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Sample records for labeled cyclic rgdfk

  1. 99mTc-labeling of HYNIC-conjugated cyclic RGDfK dimer and tetramer using EDDA as coligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Kim, Young-Seung; Liu, Shuang

    2008-03-01

    In this study, EDDA (ethylenediamine- N, N'-diacetic acid) was used as the coligand for 99mTc-labeling of cyclic RGDfK conjugates: HYNIC-dimer (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinamide; dimer = E[c(RGDfK)]2) and HYNIC-tetramer (tetramer = E{E[c(RGDfK)]2}2). First, HYNIC-dimer was allowed to react with 99mTcO4 (-) in the presence of excess tricine and stannous chloride to form the intermediate complex [99mTc(HYNIC-dimer)(tricine)2], which was then allowed to react with EDDA to afford [99mTc(HYNIC-dimer)(EDDA)] with high yield (>90%) and high specific activity ( approximately 8.0 Ci/micromol). Under the same radiolabeling conditions, the yield for [99mTc(HYNIC-tetramer)(EDDA)] was always EDDA bonding to the 99mTc-HYNIC core in [99mTc(HYNIC-dimer)(EDDA)]. The athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG human glioma xenografts were used to evaluate the impact of EDDA coligand on the biodistribution characteristics and excretion kinetics of the 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-dimer and HYNIC-tetramer. Surprisingly, [99mTc(HYNIC-dimer)(EDDA)] and [99mTc(HYNIC-tetramer)(EDDA)] had almost identical tumor uptake over the 2 h period. The use of EDDA as coligand to replace tricine/TPPTS (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate) did not significantly change the uptake of the 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-dimer in noncancerous organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and lungs; but it did result in a significantly lower kidney uptake for the 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-tetramer due to faster renal excretion. It was also found that the radiotracer tumor uptake decreases in a linear fashion as the tumor size increases. The smaller the tumors are, the higher the tumor uptake is regardless of the identity of radiotracer.

  2. Imaging of 99Tcm-labeled new cyclic RGDfK Dimer in nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiao'an; Shi Jiyun; Liu Yan; Zhu Zhaohui; Jia Bing; Liu Zhaofei; Shi Ximin; Wang Fan; Li Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: (1) To evaluate the effect of insertion of two 15-amino-4, 7, 10, 13-tetraoxapentadecanoic (2 PEG 4 ) linkers into cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) Dimer E [c(RGDfK)] 2 on receptor binding in vitro, (2) to assess its biodistribution in vivo and (3) to investigate the value of 99 Tc m labeled 2PEG 4 -Dimer for integrin α v β 3 -positive tumors imaging. Methods: The expression of U87 human glioma cells and integrin α v β 3 was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The half-inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) for 125 I-cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) (c(RGDyK)) of c (RGDyK), hydrazinonictinamide (HYNIC)-Dimer and HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer binding to integrin α v β 3 were measured. 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Dimer and 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer were synthesized using non-SnCl 2 formulation. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. The unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The labeling yield of the two radiotracers was more than 95%, and the radiochemical purity was more than 99% through Sep-Pek C18 cartridge. HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer had significantly higher binding affinity of integrin α v β 3 than c(RGDyK) and HYNIC-Dimer (IC 50 =0.8 nmol/L, 27 nmol/L and 2.4 nmol/L, respectively). Biodistribution study showed that 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer was mainly excreted via the kidney. The tumor uptake of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer was higher than that of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Dimer at 2 h post injection ((5.71±0.96) and (2.10±0.50) % ID/g, t =4.80, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer is a promising radiotracer for integrin α v β 3 -positive tumor imaging. (authors)

  3. Cyclic labellings with constraints at two distances

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, R; Noble, S D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by problems in radio channel assignment, we consider the vertex-labelling of graphs with non-negative integers. The objective is to minimise the span of the labelling, subject to constraints imposed at graph distances one and two. We show that the minimum span is (up to rounding) a piecewise linear function of the constraints, and give a complete specification, together with associated optimal assignments, for trees and cycles.

  4. Labels, Cognomes and Cyclic Computation: An Ethological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot eMurphy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades, it has widely been assumed by linguists that there is a single computational operation, Merge, which is unique to language, distinguishing it from other cognitive domains. The intention of this paper is to progress the discussion of language evolution in two ways: (i survey what the ethological record reveals about the uniqueness of the human computational system, and (ii explore how syntactic theories account for what ethology may determine to be human-specific. It is shown that the operation Label, not Merge, constitutes the evolutionary novelty which distinguishes human language from non-human computational systems; a proposal lending weight to a Weak Continuity Hypothesis and leading to the formation of what is termed Computational Ethology. Some directions for future ethological research are suggested.

  5. Labels, cognomes, and cyclic computation: an ethological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, it has widely been assumed by linguists that there is a single computational operation, Merge, which is unique to language, distinguishing it from other cognitive domains. The intention of this paper is to progress the discussion of language evolution in two ways: (i) survey what the ethological record reveals about the uniqueness of the human computational system, and (ii) explore how syntactic theories account for what ethology may determine to be human-specific. It is shown that the operation Label, not Merge, constitutes the evolutionary novelty which distinguishes human language from non-human computational systems; a proposal lending weight to a Weak Continuity Hypothesis and leading to the formation of what is termed Computational Ethology. Some directions for future ethological research are suggested.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide interacting with individual tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, Erin J.; Austin, Christopher J. D.; Aitken, Jade B.; Vogt, Stefan; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; Harris, Hugh H.; Rendina, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells. The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells

  7. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lei; Guo, Ning; Li, Quanzheng; Ma, Ying; Jacboson, Orit; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hak Soo; Mansfield, James R.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/64Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide. Methods: The integrin αvβ3 binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA)...

  8. Comparison of biological properties of 111In-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Yang, Yong; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study two 111 In-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides, 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ), were evaluated as radiotracers for breast tumor imaging. The objective was to evaluate the impact of SAA, PEG 2 and 1,2,3-triazole linkers as compare to PEG 4 on the tumor uptake and excretion kinetics of 111 In radiotracers. Methods: DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 was prepared by conjugation of Galacto-RGD 2 with DOTA-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. Its integrin α v β 3 binding affinity was determined using a whole-cell displacement assay against 125 I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells, and was compared with those of c(RGDfK), DOTA-3P-RGD 2 and DOTA-3P-RGK 2 (a nonsense peptide conjugate with “scrambled” RGK sequences). 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) were prepared and evaluated for their tumor-targeting capability and biodistribution properties in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 breast tumor xenografts. Planar imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the utility of 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) for breast tumor imaging. Results: IC 50 values of DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 , DOTA-3P-RGD 2 , and DOTA-3P-RGK 2 were calculated to be 27 ± 2, 29 ± 4, 596 ± 48 nM, respectively. The tumor uptake values of 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) (6.79 ± 0.98, 6.56 ± 0.56, 4.17 ± 0.61 and 1.09 ± 0.13 %ID/g at 1, 4, 24 and 72 hours p.i., respectively) were almost identical to those of 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) (6.17 ± 1.65, 5.94 ± 0.84, 3.40 ± 0.50 and 0.99 ± 0.20 %ID/g, respectively). 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) had a faster clearance from blood and muscle than 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ), leading to higher tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios. 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) had lower liver uptake and better tumor/liver ratios than 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ). The tumor uptake of 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) was both integrin α v β 3 and RGD-specific. Imaging data suggest

  9. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Guo, Ning; Li, Quanzheng; Ma, Ying; Jacboson, Orit; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hak Soo; Mansfield, James R; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/(64)Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide. The integrin α(v)β(3) binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA)-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD) method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data. The dual-labeled probe (64)Cu-RGD-C(DOTA)-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp) derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020) is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026). The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.

  10. Effect of cyclic, low dose pyrimethamine treatment in patients with Late Onset Tay Sachs: an open label, extended pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, Etty; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Sagie, Liora; Urshanski, Nataly; Sagiv, Nadav; Peleg, Leah; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Navon, Ruth; Valevski, Avi; Stern, Naftali

    2015-04-17

    Late Onset Tay- Sachs disease (LOTS) is a rare neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease which results from mutations in the gene encoding the α subunit (HEXA) of β-hexosaminidase enzyme (HexA). At the present time, no effective treatment exists for LOTS and other neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nerve system (CNS). Pyrimethamine (PMT) was previously shown to act as a HexA chaperone in human fibroblasts in vitro carrying some (e.g., αG269S), but not all LOTS-related mutations. The present study assessed the effect of cyclic, low dose and long term pyrimethamine treatment on HexA in subjects with LOTS. In an open label trial in 4 LOTS patients, PMT was initiated at an average daily dose of ~2.7 mg and administered cyclically guided by blood lymphocyte HexA activity for a mean duration of 82.8 (±22.5; SD) weeks (~1.5 year). HexA activity rose in all subjects, with a mean peak increase of 2.24 folds (±0.52; SD) over baseline activity (range 1.87-3). The mean treatment time required to attain this peak was of 15.7 (±4.8; SD) weeks. Following increase in activity, HexA gradually declined with the continued use of PMT, which was then stopped, resulting in the return of HexA activity to baseline. A second cycle of PMT treatment was then initiated, resulting again in an increase in HexA activity. Three of the patients experienced a measurable neuropsychiatric deterioration whereas one subject remained entirely stable. Cyclic low dose of PMT can increase HexA activity in LOTS patients. However, the observed increase is repeatedly transient and not associated with discernible beneficial neurological or psychiatric effects.

  11. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a {sup 111}In-labeled cyclic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhi [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wen Xiaoxia; Xiong Chiyi; Zhang Rui [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Albert, Nathaniel D. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Li Chun [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: cli@mdanderson.org

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of infection-associated death in immunosuppressed patients. Early detection and early administration of antifungal therapy are critical factors in improving outcome for patients with IPA. Here, we evaluated the imaging properties of a {sup 111}In-labeled cyclic peptide targeted to Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunosuppressed murine model of IPA. Methods: A cyclic peptide c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} was labeled with {sup 111}In by means of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Two days after intranasal inoculation of 17.5x10{sup 6} conidia of A. fumigatus, mice were injected {sup 111}In-DTPA-c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} intravenously. Biodistribution data were obtained at 2 h, and {gamma}-images were acquired at 10 min and 2 h after radiotracer injection. Healthy mice were used as controls. In addition, a group of infected mice were co-injected with the radiotracer and unlabeled c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} to evaluate the inhibition of radiotracer's binding to infected lungs. Autoradiographs of lungs from infected and healthy mice were compared with corresponding photographs of transaxial sections of the lung tissues stained for A. fumigatus hyphae. Results: The labeling efficiency was >98%, with specific radioactivity of up to 74 MBq/nmol peptide. Significantly higher uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} was observed in the lungs of mice infected with A. fumigatus than in those of healthy mice (0.37{+-}0.06 %ID/g vs. 0.14{+-}0.02 %ID/g, P=.00044). Simultaneous injection with unlabeled peptide reduced radioactivity in the infected lungs by 41% (P=.0037). Increased radioactivity in the lungs of infected mice was visible in {gamma} images at both 10 min and 2 h after radiotracer injection. Moreover, autoradiography confirmed radiotracer uptake in infected lungs, but not in the lungs of healthy mice or infected mice co-injected with unlabeled peptide. Conclusions: {gamma}-Imaging with {sup

  12. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu, Ning Guo, Quanzheng Li, Ying Ma, Orit Jacboson, Seulki Lee, Hak Soo Choi, James R. Mansfield, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/64Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide.Methods: The integrin αvβ3 binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data.Results: The dual-labeled probe 64Cu-RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020 is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026.Conclusion: The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.

  13. An assessment tumor targeting ability of 177Lu labeled cyclic CCK analogue peptide by binding with cholecystokinin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ha Cho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cholecystokinin (CCK receptor is known as a receptor that is overexpressed in many human tumors. The present study was designed to investigate the targeting ability of cyclic CCK analogue in AR42J pancreatic cells. The CCK analogues, DOTA-K(glucose-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe (DOTA-glucose-CCK and DOTA-Nle-cyclo(Glu-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-Lys-NH2 (DOTA-[Nle]-cCCK, were synthesized and radiolabeled with 177Lu, and competitive binding was evaluated. The binding appearance of synthesized peptide with AR42J cells was evaluated by confocal microscopy. And bio-distribution was performed in AR42J xenografted mice. Synthesized peptides were prepared by a solid phase synthesis method, and their purity was over 98%. DOTA is the chelating agent for 177Lu-labeling, in which the peptides were radiolabeled with 177Lu by a high radiolabeling yield. A competitive displacement of 125I-CCK8 on the AR42J cells revealed that the 50% inhibitory concentration value (IC50 was 12.3 nM of DOTA-glucose-CCK and 1.7 nM of DOTA-[Nle]-cCCK. Radio-labeled peptides were accumulated in AR42J tumor in vivo, and %ID/g of the tumor was 0.4 and 0.9 at 2 h p.i. It was concluded that 177Lu-DOTA-[Nle]-cCCK has higher binding affinity than 177Lu-DOTA-glucose-CCK and can be a potential candidate as a targeting modality for a CCK receptor over-expressing tumors.

  14. Synthesis and Bioevaluation of Iodine-131 Directly Labeled Cyclic RGD-PEGylated Gold Nanorods for Tumor-Targeted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radiolabeled gold nanoparticles play an important role in biomedical application. The aim of this study was to prepare iodine-131 (131I-labeled gold nanorods (GNRs conjugated with cyclic RGD and evaluate its biological characteristics for targeted imaging of integrin αvβ3-expressing tumors. Methods. HS-PEG(5000-COOH molecules were applied to replace CTAB covering the surface of bare GNRs for better biocompatibility, and c(RGDfK peptides were conjugated onto the carboxyl terminal of GNR-PEG-COOH via EDC/NHS coupling reactions. The nanoconjugate was characterized, and 131I was directly tagged on the surface of GNRs via AuI bonds for SPECT/CT imaging. We preliminarily studied the characteristics of the probe and its feasibility for tumor-targeting SPECT/CT imaging. Results. The [131I]GNR-PEG-cRGD probe was prepared in a simple and rapid manner and was stable in both PBS and fetal bovine serum. It targeted selectively and could be taken up by tumor cells mainly via integrin αvβ3-receptor-mediated endocytosis. In vivo imaging, biodistribution, and autoradiography results showed evident tumor uptake in integrin αvβ3-expressing tumors. Conclusions. These promising results showed that this smart nanoprobe can be used for angiogenesis-targeted SPECT/CT imaging. Furthermore, the nanoprobe possesses a remarkable capacity for highly efficient photothermal conversion in the near-infrared region, suggesting its potential as a multifunctional theranostic agent.

  15. Preparation of 14-C-labelled 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol: Cyanosilylation of Cyclic Imines using KCN in a One-Pot Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Malle, Birgitte Mølholm; Foged, Christian

    1999-01-01

    A new method for C-C bond formation was developed based on in situ cyanosilylation of cyclic Schiff bases using KCN, TMSCl, KI and ZnI2. This method was used to prepare the potent -glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol 14-C labelled at C-5.Keywords: in situ cyanosilylation; 14-C...

  16. Comparison of biological properties of 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD Peptide trimer and dimer useful as SPECT radiotracers for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zuo-Quan; Yang, Yong; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to evaluate a 99m Tc-labeled trimeric cyclic RGD peptide ( 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 ) as the new radiotracer for tumor imaging. The objective was to compare its biological properties with those of 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 in the same animal model. Methods: HYNIC-4P-RGD 3 was prepared by reacting 4P-RGD 3 with excess HYNIC-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 was prepared using a kit formulation, and evaluated for its tumor-targeting capability and biodistribution properties in the BALB/c nude mice with U87MG human glioma xenografts. Planar and SPECT imaging studies were performed in athymic nude mice with U87MG glioma xenografts. For comparison purpose, 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 (a α v β 3 -targeted radiotracer currently under clinical evaluation for tumor imaging in cancer patients) was also evaluated in the same animal models. Blocking experiments were used to demonstrate the α v β 3 specificity of 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 . Results: 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 was prepared with > 95% RCP and high specific activity (~ 200 GBq/μmol). 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 and 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 shared almost identical tumor uptake and similar biodistribution properties. 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 had higher uptake than 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 in the intestines and kidneys; but it showed better metabolic stability. The U87MG tumors were clearly visualized by SPECT with excellent contrast with 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 and 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 . Conclusion: Increasing peptide multiplicity from 3P-RGD 2 to 4P-RGD 3 offers no advantages with respect to the tumor-targeting capability. 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 is as good a SPECT radiotracer as 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 for imaging α v β 3 -positive tumors. -- Graphical abstract: This report presents evaluations of a 99m Tc-labeled cyclic RGD peptide trimer ( 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 ) as the new SPECT radiotracer for tumor imaging. It was found that 99m Tc-4P-RGD 3 was able to accumulate in the xenografted U87MG tumors with high specificity. Display Omitted

  17. Contribution of chemical modifications and isotopic labelling to the establishment of structure-affinity relations of cyclic oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azaroual-Bellanger, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to synthesize and investigate cyclodextrin derivatives dedicated to the vectorization of drugs. Cyclodextrins are well known for their ability to include hydrophobic molecules in their cavity. Two classes of molecules have been prepared namely cyclodextrins bearing amino-acids, the peptido-cyclodextrins, as models for derivatives dedicated to target receptors, and amphiphilic cyclodextrins (lollipops) bearing an aliphatics chain which could be inserted into pre-organized phases as vesicles or micelles. To investigate the structure and properties of these molecules, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used as the analytical tool. Two types of studies have been performed: - First, self-inclusion and complexation phenomena have been showed along with the determination of stoichiometries and association constants. For this purpose, one and two-dimensional NMR (proton and 13 C) were used. - Second, the dynamic study of natural cyclodextrins, derivatives and inclusion complexes was performed using NMR and relaxation studies on deuterium and 13 C nuclei. For this purpose, deuterium labelled analogs have been prepared. (author) [fr

  18. Cyclic AMP in rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, V.; Borglund, E.; Cerasi, E.; Uppsala Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 3 H]adenine into cyclic AMP was studied in rat pancreatic islets under varying conditions of labeling. Prolonging the exposure to [ 3 H]adenine progressively augmented the islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP level. Islets labeled for different periods of time and subsequently incubated (without adenine) in the presence of D-glucose or cholera toxin showed stimulations of intra-islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP that were proportionate to the levels of radioactive nucleotide present under non-stimulatory conditions. Labeling the islets in a high glucose concentration (27.7 mM) did not modify the nucleotide responses to glucose or cholera toxin. The specific activity of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP, determined by simultaneous assay of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP and total cyclic AMP, was not influenced by glucose or cholera toxin. Glucose had no effect on the specific activity of labeled ATP

  19. Improving Tumor Uptake and Pharmacokinetics of 64Cu-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Dimers with Gly3 and PEG4 Linkers

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Liu, Zhaofei; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Radiolabeled cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides represent a new class of radiotracers with potential for the early tumor detection and non-invasive monitoring of tumor metastasis and therapeutic response in cancer patients. This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD peptide dimer conjugates, DOTA-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 (DOTA-3PEG4-dimer: DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid; PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and DOTA-G3-E[G3-c(RGDfK)]2 ...

