system, in order to study the equilibrium points and their properties related to convergence and stability. By making use of this analytical model, an adaptive algorithm based on division of labor can be designed to satisfy dynamic criteria. In this way, we have designed and tested an algorithm that varies the response thresholds in order to modify the dynamic behavior of the system. This behavior modification allows the system to adapt to specific environmental and collective situations, making the algorithm a good candidate for distributed control applications. The variable threshold algorithm is based on specialization mechanisms. It is able to achieve an asymptotically stable behavior of the system in different environments and independently of the number of individuals. The algorithm has been successfully tested under several initial conditions and number of individuals.
Fernando García Benavides
Full Text Available En España coexisten dos sistemas públicos de salud: el universal, gestionado por las comunidades autónomas y financiado con impuestos, y el laboral, gestionado por las Mutuas y financiado por cuotas a la Seguridad Social, los cuales se reparten la responsabilidad de gestión de la incapacidad laboral. Esta doble dependencia dificulta la gestión de esta importante prestación sanitaria y social. Una gestión que es diferente en función de la etiología (común o profesional y su pronóstico (temporal o permanente. Para poder comprender mejor la naturaleza de la incapacidad laboral, y que su investigación sea útil para mejorar su gestión médica y social, conviene adoptar una perspectiva longitudinal (life course research, analizando trayectorias de incapacidad en los individuos, y no solo episodios aislados. Una trayectoria de incapacidad que debemos analizar junto a la trayectoria laboral de esa misma persona. Para analizar conjuntamente las trayectorias laboral y de incapacidad disponemos de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales de la Seguridad Social desde 2004. Una muestra de 873.008 afiliados (un 4%, aproximadamente en 2009 entre los que se produjeron 163.136 episodios de incapacidad temporal (IT iniciados en 2009, las cuales evolucionaron entre 2009 y 2012 a 4.738 casos de incapacidad permanente (IP. Un 2,9% en total, que fue del 12,6% en caso de tumores malignos (282 IP de 2.234 IT y del 9,2% en el caso de enfermedades cardiovasculares (344 IP de 3.532 IT. En un contexto de incremento de la esperanza de vida y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas (vivimos más pero con más incapacidad necesitamos analizar longitudinalmente las trayectorias de incapacidad para poder prevenir los años de vida laboral perdidos por IP, los cuales, como sabemos, están relacionados con la trayectoria laboral (1.
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...
Shen, Bo; Chen, Ang; Guan, Jianmin
On the basis of an integrated theoretical approach to achievement motivation, the authors designed this study to investigate the potential influence of mastery goal, performance-approach and avoidance-approach goals, individual interest, and situational interest on students' learning in a physical education softball unit. The authors collected and…
Torenbeek, Marjolein; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan
Central in this study is the role of student variables and the fit between secondary education and university education in the explanation of first-year student achievement. The fit between two levels of education can be defined in different ways. In this study the focus is on four fit-aspects:
Conclusion: Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia.
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...
..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...
Adolfo Ignacio Calderón
Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a terceirização de professores por meio de cooperativas de mão de obra no âmbito do ensino superior privado, fenômeno educacional que surgiu na metade da presente década, enquadrado como prática ilegal que fere os princípios do cooperativismo quando visa fraudar a legislação trabalhista brasileira. Tem por objetivo compreender a expansão desse fenômeno por meio da reconstrução da cronologia dos fatos, da identificação dos momentos históricos do seu entendimento legal e do mapeamento da sua expansão geográfica, a partir da identificação de casos concretos que envolveram a atuação da Justiça do Trabalho, do Ministério Público do Trabalho e outros órgãos do Poder Público. Apoiando-se em pesquisa qualitativa, são identificados quatro momentos claramente definidos que vão desde o surgimento dos primeiros casos até a punição das instituições de ensino superior que adotaram o sistema contratual em questão.The present article deals with the outsourcing of professors of private higher education through labor cooperatives. This educational phenomenon appeared in the middle of the decade. The matter was considered an illegal practice violating cooperative principles and defrauding labor laws. The objective of the article is to understand the expansion of this phenomenon, supported by a chronological reconstruction of the facts, the identification of historical moments aiming to provide a legal framework based on concrete cases involving the Labor Justice and the Public Ministry. Qualitative research allowed the identification of four moments: since the appearance of the first cases, until the punishments of the higher education institutions who adopted this contractual system.
This article examines the problem of the wider economic and political context for any project aimed at achieving a fairer educational system. The consequences of the current status quo can be seen in diminishing funding and rising inequalities. The author argues that the answer lies not in tinkering with an unjust education system but rather in…
Callahan, Rebecca M., Ed.; Gándara, Patricia C., Ed.
The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to…
Luis C. Almeida
Full Text Available This paper presents findings of a quantitative investigation of how games affect achievement of an educational objective based on the foundations of information processing. The results suggest that games can be used to assist achievement of classroom content. The results of this experimental quantitative study pointed to the overwhelming evidence that games outperformed the control group (nongames in the achievement of factual knowledge in a group of freshman education students at a medium-size university.
Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard
Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…
... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...
... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...
Hallam, Susan, Ed.; Creech, Andrea. Ed.
The landscape of music education in the UK is constantly shifting and developing. This book provides a timely and unique overview of this restless sector by considering the achievements of music education, analysing its current performance and setting out aspirations for the future. "Music Education in the 21st Century in the United…
Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad; Iqbal, Nadeem; Tasneem, Saima
This study was conducted to focus the influence and impact of parents educational level on students academic achievement at secondary level of education. The study utilizes the students results of the 9th class in secondary school certificate examination taken by the Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Dera Ghazi Khan. Oral interview,…
Serow, W J
An effort is made in this discussion to demonstrate the effects of varying rates of population growth upon the industrial and occupational compositions of demand for labor. The discussion extends previous research activity that has demonstrated that changes in the composition of consumer demand are insensitive to alternative rates of population growth. The discussion begins with a replication of projections of consumer demand patterns under 3 alternative population projections and then transforms these results into projections of final demand by industrial sector, demand for labor by industrial sector, and demand for labor by occupational group. Projections of US household composition patterns are made for the 1980-2020 period. The size and composition of the population and households are derived from US Bureau of the Census Series 1, 2, and 3 projections. From these, projections of size and composition of the labor force are derived utilizing Bureau of Labor Statistics' to 1990. Projections of average earnings per worker, in the aggregate, are taken from Bureau of Economic Analysis projections. The results show that both labor force compositions are relatively insensitive to varying demographic patterns. The industrial composition reflects a continuation of already existing trends, but the occupational composition shows some tendency to move away from professional and highly skilled blue collar occupations and towards service and clerical occupations. The results contain a variety of implications for policy considerations concerning higher education and the proper functioning of the labor market. The relative decline in the number of professional and managerial workers, the groups who are most likely to possess a university degree, suggests that the prospects for conventional higher education might be even less bright than would be suggested by an inspection of trends in the size of the 18-24 year old population. Some mitigation of this possibly adverse trend is
Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna
This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.
SALTER, RICHARD H.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…
Full Text Available This study analyses the effect of parental separation or divorce on children's educational achievement, and includes parental conflict as a factor of analysis. The study is based on the analysis of the Panel of Families and Children, with a sample of 2,731 adolescents aged between13 to 16 years old in Catalonia, Spain. The main results show that the children of divorced parents who have a conflicted relationship are more likely to obtain poorer educational results than the children of divorced parents without conflict and two-parent households. However, children of divorced parents with no conflicted relationship are less likely on average to receive a failing grade than those who live in two-parent households.
Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.