  20. Evaluation of two novel {sup 64}Cu-labeled RGD peptide radiotracers for enhanced PET imaging of tumor integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A.; Nickles, Robert J. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco [Peptides International, Inc., Louisville, KY (United States); Chakravarty, Rubel; Yang, Yunan; England, Christopher G. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Our goal was to demonstrate that suitably derivatized monomeric RGD peptide-based PET tracers, targeting integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3}, may offer advantages in image contrast, time for imaging, and low uptake in nontarget tissues. Two cyclic RGDfK derivatives, (PEG){sub 2}-c(RGDfK) and PEG{sub 4}-SAA{sub 4}-c(RGDfK), were constructed and conjugated to NOTA for {sup 64}Cu labeling. Their integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3}-binding properties were determined via a competitive cell binding assay. Mice bearing U87MG tumors were intravenously injected with each of the {sup 64}Cu-labeled peptides, and PET scans were acquired during the first 30 min, and 2 and 4 h after injection. Blocking and ex vivo biodistribution studies were carried out to validate the PET data and confirm the specificity of the tracers. The IC{sub 50} values of NOTA-(PEG){sub 2}-c(RGDfK) and NOTA-PEG{sub 4}-SAA{sub 4}-c(RGDfK) were 444 ± 41 nM and 288 ± 66 nM, respectively. Dynamic PET data of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-(PEG){sub 2}-c(RGDfK) and {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-PEG{sub 4}-SAA{sub 4}-c(RGDfK) showed similar circulation t{sub 1/2} and peak tumor uptake of about 4 %ID/g for both tracers. Due to its marked hydrophilicity, {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-PEG{sub 4}-SAA{sub 4}-c(RGDfK) provided faster clearance from tumor and normal tissues yet maintained excellent tumor-to-background ratios. Static PET scans at later time-points corroborated the enhanced excretion of the tracer, especially from abdominal organs. Ex vivo biodistribution and receptor blocking studies confirmed the accuracy of the PET data and the integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3}-specificity of the peptides. Our two novel RGD-based radiotracers with optimized pharmacokinetic properties allowed fast, high-contrast PET imaging of tumor-associated integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3}. These tracers may facilitate the imaging of abdominal malignancies, normally precluded by high background uptake. (orig.)

  1. Cyclic multiverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a 99mTc-labelled cyclic RGD peptide for imaging the αvβ3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, F.; Bock, M.; Schwaiger, M.; Wester, H.J.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Kessler, H.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: The αvβ3 integrin is involved in tumour induced angiogenesis and tumour metastasis. We describe the synthesis and evaluation of a 99m Tc-labelled RGD analogue for the visualisation of αvβ3 integrin expression. Methods: The linear peptides were assembled on a solid support. Cyclisation was performed under high dilution conditions. For conjugation with the chelator peptide, a water soluble carbodiimide was used. Radiolabelling was carried out due to standard procedures with high radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity. For in vivo evaluation, nude mice bearing αvβ3-positive human melanoma M21 and αv-negative human melanoma M21-L or Balb / c mice bearing αv-positive murine osteosarcoma were used. Results: Activity accumulation of 99m Tc-DKCK-RGD 240 min p.i. was 1.1% ID/g in the αvβ3-positive melanoma and 0.3% ID/g in the negative control tumour. In the osteosarcoma model 2.2% ID/g was found 240 min p.i. Planar gamma camera images allowed contrasting visualisation of αvβ3-positive tumours 240 min p.i. Blocking of the tumour using the αvβ3-selective pentapeptide cyclo(-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Val-) reduces activity accumulation in the tumour to background level. However, 240 min p.i. highest activity concentration was found in kidneys resulting in low tumour / kidney ratios. Metabolite analysis 240 min p.i. showed approximately 60% intact tracer in kidneys and 80% in the tumour. Only 24% intact tracer was found in blood 30 min p.i. Conclusion: 99m Tc-DKCK-RGD allows imaging of αvβ3-positive tumours in mice. However, pharmacokinetics as well as metabolic stability of the tracer have to be improved for potential clinical application. (orig.)

  3. Multimodal Imaging of Integrin Receptor-Positive Tumors by Bioluminescence, Fluorescence, Gamma Scintigraphy, and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Using a Cyclic RGD Peptide Labeled with a Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dye and a Radionuclide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Barry Edwards

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrins, particularly the αvβ3 heterodimers, play important roles in tumor-induced angiogenesis and invasiveness. To image the expression pattern of the αvβ3 integrin in tumors through a multimodality imaging paradigm, we prepared a cyclic RGDyK peptide analogue (LS308 bearing a tetraazamacrocycle 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N′, N″, N‴-tetraacetic acid (DOTA and a lipophilic near-infrared (NIR fluorescent dye cypate. The αvβ3 integrin binding affinity and the internalization properties of LS308 mediated by the αvβ3 integrin in 4t1luc cells were investigated by receptor binding assay and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The in vivo distribution of 111In-labeled LS308 in a 4t1luc tumor-bearing mouse model was studied by fluorescence, bioluminescence, planar gamma, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. The results show that LS308 has high affinity for αvβ3 integrin and internalized preferentially via the αvβ3 integrin-mediated endocytosis in 4t1luc cells. We also found that LS308 selectively accumulated in αvβ3-positve tumors in a receptor-specific manner and was visualized by the four imaging methods. Whereas the endogenous bioluminescence imaging identified the ensemble of the tumor tissue, the fluorescence and SPECT methods with the exogenous contrast agent LS308 reported the local expression of αvβ3 integrin. Thus, the multimodal imaging approach could provide important complementary diagnostic information for monitoring the efficacy of new antiangiogenic drugs.

  4. Cyclic nucleotides and radioresistnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinskij, V.I.; Mikheeva, G.A.; Zel'manovich, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The addition of glucose to meat-peptone broth does not change the radiosensitizing effect (RSE) of cAMP at the logarithmic phase (LP) and the radioprotective effect (RPE) at the stationary phase (SP), but sensitization, characteristic of cGMP, disappears in SP and turns into RPE in LP. Introduction of glucose into the broth for 20 min eliminates all the effects of both cyclic nucleotides in the cya + strain while cya - mutant exhibits RSE. RSE of both cyclic nucleotides is only manifested on minimal media. These data brought confirmation of the dependence of the influence of cyclic media. These data brought confirmation of the dependence of the influence of cyclic nucleotides on radioresistance upon the metabolic status of the cell [ru

  5. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and inhibitory activities of (4-N3[3,5-3H]Phe10)PKI(6-22)amide and its precursors: photoaffinity labeling peptides for the active site of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B M; Lundquist, L J; Walsh, D A; Glass, D B

    1989-06-01

    PKI(6-22)amide is a 17 residue peptide corresponding to the active portion of the heat-stable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The peptide is a potent (Ki = 1.6 nM), competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The photoreactive peptide analog (4-azidophenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide was synthesized in both its non-radiolabeled and tritiated forms by chemical modification of precursor peptides that were prepared by stepwise solid-phase synthesis. (4-Amino[3,5-3H]phenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide, the precursor for the radiolabeled arylazide peptide, was obtained by catalytic reduction of the corresponding peptide containing the 3,5-diiodo-4-aminophenylalanine residue at position 10. The purified PKI peptides were analyzed by HPLC, amino acid analysis, and u.v. spectra. In the dark, (4-azidophenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide inhibited the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a Ki value of 2.8 nM. The photoreactivity of the arylazide peptide was demonstrated by time-dependent u.v. spectral changes on exposure to light. Photolysis of the catalytic subunit (4-azido[3,5-3H]phenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide complex resulted in specific covalent labeling of the enzyme. The data indicate that this peptide is a useful photoaffinity labeling reagent for the active site of the protein kinase.

  7. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  8. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth; Meier, Stuart Kurt; Gehring, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms

  9. Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental tool for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Whereas cyclic voltammetry is widely used within the field of electrochemistry, a way to quantitatively and directly relate the cyclic voltammogram to ab initio calculations has been lacking, even f...

  10. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  11. Cyclic approximation to stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart D. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.

  12. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošek T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical phases. They are able to predict the material performance in service more correctly as documented on several examples. The use of NSS should thus be restricted for quality control.

  13. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  14. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures

  15. Z₂-double cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, J.

    2014-01-01

    A binary linear code C is a Z2-double cyclic code if the set of coordinates can be partitioned into two subsets such that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of both subsets leaves invariant the code. These codes can be identified as submodules of the Z2[x]-module Z2[x]/(x^r − 1) × Z2[x]/(x^s − 1). We determine the structure of Z2-double cyclic codes giving the generator polynomials of these codes. The related polynomial representation of Z2-double cyclic codes and its duals, and the relation...

  16. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic/dynamic tria......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...

  17. The enzymatic preparation of [α-32P]nucleoside triphosphates, cyclic [32P]AMP, and cyclic [32P]GMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walseth, T.F.; Johnson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed for the enzymatic preparation of α- 32 P-labelled ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, cyclic [ 32 P]AMP, and cyclic [ 32 P]GMP of high specific radioactivity and in high yield from 32 Psub(i). The method also enables the preparation of [γ- 32 P]ATP, [γ- 32 P]GTP, [γ- 32 P]ITP, and [γ- 32 P]-dATP of very high specific activity and in high yield. (Auth.)

  18. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  19. Targeting of gelatinase activity with a radiolabeled cyclic HWGF peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnast, B.; Bodenstein, C.; Haubner, R.; Wester, H.J.; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases that play an important role in cancer as well as in numerous diseases. In this article, we describe the labeling of a phage display selected cyclic decapeptide containing the HWGF (histidine-tryptophane-glycine-phenylalanine) sequence to target MMP-2 and MMP-9. To evaluate the ability of this labeled peptide to monitor non invasively MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, in vitro studies, biodistribution, competition studies and plasma metabolites analyses in Lewis Lung cancer tumor bearing mice were performed

  20. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  1. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  2. Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danan, J.-L.

    1977-01-01

    Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14 C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate [fr

  3. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  4. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solutio...

  5. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  6. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2018-02-13

    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  7. Cyclic Processing for Context Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Many machine-learning techniques use feedback information. However, current context fusion systems do not support this because they constrain processing to be structured as acyclic processing. This paper proposes a generalization which enables the use of cyclic processing in context fusion systems....... A solution is proposed to the inherent problem of how to avoid uncontrollable looping during cyclic processing. The solution is based on finding cycles using graph-coloring and breaking cycles using time constraints....

  8. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  9. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  10. On Improvements of Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Howard Fan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many man-made signals encountered in communications exhibit cyclostationarity. By exploiting cyclostationarity, cyclic MUSIC has been shown to be able to separate signals with different cycle frequencies, thus, to be able to perform signal selective direction of-arrival (DOA estimation. However, as will be shown in this paper, the DOA estimation of cyclic MUSIC is actually biased. We show in this paper that by properly choosing the frequency for evaluating the steering vector, the bias of DOA estimation can be substantially reduced and the performance can be improved. Furthermore, we propose another algorithm exploiting cyclic conjugate correlation to further improve the performance of DOA estimation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of both of our methods.

  11. Cyclic antibiotic therapy for diverticular disease: a critical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Maconi, Giovanni; Manes, Gianpiero; Tammaro, Gianfranco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno; Ficano, Leonardo; Buri, Luigi; Gatto, Giovanni; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Campo, Salvatore M; Ierardi, Enzo; Pace, Fabio; Morini, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Different symptoms have been attributed to uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD). Poor absorbable antibiotics are largely used for uncomplicated DD, mainly for symptom treatment and prevention of diverticulitis onset. Controlled trials on cyclic administration of rifaximin in DD patients were evaluated. Four controlled, including 1 double-blind and 3 open-label, randomized studies were available. Following a long-term cyclic therapy, a significant difference emerged in the global symptoms score (range: 0-18) between rifaximin plus fibers (from 6-6.5 to 1-2) and fibers alone (from 6.7 to 2-3.8), although the actual clinically relevance of such a very small difference remains to be ascertained. Moreover, a similar global symptom score reduction (from 6 to 2.4) can be achieved by simply recommending an inexpensive high-fiber diet. Current data suggest that cyclic rifaximin plus fibers significantly reduce the incidence of the first episode of acute diverticulitis as compared to fibers alone (1.03% vs 2.75%), but a cost-efficacy analysis is needed before this treatment can be routinely recommended. The available studies have been hampered by some limitations, and definite conclusions could not be drawn. The cost of a long-life, cyclic rifaximin therapy administered to all symptomatic DD patients would appear prohibitive.

  12. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong, E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-08-09

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.

  13. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.

  14. Nature of a solar cyclicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanchuk, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The paper contains a critical review of works on studying a cyclic character of solar activity. An introduction of cyclic curves with a frequency spectrum is established to be insolvent. The Wolf, Newcomb and Waldmeier approach seems to be useful. Some evidence is given in favour of the author's conception of solar activity ciclicity of a tide nature. It is accounted for a continuous double and single effect of planets, a resonant character of this effect due to which a 10-year period of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into an 11-year cycle of activity [ru

  15. Deformation mechanisms in cyclic creep and fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.

    1979-01-01

    Service conditions in which static and cyclic loading occur in conjunction are numerous. It is argued that an understanding of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation are necessary both for design and for understanding creep-fatigue fracture. Accordingly a brief, and selective, review of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation at both low and high strain amplitudes is provided. Cyclic loading in conjunction with static loading can lead to creep retardation if cyclic hardening occurs, or creep acceleration if softening occurs. Low strain amplitude cyclic deformation is understood in terms of dislocation loop patch and persistent slip band behavior, high strain deformation in terms of dislocation cell-shuttling models. While interesting advances in these fields have been made in the last few years, the deformation mechanisms are generally poorly understood

  16. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  17. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Cyclic peptides combine several favorable properties such as good binding affinity, target selectivity and low toxicity that make them an attractive modality for the development of therapeutics. Over 40 cyclic peptide drugs are currently in clinical use and around one new cyclic peptide drug enters the market every year on average. The vast majority of clinically approved cyclic peptides are derived from natural products, such as antimicrobials or human peptide hormones. New powerful techniques based on rational design and in vitro evolution have enabled the de novo development of cyclic peptide ligands to targets for which nature does not offer solutions. A look at the cyclic peptides currently under clinical evaluation shows that several have been developed using such techniques. This new source for cyclic peptide ligands introduces a freshness to the field, and it is likely that de novo developed cyclic peptides will be in clinical use in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-03-15

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase.

  19. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  2. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  3. On charge-3 cyclic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H W; D'Avanzo, Antonella; Enolski, V Z

    2011-01-01

    We determine the spectral curve of charge-3 BPS su(2) monopoles with C 3 cyclic symmetry. The symmetry means that the genus 4 spectral curve covers a (Toda) spectral curve of genus 2. A well adapted homology basis is presented enabling the theta functions and monopole data of the genus 4 curve to be given in terms of genus 2 data. The Richelot correspondence, a generalization of the arithmetic mean, is used to solve for this genus 2 curve. Results of other approaches are compared

  4. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  5. Cyclic graphs and Apery's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, V N

    2002-01-01

    This is a survey of results about the behaviour of Hermite-Pade approximants for graphs of Markov functions, and a survey of interpolation problems leading to Apery's result about the irrationality of the value ζ(3) of the Riemann zeta function. The first example is given of a cyclic graph for which the Hermite-Pade problem leads to Apery's theorem. Explicit formulae for solutions are obtained, namely, Rodrigues' formulae and integral representations. The asymptotic behaviour of the approximants is studied, and recurrence formulae are found

  6. A system for cyclical voltametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P. da; Chierice, G.O.

    1974-01-01

    The constrution of a system composed by two instruments, voltametric circuit and potenciostate is depicted. Both instruments junction joined so that the voltametric circuit works as a triangular pulse generator, capable of operating with independent ascendant and descendant slope change, with unique pulse of continuous regime. The circuit of the potenciostate is composed of an amplifier with high entrance impedance and capable of supplying relatively high currents at the exit. The equipment was tested to study the aqueous Pb 2+ system in mercury electrode. this system depicted for the cyclical-voltometry technique set in use at I.E.A., Sao Paulo (Brazil), has very good linearity

  7. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. For cyclic accelerators a technique is required for carrying the plasma channel and the beam around a bend. Multiple laser-generated channels with dipole magnetic fields to switch the beam from one channel to the next have been tested at Sandia. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using rf breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. With a suitable driving frequency, a waveguide mode can be driven which has its peak field intensity on the axis with negligible fields at the chamber walls. The plasma production and hence the beam propagation is thereby isolated from the walls. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  8. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS — is a fairly common disease of unknown etiology that affects children of all age groups and sometimes adult population and refers to the functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of Rehydron Optim for oral rehydration therapy in children. Materials and methods. The treatment of 40 children aged 3 to 11 years with CVS (15 persons and primary acetonemic syndrome (25 persons in the period of acetonemic crisis, including 15 boys and 25 girls, was analyzed. All children were observed in the outpatient department of the Regional children’s hospital of Chernivtsi. Diagnosis was established based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory data. Patients underwent required clinico-biological tests and instrumental examinations. The dynamics of the following syndromes was investigated: pain, vomiting, dehydration and intoxication. Rehydration therapy in all cases was oral with the usage of Rehydron Optim. Results of the study and their discussion. A cyclical vomiting was observed in children with primary acetonemic syndrome with satisfactory condition in attack-free period. Migraine-like headaches prevailed in 36 patients (80 %, and the age of these patients was older than 7 years. Same children had episodes of paroxysmal autonomic failure. Almost all surveyed children had in their family history the risk factors for CVS development. All children had positive dynamics of the main basic clinical manifestations on the background of oral rehydration therapy using Rehydron Optim. Within the 1st day of oral rehydration therapy with Rehydron Optim in children, we have noted a significant decrease in the incidence of lethargy, vomiting, spastic abdominal pain, smell of acetone in the exhaled air (p < 0.05. In children with the I degree of dehydration, clinical signs of dehydration were not seen before the treatment, and children with the II degree had an

  9. [Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.

  10. Modeling Individual Cyclic Variation in Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Emma; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-04-01

    Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series. Experiments on synthetic and real-world health-tracking data demonstrate that CyHMMs infer cycle lengths more accurately than existing methods, with 58% lower error on simulated data and 63% lower error on real-world data compared to the best-performing baseline. CyHMMs can also perform functions which baselines cannot: they can model the progression of individual features/symptoms over the course of the cycle, identify the most variable features, and cluster individual time series into groups with distinct characteristics. Applying CyHMMs to two real-world health-tracking datasets-of human menstrual cycle symptoms and physical activity tracking data-yields important insights including which symptoms to expect at each point during the cycle. We also find that people fall into several groups with distinct cycle patterns, and that these groups differ along dimensions not provided to the model. For example, by modeling missing data in the menstrual cycles dataset, we are able to discover a medically relevant group of birth control users even though information on birth control is not given to the model.