Holtmann, Anne Christine; Menze, Laura; Solga, Heike
School leavers with low educational attainment face great difficulties in their school-to-work transitions. They are, however, quite heterogeneous in terms of their personal and social resources. These within-group differences may influence who shows initiative during the school-to-work transition period and thereby helps employers recognize their learning potential at labor market entry. Yet this recognition also depends on the ways employers select applicants, which may prevent them from discovering such within-group differences. We therefore investigate the interplay between agency and its constraints, that is, whether higher cognitive and noncognitive skills and more parental resources provide low-achieving school leavers with new opportunities in the school-to-work transition period or whether their low school attainment causes the persistency of their disadvantages. We use panel data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), which started in grade 9. The NEPS also includes school leavers from special-needs schools. Our sample consists of 3417 low-achieving adolescents (42% female), defined as adolescents who leave school with no or only a lower secondary school-leaving certificate. Their average school-leaving age is 16 to 17 years. Our key findings are that the transition period opens up new opportunities only for those low-achieving adolescents with better vocational orientation and higher career aspirations, leading them to make stronger application efforts. The success of youth's initiative varies considerably by school-leaving certificate and school type but not by competences, noncognitive characteristics, and parental background. Thus, the label of "having low qualifications" is a major obstacle in this transition period-especially for the least educated subgroup. Their poor school attainment strongly disadvantages them when accessing the required training to become economically independent and hence in their general transition to
Full Text Available The most important issue of labor market and its active policy is certainly a question of unemployment reduction and employment rates increase. This question is in the focus of attention of many economies over decades ago. The complexity of technology development, specialization of labor, migration and a constant need for education have rendered this area more complex and challenging to explore. It has long been known that the labor market is very asymmetrical and often unpredictable. Despite the great importance of this problem, there is no universal recipe for its solution, which could be effectively applied in neither all countries, nor in every period. In each country there are parts of the territory (regions which have recorded worse results over a longer period of time, as measured by almost all major economic indicators, including the level and rate of (unemployment, compared to the national average. This paper presents a general theoretical overview of the functioning of labor markets and their features, and will provide a short analysis of asymmetry in labor market movements (employment/unemployment between the EU Member States and their regions. .
Full Text Available Youth affiliation to physical activity and their active implication in sport throughout life, are two of the main objectives in Physical Education. In this research we examine the relationship between the achievement goals and the perceived competence in Physical Education since the recent theoretical framework of 3x2 achievement goals. The sample comprised 205 (113 boys and 92 girls, aged 12 and 18 years (M =14,02; SD = 1,70, all of them belonging to two Secondary School in the North of Spain. These students completed the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire (CML3x2-EF and the perceived competence subscale factor included in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES, also adapted to Physical Education. We performed descriptive analysis (M and DT, Cronbach alphas and linear regression analysis by stepwise. The results showed a positive correlation between the six goals of achievement and the perceived competence, being particularly high value of approach-task and approach-self. The three approach goals (approach-task, approach-self, approach-other significantly predicted the perceived competence (ß = 0,43; 0,18; 0,20, respectively.
Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime
Pate, Christina M.; Maras, Melissa A.; Whitney, Stephen D.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Internalizing mental health issues are a significant developmental and clinical concern during adolescence, but rarely identified as a problem among school staff. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations between adolescent emotional distress, school connectedness, and educational achievement by exploring potential mechanistic and interactive roles of perceived school connectedness on the emotion–education association. Emotional distress was negatively associated with adolescents’ perceptions of belonging to school, which, in turn, may negatively influence educational achievement. School connectedness also had both additive and multiplicative interaction effects on the emotion–education relationship. Results support previous evidence of school connectedness as a protective factor for adolescents with internalizing mental health concerns, although much of the work to date has focused on externalizing problems. This study informs our understanding of how, why, and for whom emotional problems influence educational outcomes in light of social support in the school context. PMID:28947921
Research has shown that there is a gap in educational achievement between socioeconomic and racial groups in the public education system in the United States. This paper identifies the link between resources and academic achievement. Through examining educational resources, from in-school factors, such as facilities and teacher quality, to…
Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L
Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.
Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and
Cottaar - Haverkorn van Rijsewijk, A.
This study investigates the effect of physics education on students' achievement in a large-scale quantitative study of pre-academic high school students throughout the Netherlands. Two aspects of teacher characteristics as perceived by their students are included: their pleasantness principally
Garpiel, Susan J
There is renewed interest in second-stage labor practices as recent evidence has challenged historical perspectives on safe duration of secondstage labor. Traditional practices and routine interventions during second-stage have uncertain benefit for low-risk women and may result in cesarean birth. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement an interdisciplinary second-stage practice bundle to promote safe outcomes including method of birth and women's birth experience. Standardized second-stage labor evidence-based practice recommendations structured into a 5 Ps practice bundle (patience, positioning, physiologic resuscitation, progress, preventing urinary harm) were implemented across 34 birthing hospitals in Trinity Health system. Significant improvements were observed in second-stage practices. Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' perinatal nursing care quality measure Second-Stage of Labor: Mother-Initiated Spontaneous Pushing significantly improved [pre-implementation 43% (510/1,195), post-implementation 76% (1,541/2,028), p labor practices derived from the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses and American College of Nurse-Midwives professional guidelines achieved our goals of safely reducing primary cesarean birth among low-risk nulliparous women, and optimizing maternal and fetal outcomes associated with labor and birth. By minimizing routine interventions, nurses support physiologic birth and improve women's birth satisfaction.
Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.
Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly
African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.
Hernandez Medina, Alberto
Problems in employment and education in Mexico will remain in spite of the rapid economic growth expected from the expanding petroleum industry. The structural problems of the job market and education are analyzed with particular reference to higher education. Commentary by Michael Olivas accompanies this article. (JMF)
Raúl Ponce Rodríguez
Full Text Available In this paper it is developed a theoretical model to study the incentives that a labor tax might induce in terms of the optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm. In particular, we analyze the interaction of a labor tax that tends to reduce the wage due the firm is induced to shift backwards the tax burden to its employees minimizing the possible increase in the payroll costs and a fall of profits. However a lower wage might not be an optimal response to the establishment of a labor tax because it increases the labor turnover and as a result the firm faces both: an outputs opportunity cost and a labors turnover cost. The firm thus optimally decides to respond to the qualification and labor taxes by increasing the after tax wage.
Nath, Samir Ranjan
This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…
Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C
Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Adriano Maia dos Santos
Full Text Available This is a review article that discusses the education of the student majoring in dentistry and the perspectives of the labor market. It points out the necessity of new pedagogical and philosophical approaches in the construction of knowledge in the practice and the performance of the future dentist. It evaluates aspects present in the teaching-learning process within the dentists formation mentioning some limits and possibilities of change. The article discusses a new model of integrality in the teaching, research and extension process as a theoretical-conceptual matrix that guarantees the construction of dentistry that is in tune with the Brazilian National Health System, acting in such a manner to be able to answer the requirements of the community. The article does a short historical review of the insertion of dentistry in the public health policies. Eventually it ponders the responsibility of the universities as to the major of professionals having not only the competence in technical questions inherent to the core knowledge of dentistry, but also having the ability to lead, administer/manage, make decisions, communicate and interact with different areas of knowledge in an intersectorial, interdisciplinary and multiprofessional way
Inanda Karina Astari Fatma
Full Text Available Wage a phenomenon that happen today is high wage and high competitiveness. Wage theory that was developed by Rees (1973 and Katz (1980 explain that wage cannot only be seen only as a production cost but also as a part of an effort to increase the labor prosperity and motivation. This theory is a wage efficiency theory, which stated that company’s revenue can increase despite paying wage above the market wage equilibrium. Even though here the two experts had calculated the problem of labor’s quality but they have not reach empirical testing by developing certain model. Therefore, the researchers saw this gap as an opportunity to unravel the phenomena happening to labor and make an effort to develop an empirical model to see the influence of wage to productivity and variable that can measure the quality of labor and other variables that affect wage and productivity simultaneously. The factors used are the difference in individual characteristic, human capital, and quality of work life. The approach of this research is constructivism approach through quantitative analysis technique with simultaneous equation system. Analysis unit in this research is labor in hospitality industry. Estimation results of research shows that education, training, experience, work hour and productivity have significant positive influence to wage, while age and work status is not significant. Quality of work life, and wage have significant positive influence to productivity, while education, experience, age and work status have no significant influence. Important finding from research that training has significant influence to productivity but negatively. Overall, findings of this research show that positive effect of training to productivity will be bigger in organization that willing to invest in work environment that support the labor.
Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik
Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.
Kristensen, Nicolai; Verner, Dorte
This paper investigates the extent and nature of distortions in the labor market in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire by using quantile regression analysis on employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector. We found that the labor markets in Côte d'Ivoire do not seem to be much distorted. Unions...... may influence employment through tenure but do not seem to influence wages directly except for vulnerable minorities that seem protected by unions. Establishment-size wage effects are pronounced and highest for white-collar workers. This may be explained by the efficiency wage theory, so that, even...... in the absence of unions, segmentation and inefficiencies will still be present as long as firms seek to retain their employees by paying wages above the market clearing level. The inefficiency arising from establishment-size wage effects can be mitigated by education....
This dissertation consists of three independent studies in labor economics. The second chapter analyzes the long-run consequences of educational expansion. We show both theoretically and empirically how rising university attendance rates of previous generations can explain increasing earnings
Omolola Abiola Adedokun
Full Text Available Using a nationally representative data of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade, this study explored the mediating effects of self-esteem and delinquency on the educational achievement of rural adolescents. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that the combination of self-esteem and delinquency completely mediates the influence of family social capital on educational achievement. The findings of the models make a compelling case that the impact of family processes on educational achievement is indirect rather than direct.
Ye. M. Shifman
Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S
The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek
Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the influence and participation of women in the labor market by the know-ledge economy; in negative or positive manner. Methodology: Quantitative research technique has been implied to evaluate women’s participa-tion in the labor market to minimize negative impacts of knowledge economy. Findings: Within the service and agricultural sectors, the outcomes demonstrated that knowledge economy is found to have a significant impact on the participation of women’s labor force. The only drawback that discourages the employment of women is the concept of culture and social norms. Practical Implications: A higher participation of females in computer science, engineering and technology-oriented jobs would spur innovation and economic advances in all countries. Origi-nality Statement: The research also depicted procedures to accomplish women’s participation as a fundamental requirement for the achievement of developmental goals.
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...
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Hudson, Judith Nicky; Croker, Anne
The Edinburgh Declaration, developed in 1998 as a pledge to alter the character of medical education to more effectively meet the needs of society, included a recommendation to increase the opportunity for joint learning between health and health-related professions, as part of the training for teamwork. This article acknowledges achievements since the Declaration in relation to this recommendation, using an umbrella term for the phenomenon, 'educating for collaborative practice', and presents a perspective framed as a series of questions to encourage reflection on future directions. A literature interpretation, informed by philosophical hermeneutics, was conducted using text sets comprising reports and reviews from a section of the international literature since 1988. The interpretation involved: engaging with meanings as presented in the chosen texts; making iterative returns to the texts to explore emerging understanding; and ensuring parts of our understanding from particular texts were fused with complete understanding of the texts as a whole. A lens of appreciative inquiry facilitated acknowledgement of what has been achieved, while being curious about how it could be. Interpretation of the selected literature revealed notable achievements. Areas for further consideration were identified in relation to three themes: establishing shared understanding AND purpose behind use of terminology; being a conduit AND sharing responsibility for change; exploring ways of doing things AND ensuring ongoing inclusivity. Interpreting the current literature on 'educating for collaborative practice' has generated questions for reflection on how it may be otherwise. Readers are encouraged to embrace the tensions inherent in unanswered questions, providing space for communication, initiative and diversity of thought. An ongoing dialogue with the literature is proposed, asking whether educating students for a collective identity in settings where they are learning for and with
The problem is compounded by youthful populations, low quality education, bloated public sectors and low productivity levels in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This project will ... Morocco conforms to Egypt to a significant degree. Jordan offers an ... Impact of labor market reforms on informality in Egypt. Documents.
The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...
NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.
Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre
Glenn, Nancy Gentry
Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...
Cirila Cervera Delgado
Full Text Available Every time and to a lesser extent the Mexican labor market is distinguished for its permanence and stability in employment in the public and productive sectors. This is attributed mainly to the impact that technological innovation and the generation of the knowledge has had in the world. Both the agricultural and industrial production, once pillars of the economy, have yielded in favor of services and commerce. In this sense, it is more difficult to find lasting and stable employment. In the world, sub-contracting, the division of economies and tele-working (networking have increased. For example, there are fewer permanent jobs in the factories, fewer tenured professors in the educative institutions and fewer safe contracts for young people. The gap in social inequality grows due to the diversity of capacities and the ability to obtain income in the labor market. For that reason, in the present paper, it is found that higher education plays an important role, considered not only as a cultural and political institution, but also as recognition of its economic role. In addition, actual demands from the labor market and higher education also need a new relationship in a context of humanistic ethics. Cada vez en menor medida el mercado laboral mexicano se distingue por la permanencia y estabilidad del empleo en el sector público y en el sector productivo. Esto se le atribuye principalmente al impacto que han tenido la innovación tecnológica y la generación del conocimiento en el mundo. Tanto la producción agrícola como industrial, otrora pilares de la economía, han cedido el paso a favor de los servicios y el comercio. En este sentido, resulta cada vez más difícil encontrar empleos duraderos y estables. En el mundo, se ha incrementado la subcontratación, la terciarización de la economía y el teletrabajo. Por ejemplo, son menos los trabajadores de planta en las fábricas, de profesores de base en las instituciones educativas y de
Using data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (2006-PIRLS) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (2007-TIMSS), we investigate the impact of being a victim of school bullying on educational achievement for Italian students enrolled at the fourth and eighth grade levels. Firstly, we apply an OLS estimator controlling for a number of individual characteristics and school fixed effects. Secondly, in order to attenuate the impact of confounding factor...
Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet
To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the
Lesner, Rune Vammen
This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... its [[Page 31550
Ostry, Aleck Samuel
The objective of this investigation was to determine the impacts of economic globalization on labor markets and outline potential pathways for these changes to affect health status in industrialized nations. A systematic review of the economic globalization and health literature revealed that, under the impact of globalization and market deregulation, the past 25 years have witnessed de-industrialization, shifts to nontraditional, insecure work arrangements, and relatively high levels of unemployment in most developed nations. This has occurred in the context of hypermobility of capital, relative immobility of labor, and declining market position for unskilled labor. Such structural changes in the labor markets in conjunction with shifts in educational opportunities and requirements have resulted in the increasing marginalization of unskilled workers from the labor market. Aside from direct effects on health due to the threat and experience of unemployment, and given that income inequality within nations is a main driver of national health status, lowered relative wages for the unskilled will probably affect national health status through increased income inequality.
This article gives an account of Canadian Chemicals Policy over the past three decades, including the project for the "virtual elimination" of toxic chemicals and the federal government's Chemical Management Plan. The latter is what remained when the virtual elimination program achieved few results. The article then embarks on its central theme: explaining how the labor movement introduced the concept and the practice of Pollution Prevention (P2) to Canada, as well as its impact on legislation and policies over the use reduction of chemical pesticides. The Appendix is a glossary of terms and concepts used in the article.
The Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series encompasses the topics of knowledge, intelligence, innovation and sustainability. The aim of the series is to make available a platform for the publication of books on all aspects of single and multi-disciplinary research on these themes in order to make the latest results available in a readily-accessible form. This book is devoted to the “Intelligent and Adaptive Educational-Learning Systems”. It privileges works that highlight key achievements and outline trends to inspire future research. After a rigorous revision process twenty manuscripts were accepted and organized into four parts as follows: · Modeling: The first part embraces five chapters oriented to: 1) shape the affective behavior; 2) depict the adaptive learning curriculum; 3) predict learning achievements; 4) mine learner models to outcome optimized and adaptive e-learning objects; 5) classify learning preferences of learners. · Content: The second part encompas...
Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce
People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene
do on the labor market, though not with respect to layoffs. This result is mainly driven by the group of high school graduates and those with a primary school education only. Second generation immigrants with vocational education, males in particular, face both significantly lower arrival rates when......Using a search model for Danish labor market entrants, we are one of the first studies to test whether second‐generation immigrants have the same job‐offer arrival and layoff rates as ethnic Danes have. We contribute to the search literature by incorporating matching as a way to ensure sub...... unemployed and significantly higher layoff rates than those of their ethnic Danish twins....
Full Text Available Background : The present audit was initiated to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, perception and acceptance of women toward labor analgesia and caesarean section, in a Medical College Hospital in Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods : A semi-structured interview of 200 antenatal women was conducted, to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception regarding labor analgesia and caesarean section (CS and to estimate the correlation of awareness and acceptability with demographic variables. The data were analyzed using Epi Info 6 and the Likert type scale (0 - 10, as also the chi square test, to calculate the statistical significance. Results : Most of the patients (n = 181, 90.50% were unaware of labor analgesia. When the option of labor analgesia was offered, only 23% (n = 46 accepted it and the most significant reason for refusal was to experience natural child birth (n = 114 / 154, 74.03%. An educational status of the graduate level had a positive impact on knowledge about labor analgesia (P = 0.0001. When the option for CS was offered, 73.50% women (n = 147; P = 0.008 refused and the most common reasons for refusal were fear of operation (53.06%, n = 78 and delay in resuming household work (46.26%, n = 68. Educational status up to the graduate level and previous surgical experience of CS had a positive correlation with preference for CS (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0001, respectively. Conclusions : Awareness and acceptance for labor analgesia was relatively low among the prospective parturients. A higher level of education had a significant impact on their decisions regarding delivery.
Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.
Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in
Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N
Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In the fall of 2012, a series of teacher union strikes in Chicago catalyzed controversial discussions in education within the political sector, as the goals for student achievement gained increasing attention. Hence, discourses as systems of representation within the particular context and time-period of the teacher union strikes in Chicago…
Full Text Available With the implementation of a prison sentence as a separate sentence, the need has arisen for finding treatment methods of convicts that will contribute to the basic tendency - not to commit new criminal offenses. The aim of this paper was to describe the implementation of education in prison, convicts' needs for education, forms and theoretical basis on which the educational practice has been developed, and the assessment of educational activities effectiveness for convicts. There has been a constant search for the educational model that will meet the needs for education of a specific convict, and on the other hand, the needs of society and the labor market that a convict will join after release from prison. It is necessary for a convict, on the basis of the quality and level of acquired knowledge in prison, to take his place in the world of labor and in legal ways for obtaining subsistence goods in the free world. Parallel expectations of convicts' educational processes are directed towards their regimentation in prison during serving a sentence. Prison is primarily the penalty. An additional factor of modulation is the rationalization of costs of budgetary allocations in order to achieve a better result with the minimum resources spent. Two centuries of such search may seem a long period. However, the practice of punishment has been lasting for thousands of years. In this relatively short time period, in different penal systems, a range of forms of convicts' training has been recorded. They were more or less successful. There is still no irrefutable agreement that basic endeavor has been achieved. The data on the impact of education on reducing recidivism of convicts and the quality of post-penal reintegration are inconsistent. The search still continues.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
During the battle over comprehensive health care reform in the early 1990s, organized labor was not only unable to put together a winning coalition but also found itself divided and on the defensive as it struggled to prevent any further erosion of the private-sector safety net of the U.S. welfare state. Labor's relative ineffectiveness has deep institutional and political roots and was not merely a consequence of its dwindling membership base. Several key institutions of the private welfare state, notably the Taft-Hartley health and welfare funds and the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) preemption, brought the interests of organized labor more closely in line with those of large employers and commercial insurers and aggravated divisions within organized labor and between unions and public interest groups. In addition, several political factors conspired to reinforce labor's tendency to stick to a policy path on health care issues that was predicated on an employer-mandate solution and that had been charted primarily by business and leading Democrats. As a result, organized labor did not emerge from the 1993-1994 struggle with its political base fortified nor with a viable long-term political strategy to achieve universal health care and to shift the political debate over health policy in a more desirable direction.
This paper assumes that a stronger national commitment to public education on nuclear energy and, most particularly radioactive waste management, it needed to overcome public resistance to nuclear projects. Effective public education must become the superordinate goal uniting industry, government, professional societies, national laboratories and the educational community. Since instruction is labor intensive, we must search for more cost effective ways of achieving results. Therefore, this paper proposes: Collaborative training and educational strategies involving as many of the stakeholders as possible; and Innovative tools to improve the credibility, quality and cost effectiveness of education. This win-win approach can reduce the collective expenditures through cost-sharing, as well as the sharing of resources and products. It can close gaps in both in-house training and formal education. Finally, in public outreach, the joint approach addresses the politics of sponsorship by providing checks and balances, and thus improving credibility and public acceptance
Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...
In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market
Fararouei, Mohammad; Robertson, Claire; Whittaker, John; Sovio, Ulla; Ruokonen, Aimo; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between maternal Hb levels during pregnancy and educational achievement of the offspring in later life. We analysed data obtained from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort Study conducted in 1966, in which, data on mothers and offspring from pregnancy through to the age of 31 years were collected. The cohort comprised 11 656 individuals born from singleton births (51 % males and 49 % females). Maternal Hb levels were available from the third, seventh and ninth gestational months. Educational achievement was measured as school scores (range 4-10) taken at the ages of 14 (self-reported questionnaires) and 16 (school reports) years as well as the highest level of education at the age of 31 years. The present results showed a direct positive association between Hb levels and educational achievement in later life. After adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth month and a wide range of maternal factors (parity, smoking, mental status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, education, social class and marital status), only maternal Hb levels that were measured at the ninth month were significantly associated with the offspring's school performance. If the levels were ≥ 110 g/l at all the three measurement points, offspring not only had better school scores at the ages of 14 and 16 years (β = 0·048, P = 0·04 and β = 0·68, P = 0·007, respectively), but also had an increased odds of having a higher level of education at the age of 31 years (OR = 1·14, P = 0·04). The present study suggests that low maternal Hb levels at the final stages of pregnancy are linked to the poorer educational achievement of the offspring. If our observation is confirmed, it would suggest that Fe prophylaxis even at fairly late stages of pregnancy may be beneficial for the subsequent health of the offspring. However, more studies are needed to fully establish the potential pathways and the clinical importance of the
Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel
To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.
Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M
Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to changes in the organization of independent work of students. These changes are associated with transition of the Russian Federation to new educational standards. In this regard, systemically-active approach to educational process, which is also called competence-based approach, comes to replace the knowledge-based model of education. Independent work of students as one of the main components of the competence-based approach is aimed not only at achieving of educational goals, but mainly on the formation of personal qualities of the future specialist - self-knowledge, self-development and self-realization. These qualities form a new competent person who meets the requirements of the labor market. The research includes consideration of issues such as organization, planning, monitoring methods of self-dependent student work taking into account the requirements of the educational standard.
Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian
Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...
Student Loan Assistance Amendments of 1982. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on S. 2655.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
Hearings of the Committee on Education and Labor on the proposed Student Loan Assistance Amendments of 1982 are presented. The bill (S. 2655) is designed to provide increased maximum limitations for student loans under Part B of Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 for certain students who lost benefits under the Social Security Act as a…
Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton
Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...