  11. Modeling Cyclic Variation of Intracranial Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daley, M

    2001-01-01

    ...) recording during mechanical ventilation are due to cyclic extravascular compressional modulation primarily of the cerebral venous bed, an established isovolumetric model of cerebrospinal fluid...

  12. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  13. Cyclical subnormal separation in A-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarfi, M.U.

    1995-12-01

    Three main results, concerning A-groups in respect of cyclical subnormal separation as defined in, are presented. It is shown in theorem A that any A-group that is generated by elements of prime order and satisfying the cyclical subnormal separation conditions is metabelian. The two other main results give necessary and sufficient conditions for A-groups, that are split extensions of certain abelian p-groups by a metabelian p'-group, to satisfy the cyclical subnormal separation condition. There is also a result which shows that A-groups with elementary abelian Sylow subgroups are cyclically separated as defined. (author). 7 refs

  14. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  15. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using RF breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  16. Cyclic completion of the anamorphic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the best known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  17. Detection of Cyclic Dinucleotides by STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xia; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor protein mediating cytosolic DNA-induced innate immunity for both microbial invasion and self-DNA leakage. STING is also a direct receptor for cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), including the microbial secondary messengers c-di-GMP (3',3'-cyclic di-GMP), 3',3'cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP), and mammalian endogenous 2',3'cGAMP (2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) synthesized by cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase). Upon CDN binding, STING undergoes a conformational change to enable signal transduction by phosphorylation and finally to active IRF3 (Interferon regulatory factor 3) for type I interferon production. Here, we describe some experimental procedures such as Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and luciferase reporter assays to study the CDNs binding and activity by STING proteins.

  18. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at

  19. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  20. Cyclic characteristics of earthquake time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.R. Jr; Shukla, D.K.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    From an engineering standpoint, an earthquake record may be characterized by a number of parameters, one of which is its 'cyclic characteristics'. The cyclic characteristics are most significant in fatigue analysis of structures and liquefaction analysis of soils where, in addition to the peak motion, cyclic buildup is significant. Whereas duration peak amplitude and response spectra for earthquakes have been studied extensively, the cyclic characteristics of earthquake records have not received an equivalent attention. Present procedures to define the cyclic characteristics are generally based upon counting the number of peaks at various amplitude ranges on a record. This paper presents a computer approach which describes a time history by an amplitude envelope and a phase curve. Using Fast Fourier Transform Techniques, an earthquake time history is represented as a projection along the x-axis of a rotating vector-the length the vector is given by the amplitude spectra-and the angle between the vector and x-axis is given by the phase curve. Thus one cycle is completed when the vector makes a full rotation. Based upon Miner's cumulative damage concept, the computer code automatically combines the cycles of various amplitudes to obtain the equivalent number of cycles of a given amplitude. To illustrate the overall results, the cyclic characteristics of several real and synthetic earthquake time histories have been studied and are presented in the paper, with the conclusion that this procedure provides a physical interpretation of the cyclic characteristics of earthquakes. (Auth.)

  1. Cyclic cholecystokinin analogues with high selectivity for central receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, B.; Pelaprat, D.; Durieux, C.; Dor, A.; Roques, B.P.; Reibaud, M.; Blanchard, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Taking as a model the N-terminal folding of the cholecystokinin tyrosine-sulfated octapeptide deduced from conformational studies, two cyclic cholecystokinin (CCK) analogues were synthesized by conventional peptide synthesis. The binding characteristics of these peptides were investigated on brain cortex membranes and pancreatic acini of guinea pig. Compounds I and II were competitive inhibitors of [ 3 H]Boc[Ahx 28,31 ]CCK-(27-33) binding to central CCK receptors and showed a high degree of selectivity for these binding sites. This high selectivity was associated with a high affinity for central CCK receptors. Similar affinities and selectivities were found when 125 I Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 was used as a ligand. Moreover, these compounds were only weakly active in the stimulation of amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini and were unable to induce contractions in the guinea pig ileum. The two cyclic CCK analogues, therefore, appear to be synthetic ligands exhibiting both high affinity and high selectivity for central CCK binding sites. These compounds could help clarify the respective role of central and peripheral receptors for various CCK-8-induced pharmacological effects

  2. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  3. Kinetic analysis of the reactivity of aliphatic cyclic alcohols and carboxylic acids in the T-for-H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kiyoshi; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kano, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the influence of tritium ( 3 He or T) on various functional groups in environment, the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between tritium-labeled poly-(vinyl alcohol) and each aliphatic cyclic alcohol (or carboxylic acid) has been dynamically observed in the range of 50 to 90degC. Consequently, the activities of the aliphatic cyclic alcohol and carboxylic acid increased with increasing reaction time. Applying in A''-McKay plot method to the observed data, the rate constants (k) for these materials were obtained. Using the k, the relation between the number of carbon atoms in the ring in each alcohol and the reactivity of the alcohol was quantitatively compared. Then, to clarify the effect of relative atomic charge of O atom (connected with the H atom in the hydroxy (or carboxy) group in the material) on the reactivity of the material, the MOPAC method was used. From both the above-mentioned and the obtained previously, the following nine items were found as to aliphatic cyclic alcohols (and carboxylic acids) in the T-for-H exchange reaction. (1) The reactivity of aliphatic cyclic alcohols (and carboxylic acids) depends on the temperature. (2) The reactivity of the cyclic materials decreases with increasing number of carbon atoms in the ring. (3) The reactivity of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid seems to be smaller than that of aliphatic cyclic alcohol, and be larger than that of aliphatic cyclic amine. (4) For aliphatic cyclic alcohols, correlation exists between k and relative atomic charges of O atom obtained by the MOPAC method, but the tendency for aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid is not clear. (5) As to having the same number of carbon atoms in each ring, the reactivity of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid including the side chain is smaller than of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid including no side chain. (6) The reactivity of aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid is larger than that of

  4. Cyclic voltammetry and reduction mechanistic studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    styrylpyrylium perchlorates have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, in comparison to their non-methylated derivatives values. The reduction peak of all studied compounds remained chemically irreversible. The presence of the ...

  5. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime

  6. Introduction of a cyclic-fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, C P

    1958-01-01

    Equipment is described, consisting of 8 kettles, which permits a cyclic fermentation process and continuous ethanol production; 100% yields of ethanol are obtained, based on the starch content in grain.

  7. Results on Cyclic Signal Processing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidyanathan, P

    1998-01-01

    .... A number of related problems such as the paraunitary interpolation problem and the cyclic paraunitary factorizability problem can be understood in a unified way by using the realization matrix...

  8. Cyclical Variability of Prominences, CMEs and Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    For many years, qualitative studies were made about the cyclical ... plan to review the more recent research concerning all these topics. Key words. ... are distributed in three narrow zones, which show different types of time-latitude behaviour.

  9. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  10. Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-12

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 Nov 2015 – 12 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic... FLUORINATED CYCLIC MOIETIES 12 December 2015 Andrew J. Guenthner,1 Scott T. Iacono,2 Cynthia A. Corley,2 Christopher M. Sahagun,3 Kevin R. Lamison,4...Reinforcements Good Flame, Smoke, & Toxicity Characteristics Low Water Uptake with Near Zero Coefficient of Hygroscopic Expansion ∆ DISTRIBUTION A

  11. The Cyclicality of New Product Introductions

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas Axarloglou

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes empirically the cyclical nature of the timing of new product introductions in U.S. manufacturing. New product introductions vary more in nonseasonal frequencies than in seasonal frequencies. However, the seasons alone account for only a small part of their total variability with demand factors being much more important. Demand fluctuations account for 35%80% and 17%43%, respectively, of the seasonal and cyclical variability of new product introductions in various industrie...

  12. 3' : 5'-Cyclic AMP-dependent 3'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mato, José M.; Krens, Frans A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Konijn, Theo M.

    1977-01-01

    Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 × 10^8 cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 × 10-8 M final concentration) increased cGMP

  13. The calculation of dissipated work, elastoplastic cyclic stress and cyclic strain in a structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xucheng; Xie Yihuan.

    1986-01-01

    With the development of the reactor technique, there is being an increasing interest in the calculation of elastoplastic response of a structure to its complex loading. This paper introduces a constitutive relation of a material for discribing unloading property, and uses it in an analysis of a real structure under a cyclic loading. The results, which include cyclic stress, cyclic strain and dissipated work, are meaningful in the researches of the structure behavior under complex loading and of the structural safety

  14. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  15. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  16. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230....1230 Cyclic AMP test system. (a) Identification. A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended to measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body fluids...

  17. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  18. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  19. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  20. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  1. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  2. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  3. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  4. Synthesis of two tritium-labeled derivatives of a vasopressin antagonist peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvatter, S.W.; Heys, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    SK and F 101926, a potent vasopressin antagonist, has been tritium labeled in the tyrosine residue via exchange followed by solid phase coupling to a hexapeptide. The peptide thus obtained was subsequently coupled with a PMP residue, cleaved from the resin with HF, oxidized by ferricyanide and purified by HPLC giving the desired cyclic peptide. Alternatively, a labeled PMP residue can be prepared via reduction starting from phenol. Conversion of the labeled cyclohexanone to PMP followed by solid phase coupling to a heptapeptide can then afford PMP labeled peptide. 3 refs

  5. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  6. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  19. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states. (paper)

  20. On the equivalence of cyclic and quasi-cyclic codes over finite fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Guenda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the equivalence problem for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ and quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$. In particular, we generalize the results of Huffman, Job, and Pless (J. Combin. Theory. A, 62, 183--215, 1993, who considered the special case $p^2$. This is achieved by explicitly giving the permutations by which two cyclic codes of prime power length are equivalent. This allows us to obtain an algorithm which solves the problem of equivalency for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ in polynomial time. Further, we characterize the set by which two quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$ can be equivalent, and prove that the affine group is one of its subsets.

  1. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  2. HOST liner cyclic facilities: Facility description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz lamp box, a quartz lamp annular rig, and a low pressure liner cyclic can rig planned for liner cyclic tests are described. Special test instrumentation includes an IR-TV camera system for measuring liner cold side temperatures, thin film thermocouples for measuring liner hot side temperatures, and laser and high temperature strain gages for obtaining local strain measurements. A plate temperature of 2,000 F was obtained in an initial test of an apparatus with three quartz lamps. Lamp life, however, appeared to be limited for the standard commercial quartz lamps available. The design of vitiated and nonvitiated preheaters required for the quartz lamp annular rig and the cyclic can test rigs is underway.

  3. Cyclic cellular automata in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. → Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. → Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. → Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.

  4. Pointillist, Cyclical, and Overlapping: Multidimensional Facets of Time in Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Ihanainen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A linear, sequential time conception based on in-person meetings and pedagogical activities is not enough for those who practice and hope to enhance contemporary education, particularly where online interactions are concerned. In this article, we propose a new model for understanding time in pedagogical contexts. Conceptual parts of the model will be employed as a “cultural technology” to help us relate to evolving phenomena, both physical and virtual. We label these constructs as pointillist, cyclical, and overlapping times.Pointillist time and learning takes place in “dots” of actions that consist of small, discrete moments (e.g., tweeting. Producing, receiving, and sharing ideas in this context are separate points in each actor’s timeline. Cyclical time and learning emerges from intensive periods, which are highly visible in online forums. This construct reveals itself through interactions that often exist in multiple online environments. Overlapping time and learning involves various configurations of linear, pointillist, and cyclical layers, which are mainly evident through the simultaneous uses of social communication technologies.Pointillist, cyclical, and overlapping time constructs enable new orientations for conceptualizing time in pedagogy. In this article we also introduce de-, re-, and en- modes of these pedagogies that connect with approaches to meet the needs of learners for individualization, personalization, and cyborgization.

  5. Peptide ligands for targeting the extracellular domain of EGFR: Comparison between linear and cyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyrslai M; Sable, Rushikesh; Singh, Sitanshu; Vicente, Maria Graca H; Jois, Seetharama D

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common solid internal malignancy among cancers. Early detection of cancer is key to increasing the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients. Overexpression of the EGFR protein is associated with CRC. We have designed a series of peptides that are highly specific for the extracellular domain of EGFR, based on our earlier studies on linear peptides. The previously reported linear peptide LARLLT, known to bind to EGFR, was modified with the goals of increasing its stability and its specificity toward EGFR. Peptide modifications, including D-amino acid substitution, cyclization, and chain reversal, were investigated. In addition, to facilitate labeling of the peptide with a fluorescent dye, an additional lysine residue was introduced onto the linear (KLARLLT) and cyclic peptides cyclo(KLARLLT) (Cyclo.L1). The lysine residue was also converted into an azide group in both a linear and reversed cyclic peptide sequences cyclo(K(N3)larllt) (Cyclo.L1.1) to allow for subsequent "click" conjugation. The cyclic peptides showed enhanced binding to EGFR by SPR. NMR and molecular modeling studies suggest that the peptides acquire a β-turn structure in solution. In vitro stability studies in human serum show that the cyclic peptide is more stable than the linear peptide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Holographic entanglement entropy and cyclic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss a cyclic cosmology in which the visible universe, or introverse, is all that is accessible to an observer while the extroverse represents the total spacetime originating from the time when the dark energy began to dominate. It is argued that entanglement entropy of the introverse is the more appropriate quantity to render infinitely cyclic, rather than the entropy of the total universe. Since vanishing entanglement entropy implies disconnected spacetimes, at the turnaround when the introverse entropy is zero the disconnected extroverse can be jettisoned with impunity.

  7. Entire cyclic cohomology and modular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoytchev, O.Ts.

    1992-04-01

    We display a close relationship between C* and W*-dynamical systems with KMS states on them and entire cyclic cohomology theory. We construct a character form which assigns to each such system (A, α, R) an even entire cyclic cocycle of the subalgebra A of differentiable (with respect to the given automorphism group) elements of A. We argue that the most interesting case is the von Neumann algebra one, where the automorphism group is determined uniquely by the faithful normal state on the algebra (the modular group) and where the character may provide important information about the algebra. (author). 11 refs

  8. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).

  9. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.

  10. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose

  11. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  12. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  13. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  14. Hopf Algebroids and Their Cyclic Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to clarify concepts of generalised symmetries in noncommutative geometry (i.e., the noncommutative analogue of groupoids and Lie algebroids) and their associated (co)homologies. These ideas are incorporated by the notion of Hopf algebroids and Hopf-cyclic

  15. Cyclic viscoelastoplasticity of polypropylene/nanoclay composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, A.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported on isotactic polypropylene/organically modified nanoclay hybrids with concentrations of filler ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% in cyclic tensile tests with a stress–controlled program (oscillations between various maximum stresses and the zero minimum stress). A pronounced effe...

  16. Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...

  17. Inversion of General Cyclic Heptadiagonal Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karawia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a reliable symbolic computational algorithm for inverting general cyclic heptadiagonal matrices by using parallel computing along with recursion. The computational cost of it is operations. The algorithm is implementable to the Computer Algebra System (CAS such as MAPLE, MATLAB, and MATHEMATICA. Two examples are presented for the sake of illustration.

  18. Cyclic olefin copolymer-silica nanocomposites foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pegoretti, A.; Dorigato, A.; Biani, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2016), s. 3907-3916 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic olefin copolymer * nanocomposites * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  19. Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published ex...

  20. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  1. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  2. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  3. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and radiotoxicity of the conjugates 177Lu-DOTA-E-c(RGDfK)2 and 177Lu-DOTA-GGC-AuNP-c[RGDfk(C)] in a murine model and their relationship with the inhibition of the angiogenic factors VEGF and HIF-1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchis J, A.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular targeting therapy has become a relevant therapeutic strategy for cancer. The principle that peptide receptors can be used successfully for in vivo targeting of human cancers has been proven, and radiolabeled peptides have been demonstrated to be effective in patients with malignant tumors. Peptides based on the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence have been designed to antagonize the function of α(v)β(3) integrin, thereby inhibiting angio genesis. The conjugation of RGD peptides to radiolabeled gold nanoparticles (AuNP) produces biocompatible and stable m ultimeric systems with target-specific molecular recognition. The aim of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic response of 177 Lu-AuNP-RGD in athymic mice bearing α(v)β(3)-integrin-positive C6 gliomas and compare with that of 177 Lu-AuNP or 177 Lu-RGD. The radiation absorbed dose, metabolic activity (SUV, [18F]fluor-deoxy-glucose-micro PET/CT), renal radiotoxicity, renal and tumoral histological characteristics as well as tumoral VEGF and HIF-1? gene expression (by realtime polymerase chain reaction) following treatment with 177 Lu-AuNP-RGD, 177 Lu-AuNP or 177 Lu-RGD were assessed. Of the radiopharmaceuticals evaluated, 177 Lu-AuNP-RGD delivered the highest tumor radiation absorbed dose (63.8 ± 7.9 Gy) vs other treatments. These results correlated with the observed therapeutic response, in which 177 Lu-AuNP-RGD significantly (p 177 Lu). There was a low uptake in non-target organs and no induction of renal toxicity. 177 Lu-AuNP-RGD demonstrates properties suitable for use as an agent for molecular targeting radiotherapy. (Author)

  4. Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.; Dawe, Adam Sean; Berkowitz, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one- pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin

  5. Effects of hypokinesia on cyclic nucleotides and hormonal regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine - phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. Design: Laboratory based experiment. Setting: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, ...

  6. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646

  7. Cyclic inelastic deformation aspects of fatigue-crack-growth analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leis, B.N.; Zahoor, A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a J-integral analysis of fatigue crack growth. Data on cyclic plasticity are analyzed showing that there are limitations to the usefulness of the deformation theory in applications to cyclic plasticity. 56 refs.

  8. Compressed sensing with cyclic-S Hadamard matrix for terahertz imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermeydan, Esra Şengün; ćankaya, Ilyas

    2018-01-01

    Compressed Sensing (CS) with Cyclic-S Hadamard matrix is proposed for single pixel imaging applications in this study. In single pixel imaging scheme, N = r . c samples should be taken for r×c pixel image where . denotes multiplication. CS is a popular technique claiming that the sparse signals can be reconstructed with samples under Nyquist rate. Therefore to solve the slow data acquisition problem in Terahertz (THz) single pixel imaging, CS is a good candidate. However, changing mask for each measurement is a challenging problem since there is no commercial Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) for THz band yet, therefore circular masks are suggested so that for each measurement one or two column shifting will be enough to change the mask. The CS masks are designed using cyclic-S matrices based on Hadamard transform for 9 × 7 and 15 × 17 pixel images within the framework of this study. The %50 compressed images are reconstructed using total variation based TVAL3 algorithm. Matlab simulations demonstrates that cyclic-S matrices can be used for single pixel imaging based on CS. The circular masks have the advantage to reduce the mechanical SLMs to a single sliding strip, whereas the CS helps to reduce acquisition time and energy since it allows to reconstruct the image from fewer samples.