Tetiana O. Oliinyk
Full Text Available The article proves the necessity of internal (formative evaluation, the purpose of which is to intensify and optimize the process of the formation of digital citizenship of future specialists. Implementation of competence-based approach and informatization of education allows increasing efficiency of existing evaluation models, requires deep changes in all components of the education system. The attention is focused on a new generation of educational standards through improvement of innovative technologies of evaluation, providing open educational process (transparency of monitoring procedures and equal opportunities of students to achieve educational goals, help the student as a personality of learning activities to solve the problem of self-determination, self-control, self-realization.
Ortansa FLOREA (MOISE)
Labor productivity is an important indicator for any economy. An increase of productivity is benefits for the entrepreneurs and for the national economy. This paper discusses the link between changes in the number of high school graduates in Romania, to amend the rate labor productivity and inflation rate. The period under review is 2004-2012. The data used are those published by the National Institute of Statistics, National Bank of Romania and Eurostat. The data used are those published by ...
Yilmaz, Ramazan; Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru
This study examined the impacts of educational interface agents with different attributes on achievement, attitude and retention of elementary school students in their science and technology courses. The study was implemented in four different eighth- grade classes (aged 13-14) of an elementary school. Four different types of educational software,…
Giani, Matt S.
The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which the magnitude of disparities in the labor market outcomes of college graduates stemming from socioeconomic background varies according to institutional selectivity. The data used for the study are drawn from the National Center for Education Statistics' Education Longitudinal Study of…
Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline
Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…
Full Text Available E-Business revolution takes place anywhere on the globe, the whole world is connected; many small businesses of today can become tomorrow leaders of the global market; the whole world will benefit from every word that has added an ,,e". Internet development has been one of the most effective creations of the human mind, by that both individuals and companies can be in direct connection without the constraints of space and time. The new economy has produced radical changes in the company, both in terms of carrying out the activities and in the nature of labor relations, with profound implications on work and life styles of people. In this paper we wanted to emphasize the changes produced of the work styles achieved along the development of information and communication technologies. Thus we have shown labor paradigm changes in the XXI century, features and benefits of teleworking, the types of work that can be done via the Internet, an overview of the most used platforms for remote work, stressing the importance of teamwork virtual.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility
Full Text Available The purpose of writing is to research and analyze the effectiveness of financial resources in vocational education in Ukraine and develop practical recommendations for their improvement. To research and analyze the practices of formation and use of financial resources in vocational education. Research conducted by the methods of empirical knowledge, analysis, clustering, comparison, observation, synthesis, graphical analysis. The measures effective use of financial resources in vocational education in Ukraine. Methodology is actual work of scientists and researchers. Results are exploring of the practice of planning expenditures of state and local budgets for vocational education concluded that in planning expenditure dominates the normative method of budget planning. This discrepancy established approaches to the development of standards of employee’s vocational institutions and expenditures of staff, on the one hand, and the required planning spending on vocational education. When planning educational grants for training labor to local budgets is determined by the amount of expenditures that are relevant to the intergovernmental transfers, which include, in particular, spending on vocational education. Although the legislation stipulates the independence of local budgets and calculation of expenditures that are relevant to the intergovernmental transfers should be done only to determine the amount of educational grants for training labor, in practice there is a significant limitation of the autonomy of local governments in the planning of local budgets. Thus, the deterioration of the efficiency of spending on vocational education due to increasing labor costs and labor charges. The reason for this was the dynamics as increased wages and a change in the number of employees engaged in technical and vocational education. Value. The analysis of public expenditure planning practices and local budgets for vocational education concluded that in
van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.
A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several
Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle
The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…
Bovenberg, A.L.; Jacobs, B.
We develop a model of human capital formation with endogenous labor supply and heterogeneous agents to explore the optimal level of education subsidies along with the optimal progressive schedule of the labor income tax and optimal capital income taxes.Subsidies on education ensure efficiency in
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...
Gielen, A. C.
One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to
Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the national economy of education. We assume that under the current conditions of the globalized world, the economy of education reveals its two-fold nature: on the one hand, it represents an element of the national economic system, and on the other, it is also a structural component of the global education system. Therefore, national economy of education is shaped up by both internal and external factors represented by national and international influences. We analyze here the functional composition and the methods of legal regulation of the economy of education under the conditions and provisions of the global geopolitical transformations. In addition, we use the empirical model of returns to education for showing the factors that impact the employability of young graduates at the labor market. Our results confirm the importance of education for achieving higher levels of income, both nationally and internationally. Finally, we come to the conclusion that its target function consists of the global promotion of national education and consolidation of national competitive position within the world education space.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding personality variables and other important psychological traits in the university population appears topical particularly with respect to personality, motivation, health as well as overall academic achievement. A significant role is played by correlations of the monitored variables in relation to selected study specialization. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge on selected personality traits and the level of achievement motivation in a specific group of university students with respect to the diversity of their study specialization. METHODS: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. In the research, psychodiagnostic methods were used to perform diagnostics and to fulfil the overall research plan. All diagnostic methods used are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. We monitored variables such as personality, achievement motivation and achievement anxiety. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statgraphics programme v. 9.0. Result processing was made using parametric as well as non-parametric statistical methods (Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman’s correlation. RESULTS: University students specialized in physical culture showed the highest values of extraversion and psychoticism, and clearly the lowest values of neuroticism compared to the students of education and natural sciences. The highest values of openness were observed in the students specialized in sports. In terms of the overall achievement motivation related to study specialization, almost identical values were observed. However, the students of physical culture showed significantly lower values of achievement debilitating anxiety
Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz
The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...
Katarina Pažur Aničić
Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies (ICT has led to the significant changes in many areas of human lives. One of the aspects becoming much more challenging is the education of ICT professionals. Latest statistics show that the labor market demand for ICT practitioners exceeds the number of higher education graduates in the field of ICT. This paper provides a brief overview of the past and current situation on the labor market regarding the demand for ICT professionals, as well as forecasts by 2020. Paper also provides a research of demanded competencies in ICT jobs advertisements, and their comparison with competencies defined within the e-Competence framework 3.0 and generic competencies defined by Tuning project.
Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat
Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (PR ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.
Ye Seul Choi
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of migration between capital regions and non-capital regions and the level of human capital in Korea using the method of multinomial logistic regression. This paper aims to show whether the high level of human capital of migrants who move to capital regions statistically differs from the other migrants. For analysis, this paper uses the 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 panel data from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS. The analysis is divided into two parts of migration based on the region of origin: the migration of individuals who live in non-capital regions and the migration of individuals who live in capital region. In this paper, we consider personal characteristics such as educational attainment and occupations as an indicator of human capital of individual, gender, age, and marriage status as explanatory variables. Our empirical finding is that the educational attainment of individual representing a level of human capital significantly affects the migration behavior moving from non-capital regions to capital regions. According to analysis of migration from Gyeonggi and Incheon to Seoul, the migration within capital regions, individuals who engage in occupation with high skilled and non-manual are more likely to move to Seoul capital regions where favorable conditions for workers in terms of higher wage and better job opportunities can provide. Those results can be understood in the context of human capital theory to maximize personal socioeconomic utilities by migrating to capital regions.
SMK Nasional as a secondary vocational education institution contribute in creating skilled labor to meet the needs of the industry. Motorcycle Engineering expertise program at the SMK Nasional in improving the graduate's quality carries out industrial class education with PT Astra Honda Motor (PT AHM); it is intended so that there is a link and…
Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt
non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....
... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve childrenï¿½s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...
Ng, Pak Tee
This paper presents the findings of a research project that examines how middle leaders in Singapore schools understand "quality education" and how they think quality education can be achieved. From the perspective of these middle leaders, quality education emphasises holistic development, equips students with the knowledge and skills…
Changes in the volume of female migration to Santiago and in the employment patterns of migrant women are analyzed in relationship to changes in the female labor market from 1950 onward, with special emphasis on the years 1970-90. Data sources include published works, the censuses of 1952 to 1982, a 1962 survey on in-migration to Santiago, employment surveys conducted by the University of Chile and the National Institute of Statistics, special tabulations for subsamples of the 1970 and 1982 censuses, and household employment survey information from the fourth quarter of 1993. In 1973 Chile embarked on a process of structural adjustments that affected social expenditures and employment, profoundly modifying urban labor markets. The Chilean economy is currently in a phase of consolidating its productive transformation, with positive results for economic growth and recuperation of employment, but with no reduction of poverty. The explanation of the growth in poverty should be sought in modifications in the conditions of employment of the Chilean population during the productive transformation. Modernization processes such as increased education and access to fertility control contributed to an increase in the number of highly educated women in nonmanual occupations in Santiago, but have not significantly influenced the volume or direction of female migration or modified the disadvantageous occupational profile of migrant women. Gender considerations including cultural norms governing female sexual behavior and nuptiality appear to exercise a decisive influence on the occupational status of migrant women in Santiago. Low status, single women migrating to Santiago have been concentrated in domestic service in part because of their need to find work providing safe living quarters. After 1975, migrant women encountered an increasing proportion of urban women working and looking for work and a structural transformation of domestic service marked by massive absorption of
Sergey Vladimirovich Tasakov
Full Text Available Objective to review and analyse the Russian criminal law in the aspect of forced labor taking into account theexisting historical practice to assess the implementation of this type of punishment to identify the existing problems and to propose certain measures to overcome them. Methods dialectical historicallegal comparative legal systemic. Results the research discloses the issues of increasing the efficiency of forced labor in the Russian criminal law defines and discusses thedisputable issues that may arise during the use of this type of punishment proposes specific ways and recommendations for their solution. Scientific novelty the article analyzes criminal punishment in the form of forced labor and discusses issues of increasing the efficiency of this punishment and its enforcement. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and practical activities when considering sentencing in the form of forced labor. nbsp
Effandi Zakaria; Muzakkir Syamaun
This study was conducted to determine the effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on mathematics achievement and student attitudes towards mathematics. This study also sought determine the relationship between student achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 61 high school students at SMA Unggul Sigli. Students were divided into two groups, the treatment group $(n = 30)$ namely, the Realistic Mathematics Approach group ...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject...
Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke
The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...
Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya
This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...
In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)
Mitchell, Douglas E.; Yildiz, Selin; Batie, Michael
Community colleges employ more than one-third of the nation's higher education faculty. Nevertheless, the labor market through which faculty are recruited, selected, hired, evaluated and retained or replaced is one of the least understood aspects of these institutions. Functional management and effective policy both require a clear understanding…
Kaur Makkar, Jeetinder; Jain, Kajal; Bhatia, Nidhi; Jain, Vanita; Mal Mithrawal, Sanwar
To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of paracetamol in comparison with tramadol for pain relief during active labor. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Maternity Wing of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Sixty laboring, primiparous, full-term parturients with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy in spontaneous labor and cervical dilatation of 3-5 cm. Parturients were randomized into 2 groups to receive either 1 mg/kg of tramadol intramuscularly (group T; n = 29) or 1 g of paracetamol intravenously (group P; n = 30). Same doses of the drugs were repeated after 4 hours of initial dose. Primary outcome of the study was to assess the analgesic efficacy of the 2 drugs as measured by visual analog scale (VAS) score. Secondary outcome recorded was duration of labor, presence of any maternal, or fetal adverse events during the study. Both the groups showed comparable VAS scores at all times of observation. Lower mean VAS scores were reported in both the groups till 120 minutes only. The duration of first stage of labor was shorter in group P (248.00 ± 98.171 vs 340.63 ± 111.592 minutes; P = .003). The duration of second stage of labor was comparable between the 2 groups. Higher incidence of maternal side effects such as nausea/vomiting and sedation was associated with the use of tramadol. Neonatal outcome was comparable. Intravenous paracetamol provides comparable analgesia as intramuscular tramadol during active labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ebied, Mohammed Mohammed Ahmed; Rahman, Shimaa Ahmed Abdul
The current study aims to examine the effect of interactive e-books on students' achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Quasi-experimental study design is used in the study and to collect data the researchers built achievement test to measure the dependent variable represented in the achievement affected by experimental…
Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance
Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…
This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...
Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.
Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…
Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine
Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…
Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.
There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…
Juan Pedro Benítez Guadarrama
Full Text Available The investigation shows results on levels of job satisfaction in a sample of workers belonging to a top-level educational institution of the State of Mexico. The research was descriptive, correlational, explanatory transverse non-experimental design and performed with the universe population belonging to three categories: management and staffing, administrative and lecturers. In order to measure job satisfaction it was used Job Satisfaction Index (LSI*66 developed by . The results showed that three of five factors predict job satisfaction and can increase levels of job satisfaction of the institution.La presente investigación muestra resultados sobre los niveles de satisfacción laboral en una muestra de trabajadores pertenecientes a una institución educativa de Nivel Superior del Estado de México. La investigación fue descriptiva, correlacional, explicativa, transversal; con un diseño no experimental; realizada con el universo de la población perteneciente a tres categorías: directivos y personal de confianza, administrativos y profesores de asignatura. Para medir la satisfacción laboral se utilizó el Índice de Satisfacción Laboral (ISL*66 desarrollado por . Los resultados mostraron que tres de cinco factores predicen la satisfacción laboral y pueden incrementar los niveles de satisfacción laboral de la institución.
Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J
Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis
While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...
Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J
In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.
Ingi Runar Edvardsson
Full Text Available This paper first presents the development of distance education in Icelandic universities. Its second aim is to present a detailed analysis of the distance education practice at the University of Akureyri (UNAK, Iceland. Finally, the paper aims at analysing academic achievement, as well as attitudes towards courses, among campus and distance students in business administration at UNAK. The research is based on secondary data from the university’s information system and official statistics. The findings reveal that distance education has increased significantly in Iceland in recent years. UNAK has had a leading role in developing distance education at university level in Iceland. Nearly half the students at UNAK are enrolled in distance education. Females take longer to finish their study than males, but they receive higher grades than males. Distance students take up to a year longer to finish their BSc programme than campus students. The study also has shown that distance students tend to receive lower grades in business administration at UNAK, and they are older, on average, than local students. Finally, both groups of students seem to express similar attitudes towards taught courses within the faculty. More research is needed in order to fully understand the factors behind the different achievements of distance and campus students.
Rural children are more economically valuable than urban children to parents and are twice as likely to be economically active, although social, familial, and individual differences (such as age, sex, and education) can significantly influence labor force activity. (SB)
Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S
Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.
Pasay, N H
This paper describes an impending shortage of higher-educated labor in Indonesia. Dynamic change is occurring in both Indonesia's population and economy. Its rapidly growing population demands annual national economic growth of 2.2% to avoid declining per capita output. Accordingly, investments have surged in banking and manufacturing industries as Indonesia undergoes structural change from an agricultural to service-based economy. Plagued by a majority of low productivity, elementary-level educated workers, increased productivity is called for to ensure continued development. As the age structural shift progresses, many of these workers will be absorbed in the services sector. Jobs exist requiring workers of all skill levels. This paper is mainly concerned, however, with higher-educated labor's failure to be oriented to the research and development required for sustained economic growth and development, and their entry into clerical positions potentially filled by less educated and less skilled labor. The services sector, particularly public services, is responsible for absorbing much of this labor. As professional, technical, and managerial capabilities and qualifications become increasingly needed in the near future as sector investments take effect, a shortage of higher-educated labor will become apparent. Policy makers are advised to anticipate these shortages and contemplate investments in human capital to facilitate a more smooth adjustment to structural change.
Petro M. Bisirkin
Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the use of Internet technologies in the workshops on labor training in secondary school. Training programs include the study of various technologies using web resources. The Internet offers many different training and educational materials that expand the opportunities for students to model and explore the processes, create their own products and projects under the subject "Labor Training". The effective use of educational online resources depends on the availability of ICT, their technical level, the ability of users efficiently search and use them at various stages of the learning process.