  9. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  10. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  11. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  12. Cyclic diguanylic acid and cellulose synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amikam, D.; Benziman, M.

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of the novel regulatory nucleotide bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and its relation to cellulose biogenesis in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens was studied. c-di-GMP was detected in acid extracts of 32 P-labeled cells grown in various media, and an enzyme responsible for its formation from GTP was found to be present in cell-free preparations. Cellulose synthesis in vivo was quantitatively assessed with [ 14 C]glucose as a tracer. The organism produced cellulose during growth in the absence of plant cells, and this capacity was retained in resting cells. Synthesis of a cellulosic product from UDP-glucose in vitro with membrane preparations was markedly stimulated by c-di-GMP and its precursor GTP and was further enhanced by Ca2+. The calcium effect was attributed to inhibition of a c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme shown to be present in the cellulose synthase-containing membranes

  13. Cyclic-2,3-diphosphoglycerate cycle in methanogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrney, D.E.; Harper, S.H.; Krueger, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new and unprecedented model for P/sub i/ translocation into Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum is proposed. It is based on an analysis of the rates of P/sub i/ uptake and concomitant flux through the cyclic-2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG) pool in the presence of cyanide. CN - completely blocks flow of carbon into cellular constituents, but methanogenesis continues at about 70%, indicating considerable energy flow. P/sub i/ uptake continued at 20% of control for 30 min or longer, resulting in an expansion of the intracellular P/sub i/ pool. During this period the flux of phosphate through the cDPG pool remained equal to the rate of P/sub i/ entry. The distribution of 32 P in cDPG showed that the C-2 phosphoryl group was labeled preferentially, indicating that this phosphoryl group has a half-life under 10 min in the presence of CN - . Since CN - completely blocks CO 2 fixation but does not interfere with cDPG turnover, cDPG is neither a biosynthetic intermediate nor a phosphate storage compound. Earlier they had demonstrated that this methanogen can transport P/sub i/ against a million-fold concentration gradient via a H 2 -driven transport system having a K/sub m/ of 25 nM. The evidence that cDPG may play a role in this transport mechanism seems compelling, but further studies are needed

  14. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  15. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  16. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  19. Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schinner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure.

  20. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  1. Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2010-01-01

    Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...

  2. Generalized Toeplitz operators and cyclic vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassier, G.; Mahzouli, H.; Zerouali, E.H.

    2003-04-01

    We give in this paper some asymptotic Von Neumann inequalities for power bounded operators in the class C ρ intersection C 1 . and some spacial von Neumann inequalities associated with non zero elements of the point spectrum, when it is non void, of generalized Toeplitz operators. Introducing perturbed kernel, we consider classes C R which extend the classical classes C ρ . We give results about absolute continuity with respect to the Haar measure for operators in class C R intersection C 1 . This allows us to give new results on cyclic vectors for such operators and provides invariant subspaces for their powers. Relationships between cyclic vectors for T and T* involving generalized Toeplitz operators are given and the commutativity of {T}', the commutant of T is discussed. (author)

  3. Cosmic evolution in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Based on concepts drawn from the ekpyrotic scenario and M theory, we elaborate our recent proposal of a cyclic model of the universe. In this model, the universe undergoes an endless sequence of cosmic epochs which begin with the universe expanding from a 'big bang' and end with the universe contracting to a 'big crunch'. Matching from 'big crunch' to 'big bang' is performed according to the prescription recently proposed with Khoury, Ovrut and Seiberg. The expansion part of the cycle includes a period of radiation and matter domination followed by an extended period of cosmic acceleration at low energies. The cosmic acceleration is crucial in establishing the flat and vacuous initial conditions required for ekpyrosis and for removing the entropy, black holes, and other debris produced in the preceding cycle. By restoring the universe to the same vacuum state before each big crunch, the acceleration ensures that the cycle can repeat and that the cyclic solution is an attractor

  4. Separation of isotopes by cyclical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrin, C.E. Jr.; Weaver, K.

    1976-01-01

    Various isotopes of hydrogen are separated by a cyclic sorption process in which a gas stream containing the isotopes is periodically passed through a high pressure column containing a palladium sorbent. A portion of the product from the high pressure column is passed through a second column at lower pressure to act as a purge. Before the sorbent in the high pressure column becomes saturated, the sequence is reversed with the stream flowing through the former low-pressure column now at high pressure, and a portion of the product purging the former high pressure column now at low pressure. The sequence is continued in cyclic manner with the product being enriched in a particular isotope

  5. Soil Fatigue Due To Cyclically Loaded Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loading on civil structures can lead to a reduction of strength of the used materials. A literature study showed that, in contrast to steel structures and material engineering, there are no design codes or standards for fatigue of foundations and the surrounding ground masses in terms of shear strength reduction. Scientific efforts to study the fatigue behaviour of geomaterials are mainly focused on strain accumulation, while the reduction of shear strength of geomaterials has not been...

  6. Reaction of cyclic epoxide compounds with triphenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kas'yan, L.I.; Stepanova, N.V.; Galafeeva, M.F.; Boldeskul, I.E.; Trachevskii, V.V.; Zefirov, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    Significant differences were found in the reactivity of a series of epoxides of cycloalkenes and methylenecycloalkanes and diepoxides in reaction with triphenylphosphine, depending both on the steric effects of the cyclic fragments and on their strain. The level of the strain can be judged indirectly from the chemical shifts of the 1 H and 13 C nuclei and the spin-spin coupling constants of the C-H bonds in the epoxide ring

  7. Human skin kinetics of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; ROCHE, NATHALIE; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are an emerging group of naturally occurring bioactive peptides, some of which are already developed as pharmaceutical drugs, e.g. valinomycin. They are produced by bacteria, marine organisms and fungi [1]. Some CDPs are secondary fungal metabolites, which can be very toxic to humans and animals, and are therefore called mycotoxins. Currently, dermal exposure data of CDP mycotoxins is scarce and fragmentary with a lack of understanding about the local skin and syst...

  8. Modelling of cyclical stratigraphy using Markov chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulatilake, P.H.S.W.

    1987-07-01

    State-of-the-art on modelling of cyclical stratigraphy using first-order Markov chains is reviewed. Shortcomings of the presently available procedures are identified. A procedure which eliminates all the identified shortcomings is presented. Required statistical tests to perform this modelling are given in detail. An example (the Oficina formation in eastern Venezuela) is given to illustrate the presented procedure. 12 refs., 3 tabs. 1 fig.

  9. Markup cyclicality, employment adjustment, and financial constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Askildsen, Jan Erik; Nilsen, Øivind Anti

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the existence of markups and their cyclical behaviour. Markup is not directly observed. Instead, it is given as a price-cost relation that is estimated from a dynamic model of the firm. The model incorporates potential costly employment adjustments and takes into consideration that firms may be financially constrained. When considering size of the future labour stock, financially constrained firms may behave as if they have a higher discount factor, which may affect the realise...

  10. Characterization of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mindy; Liu, Mingtao; Struble, Elaine; Hettiarachchi, Kanthi

    2015-01-01

    Unlike linear peptides, analysis of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds is not straightforward and demands indirect methods to achieve a rigorous proof of structure. Three peptides that belong to this category, p-Cl-Phe-DPDPE, DPDPE, and CTOP, were analyzed and the results are presented in this paper. The great potential of two dimensional NMR and ESI tandem mass spectrometry was harnessed during the course of peptide characterizations. A new RP-HPLC method for the analysis of trifluor...

  11. Visual search of cyclic spatio-temporal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Jacques; Davoine, Paule-Annick; Cunty, Claire

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of spatio-temporal events, and especially of relationships between their different dimensions (space-time-thematic attributes), can be done with geovisualization interfaces. But few geovisualization tools integrate the cyclic dimension of spatio-temporal event series (natural events or social events). Time Coil and Time Wave diagrams represent both the linear time and the cyclic time. By introducing a cyclic temporal scale, these diagrams may highlight the cyclic characteristics of spatio-temporal events. However, the settable cyclic temporal scales are limited to usual durations like days or months. Because of that, these diagrams cannot be used to visualize cyclic events, which reappear with an unusual period, and don't allow to make a visual search of cyclic events. Also, they don't give the possibility to identify the relationships between the cyclic behavior of the events and their spatial features, and more especially to identify localised cyclic events. The lack of possibilities to represent the cyclic time, outside of the temporal diagram of multi-view geovisualization interfaces, limits the analysis of relationships between the cyclic reappearance of events and their other dimensions. In this paper, we propose a method and a geovisualization tool, based on the extension of Time Coil and Time Wave, to provide a visual search of cyclic events, by allowing to set any possible duration to the diagram's cyclic temporal scale. We also propose a symbology approach to push the representation of the cyclic time into the map, in order to improve the analysis of relationships between space and the cyclic behavior of events.

  12. Cyclic dominance in evolutionary games: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Rock is wrapped by paper, paper is cut by scissors and scissors are crushed by rock. This simple game is popular among children and adults to decide on trivial disputes that have no obvious winner, but cyclic dominance is also at the heart of predator–prey interactions, the mating strategy of side-blotched lizards, the overgrowth of marine sessile organisms and competition in microbial populations. Cyclical interactions also emerge spontaneously in evolutionary games entailing volunteering, reward, punishment, and in fact are common when the competing strategies are three or more, regardless of the particularities of the game. Here, we review recent advances on the rock–paper–scissors (RPS) and related evolutionary games, focusing, in particular, on pattern formation, the impact of mobility and the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance. We also review mean-field and zero-dimensional RPS models and the application of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, and we highlight the importance and usefulness of statistical physics for the successful study of large-scale ecological systems. Directions for future research, related, for example, to dynamical effects of coevolutionary rules and invasion reversals owing to multi-point interactions, are also outlined. PMID:25232048

  13. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M. [Departamento de Física - CCE,Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, 29075-900, Vitoria ES (Brazil)

    2016-11-16

    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  14. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  15. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  16. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  17. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  18. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  19. Statistical damage constitutive model for rocks subjected to cyclic stress and cyclic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu

    2017-10-01

    A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress-temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress-strain curve for rock reloading after stress-temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress-temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress-temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress-strain relationship during stress-temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress-strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.

  20. Virtual screening using combinatorial cyclic peptide libraries reveals protein interfaces readily targetable by cyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Fergal J; O'Donovan, Darragh; Devocelle, Marc; Moran, Niamh; O'Connell, David J; Shields, Denis C

    2015-03-23

    Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. What is required are efficient combined computational and experimental screening methods to choose among a number of potential protein interfaces worthy of targeting lead macrocyclic compounds for further investigation. To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. We prepared a total of 372 reference pharmacophores, which were matched against 108,659 multiconformer cyclic peptides. After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. The top cyclic peptide hits also cover the critical "hot spot" interaction sites predicted from the interaction crystal structure. We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. We conclude that protein interfaces most readily targetable by cyclic peptides and related macrocyclic drugs may be identified computationally among a set of candidate interfaces, accelerating the choice of interfaces against which lead compounds may be screened.

  1. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  2. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  3. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  4. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  5. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  6. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  7. Nitration Study of Cyclic Ladder Polyphenylsilsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Jia-xiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several nitration reagents including fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4, KNO3-H2SO4, HNO3-KNO3, CH3COOH-KNO3, (CH3CO2O-HNO3 were used to nitrate cyclic ladder polyphenylsilsesquioxane (CL-PPSQ in different conditions in order to enhance the compatibility of the CL-PPSQ in polymers, the NO2-PPSQ was obtained. FTIR, element analysis, GPC, TGA and 1H NMR were used to characterize the structures of the nitrated products. The results show that the nitrating abilities of the fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4 and KNO3-H2SO4 are very strong. Many nitro groups can be linked with phenyl groups in CL-PPSQ, but with low molecular mass, fracture occurs in siloxane segment. However, the Mn of the product NO2-PPSQ sharply drops by 50% compared with that of CL-PPSQ, so the nitration reagents can break the cyclic structure of CL-PPSQ. The nitrating reagents of HNO3-KNO3 and CH3COOH-KNO3 have no nitration effects on CL-PPSQ. At last, NO2-CL-PPSQ was prepared using (CH3CO2O-HNO3 because of the moderate nitration process and ability. The cyclic structure of PPSQ is remained, although the number of —NO2 group is not too much. At the same time, the nitration mechanism using different nitration reagents was analyzed. A certain amount of NO2+, which is a kind of activator owning strong nitration ability, can be found in the fuming nitric acid and H2SO4-HNO3(KNO3 systems. As to the (CH3CO2O-HNO3 system, the main activator is CH3COONO2.

  8. Cosmological D-instantons and cyclic universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E A; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, J G; Townsend, P K

    2005-01-01

    For models of gravity coupled to hyperbolic sigma models, such as the metric-scalar sector of IIB supergravity, we show how smooth trajectories in the 'augmented target space' connect FLRW cosmologies to non-extremal D-instantons through a cosmological singularity. In particular, we find closed cyclic universes that undergo an endless sequence of big-bang to big-crunch cycles separated by instanton 'phases'. We also find 'big-bounce' universes in which a collapsing closed universe bounces off its cosmological singularity to become an open expanding universe

  9. Increase of cyclic durability of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, V.A.; Zvezdin, Yu.I.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of multilayer pressure vessels under cyclic loading is compared with single-layer vessels. The relative conditional durability is calculated taking into account the assumption on the consequent destruction of layers and viewing a vessel wall as an indefinite plate. It is established that the durability is mainly determined by the number of layers and to a lesser degree depends on the relative size of the defect for the given layer thickness. The advantage of the multilayer vessels is the possibility of selecting layer materials so that to exclude the effect of agressive corrosion media on the strength [ru

  10. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  11. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  12. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  13. Turnover of cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Phosphate flux in P1- and H2-limited chemostat cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R D; Campbell, J W; Fahrney, D E

    1986-09-15

    The archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was grown at 65 degrees C in H2- and Pi-limited chemostat cultures at dilution rates corresponding to 3- and 4-h doubling times, respectively. Under these conditions the steady state concentration of cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was 44 mM in the H2-limited cells and 13 mM in the cells grown under Pi limitation. Flux of Pi into the cyclic pyrophosphate pool was estimated by two 32P-labeling procedures: approach to isotopic equilibrium and replacement of prelabeled cyclic diphosphoglycerate with unlabeled compound. The results unequivocally demonstrate turnover of the phosphoryl groups; either both phosphoryl groups of the cyclic pyrophosphate leave together or the second leaves at a faster rate. The half-life of the rate-determining step for loss of the phosphoryl groups was approximately equal to the culture doubling time. The Pi flowing into the cyclic diphosphoglycerate pool accounted for 19% of the total Pi flux into Pi-limited cells and 43% of the total for H2-limited cells. The high phosphate flux through the large cyclic diphosphoglycerate pool suggests that this molecule plays an important role in the phosphorus metabolism of this methanogen.

  14. Gold prices: Analyzing its cyclical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Gutiérrez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is a commodity that is seen as a safe haven when a financial crisis strikes, but when stock markets are prosperous, these are more attractive investment alternatives, and so the gold cycle goes on and on. The DJIA/GF (Dow Jones Industrial Average and Gold Fix ratio is chosen to establish the evolution of gold prices in relation to the NYSE. This paper has two goals: to prove that the DJIA/GF ratio is strongly cyclical by using Fourier analysis and to set a predictive neural networks model to forecast the behavior of this ratio during 2011-2020. To this end, business cycle events like the Great Depression along with the 1970s crisis, and the 1950s boom along with the world economic recovery of the 1990s are contrasted in light of the mentioned ratio. Gold prices are found to evolve cyclically with a dominant period of 37 years and are mainly affected by energy prices, financial markets and macroeconomic indicators.

  15. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  16. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  17. Synthesis of Cyclic Py-Im Polyamide Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Benjamin C.; Montgomery, David C.; Puckett, James W.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic Py-Im polyamides containing two GABA turn units exhibit enhanced DNA binding affinity, but extensive studies of their biological properties have been hindered due to synthetic inaccessibility. A facile modular approach toward cyclic polyamides has been developed via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of hairpin amino acid oligomer intermediates followed by macrocyclization. A focused library of cyclic polyamides 1–7 targeted to the androgen response element (ARE) and the estrogen...

  18. Characterization of cyclical phases in the manufacturing industry in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Mercè; Torres, Teresa; Farré, Mariona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industry in Spain and detect which industries have more influence on the Spanish business cycle. We assume that economic growth is a priority; we are going to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according this priority. We analyze if the industries with better cyclical behavior are the ones that achieve greater co-movement with the business cycle of the Spanish...

  19. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  20. Caffeine, cyclic AMP and postreplication repair of mammalian DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, U.K.

    1976-01-01

    The methylxanthines, caffeine and theophylline, inhibit postreplication repair of DNA in mammalian cells. Because they also inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, it was thought that there might be some connection between concentrations of cyclic AMP and postreplication repair. This possibility was tested by performing DNA sedimentation experiments with a cyclic AMP-resistant mouse lymphoma cell mutant and its wild-type counterpart. The results show that there is no connection between cellular cyclic AMP concentrations and the rate of postreplication repair. Therefore, it is more likely that caffeine and theophylline inhibit postreplication repair by some other means, such as by binding to DNA

  1. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  2. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  3. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  4. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  5. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and counter-cyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus, and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus offers new insights into two business cycle features...

  6. Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs

  7. Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Thermodynamic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is on numerical simulation of cyclic thermodynamic processes. A modelling approach and a method for finding periodic steady state solutions are described. Examples of applications are given in the form of four research papers. Stirling machines and pulse tube coolers are introduced...... and a brief overview of the current state of the art in methods for simulating such machines is presented. It was found that different simulation approaches, which model the machines with different levels of detail, currently coexist. Methods using many simplifications can be easy to use and can provide...... models flexible and easy to modify, and to make simulations fast. A high level of accuracy was achieved for integrations of a model created using the modelling approach; the accuracy depended on the settings for the numerical solvers in a very predictable way. Selection of fast numerical algorithms...

  8. Temperature rise of cyclicly loaded power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakelmann, H

    1984-09-01

    A calculation method for the current ratings of cyclicly loaded power cables is introduced, taking into account optional shapes of the load cycle as well as the drying-out of the soil. The method is based on the Fourier-analysis of the loss cycle, representing an extension of the calculation method of VDE 0298. It is shown, that the ''VDE-method'' gives good results for the thermal resistances, if an ''utility load cycle'' in accordance with VDE 0298 is supposed. Only for cycles deviating essentially from the utility load cycle, the thermal resistances calculated by the ''VDE-method'' may be too great. In these cases the represented method is advantageous and can be processed by the aid of microcomputers.

  9. The cyclic universe: An informal introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaxdt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2003-01-01

    The Cyclic Model is a radical, new cosmological scenario which proposes that the Universe undergoes an endless sequence of epochs which begin with a 'big bang' and end in a 'big crunch.' When the Universes bounces from contraction to re-expansion, the temperature and density remain finite. The model does not include a period of rapid inflation, yet it reproduces all of the successful predictions of standard big bang and inflationary cosmology. We point out numerous novel elements that have not been used previously which may open the door to further alternative cosmologies. Although the model is motivated by M-theory, branes and extra dimensions, here we show that the scenario can be described almost entirely in terms of conventional 4d field theory and 4d cosmology

  10. Janus cyclic peptide-polymer nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, Maarten; My-Nhi Tran, Carmen; Young, Philip G.; Perrier, Sébastien; Jolliffe, Katrina A.