Humberto Coromoto Peña Rivas
Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the influence of motivation on human talent and determine the factors that have the greatest impact on work performance. The research was developed on the basis of a hermeneutic methodology, which began in the bibliographical-documentary revision allowing to obtain the theoretical references, basic and relevant criteria about the labor motivation, in such a way that the obtaining, identification and description of the data facilitated the achievement of the objective set, resulting in a motivated employee to provide the company with a better performance, develop a sense of belonging, fidelity to what it does, reflecting as a consequence benefits for both the company and employees concluding that the behavior of an employee in the organization, depends on the motivational factors that are applied in order to satisfy their basic needs such as good labor relations, job satisfaction, positive working environment and the results of job satisfaction; nowadays, motivating rightly has become an activity that will get employees to create a sense of belonging and the activity that each of them perform, yield positive results in order to contribute successfully in what the organization does. As a fundamental element in the assertive development of the organization, motivation is closely related to job satisfaction, labor relations and the work environment, without neglecting the role of the manager who plays a special role, at the time of carrying the responsibility and apply the most appropriate strategies of motivation within a business organization.
Full Text Available Division of labor has been studied separately from a proximate self-organization and an ultimate evolutionary perspective. We aim to bring together these two perspectives. So far this has been done by choosing a behavioral mechanism a priori and considering the evolution of the properties of this mechanism. Here we use artificial neural networks to allow for a more open architecture. We study whether emergent division of labor can evolve in two different network architectures; a simple feedforward network, and a more complex network that includes the possibility of self-feedback from previous experiences. We focus on two aspects of division of labor; worker specialization and the ratio of work performed for each task. Colony fitness is maximized by both reducing idleness and achieving a predefined optimal work ratio. Our results indicate that architectural constraints play an important role for the outcome of evolution. With the simplest network, only genetically determined specialization is possible. This imposes several limitations on worker specialization. Moreover, in order to minimize idleness, networks evolve a biased work ratio, even when an unbiased work ratio would be optimal. By adding self-feedback to the network we increase the network's flexibility and worker specialization evolves under a wider parameter range. Optimal work ratios are more easily achieved with the self-feedback network, but still provide a challenge when combined with worker specialization.
Duarte, A; Scholtens, E; Weissing, F J
Division of labor has been studied separately from a proximate self-organization and an ultimate evolutionary perspective. We aim to bring together these two perspectives. So far this has been done by choosing a behavioral mechanism a priori and considering the evolution of the properties of this mechanism. Here we use artificial neural networks to allow for a more open architecture. We study whether emergent division of labor can evolve in two different network architectures; a simple feedforward network, and a more complex network that includes the possibility of self-feedback from previous experiences. We focus on two aspects of division of labor; worker specialization and the ratio of work performed for each task. Colony fitness is maximized by both reducing idleness and achieving a predefined optimal work ratio. Our results indicate that architectural constraints play an important role for the outcome of evolution. With the simplest network, only genetically determined specialization is possible. This imposes several limitations on worker specialization. Moreover, in order to minimize idleness, networks evolve a biased work ratio, even when an unbiased work ratio would be optimal. By adding self-feedback to the network we increase the network's flexibility and worker specialization evolves under a wider parameter range. Optimal work ratios are more easily achieved with the self-feedback network, but still provide a challenge when combined with worker specialization.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...
Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas
The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...
Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen
This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.
Natalia Pietra Méndez
Full Text Available The article examines gender relationships in the formal labor market in the 2000's in the city of Caxias do Sul. The objective is to discuss the effects of technical and productive changes in the world of labor, and possible repercussions on the profile of jobs and workers. The research uses as its primary source data available in the Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS, administered by the Ministry of Labor, Brazil. This paper is located within an interdisciplinary field of human sciences and the survey data and indicators treatment is an exercise of statistical approach to the applied and social sciences. The methodology uses the data as evidence to consider multiple social relations among workers: monitoring changes in wages, the sectors of activity, and types of occupation. One can establish a relation with variables that problematize the profile of the workers as relations of gender and education level. Changes were observed in the profiles of the workers. The rise of education, especially for males, is a major factor in this period. There was an increase in female participation in traditionally male sectors of occupation and the solidification of female leadership in some occupations. Although there are transits and movements, gender relations remain as an element of segregation in the workplace.
Karadag, Engin; Bektas, Fatih; Çogaltay, Nazim; Yalçin, Mikail
In this meta-analysis study, different leadership styles were combined, and the relationship between educational leadership and student achievement was analyzed. In the literature review, 57 research articles/dissertations, independent from one another, were brought together, and 28,964 study subjects were included in the sample group. The results…
"Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." excerpt
Seclusions and Restraints: Selected Cases of Death and Abuse at Public and Private Schools and Treatment Centers. Testimony Before the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-09-719T
Kutz, Gregory D.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) recently testified before the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, regarding allegations of death and abuse at residential programs for troubled teens. The document presents the statement of Gregory D. Kutz, Managing Director, Forensic Audits and Special Investigations. Recent…
The paper examines the educational experiences of Turkish youth in Germany with special references to the statistical data of Educational Report, PISA surveys. The results of the educational statistics of Germany show that more than group characteristics like social and cultural capital, structural and institutional factors (multi-track system with its selective mechanism, education policy, context of negative reception of Germany, institutional discrimination, and lack of intercultural curriculum) could have a decisive role in hampering the educational and labor market integration and social mobility of Turkish youth. This can be explained by a mix of factors: the education system which does not foster the educational progress of children from disadvantaged families; the high importance of school degrees for accessing to the vocational training system and the labor market; and direct and indirect institutional discrimination in educational area in Germany. Thus, this work suggests that the nature of the education system in Germany remains deeply "unequal," "hierarchical" and "exclusive." This study also demonstrates maintaining the marginalized position of Turkish children in Germany means that the country of origin or the immigrants' background is still a barrier to having access to education and the labor market of Germany.
An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…
Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert
Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.
Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.
A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other
Smart, J E; Casco, R R
This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.
Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...
There are thousands of labor-management committees for occupational safety and health in the United States. Most were established or activated after passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Such committees can be an important tool when used as part of a comprehensive effort to achieve safety and health in the workplace. In the…
Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret
The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.
Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.
Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John
This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.
Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger
An emerging economic literature over the past decade has made use of international tests of educational achievement to analyze the determinants and impacts of cognitive skills. The cross-country comparative approach provides a number of unique advantages over national studies: It can exploit institutional variation that does not exist within…
Seifi, Mohammad; Derikvandi, Zahra; Moosavipour, Saeed; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah
The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student' critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...
Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Starkof, Liis; Sessa, Maurizio
Background: Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements...... on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. We examined the pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on pupils' commencement in post-compulsory education. Methods: This historical cohort study followed 530 girls and 554 boys from the Danish municipality of Aalborg in the period 2008.......e., through academic achievement) OR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.20; 1.57). Thus, 51% (95% CI: 27%; 122%) of the effect of physical fitness on post-compulsory education commencement was mediated through academic achievement. Conclusion: Physical fitness had a positive effect on post-compulsory education commencement...
Patrick M. Emerson; Andre Portela Souza
This paper examines the effects of birth order on the child labor incidence and school attendance of Brazilian children. Evidence from the psychology and sociology literature suggests that earlier-born children tend to have higher innate abilities. The economic implications of these findings are that earlier-born children may have more intra-household resources directed to them when they are young, and better outcomes as adults in areas such as education and earnings. However, in the context ...
Argues that existing secondary education system in Bangladesh, designed during British colonial times, is ill suited to serve current labor-market demands. Discusses three economic distortions resulting from the misalignment of secondary education with the labor market: inappropriate curriculum, excess demand for secondary education, and increased…
van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Back to overview Collective Labor Supply and Housework with Non-Participation of Women in Paid Labor (with B. van Praag and H. Maassen van den Brink) We estimate a collective time allocation model, where two-earner households behave as if the spouses maximize a household utility function, and where
Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Keune, M.; Steinmetz, S.