    2013-11-01

    Self-assembled nanotubular structures have numerous potential applications but these are limited by a lack of control over size and functionality. Controlling these features at the molecular level may allow realization of the potential of such structures. Here we report a new generation of self-assembled cyclic peptide-polymer nanotubes with dual functionality in the form of either a Janus or mixed polymeric corona. A ‘relay’ synthetic strategy is used to prepare nanotubes with a demixing or mixing polymeric corona. Nanotube structure is assessed in solution using 1H-1H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR, and in bulk using differential scanning calorimetry. The Janus nanotubes form artificial pores in model phospholipid bilayers. These molecules provide a viable pathway for the development of intriguing nanotubular structures with dual functionality via a demixing or a mixing polymeric corona and may provide new avenues for the creation of synthetic transmembrane protein channel mimics.

  11. Magnetoelastic Demagnetization of Steel under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, K. R.; Novikov, V. F.; Neradovskii, D. F.; Kazakov, R. Kh.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetoelastic demagnetization of steel samples under cyclic tensile loads has been analyzed. It has been established that values of residual magnetization that correspond to peak loads are characterized by the power-law dependence on the number of loading cycles. In some cases, in the region of high loads, the qualitative transition to exponential dependence has been observed. Coefficients of the power-law approximation of peak magnetization depend on the value of amplitude load and have specific characteristics in the vicinity of characteristic loads. The ratios of approximated slide load coefficients depending on the load are common for the three considered samples, and there is an outburst in the vicinity of the fatigue limit, which can be used as the basis for developing the rapid nondestructive method for determination of this limit.

  12. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies and coupling reagents to cell membrane proteins for leukocyte labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Gagne, G.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Current gamma-emitting agents for tagging leukocytes, In-111 oxine or tropolone, label all cell types indiscriminantly, and nuclear localization in lymphocytes results in radiation damage. Coupling reagents and murine monoclonal antibodies (Mab) specific for cell surface antigens of human leukocytes were tried as cell labeling agents to avoid nuclear localization. 10/sup 8/ mixed human leukocytes in Hepes buffer were added to tubes coated with 5 mg of dry cyclic dianhydride of DTPA for 15 minutes at room temperature. After washing, 0.1 ml of In-111 Cl in ACD (pH 6.8) was added. After 30 minutes, a cell labeling yield of 23% was obtained. Washing the cells in an elutriation centrifuge showed that this label was irreversible. Mab for cell surface antigens of human granulocytes were labeled with 300 μCi of I-125 using the Iodobead technic and unbound activity was removed by gel column chromatography. 1-10 μg were added to 10/sup 8/ mixed leukocytes in 0.5 ml plasma or saline for 1 hr. With Mab anti-leu M4 (clone G7 E11), an IgM, the cell labeling yield was 21%, irreversible, and specific for granulocytes. With anti-human leukocyte Mab NEI-042 (clone 9.4), and IgG2a, and anti-granulocyte Mab MAS-065 (clone FMCl1) an IgG1, the cell labeling was relatively unstable. Labeling of leukocyte subpopulations with Mab is feasible, and the binding of multivalent IgM is stronger than that of other immunoglobulins. DTPA cyclic anhydride is firmly bound to cell membranes, but the labeling is non-specific

  14. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  15. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  16. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  17. FRET-based binding assay between a fluorescent cAMP analogue and a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain tagged with a CFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Francisco; Santana-Calvo, Carmen; Sánchez-Guevara, Yoloxochitl; Nishigaki, Takuya

    2017-09-01

    The cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) functions as a regulatory domain of many proteins involved in cyclic nucleotide signalling. We developed a straightforward and reliable binding assay based on intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between an adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate analogue labelled with fluorescein and a recombinant CNBD of human EPAC1 tagged with a cyan fluorescence protein (CFP). The high FRET efficiency of this method (~ 80%) allowed us to perform several types of binding experiments with nanomolar range of sample using conventional equipment. In addition, the CFP tag on the CNBD enabled us to perform a specific binding experiment using an unpurified protein. Considering these advantages, this technique is useful to study poorly characterized CNBDs. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  19. Supplementary Material for: The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara; Meier, Stuart; Gehring, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  20. Infinity-Norm Permutation Covering Codes from Cyclic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Karni, Ronen; Schwartz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    We study covering codes of permutations with the $\\ell_\\infty$-metric. We provide a general code construction, which uses smaller building-block codes. We study cyclic transitive groups as building blocks, determining their exact covering radius, and showing linear-time algorithms for finding a covering codeword. We also bound the covering radius of relabeled cyclic transitive groups under conjugation.

  1. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  2. A Practical Beginner's Guide to Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgrishi, Noémie; Rountree, Kelley J.; McCarthy, Brian D.; Rountree, Eric S.; Eisenhart, Thomas T.; Dempsey, Jillian L.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of cyclic voltammetry, many students do not receive formalized training in this technique as part of their coursework. Confronted with self-instruction, students can be left wondering where to start. Here, a short introduction to cyclic voltammetry is provided to help the reader with data acquisition and…

  3. Cyclic deformation of zircaloy-4 at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armas, A. F; Herenu, S; Bolmaro, R; Alvarez-Armas, I

    2003-01-01

    Annealed materials hardens under low cyclic fatigue tests.However, FCC metals tested with medium strain amplitudes show an initial cyclic softening.That behaviour is related with the strong interstitial atom-dislocation interactions.For HCP materials the information is scarce.Commercial purity Zirconium and Zircaloy-4 alloys show also a pronounced cyclic softening, similar to Titanium alloys.Recently the rotation texture induced softening model has been proposed according to which the crystals are placed in a more favourable deformation orientation by prismatic slip due to the cyclic strain.The purpose of the current paper is the presentation of decisive results to discuss the causes for cyclic softening of Zircaloy-4. Low cycle fatigue tests were performed on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 samples.The cyclic behaviour shows an exponential softening at room temperature independently of the deformation range.Only at high temperature a cyclic hardening is shown at low number of cycles.Friction stresses, related with dislocation movement itself, and back stresses, related with dislocation pile-ups can be calculated from the stress-strain loops.The cyclic softening is due to diminishing friction stress while the starting hardening behaviour is due to increasing back stresses.The rotation texture induced softening model is ruled out assuming instead a model based on dislocation unlocking from interstitial oxygen solute atoms

  4. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen

    2015-01-01

    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  5. Cyclic Matching Pursuits with Multiscale Time-frequency Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize cyclic matching pursuit (CMP), propose an orthogonal variant, and examine their performance using multiscale time-frequency dictionaries in the sparse approximation of signals. Overall, we find that the cyclic approach of CMP produces signal models that have a much lower approximation...

  6. Cyclic complex loading of 316 stainless steel: Experiments and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, B.; Hourlier, F.; Dang Van, K.; Stolz, C.

    1981-01-01

    To test the ability of cyclic constitutive law established by mean of uniaxial test a benchmark is proposed. The calculated results using the model of Chaboche-Cordier-Dang Van are compared with experimental data obtained on cylindrical specimens undergoing simultaneously constant torque and cyclic tension. (orig.)

  7. Charge initiation schemes for ensuring high-performance operation of cyclic-flow technology cyclic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Zharikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the issue of ensuring the quality of crushing rock mass by drilling and blasting method for high productivity of a cyclic link of a cyclic-flow technology complex. The article contains recommendations for calculating certain parameters of drilling and blasting operations, such as the width of the retaining wall Bp. s, the collapse with account for the retaining wall Вr, the width of the collapse of the rock mass Bf when blasting onto a free surface (for the first row of vertical wells and for the first series of inclined wells, the width of the collapse from the first series of wells B1, the deceleration time τ, the coefficient kβ that takes into account the incline angle of wells β to the horizon. The authors prove the expediency of using a retaining wall in explosions of technological blocks. The authors raise the question about the management of detonation characteristics of explosives produced in the field of application for the most rational impact of an explosion on a rock massif. Since the technological schemes for preparing the rock mass to the excavation, which ensure the high-performance operation of the cyclic link of the cyclic-flow technology, can be different, then the choice of a specific drilling and blasting circuit is depends on the geological conditions and elements of the development system. As a preliminary method of breaking, one can consider the explosion of charges along the diagonal (diagonal blasting schemes on the retaining wall. This method provides sufficient reliability of technological explosions, and with the development of modern means of blasting with decelerations between charges of more than 67 ms, there are nearly no back emissions.

  8. History-independent cyclic response of nanotwinned metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingsong; Zhou, Haofei; Lu, Qiuhong; Gao, Huajian; Lu, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Nearly 90 per cent of service failures of metallic components and structures are caused by fatigue at cyclic stress amplitudes much lower than the tensile strength of the materials involved. Metals typically suffer from large amounts of cumulative, irreversible damage to microstructure during cyclic deformation, leading to cyclic responses that are unstable (hardening or softening) and history-dependent. Existing rules for fatigue life prediction, such as the linear cumulative damage rule, cannot account for the effect of loading history, and engineering components are often loaded by complex cyclic stresses with variable amplitudes, mean values and frequencies, such as aircraft wings in turbulent air. It is therefore usually extremely challenging to predict cyclic behaviour and fatigue life under a realistic load spectrum. Here, through both atomistic simulations and variable-strain-amplitude cyclic loading experiments at stress amplitudes lower than the tensile strength of the metal, we report a history-independent and stable cyclic response in bulk copper samples that contain highly oriented nanoscale twins. We demonstrate that this unusual cyclic behaviour is governed by a type of correlated ‘necklace’ dislocation consisting of multiple short component dislocations in adjacent twins, connected like the links of a necklace. Such dislocations are formed in the highly oriented nanotwinned structure under cyclic loading and help to maintain the stability of twin boundaries and the reversible damage, provided that the nanotwins are tilted within about 15 degrees of the loading axis. This cyclic deformation mechanism is distinct from the conventional strain localizing mechanisms associated with irreversible microstructural damage in single-crystal, coarse-grained, ultrafine-grained and nanograined metals.

  9. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  10. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  11. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  12. Synthesis of [sup 13]C warfarin labelled at the hemiketal carbon, and its resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savell, V.H. Jr.; Valente, E.J. (Mississippi College, Clinton. MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Eggleston, D.S. (Smith, Kline and French Labs., King of Prussia, PA (United States). Physical and Structural Chemistry)

    1989-06-01

    Warfarin (cyclic hemiketal form: 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c][1]benz opyran-5-one) is labeled with 98+% [sup 13]C at the anomeric carbon (C2) and resolved into its enantiomers. Acetone-2-[sup 13]C(98.6%) condenses with benzaldehyde in aqueous base to produce 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one-2-[sup 13]C(98+%). Michael-type addition of this to 4-hydroxycoumarin in methanol produces the labeled diastereomeric warfarin methyl ketals which on deprotection form racemic warfarin-2-[sup 13]C(98+%). Classical resolution of labeled warfarin with quinidine produces partly resolved (S)-(-)-warfarin-2-[sup 13]C(98+%). Labeled warfarin is a suitable probe for warfarin configuration for which three distinct isomeric forms are known. (Author).

  13. Synthesis of 13C warfarin labelled at the hemiketal carbon, and its resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savell, V.H. Jr.; Valente, E.J.; Eggleston, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Warfarin (cyclic hemiketal form: 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c][1]benz opyran-5-one) is labeled with 98+% 13 C at the anomeric carbon (C2) and resolved into its enantiomers. Acetone-2- 13 C(98.6%) condenses with benzaldehyde in aqueous base to produce 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one-2- 13 C(98+%). Michael-type addition of this to 4-hydroxycoumarin in methanol produces the labeled diastereomeric warfarin methyl ketals which on deprotection form racemic warfarin-2- 13 C(98+%). Classical resolution of labeled warfarin with quinidine produces partly resolved (S)-(-)-warfarin-2- 13 C(98+%). Labeled warfarin is a suitable probe for warfarin configuration for which three distinct isomeric forms are known. (Author)

  14. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  15. Synthesis of deuterium labelled metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimark, L.D.; Toon, S.; Low, L.K.; Swinney, D.C.; Trager, W.F.

    1986-02-01

    The synthesis of deuterium labelled 4'-,6-,7- and 8-hydroxy metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon is described. The pentadeuterio labelled 6-,7- and 8-hydroxyphenprocoumons were prepared via alkylation of the respective 6-, 7- and 8-methoxy-4-hydroxycoumarins with 1-(phenyl-d/sub 5/)-1-bromopropane and subsequent cleavage of the methyl protecting group with boron tribromide. The synthesis of 1-(pentadeuteriophenyl)-1-bromopropane and the 6-, 7-and 8-methoxy-4-hydroxycoumarins are also presented. The pentadeuterio labelled 6-, 7- and 8-hydroxywarfarins were obtained by reaction of 4-(phenyl-d/sub 5/)-3-buten-2-one with the respective 6-, 7- and 8-hydroxy-4-hydroxycoumarins in methanol followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate cyclic methyl ketals in aqueous acid. 4-Hydroxycoumarin-5,6,7,8-d/sub 4/, prepared from phenyl-d/sub 6/ and tetradeuteriomalonic acid, was reacted with 1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one to yield labelled 4'-hydroxyphenprocoumon and 4'-hydroxywarfarin respectively.

  16. The synthesis of deuterium labelled metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimark, L.D.; Toon, S.; Low, L.K.; Swinney, D.C.; Trager, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of deuterium labelled 4'-,6-,7- and 8-hydroxy metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon is described. The pentadeuterio labelled 6-,7- and 8-hydroxyphenprocoumons were prepared via alkylation of the respective 6-, 7- and 8-methoxy-4-hydroxycoumarins with 1-(phenyl-d 5 )-1-bromopropane and subsequent cleavage of the methyl protecting group with boron tribromide. The synthesis of 1-(pentadeuteriophenyl)-1-bromopropane and the 6-, 7- and 8-methoxy-4-hydroxycoumarins are also presented. The pentadeuterio labelled 6-, 7- and 8-hydroxywarfarins were obtained by reaction of 4-(phenyl-d 5 )-3-buten-2-one with the respective 6-, 7- and 8-hydroxy-4-hydroxycoumarins in methanol followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate cyclic methyl ketals in aqueous acid. 4-Hydroxycoumarin-5,6,7,8-d 4 , prepared from phenyl-d 6 and tetradeuteriomalonic acid, was reacted with 1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one to yield labelled 4'-hydroxyphenprocoumon and 4'-hydroxywarfarin respectively. (author)

  17. Cyclic deformation of Nb single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiu, F.; Anglada, M.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature and strain-rate dependence of the cyclic flow stress of Nb single crystals with two different axial orientations has been studied at temperatures between 175 and 350 K. This dependence is found to be independent of the crystal orientation when the internal stresses are taken into account, and the results are discussed in terms of the theory of thermally activated dislocation glide. A transition temperature can be identified at about 250 K which separates two regions with different thermally activated deformation behaviour. Above this transition temperature the strain rate can be described by a stress power law, and the activation energy can be represented by a logarithmic function of the stress, as in Escaig's model of screw dislocation mobility. In the temperature range 170 to 250 K the results are also in agreement with the more recent model proposed by Seeger. The large experimental errors inherent in the values of activation enthalpy at low stresses are emphasized and taken into account in the discussion of the results. It is suggested that either impurity-kink interactions or the flexibility of the screw dislocations are responsible for the trend towards the high values of activation enthalpy measured at the low stresses. (author)

  18. Discrete radioisotopic relays of a cyclic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klempner, K.S.; Vasil'ev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A functional diagram of discrete radioisotopic relay equipment (RRP) with cyclic action was examined. An analysis of its rapid action and reliability under stationary conditions and transition regimes is presented. A structural diagram of radioisotopic relay equipment shows three radiation detectors, a pulse standardizer, an integrator and a power amplifier with a threshold cut-off device. It was established that the basic properties of the RRP - rapid action and reliability - are determined entirely by the counting rate of the average frequency of pulses from the radiation detector, n 0 and n 1 , in the 0 and 1 states (absence of current in the electromagnetic relay winding and activation of the winding of the output relay), capacities N 1 and N 2 of the dual counters, and the frequency of the transition threshold, f, of the generator. Formulas are presented which allow making engineering calculations for determining the optimum RRP parameters. High speed and reliability are shown, which are determined by the production purposes of the relay

  19. Interuniversal entanglement in a cyclic multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador; Balcerzak, Adam; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Krämer, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    We study scenarios of parallel cyclic multiverses which allow for a different evolution of the physical constants, while having the same geometry. These universes are classically disconnected, but quantum-mechanically entangled. Applying the thermodynamics of entanglement, we calculate the temperature and the entropy of entanglement. It emerges that the entropy of entanglement is large at big bang and big crunch singularities of the parallel universes as well as at the maxima of the expansion of these universes. The latter seems to confirm earlier studies that quantum effects are strong at turning points of the evolution of the universe performed in the context of the timeless nature of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and decoherence. On the other hand, the entropy of entanglement at big rip singularities is going to zero despite its presumably quantum nature. This may be an effect of total dissociation of the universe structures into infinitely separated patches violating the null energy condition. However, the temperature of entanglement is large/infinite at every classically singular point and at maximum expansion and seems to be a better measure of quantumness.

  20. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  1. Magnetic properties of cyclically deformed austenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Arpan, E-mail: dasarpan1@yahoo.co.in

    2014-06-01

    In meta-stable austenitic stainless steels, low cycle fatigue deformation is accompanied by a partial stress/strain-induced solid state phase transformation of paramagnetic γ(fcc) austenite phase to ferromagnetic α{sup /}(bcc) martensite. The measured characteristic of magnetic properties, which are the saturation magnetization, susceptibility, coercivity, retentivity, and the area under the magnetic hysteresis loop are sensitive to the total strain amplitude imposed and the corresponding material behaviour. The morphologies and nucleation characteristics of deformation induced martensites (i.e., ϵ(hcp), α{sup /}(bcc)) have been investigated through analytical transmission electron microscope. It has been observed that deformation induced martensites can nucleate at a number of sites (i.e., shear band intersections, isolated shear bands, shear band–grain boundary intersection, grain boundary triple points, etc.) through multiple transformation sequences: γ(fcc)→ϵ(hcp), γ(fcc)→ϵ(hcp)→α{sup /}(bcc), γ(fcc)→ deformation twin →α{sup /}(bcc) and γ(fcc)→α{sup /}(bcc). - Highlights: • LCF tests were done at various strain amplitudes of 304LNSS. • Quantification of martensite was done through ferritecope. • Magnetic properties were characterised through VSM. • Correlation of magnetic properties with the cyclic plastic response was done. • TEM was done to investigate the transformation micro-mechanisms.