In this article, we investigate the effects of economic conditions, families, education, and gender ideologies on the labor force participation rates of women in eleven age groups in 117 countries. We find that participation rates of young and older women are partly explained by sector sizes and the
Geerts, Walter; Van der Werff, Anne; Hummel, Hans; Van Geert, Paul
This literature review focuses on the use of video cases in the education of preservice teachers as a means of achieving higher order learning objectives that are necessary for gaining situated knowledge. An overview of both intended and achieved learning objectives in relevant studies involving
Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick
Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to deepen theoretical and methodological provisions and to develop tools for ensuring the quality of labor potential of industrial enterprises. It was established that the basis of the development of tools for quality assurance of labor potential (within the framework of the development of industrial enterprises lies the system of goals of managerial diagnostics of an industrial enterprise, which includes such key diagnostic objectives as: 1 diagnostics of the effectiveness of controlling the internal business processes of the enterprise; 2 diagnostics of the effectiveness of the typical organizational structure of enterprise management; 3 diagnostics of the efficiency of standardization of the work of linear and functional managers and specialists at the enterprise; 4 diagnostics of the enterprise in the areas of vocational education, labor activity and motivation, innovation work and social development; 5 diagnostics of management policies in the areas of social responsibility, information security and labor protection; 6 diagnostics of the level of conflict in the team at the enterprise 7 diagnosis of the effectiveness of the use of information technology in the management of the enterprise. It was determined that effective management of the quality of labor potential of the personnel (on the basis of its objective assessment is one of the key conditions that determines the success of industrial enterprises. The prospect of further research in this direction is improving the system of diagnostics and planning of reserves for improving the quality of labor potential of an industrial enterprise in crisis conditions.
... reduce or eliminate the amount of diacetyl in some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have.... Hilda L. Solis, Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation... in part II of this issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...
Full Text Available This study attempts to identify how young students set educational targets in major competency levels of their education namely, GCE Ordinary Level (O/L, GCE Advanced Level (A/L, First Degree and Post-Graduate level, and how far they achieve those targets or deviate, which can be used as a yardstick to measure the impact and relevance of education in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted in the Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in 2011. A questionnaire was provided to 150 respondents who were selected based on formal systematic random sampling method. The study reveals that students select their future field of education during the period of GCE O/L based on their performance and set future targets accordingly. The ‘white collar job mentality’ is infused to most students during this period with considerable contribution from parents, family members, teachers and other social networks, which intensifies competition in the job market later on. The Chi-square test concluded that there is a relationship between the selection of subject stream at A/L and family income at 5% level of significance (P value=0.043, probability 95%, which later determines job prospects and their payoffs. Additionally, 67% of the undergraduates in the sample have decided to follow a postgraduate degree due to the challenges in the job market. The paper concludes that though youth aspirations and social mobility are based on education, they are also heavily conditioned by structural realities such as family wealth, status, and life opportunities, as well as unequal distributions of education facilities.
Turgut, Sedat; Temur, Özlem Dogan
In this research, the effects of using game in mathematics teaching process on academic achievement in Turkey were examined by metaanalysis method. For this purpose, the average effect size value and the average effect size values of the moderator variables (education level, the field of education, game type, implementation period and sample size)…
Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.
This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…
Driessen, G.; Smit, F.; Sleegers, P.
Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents.
Full Text Available In this article, we present analyses from a researcher-practitioner partnership in the District of Columbia Public Schools, where we are exploring the impact of educational software on students’ academic achievement. We analyze a unique data set that combines student-level information from the district with data of student usage of a mathematics game platform: First in Math (FIM. These data offer a window into long-standing issues in the educational technology literature around implementation, equity, and student achievement. We show that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement. Such observations from data are helpful for school districts and researchers to inform equitable implementation of new technologies and maximize benefits to learners.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...
Enfermeras con licenciatura en México: estimación de los niveles de deserción escolar y desperdicio laboral University-trained nurses in Mexico: an assessment of educational atrition and labor wastage
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar y analizar la tasa de desperdicio entre las personas con estudios de enfermería a nivel de licenciatura, durante el periodo de su formación y en el mercado de trabajo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El desperdicio escolar se trabajó a partir de los datos de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior (ANUIES entre los años de 1978 y 2002. Para la estimación del desperdicio laboral, se utilizó la base de datos del XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2000. Para la valoración de ambos fenómenos se definieron conceptos y fórmulas. RESULTADOS: La tasa de desperdicio escolar (TDE para la generación que concluyó en el año 2002 se ubicó en 252 por cada 1 000, muy por debajo de la registrada en 1987, que fue de 555. En el mercado laboral, para el año 2000, del total de personas que estudiaron licenciatura en enfermería, 55.2% realizaba actividades remuneradas en el área que estudió; 15.4% trabajaba en actividades ajenas a su formación académica y 16.2% se dedicaba al hogar. La tasa global de desperdicio laboral (TGDL es de 410 por cada 1 000 personas que estudiaron licenciatura en enfermería. CONCLUSIONES: Existe un importante desperdicio de capacidades y habilidades entre la población con estudios de enfermería a nivel licenciatura, tanto en la formación como en el mercado laboral, que requiere de respuestas inmediatas por parte de las instituciones responsables.OBJECTIVE: To estimate and analyze the rate of wastage among university-trained nurses during their training period and in the labour market. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wastage at the training stage was estimated using data from ANUIES for the 1978-2002 period. We used the 2000 Population and Household Census database to estimate job market wastage. Concepts and formulas were defined for the valuation of both areas. RESULTS: The Rate of Education Wastage (TDE for the generation cohort finishing in the year 2002 reached 252 per
Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...
Full Text Available When the economy goes in recession, the necessity of state intervention for its regulation becomes inevitable. Often, the monetary and fiscal policies undertaken by the government with the aim to achieve this target, may result with different economic configuration, probably undesirable. That’s by the other steps undertaken in the priority economic sectors. Actually, the Albanian government has taken some measure in order to reduce the informal economy (focused especially on business agent and to regulate the market labor in the country. As any reforms, the effectiveness of those initiatives will be seen after some years, but actually, some questions bring in mind: what is the impact of those in the economic performance of the agents (business-employee, and can improve their conditions? Is the labor market in able to handle the initiatives and have been those in the appropriate levels? How are the actual report private employment and state employment, and has been rise the employment rate during this time? Is the possibility that higher employment rate will be a good indicator for the improvement of the economic welfare? The configuration of the labor market in the country and its challenges will be the focus of this article.
Irma Escamilla Herrera
Full Text Available This paper compares the evolution of female labor force in the border cities of Tijuana and Matamoros during the period between 1987 and 1996. During the initial stages of the maquiladoras (in-bond industry, female workers predominated, but recent changes in the production process have brought about an increase in male labor force, especially in Tijuana. From female labor several changes in cultural and social patterns derive: an increase in the number of divorced or separated women with one or two children, an increase in education level from basic to medium in both cities. Income levels are also worth mentioning. In Matamoros the minimum wage has increased up to three times compared to Tijuana. This is because In the former city worker-class participation has resulted in better forms of social, class and union organization, which have been reflected in modest improvements in working conditions, a reduction in job turnover and a higher job stability.
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with preliminary...
Arslan, Hasan; Çanli, Murat; Sabo, Helena Maria
Recent studies in math education focus on differences between behaviors and performances of male and female students. In this study, achievement and attitudes of middle school students to math were described in terms of gender and grade differences. The aim of this study is to determine whether any differences exist between female and male…
Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally; Beauregard, Caroline
The literature emphasizes that the school environment is a key factor for the mental health and academic achievement of immigrant and refugee children. However, few studies examined the role of school environment and peer relationships for these youth attending a special education class. The aim of this paper is to study the association between…
This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…