  2. Cyclic metal migration in a groundwater stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, W.; Portmann, W.; Wernli, C.; Linder, P.; Burkart, W.

    1988-04-01

    The behaviour of dissolved (<0.45 μm) inorganic species (e.g. metals, anions), and changes in relevant properties of polluted river water during infiltration into adjacent groundwater are investigated. Water from the river and from several wells is analyzed for temporal and spacial changes. For many of the measured quantities a pronounced annual cycle is observed. The temperature differences between summer and winter influence biological activity. Growth and degradation of organic material lead to drastic changes in pH and redox conditions in the near infiltration field. During summer, under relatively anoxic conditions, manganese oxides/hydroxides dissolve. In winter, the higher concentration of dissolved oxygen induce reprecipitation of manganese. Trace metal mobility (e.g. Cu, Zn, Cd) is influenced by these annual variations. In the river, daily cycles are observed for many of the measured quantities. These short term variations are induced by photosynthesis and respiration of aquatic biota. The cyclic behaviour disappears during the early stage of infiltration. The changes between river and groundwater can be modelled by a combination of simplified electron transfer and weathering reactions. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs

  3. Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.

  4. 14C-labeling of isomeric perfluoroalkyl carboxanilide mixtures via electrofluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, R.P.; Terando, N.H.; Berard, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Electrofluorination of benzoyl chloride-ring-UL- 14 C produced an isomer mixture of cyclic C 6 F 11 carbonyl fluorides, principally 1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-undecafluorocyclohexane-ring-UL- 14 C carbonyl fluoride, which was derivatized with 2-bromo-4-nitroaniline and triethyl amine. The resultant carboxanilide mixture is designated as EL-499 labeled with 14 C in the perfluoro alkyl ring for use in metabolic studies. (author)

  5. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  6. Laterally cyclic loading of monopile in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole; Svensson, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the response from laterally cyclic loading of monopiles a large centrifuge tests series is ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This paper will present some of the tests carried out with a focus on the influence of accumulation of rotation when changing...... the loading conditions. In these tests the load conditions are controlled by two load characteristics, one controlling the level of the cyclic loading and one controlling the characteristic of the cyclic loading. The centrifuge tests were performed in dense dry sand on a pile with prototype dimensions...

  7. Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...... reaction modulus and as a reference for cyclic tests. For the cyclic tests the accumulation of deflections and the change in secant stiffness of the soil from repetitive loading were investigated. From all the tests carried out accumulations of deflections were seen. rom the centrifuge tests it was seen...

  8. The mycotoxin definition reconsidered towards fungal cyclic depsipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Vreese, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-04-02

    Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins. Finally, this definition is applied to a set of fungal cyclic depsipeptides, revealing that some of these should indeed be considered as mycotoxins.

  9. Cyclic plasticity models and application in fatigue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, I.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical procedure for prediction of the cyclic plasticity effects on both the structural fatigue life to crack initiation and the rate of crack growth is presented. The crack initiation criterion is based on the Coffin-Manson formulae extended for multiaxial stress state and for inclusion of the mean stress effect. This criterion is also applied for the accumulated damage ahead of the existing crack tip which is assumed to be related to the crack growth rate. Three cyclic plasticity models, based on the concept of combination of several yield surfaces, are employed for computing the crack growth rate of a crack plane stress panel under several cyclic loading conditions.

  10. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  11. Influence of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel - titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E; Lo Savio, F; Boninelli, S; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Rapisarda, E; La Rosa, G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different torsional preloads on cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic rotary instruments constructed from conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi), M-Wire or CM-Wire. Eighty new size 25, 0.06 taper Mtwo instruments (Sweden & Martina), size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM (Coltene/Whaledent, Inc) and X2 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. The Torque and distortion angles at failure of new instruments (n = 10) were measured, and 0% (n = 10), 25%, 50% and 75% (n = 20) of the mean ultimate torsional strength as preloading condition were applied according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. The twenty files tested for every extent of preload were subjected to 20 or 40 torsional cycles (n = 10). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm of radius of curvature. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance. Preload repetitions did not influence the cyclic fatigue of the three brands; however, the 25%, 50% and 75% torsional preloading significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of all instruments tested (P 0.05). Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of conventional and treated (M-wire and CM-wire) NiTi rotary instruments except for size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM instruments with a 25% of torsional preloading. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cyclic response and early damage evolution in multiaxial cyclic loading of 316L austenitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, JUL (2017), s. 466-476 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic plasticity * Damage mechanism * Multiaxial straining Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  13. Coping with cyclic oxygen availability: evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flück, Martin; Webster, Keith A; Graham, Jeffrey; Giomi, Folco; Gerlach, Frank; Schmitz, Anke

    2007-10-01

    Both the gradual rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic Eon as well as episodic fluctuations in oxygen over several million-year time spans during the Phanerozoic Era, have arguably exerted strong selective forces on cellular and organismic respiratory specialization and evolution. The rise in atmospheric oxygen, some 2 billion years after the origin of life, dramatically altered cell biology and set the stage for the appearance of multicelluar life forms in the Vendian (Ediacaran) Period of the Neoproterozoic Era. Over much of the Paleozoic, the level of oxygen in the atmosphere was near the present atmospheric level (21%). In the Late Paleozoic, however, there were extended times during which the level of atmospheric oxygen was either markedly lower or markedly higher than 21%. That these Paleozoic shifts in atmospheric oxygen affected the biota is suggested by the correlations between: (1) Reduced oxygen and the occurrences of extinctions, a lowered biodiversity and shifts in phyletic succession, and (2) During hyperoxia, the corresponding occurrence of phenomena such as arthropod gigantism, the origin of insect flight, and the evolution of vertebrate terrestriality. Basic similarities in features of adaptation to hyopoxia, manifest in living organisms at levels ranging from genetic and cellular to physiological and behavioral, suggest the common and early origin of a suite of adaptive mechanisms responsive to fluctuations in ambient oxygen. Comparative integrative approaches addressing the molecular bases of phenotypic adjustments to cyclic oxygen fluctuation provide broad insight into the incremental steps leading to the early evolution of homeostatic respiratory mechanisms and to the specialization of organismic respiratory function.

  14. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Safety Discrete Event Models for Holonic Cyclic Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin

    In this paper the expression “holonic cyclic manufacturing systems” refers to complex assembly/disassembly systems or fork/join systems, kanban systems, and in general, to any discrete event system that transforms raw material and/or components into products. Such a system is said to be cyclic if it provides the same sequence of products indefinitely. This paper considers the scheduling of holonic cyclic manufacturing systems and describes a new approach using Petri nets formalism. We propose an approach to frame the optimum schedule of holonic cyclic manufacturing systems in order to maximize the throughput while minimize the work in process. We also propose an algorithm to verify the optimum schedule.

  16. Cyclic deformation of NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Van Humbeeck, J.; Xie Zeliang

    1999-01-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in applying the high damping capacity of shape memory alloys (SMAs). The purpose is to explore the feasibility of those materials for the protection of buildings and other civil constructions as a result of earthquake damages. So far, few experimental results have been reported concerning the mechanical cyclic behaviour of SMAs in their martensitic state (ferroelastic). In the present work, the experimental results on the mechanical behaviour of martensitic NiTi SMAs under tension-compression cyclic deformation up to strains of ±4% are summarized with major attention to the damping capacity, characteristic stresses and strains as a function of deformation cycles. Effect of strain rate, strain amplitude and annealing condition on the martensite damping is summarized. Explanation of the cyclic hardening and cyclic softening phenomenon is proposed based on TEM observations. (orig.)

  17. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ 2 + μυ F 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF 2 . In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R 2 , for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ 2 = 0, υ 2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R 2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R 2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2 . (paper)

  18. Cyclic deformation behaviour of austenitic steels at ambient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Fatigue; cyclic deformation behaviour; metastable austenitic steel; .... Figure 4 shows a sequence of the basic diagrams which can be used to assess the fatigue .... well as the change of temperature and the development of the magnetic ...

  19. Constitutive model and electroplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lei, Y; Du, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Many engineering structures in nuclear reactors, thermal power stations, chemical plants and aerospace vehicles are subjected to cyclic mechanic-thermal loading, which is the main cause of structural fatigue failure. Over the past twenty years, designers and researchers have paid great attention to the research on life prediction and elastoplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading. One of the key problems in elastoplastic analysis is to construct a reasonable constitutive model for cyclic plasticity. In the paper, the constitutive equations are briefly outlined. Then, the model is implemented in a finite element code to predict the response of cyclic loaded structural components such as a double-edge-notched plate, a grooved bar and a nozzle in spherical shell. Numerical results are compared with those from other theories and experiments

  20. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  1. Riboflavin in cyclic vomiting syndrome: efficacy in three children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Esteve Melnikova, Anastasia; Schäppi, Michela G; Korff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an episodic disorder considered to be a migraine variant. Riboflavin is efficient in the prophylactic treatment of migraines in adults. We describe the effectiveness and tolerance of riboflavin treatment in three children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. All of them fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for cyclic vomiting syndrome. They received prophylactic monotherapy with riboflavin for at least 12 months. Excellent response and tolerability was observed. Based on clinical observation in three cases, riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. CVS is one of the "childhood periodic syndromes" classified as a migraine subtype by the International Headache Society. Riboflavin is currently used as a prophylactic treatment in patients with migraine. Riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with CVS. Increasing doses of riboflavin and long periods of prophylaxis may be needed in some children..

  2. INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT CYCLIC LOADING ON REINFORCED CONCRETE RESISTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Karpiuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study of reinforced concrete span bending structures under conditions of high-level cyclic loading. Previous studies on the development of physical models of bending reinforced concrete element fatigue resistance, cyclic effect of lateral forces, and methods of calculation, are important and appropriate owing to certain features and the essential specificity of the mentioned loading type. These primarily include the nonlinearity of deformation, damage accumulation in the form of fatigue micro- and macro-cracks, and exhausting destruction of construction materials. In this paper, key expressions determining the endurance limits of concrete, longitudinal reinforcement, and anchoring longitudinal reinforcement, which contribute to endurance throughout the entire construction, are considered. Establishing a link between stresses in the elements and deformations in the element under conditions of cyclic loading action is of equal importance because of the presence of cyclic stress-induced creep deformation.

  3. Cyclical Cushing's syndrome due to an atypical thymic carcinoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, [No Value; van den Berg, G; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Kema, IP; Dullaart, RPF

    A 43-year-old man presented with fluctuating symptoms of weight gain, shortness of breath, pretibial oedema, associated with anxiety and memory disturbances. Laboratory investigation revealed an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent cyclical Cushing's syndrome characterised by remarkable variations

  4. A Novel Cyclic Catalytic Reformer for Hydrocarbon Fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses development of a compact reformer system based on a cyclic partial oxidation (POx)...

  5. Association of Marijuana Use and Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun B. Pattathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has become one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world. It is estimated that each year 2.6 million individuals in the USA become new users and most are younger than 19 years of age. Reports describe marijuana use as high as 40–50% in male Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome patients. It is this interest in cannabis in the World, coupled with recognition of a cyclic vomiting illness associated with its chronic use that beckons a review of the most current articles, as well as a contribution from our own experiences in this area. The similarities we have demonstrated for both cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome and cyclic vomiting make the case that cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a subset of patients who have the diagnoses of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the role of marijuana should always be considered in the diagnosis of CVS, particularly in males.

  6. The evolution of GDP in USA using cyclic regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Angelo IOAN; Gina IOAN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the four major types of economic cycles (Kondratieff, Juglar, Kitchin, Kuznet), the paper aims to determine their actual length (for the U.S. economy) using cyclic regressions based on Fourier analysis.

  7. Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Most of women with breast discomfort suffered cyclical mastalgia which severity can be determined by advanced age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome, but inversely by oral contraceptive use and exercise activity.

  8. The Chemistry of Cyclic All-Nitrogen Molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wodtke, Alec M

    2006-01-01

    ..., $474,927, February 15, 2004 - December 31, 2006. During this period, we have extended our preliminary investigations of azide photochemistry, with the aim of demonstrating unambiguously the photochemical production of cyclic-N, and of revealing...

  9. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  10. Multiaxial elastoplastic cyclic loading of austenitic 316L steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Polák, Jaroslav; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 40 (2017), s. 162-169 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic stress-strain curve * Multiaxial cyclic loading Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  11. Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chengyi

    2008-01-01

    Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

  12. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  13. Constraining cyclic peptides to mimic protein structure motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Timothy A.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Diness, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    peptides can have protein-like biological activities and potencies, enabling their uses as biological probes and leads to therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccines. This Review highlights examples of cyclic peptides that mimic three-dimensional structures of strand, turn or helical segments of peptides...... and proteins, and identifies some additional restraints incorporated into natural product cyclic peptides and synthetic macrocyclic pepti-domimetics that refine peptide structure and confer biological properties....

  14. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  15. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  16. Deformation localization and cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, O.T.; Rakshin, A.F.; Fenyuk, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    Conditions of deformation localization and its interrelation with cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum were investigated. A fatigue failure of polycrystalline molybdenum after rolling and in an embrittled state reached by recrystallization annealing under cyclic bending at room temperature takes place under nonuniform distribution of microplastic strain resulting in a temperature rise in separate sections of more than 314 K. More intensive structural changes take place in molybdenum after rolling than in recrystallized state.

  17. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  18. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  19. Effect of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Next and Mtwo nickel–titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pedullà

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of M-wire and conventional (as ProTaper Next and Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments except for Mtwo with 25% or 50% of torsional preloading.

  20. Comparison Of INAA Methods (Long Conventional, Cyclic And Pseudo-Cyclic) For The Determination Of Se In Biological Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium content in serum blood, sample were received from international comparison programme (SABC) has been determined by Cyclic irradiation, pseudo-cyclic irradiation and long irradiation conventional Instrumental neutron activation analysis through the 162 keV gamma ray of the 77m Se nuclide for both cyclic and pseudo-cyclic and 264 keV gamma ray of 75 Se nuclide for conventional (long irradiation). The CINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 15 s and counting for 20 s, samples recycling four times to improve the precision. The PCINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 20 s and counting for 30s, samples recycling four times day by day. The Conventional (long irradiation) involve irradiation of samples for 20 hr (1 week), decay for 4 weeks and counting for 20 hr. The accuracy has been evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials. (Author)

  1. Solid-phase receptor-based assay for the detection of cyclic imines by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, or colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura P; Vilariño, Natalia; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Antelo, Alvaro; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-08-01

    The spirolides and gymnodimines are marine phycotoxins included in the group of cyclic imines. The toxicity of these compounds to humans is still unknown, although their toxicity by intraperitoneal injection in rodents is very high. A receptor-based method was developed using the competition of the 13-desmethyl spirolide C with biotin-labeled α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the immobilization of the α-bungarotoxin-receptor complex on streptavidin-coated surfaces. The quantification of the immobilized receptor can be achieved using a specific antibody. Finally, after the addition of a secondary antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase, three alternative substrates of this enzyme generate a chemiluminescent, fluorescent, or colorimetric signal. The assay performs well in shellfish extracts and the detection range is 5-150 nM of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in shellfish extracts, which is at least 5 times more sensitive than the existing fluorescence polarization assay. This assay can also detect gymnodimine, although with 10 times lower sensitivity than the spirolide. The detection of cyclic imines with microplate assays would be useful for screening purposes in order to reduce the number of samples to be processed by bioassays or analytical methods.

  2. Proliferation kinetics and cyclic AMP as prognostic factors in adult acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, E; Mittermayer, K; Schwarzmeier, J

    1980-07-01

    In 41 adult patients with acute leukemia (myeloblastic, lymphoblastic, and undifferentiated), proliferation kinetics (as determined by double-label autoradiography) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration were studied for their significance in the prediction of responsiveness to cytostatic therapy. Patients with good clinical response had significantly shorter turnover times and higher labeling indices in the bone marrow than did those who failed to respond to treatment. Cases for which cell kinetics did not correlate with clinical response were explained by variance in the distribution of leukemic blasts between the proliferative cell cycle and the resting pool. Good clinical response was also found to be associated with low levels of cAMP in leukemic cells prior to therapy, whereas high cAMP contents predicted failure. Low cAMP concentrations, however, did not necessarily correlate with short turnover times and vice versa. This might be due to fluctuations of the cAMP concentrations during the cell cycle.

  3. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  4. Effect of Surgical Removal of Endometriomas on Cyclic and Non-cyclic Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Api

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is a complex disease with a spectrum of pain symptoms from mild dysmenorrhea to debilitating pelvic pain. There is no concrete evidence in the literature whether endometriotic cyst per se, causes pain spectrum related to the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surgical removal of endometriomas on pain symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, observational, before-after study, which was conducted between March 2012 and January 2013 in Training and Research Hospital,Adana, Turkey, a total of 23 patients including 16 sexually active and 7 virgin symptomatic women were questioned for non-cyclic pelvic pain (NCPP, intensity of the NCPP, presence of cyclic dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia before and after the endometrioma operation. Participants who were sonographically diagnosed and later pathologically confirmed as having endometrioma without sign and symptoms of deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE were also questioned for pain symptoms before and after the laparoscopic removal of cyst wall. Patients with intraabdominal adhesions, history of pelvic inflammatory disease, and pathological diagnosis other than endometrioma were excluded. No ancillary procedures were applied for pain management, but if pain was present, pelvic peritoneal endometriotic lesions were ablated beside the removal of ovarian endometriotic cysts. Results: Out of 23 cases with endometrioma, 91 and 78% reported to have NCPP and dysmenorrhea, respectively, before the operation, while 60 and 48%, respectively, after the operation (McNemar’s test, P=0.016 for both figures. Among the sexually active cases, 31% (5/16 had dyspareunia before the operation and only 1 case reported the pain relief after the operation (McNemar’s test, P=1. Intensity of NCPP were reported to be none (8.7%, moderate (21.7%, severe (56.5% and unbearable (13% before the operation and decreased to none (43.5%, mild (43.5%, moderate (4

  5. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  6. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  7. The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Alexandra M.; Piazza, Gary A. [Drug Discovery Research Center, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, 1660 Springhill Ave, Suite 3029, Mobile, AL 36604 (United States); Tinsley, Heather N., E-mail: htinsley@montevallo.edu [Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL 35115 (United States)

    2014-02-26

    For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers.

  8. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  10. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  11. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  12. Evolutive masing model, cyclic plasticity, ageing and memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoroff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Many models are proposed for the mechanical description of the cyclic behaviour of metals and used for structure analysis under cyclic loading. Such a model must include two basic features: Dissipative behaviour on each cycle (hysteresis loop); evolution of this behaviour during the material's life (cyclic hardening or softening, aging,...). However, if both aspects are present in most existing models, the balance between them may be quite different. Many metallurgical investigations have been performed about the microstructure and its evolution during cyclic loading, and it is desirable to introduce these informations in phenomenological models. The evolutive Masing model has been proposed to combine: the accuracy of hereditary models for the description of hysteresis on each cycle, the versatility of internal variables for the state description and evolution, a sufficient microstructural basis to make the interaction easier with microstructural investigations. The purpose of the present work is to discuss this model and to compare different evolution assumptions with respect to some memory effects (cyclic hardening and softening, multilevel tests, aging). Attention is limited to uniaxial, rate independent elasto-plastic behaviour

  13. Ceramic breeder pebble bed packing stability under cyclic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunbo, E-mail: chunbozhang@fusion.ucla.edu [Fusion Science and Technology Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed A. [Fusion Science and Technology Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The feasibility of obtaining packing stability for pebble beds is studied. • The responses of pebble bed to cyclic loads have been presented and analyzed in details. • Pebble bed packing saturation and its applications are discussed. • A suggestion is made regarding the improvement of pebbles filling technique. - Abstract: Considering the optimization of blanket performance, it is desired that the bed morphology and packing state during reactor operation are stable and predictable. Both experimental and numerical work are performed to explore the stability of pebble beds, in particular under pulsed loading conditions. Uniaxial compaction tests have been performed for both KIT’s Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and NFRI’s Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble beds at elevated temperatures (up to 750 °C) under cyclic loads (up to 6 MPa). The obtained data shows the stress-strain loop initially moves towards the larger strain and nearly saturates after a certain number of cyclic loading cycles. The characterized FEM CAP material models for a Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed with an edge-on configuration are used to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of pebble bed under ITER pulsed operations. Simulation results have shown the cyclic variation of temperature/stress/strain/gap and also the same saturation trend with experiments under cyclic loads. Therefore, it is feasible for pebble bed to maintain its packing stability during operation when disregarding pebbles’ breakage and irradiation.

  14. Degradation forecast for PEMFC cathode-catalysts under cyclic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein-Jahromi, M.; Kermani, M. J.; Movahed, S.

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of Fuel Cell (FC) components under cyclic loads is one of the biggest bottlenecks in FC commercialization. In this paper, a novel experimental based algorithm is presented to predict the Catalyst Layer (CL) performance loss during cyclic load. The algorithm consists of two models namely Models 1 and 2. The Model 1 calculates the Electro-Chemical Surface Area (ECSA) and agglomerate size (e.g. agglomerate radius, rt,agg) for the catalyst layer under cyclic load. The Model 2 is the already-existing model from our earlier studies that computes catalyst performance with fixed structural parameters. Combinations of these two Models predict the CL performance under an arbitrary cyclic load. A set of parametric/sensitivity studies is performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the percentage of Voltage Degradation Rate (VDR%) with rank 1 for the most influential one. Amongst the considered parameters (such as: temperature, relative humidity, pressure, minimum and maximum voltage of the cyclic load), the results show that temperature and pressure have the most and the least influences on the VDR%, respectively. So that, increase of temperature from 60 °C to 80 °C leads to over 20% VDR intensification, the VDR will also reduce 1.41% by increasing pressure from 2 atm to 4 atm.

  15. Micromechanics of soil responses in cyclic simple shear tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind turbine (OWT foundations are subjected to a combination of cyclic and dynamic loading arising from wind, wave, rotor and blade shadowing. Under cyclic loading, most soils change their characteristics including stiffness, which may cause the system natural frequency to approach the loading frequency and lead to unplanned resonance and system damage or even collapse. To investigate such changes and the underlying micromechanics, a series of cyclic simple shear tests were performed on the RedHill 110 sand with different shear strain amplitudes, vertical stresses and initial relative densities of soil. The test results showed that: (a Vertical accumulated strain is proportional to the shear strain amplitude but inversely proportional to relative density of soil; (b Shear modulus increases rapidly in the initial loading cycles and then the rate of increase diminishes and the shear modulus remains below an asymptote; (c Shear modulus increases with increasing vertical stress and relative density, but decreasing with increasing strain amplitude. Coupled DEM simulations were performed using PFC2D to analyse the micromechanics underlying the cyclic behaviour of soils. Micromechanical parameters (e.g. fabric tensor, coordination number were examined to explore the reasons for the various cyclic responses to different shear strain amplitudes or vertical stresses. Both coordination number and magnitude of fabric anisotropy contribute to the increasing shear modulus.

  16. Topological chaos, braiding and bifurcation of almost-cyclic sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Piyush; Ross, Shane D; Stremler, Mark A; Kumar, Pankaj

    2012-12-01

    In certain two-dimensional time-dependent flows, the braiding of periodic orbits provides a way to analyze chaos in the system through application of the Thurston-Nielsen classification theorem (TNCT). We expand upon earlier work that introduced the application of the TNCT to braiding of almost-cyclic sets, which are individual components of almost-invariant sets [Stremler et al., "Topological chaos and periodic braiding of almost-cyclic sets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 114101 (2011)]. In this context, almost-cyclic sets are periodic regions in the flow with high local residence time that act as stirrers or "ghost rods" around which the surrounding fluid appears to be stretched and folded. In the present work, we discuss the bifurcation of the almost-cyclic sets as a system parameter is varied, which results in a sequence of topologically distinct braids. We show that, for Stokes' flow in a lid-driven cavity, these various braids give good lower bounds on the topological entropy over the respective parameter regimes in which they exist. We make the case that a topological analysis based on spatiotemporal braiding of almost-cyclic sets can be used for analyzing chaos in fluid flows. Hence, we further develop a connection between set-oriented statistical methods and topological methods, which promises to be an important analysis tool in the study of complex systems.

  17. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  18. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  19. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  20. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  1. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  2. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  3. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  4. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  5. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  6. Response of monopiles under cyclic lateral loading in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    Currently the main design guidelines propose to reduce the lateral resistance of offshore piles when accounting for cyclic loading. The present work provides results from laboratory tests in which such reduction has not occurred. The experimental investigation is based on testing a small......-scale monopile model in dense saturated sand. The experimental setup used to carry out the laboratory tests is able to apply thousands of load cycles and static loading to the monopile model. The purpose of the laboratory tests is to investigate the effects of cyclic loading on the lateral resistance...... of the monopile. It is shown that the soil-pile system becomes stiffer and more resistant after applying cyclic loading, depending on the number of cycles....

  7. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  8. Anisotropic yield surfaces in bi-axial cyclic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, R.J.; Harvey, S.J.; Breckell, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of the behaviour of yield surfaces and work-hardening surfaces occurring in biaxial cyclic plasticity have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work consisted of subjecting thin-walled tubular steel specimens to cyclic plastic torsion in the presence of sustained axial loads of various magnitudes. The experimental results show that considerable anisotropy is induced when the cyclic shear strains are dominant. Although the true shapes of yield and work-hardening surfaces can be very complex, a mathematical model is presented which includes both anisotropy and Bauschinger effects. The model is able to qualitatively predict the deformation patterns during a cycle of applied plastic shear strain for a range of sustained axial stresses and also indicate the material response to changes in axial stress. (orig.)

  9. Cyclic and Explosive Evaluation of New Proposed Steel Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of a novel steel beam-to-column connection, the saddlebag, subjected to cyclic and progressive collapse, was evaluated in this paper. The cyclic behaviour considered the interstory drift angle and flexural strength in accordance with 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions, while progressive collapse assessment was evaluated through the plastic hinge rotation angle based on acceptance criteria provided in the UFC 4-023-03 guideline. From the cyclic test, one complete cycle of an interstory drift angle of 0.06 rad was satisfied for the saddlebag connection, which is an indication of the effectiveness in accordance with 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions. Besides, the new proposed connection developed adequate catenary action, which is a fundamental criterion to resist against progressive collapse. The resulting fuller hysteretic loops with large energy dissipation capacity in the proposed saddlebag connection guarantee its ability to address the inelastic deformation demands in earthquake conditions.

  10. Cyclic plastic hinges with degradation effects for frame structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemann, Lasse; Krenk, Steen

    2017-01-01

    A model of cyclic plastic hinges in frame structures including degradation effects for stiffness and strength is developed. The model is formulated via potentials in terms of section forces. It consists of a yield surface, described in a generic format permitting representation of general convex...... shapes including corners, and a set of evolution equations based on an internal energy potential and a plastic flow potential. The form of these potentials is specified by five parameters for each generalized stress-strain component describing yield level, ultimate stress capacity, elastic...... and stiffness parameters. The cyclic plastic hinges are introduced into a six-component equilibrium-based beam element, using additive element and hinge flexibilities. When converted to stiffness format the plastic hinges are incorporated into the element stiffness matrix. The cyclic plastic hinge model...

  11. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  12. Improving oral bioavailability of cyclic peptides by N-methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räder, Andreas F B; Reichart, Florian; Weinmüller, Michael; Kessler, Horst

    2018-06-01

    The renaissance of peptides in pharmaceutical industry results from their importance in many biological functions. However, low metabolic stability and the lack of oral availability of most peptides is a certain limitation. Whereas metabolic instability may be often overcome by development of small cyclic peptides containing d-amino acids, the very low oral availability of most peptides is a serious limitation for some medicinal applications. The situation is complicated because a twofold optimization - biological activity and oral availability - is required to overcome this problem. Moreover, most simple "rules" for achieving oral availability are not general and are applicable only to limited cases. Many structural modifications for increasing biological activities and metabolic stabilities of cyclic peptides have been described, of which N-alkylation is probably the most common. This mini-review focuses on the effects of N-methylation of cyclic peptides in strategies to optimize bioavailabilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The cyclical monitoring system for digital power supplies at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Li Deming; Shen Tianjian

    2009-01-01

    Based on available digital PS testing system and long-distance monitoring hardwares, the cyclical monitoring system for digital power supplies (PS) was developed at SSRF. Two models, i.e.long-distance cyclical monitoring and local cyclical monitoring, were established. The software developed in LabVIEW language was applied to the two models without any user interface modification. The user interface is simple. The system is suitable for debugging the digital PSs during long-distance monitoring and examining the performance. The long-distance model imitates the digital PSs' status for fault analysis and communication between the digital PS and the centre control room. The local model simultaneously examines stability of 18 new PSs for 24 h, monitors the PS controller, and detects malfunction. Parameters and status of the controller can be stored in Excel or Text file. The two models have been used at SSRF for monitoring the digital PSs. (authors)

  14. Cyclic operation of power plant; Cyklisk drift av kraftvaermeverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The great majority of power plants are designed for base load operation with a relatively small number of starts and stops per year. Therefore, there has been no need to consider fatigue at design. Over the last few years operation with more frequent starts and stops exists as a consequence of swinging electricity prices that has become common. This involves significantly higher frequency of damages; not least fatigue relates damages, and the number of severe failures in components that never before have had damage problems may increase as well. In the present work the different types of component that may suffer from cyclic operation related damage are gathered by a literature survey and described as follows: - where and how the damages comes up, - constructions that should be avoided, - non-destructive testing (NDT) for damage that may come up under cyclic operation, - calculation and assessment of integrity of critical components - areas where continued research would be valuable. Recommendations have been put together to be used to prevent cyclic operation related damage and to detect it in time. The target group for this study is i) plant owners of plants where cyclic operation is or may be present, ii) researchers in the area, and, iii) inspectors and NDT-operators. There are quite a number of components where cyclic operation has been found to significantly influence the lift time. Some of these components are described in many papers whereas occasional papers have been found for others. The amount of information that is possible to get for a certain component is likely related to its significance for cyclic operation damage. The most frequently reported problem is ligament cracking of high temperature headers. Other components where extensive studies have been done are: wall panels, creep-fatigue loaded welds and turbine components

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  16. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  17. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  19. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  20. Determination of silver using cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pun, T.H.; Landsberger, S.

    2012-01-01

    A fast pneumatic transfer facility was installed in Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) of the University of Texas at Austin for the purpose of cyclic thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis. In this study efforts were focused on the evaluation of cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis (CENAA). Various NIST and CANMET certified materials were analyzed by the system. Experiment results showed 110 Ag with its 25 s half-life as one of the isotopes favored by the system. Thus, the system was put into practical application in identifying silver in metallic ores. Comparison of sliver concentrations as determined by CENAA in CANMET certified reference materials gave very good results. (author)

  1. Progressive buckling under both constant axial load and cyclic distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Acker, D.; Lebey, J.

    1988-09-01

    Thin structures submitted to compressive loads must be carefully designed to avoid any risk of ruin by buckling. The aim of this paper is, first, to evidence that the critical buckling load may be notably lowered when cyclic strains are added to the compressive load and, secondly, to propose a practical rule of prevention against the ruin due to the progressive buckling phenomenon. This rule is validated by the results of numerous tests related to the entire range of modes of buckling (i.e. from fully plastic to fully elastic). Practical cases of interest for its use could mainly be those where cyclic thermal stresses are involved

  2. New cyclic peptides with osteoblastic proliferative activity from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yun; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-03-01

    Two new cyclic peptides, dianthins G-H (1 and 2), together with the known dianthin E (3), were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus superbus. The sequences of cyclic peptides 1 and 2 were elucidated as cyclo (-Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Leu(3)-Thr(4)-Leu(5)-Phe(6)-) and cyclo (-Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Val(3)-Thr(4)-Ile(5)-Phe(6)-), on the basis of ESI tandem mass fragmentation analysis, extensive 2D NMR methods and X-ray diffraction. The isolated three compounds all increase proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro using MTT method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solving cyclical nurse scheduling problem using preemptive goal programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, V. E.; Mardiyati, S.

    2017-07-01

    Nurse scheduling system in a hospital is being modeled as a preemptive goal programming problem that is solved by using LINGO software with the objective function to minimize deviation variable at each goal. The scheduling is done cyclically, so every nurse is treated fairly since they have the same work shift portion with the other nurses. By paying attention to the hospital's rules regarding nursing work shift cyclically, it can be obtained that numbers of nurse needed in every ward are 18 nurses and the numbers of scheduling periods are 18 periods where every period consists of 21 days.

  4. Cyclic GMP-AMP Displays Mucosal Adjuvant Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice....

  5. The Reduction of Directed Cyclic Graph for Task Assignment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin W.N.M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a directed cyclic graph (DCG is proposed as the task graph. It is undesirable and impossible to complete the task according to the constraints if the cycle exists. Therefore, an effort should be done in order to eliminate the cycle to obtain a directed acyclic graph (DAG, so that the minimum amount of time required for the entire task can be found. The technique of reducing the complexity of the directed cyclic graph to a directed acyclic graph by reversing the orientation of the path is the main contribution of this study. The algorithm was coded using Java programming and consistently produced good assignment and task schedule.

  6. A compact cyclic plasticity model with parameter evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Tidemann, L.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a compact model for cyclic plasticity based on energy in terms of external and internal variables, and plastic yielding described by kinematic hardening and a flow potential with an additive term controlling the nonlinear cyclic hardening. The model is basically described by five...... parameters: external and internal stiffness, a yield stress and a limiting ultimate stress, and finally a parameter controlling the gradual development of plastic deformation. Calibration against numerous experimental results indicates that typically larger plastic strains develop than predicted...

  7. Geometric phases for mixed states during cyclic evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Libin; Chen Jingling

    2004-01-01

    The geometric phases of cyclic evolutions for mixed states are discussed in the framework of unitary evolution. A canonical 1-form is defined whose line integral gives the geometric phase, which is gauge invariant. It reduces to the Aharonov and Anandan phase in the pure state case. Our definition is consistent with the phase shift in the proposed experiment (Sjoeqvist et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 2845) for a cyclic evolution if the unitary transformation satisfies the parallel transport condition. A comprehensive geometric interpretation is also given. It shows that the geometric phases for mixed states share the same geometric sense with the pure states

  8. The Cyclic Stress-Strain Curve of Polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Rasmussen, K. V.; Winter, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The internal stresses implied by the Sachs model are estimated for individual PSBs at low plastic strain amplitudes and for homogeneously sheared grains at higher plastic strain amplitudes. The analysis shows that the Sachs model can account semi-quantitatively for experimentally measured cyclic...... stress-strain curves for copper. A similar approximative analysis of the Taylor model cannot account for the data. An interesting feature of the Sachs model is that, although it is assumed that the flow condition is entirely controlled by the PSBs. the predicted cyclic stress-strain curve displays...

  9. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  10. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  18. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  19. Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.V.; Martin, B.R.; Houslay, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa

  20. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  1. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  2. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  3. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  4. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols to cyclic alcohols over tungsten oxide-palladium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Yasushi; Ota, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols such as 1,4-anhydroerythritol was conducted over catalysts containing both a noble metal and a group 5-7 transition-metal oxide. The combination of Pd and WOx allowed the removal of one of the two OH groups selectively. 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran was obtained from 1,4-anhydroerythritol in 72 and 74% yield over WOx -Pd/C and WOx -Pd/ZrO2 , respectively. The WOx -Pd/ZrO2 catalyst was reusable without significant loss of activity if the catalyst was calcined as a method of regeneration. Characterization of WOx -Pd/C with temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that Pd metal particles approximately 9 nm in size were formed on amorphous tungsten oxide particles. A reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics, reaction results with tungsten oxides under an atmosphere of Ar, and density functional theory calculations. A tetravalent tungsten center (W(IV) ) was formed by reduction of WO3 with the Pd catalyst and H2 , and this center served as the reductant for partial hydrodeoxygenation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Iminodiacetic acid as bifunctional linker for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dong; Zhao, Zuo-Quan; Chen, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yong; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, I2P-RGD 2 was used as the example to illustrate a novel approach for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides. The main objective of this study was to explore the impact of bifunctional linkers (glutamic acid vs. iminodiacetic acid) on tumor-targeting capability and excretion kinetics of the 99m Tc-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides. Methods: HYNIC-I2P-RGD 2 was prepared by reacting I2P-RGD 2 with HYNIC-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine, and was evaluated for its α v β 3 binding affinity against 125 I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells. 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 was prepared with high specific activity (~185 GBq/μmol). The athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts were used to evaluate its biodistribution properties and image quality in comparison with those of 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 . Results: The IC 50 value for HYNIC-I2P-RGD 2 was determined to be 39 ± 6 nM, which was very close to that (IC 50 = 33 ± 5 nM) of HYNIC-3P-RGD 2 . Replacing glutamic acid with iminodiacetic acid had little impact on α v β 3 binding affinity of cyclic RGD peptides. 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 and 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 shared similar tumor uptake values over the 2 h period, and its α v β 3 -specificity was demonstrated by a blocking experiment. The uptake of 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 was significantly lower than 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 in the liver and kidneys. The U87MG glioma tumors were visualized by SPECT with excellent contrast using both 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 and 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 . Conclusion: Iminodiacetic acid is an excellent bifunctional linker for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides. Bifunctional linkers have significant impact on the excretion kinetics of 99m Tc radiotracers. Because of its lower liver uptake and better tumor/liver ratios, 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 may have advantages over 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 for diagnosis of tumors in chest region. -- Graphical abstract: This report presents novel approach for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides using iminodiacetic acid as a

  6. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes: semi-cyclic flows - addendum and corrigendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    We present new accretion solutions of a polytropic perfect fluid onto an f(R)-gravity de Sitter-like black hole. We consider two f(R)-gravity models and obtain finite-period cyclic flows oscillating between the event and cosmological horizons as well as semi-cyclic critical flows executing a two-way motion from and back to the same horizon. Besides the generalizations and new solutions presented in this work, a corrigendum to Eur. Phys. J. C (2016) 76:280 is provided. (orig.)

  7. Nearly Cyclic Pursuit and its Hierarchical variant for Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Leth, John-Josef; Ngo, Trung Dung

    2015-01-01

    The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version of the nea......The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version...

  8. Experimental study under uniaxial cyclic behavior at room and high temperature of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Guozheng; Gao Qing; Yang Xianjie; Sun Yafang

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out of the cyclic properties of 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial strain and stress at room and high temperature. The effects of cyclic strain amplitude, temperature and their histories on the cyclic deformation behavior of 316L stainless steel are investigated. And, the influences of stress amplitude, mean stress, temperature and their histories on ratcheting are also analyzed. It is shown that either uniaxial cyclic property under cyclic strain or ratcheting under asymmetric uniaxial cyclic stress depends not only on the current temperature and loading state, but also on the previous temperature and loading history. Some significant results are obtained

  9. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  10. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  11. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  12. Global optimization of cyclic Kannan nonexpansive mappings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an application of the existence theorem, we conclude an old fixed point problem in Banach spaces which are not reflexive necessarily. Examples are given to support the usability of our main conclusions. Keywords: Best proximity point, fixed point, cyclic Kannan nonexpansive mapping, T-uniformly semi-normal structure, ...

  13. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Although...

  14. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  15. Involvement of cyclic nucleotides in locust flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, R.A.A.

    1980-01-01

    1. Flight had no significant effect on the levels of c-AMP of c-GMP in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria. 2. Injections of 0.01 or 0.1 corpus cardiacum equivalents into the abdominal cavity did not elicit any effect on cyclic nucleotide levels either. 3. Injection of A23187 resulted in

  16. [Prognostic significance of the cyclic AMP concentration in acute leukemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, E; Mittermayer, K; Schwarzmeier, J D

    1979-01-01

    In patients with acute leukemia (myeloblastic, lymphoblastic, undifferentiated) proliferation kinetics and cyclic adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration of the leukemic cells were studied for their significance in the prediction of responsiveness to cytostatic therapy. Patients with good clinical response had significantly faster turnover and lower cAMP-levels than those who failed to respond to treatment.

  17. Cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of Hadfield manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Long, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, B. [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-01-03

    The cyclic deformation characteristics and fatigue behaviors of Hadfield manganese steel have been investigated by means of its ability to memorize strain and stress history. Detailed studies were performed on the strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) and stress-controlled high cycle fatigue (HCF). Initial cyclic hardening to saturation or peak stress followed by softening to fracture occurred in LCF. Internal stress made the dominant contribution to the fatigue crack propagation until failure. Effective stress evolution revealed the existence of C–Mn clusters with short-range ordering in Hadfield manganese steel and demonstrated that the interaction between C atoms in the C–Mn cluster and dislocation was essential for its cyclic hardening. The developing/developed dislocation cells and stacking faults were the main cyclic deformation microstructures on the fractured sample surface in LCF and HCF, which manifested that fatigue failure behavior of Hadfield manganese steel was induced by plastic deformation during strain-controlled or stress-controlled testing.

  18. Cyclic peptides as potential therapeutic agents for skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Sarika; Benson, Heather A E

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing understanding of the role of peptides in normal skin function and skin disease. With this knowledge, there is significant interest in the application of peptides as therapeutics in skin disease or as cosmeceuticals to enhance skin appearance. In particular, antimicrobial peptides and those involved in inflammatory processes provide options for the development of new therapeutic directions in chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis and dermatitis. To exploit their potential, it is essential that these peptides are delivered to their site of action in active form and in sufficient quantity to provide the desired effect. Many polymers permeate the skin poorly and are vulnerable to enzymatic degradation. Synthesis of cyclic peptide derivatives can substantially alter the physicochemical characteristics of the peptide with the potential to improve its skin permeation. In addition, cyclization can stabilize the peptide structure and thereby increase its stability. This review describes the role of cyclic peptides in the skin, examples of current cyclic peptide therapeutic products, and the potential for cyclic peptides as dermatological therapeutics and cosmeceuticals.

  19. Towards Green Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis : Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalyst Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research serves to implement both known and novel catalytic systems for the purpose of cyclic carbonate synthesis from biomass-derived substrates. Such products have been earmarked as potential monomers for non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs), amongst other uses. Particular attention has

  20. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment...

  1. Cyclic machine scheduling with tool transportation - additional calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, C.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    In the PhD Thesis of Kuijpers a cyclic machine scheduling problem with tool transportation is considered. For the problem with two machines, it is shown that there always exists an optimal schedule with a certain structure. This is done by means of an elaborate case study. For a number of cases some

  2. Intermittent, Non Cyclic Severe Mechanical Aortic Valve Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Song, Seunghwan; Lee, Myung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical aortic prosthesis dysfunction can result from thrombosis or pannus formation. We describe an unusual case of intermittent, non cyclic mechanical aortic prosthesis dysfunction due to pannus formation with thrombus in the absence of systolic restriction of disk excursion, that presented with intermittent severe aortic regurgitation. PMID:24459568

  3. Topology and symmetry of surface Majorana arcs in cyclic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Takeshi; Nitta, Muneto

    2018-01-01

    We study the topology and symmetry of surface Majorana arcs in superconductors with nonunitary "cyclic" pairing. Cyclic p -wave pairing may be realized in a cubic or tetrahedral crystal, while it is a candidate for the interior P32 superfluids of neutron stars. The cyclic state is an admixture of full gap and nodal gap with eight Weyl points and the low-energy physics is governed by itinerant Majorana fermions. We here show the evolution of surface states from Majorana cone to Majorana arcs under rotation of surface orientation. The Majorana cone is protected solely by an accidental spin rotation symmetry and fragile against spin-orbit coupling, while the arcs are attributed to two topological invariants: the first Chern number and one-dimensional winding number. Lastly, we discuss how topologically protected surface states inherent to the nonunitary cyclic pairing can be captured from surface probes in candidate compounds, such as U1 -xThxBe13 . We examine tunneling conductance spectra for two competitive scenarios in U1 -xThxBe13 —the degenerate Eu scenario and the accidental scenario.

  4. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  5. Cyclic Voltammetry of Biopolymer Heparin at PVC Plasticized Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk; Trojánek, Antonín; Langmaier, Jan; Samcová, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 867-870 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : cyclic voltammetry * PVC plasticized liquit membrane * heparin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.300, year: 2003

  6. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial
    genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an
    important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence

  7. Cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology with coefficients in contramodules

    OpenAIRE

    Rangipour, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    We use stable anti Yetter-Drinfeld contramodules to improve the cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology. The improvement fixes the lack of functoriality of the cup products previously defined and show that the cup products are sensitive to the coefficients.

  8. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters in...

  9. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC EVENTS CYCLICITY METHOD CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalia Yur'ievna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclicity of economic phenomena is not only their immanent property but also the subject of economic analysis. The modern way of making managerial decisions requires analysis of a number of cycles that fill any kind of activity. Accounting and reconciliation of construction, design, investment, purchasing, reproduction, leasing and other cycles is important for the investment and construction sector, both from the point of view of the need for their synchronization and from the position of determining trends in sectoral development. The analysis has showed that three main types of development are characteristic for investment and construction activity. Increasing intensity is inherent in a high level of cyclic synchronization. The degradation trend arises as a result of mismatched cycles. The stabilization character is inherent in the regular modes of maintaining the established proportions and cyclical inter-conformity. The study of the cyclical nature of investment and building processes is impossible without understanding their co-ordination. The principles of synchronization and subordination of the cycles should be used not only for the construction of cost-effective systems but also for the development of management tools.

  10. Cyclic flow shop scheduling problem with two-machine cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a variant of cyclic production with setups and two-machine cell is considered. One of the stages of the problem solving consists of assigning each operation to the machine on which it will be carried out. The total number of such assignments is exponential. We propose a polynomial time algorithm finding the optimal operations to machines assignment.

  11. Emergence of traveling density waves in cyclic multiparticle transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannellopoulos, G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle flow through a cyclic array of connected compartments with a preferential direction is found to be able to organize itself in traveling waves. This behavior is connected with the transition between uniform flow and cluster formation. When the bias in the system is large, the particles

  12. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Shangwu; Gu Zhiyu

    2005-01-01

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  13. Retinal Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: From Pathophysiology to Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Michalakis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in vision is the absorption of photons by the photopigments in cone and rod photoreceptors. After initial amplification within the phototransduction cascade the signal is translated into an electrical signal by the action of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channels. CNG channels are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. Retinal CNG channels transduce changes in intracellular concentrations of cGMP into changes of the membrane potential and the Ca2+ concentration. Structurally, the CNG channels belong to the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels and share a common gross structure with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels and voltage-gated potassium channels (KCN. In this review, we provide an overview on the molecular properties of CNG channels and describe their physiological role in the phototransduction pathways. We also discuss insights into the pathophysiological role of CNG channel proteins that have emerged from the analysis of CNG channel-deficient animal models and human CNG channelopathies. Finally, we summarize recent gene therapy activities and provide an outlook for future clinical application.

  14. The comparison of cyclic deformation curve determination for ADI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, J.; Obrtlík, Karel; Věchet, S.

    308 2005, - (2005), s. 305-309 ISSN 1429-6055. [Miedzynarodowe sympozjum /20./. Ustroň-Jaszowiec, 07.12.2005-09.12.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : cyclic stress-strain curve * austempered ductile iron Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  15. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2017-10-04

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  16. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A; Turek, Ilona S.

    2017-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  17. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules have been ... due to its importance in various real life systems. 1–8. High level ... It is well-known from the crystal structure data- base that the ...

  18. Optimum Design and Operation of Cyclic Storage Systems; Lumped Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadrahimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is a preferred approach in water resources management. Compared to dam construction, groundwater has certain advantages, among which are less costs, less sedimentation and evaporation, fewer water quality problems, and less social and cultural problems. To reduce the major problems associated with the development of large-scale surface impoundment systems, cyclic storage systems can be used as an alternative. A cyclic storage system (CYCS is an integrated interactive system consisting of two subsystems of surface water storage (reservoir and groundwater; this system together with artificial recharge is able to satisfy the predefined demands with rather high reliability. In order to optimize these systems, one must consider the hydraulic interactions between all the components, but unfortunately it has been neglected in many studies. In this article, a nonlinear optimization model for design and operation of cyclic storage systems has been developed using the lumped approach. In order to evaluate the model, its results have been compared with the results of a model in which distributed approach had been deployed, and so the efficiency of lumped models to solve the problems of cyclic storage systems has been investigated.

  19. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel. (paper)

  20. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-04-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.

  1. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  2. Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, I.P.; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    A report is presented on the inscription of a fibre Bragg grating into a microstructured polymer optical fibre fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. This material offers two important advantages over poly (methyl methacrylate), which up to now has formed the basis for polymer fibre Bragg...

  3. A theoretical model for predicting neutron fluxes for cyclic Neutron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A theoretical model has been developed for prediction of thermal neutron fluxes required for cyclic irradiations of a sample to obtain the same activity previously used for the detection of any radionuclide of interest. The model is suitable for radiotracer production or for long-lived neutron activation products where the ...

  4. Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity and time-reversal invariance . In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asymmetric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour spacing ...

  5. Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian sys- tems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity P and time-reversal invariance T. In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asym- metric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour ...

  6. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  7. Characterization of cyclical phases in the manufacturing industry in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Sala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 120 Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industry in Spain and detect which industries have more influence on the Spanish business cycle. We assume that economic growth is a priority; we are going to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according this priority. We analyze if the industries with better cyclical behavior are the ones that achieve greater co-movement with the business cycle of the Spanish economy, as this means they have a positive influence on economic activity. Design/methodology/approach: We examine the disaggregated quarterly IPI data of 16 manufacturing industries. Our methodology follows three steps. Firstly, we define cycle turning points; we follow the Harding and Pagan (2002 methodology. Secondly, we characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industries in terms of duration, amplitude, deepness and steepness. We also determine the degree of inter-industrial cyclical synchronization and between industries in the cycle of the Spanish economy. This analysis is performed in two ways. On the one hand, we use the concordance index and the correlation coefficient. On the other hand, we work with indicators based on a consistency table. In the Third step, we apply a multi-objective methodology, specifically the compromise programming, to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according to the growth priority. Findings and Originality/value: The business cycle of the Spanish economy is positively influenced by high- and medium-tech industries, which have demonstrated their competitive capacity in international markets, and by medium- low-tech industries, with major strengths in R&D, and in survival and consolidation strategies. These results enable manufacturing industries to exert a positive effect on the business cycle that is weakened because many of them show a high correlation between

  8. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  9. Numerical modeling of centrifuge cyclic lateral pile load experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolymos, Nikos; Escoffier, Sandra; Gazetas, George; Garnier, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    To gain insight into the inelastic behavior of piles, the response of a vertical pile embedded in dry sand and subjected to cyclic lateral loading was studied experimentally in centrifuge tests conducted in Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées. Three types of cyclic loading were applied, two asymmetric and one symmetric with respect to the unloaded pile. An approximately square-root variation of soil stiffness with depth was obtained from indirect in-flight density measurements, laboratory tests on reconstituted samples, and well-established empirical correlations. The tests were simulated using a cyclic nonlinear Winkler spring model, which describes the full range of inelastic phenomena, including separation and re-attachment of the pile from and to the soil. The model consists of three mathematical expressions capable of reproducing a wide variety of monotonic and cyclic experimental p-y curves. The physical meaning of key model parameters is graphically explained and related to soil behavior. Comparisons with the centrifuge test results demonstrate the general validity of the model and its ability to capture several features of pile-soil interaction, including: soil plastification at an early stage of loading, “pinching” behavior due to the formation of a relaxation zone around the upper part of the pile, and stiffness and strength changes due to cyclic loading. A comparison of the p-y curves derived from the test results and the proposed model, as well as those from the classical curves of Reese et al. (1974) for sand, is also presented.

  10. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  11. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  12. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-01-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595

  13. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  14. Cyclic Loading of Growing Tissue in a Bioreactor: Mathematical Model and Asymptotic Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.; Cummings, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified 2D mathematical model for tissue growth within a cyclically-loaded tissue engineering scaffold is presented and analyzed. Such cyclic loading has the potential to improve yield and functionality of tissue such as bone and cartilage when

  15. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  16. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  17. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  18. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  19. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  20. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  1. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  2. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  3. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  4. Experimental study on uniaxial cyclic ratcheting behavior of 304 stainless steel at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianjie; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun; Liu Yujie

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic tests for 304 stainless steel with solution heat treatment under uni-axial cyclic straining and stressing were carried out systematically. The effects of the cyclic engineering stress amplitude history with constant mean stress, the mean engineering stress history with constant cyclic stress amplitude and the stress amplitude histories with the specific mean stress increment per cycle on the uni-axial ratcheting deformation behavior were investigated. Some significant results are obtained

  5. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of the Cyclic Depsipeptide Natural Product YM-254890, Targeting the Gq Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Xiong, Xiao-Feng; Boesgaard, Michael W; Underwood, Christina R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2017-06-07

    Extracellular signals perceived by G protein-coupled receptors are transmitted via G proteins, and subsequent intracellular signaling cascades result in a plethora of physiological responses. The natural product cyclic depsipeptides YM-254890 and FR900359 are the only known compounds that specifically inhibit signaling mediated by the G q subfamily. In this study we exploit a newly developed synthetic strategy for this compound class in the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of eight new analogues of YM-254890. These structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of three new analogues, YM-13, YM-14, and YM-18, which displayed potent and selective G q inhibitory activity. This provides pertinent information for the understanding of the G q inhibitory mechanism by this class of compounds and importantly provides a pathway for the development of labeled YM-254890 analogues. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  7. Chemotaxis to cyclic AMP and folic acid is mediated by different G proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa

    1990-01-01

    Mutant Frigid A (fgdA) of Dictyostelium discoideum is defective in a functional Gα2 subunit of a G protein and is characterized by a complete blockade of the cyclic AMP-mediated sensory transduction steps, including cyclic AMP relay, chemotaxis and the cyclic GMP response. Folic acid-mediated

  8. Empirical approach based on centrifuge testing for cyclic deformations of laterally loaded piles in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truong, P.; Lehane, B. M.; Zania, Varvara

    2018-01-01

    A systematic study into the response of monopiles to lateral cyclic loading in medium dense and dense sand was performed in beam and drum centrifuge tests. The centrifuge tests were carried out at different cyclic load and magnitude ratios, while the cyclic load sequence was also varied...

  9. Elevational gradient in the cyclicity of a forest-defoliating insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle J. Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Derek M. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Observed changes in the cyclicity of herbivore populations along latitudinal gradients and the hypothesis that shifts in the importance of generalist versus specialist predators explain such gradients has long been a matter of intense interest. In contrast, elevational gradients in population cyclicity are largely unexplored. We quantified the cyclicity of gypsy moth...

  10. Existence and Convergence of Best Proximity Points for Semi Cyclic Contraction Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh Thakur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce the notion of a semi cyclic ϕ-contraction pair of mappings, which contains semi cyclic contraction pairs as a subclass. Existence and convergence results of best proximity points for semi cyclic ϕ- contraction pair of mappings are obtained.

  11. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  12. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  13. Role of coronary endothelium in cyclic AMP formation by the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, K.; Schrader, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the activation of adenylate cyclase of the coronary endothelium in vivo, endothelial adenine nucleotides of isolated guinea pig hearts were selectively pre-labeled by intracoronary infusion of tritiated (H3)-adenosine, and the coronary efflux of H3-cAMP was measured. The adenosine receptor agonist, NECA (12 μM), increased total cAMP release 4 fold, and raised H3-cAMP release 22 fold. Several classes of coronary vasodilators (adenosine, L-PIA, D-PIA, the beta 2-adrenergic agonist procaterol, and PGE1) caused dose-dependent increases in endothelial-derived H3-cAMP release. These increases were accompanied by decreases in vascular resistance, at agonist doses without positive intropic effects. Hypoxic perfusion also raised H3-cAMP release, and this was antagonized by theophylline. It is concluded: (1) cyclic AMP formation by coronary endothelium can dominate total cAMP production by the heart; (2) coronary endothelial adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors for adenosine (A2), catecholamines (beta2) and prostaglandins are activated in parallel with coronary vasodilation; (3) endothelial adenylate cyclase can be activated by endogenous adenosine

  14. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  15. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  16. Reload pattern optimization by application of multiple cyclic interchange algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geemert, R. van; Quist, A.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    Reload pattern optimization procedures are proposed which are based on the multiple cyclic interchange approach, according to which the search for the reload pattern associated with the highest objective function value can be thought of as divided in multiple stages. The transition from the initial to the final stage is characterized by an increase in the degree of locality of the search procedure. The general idea is that, during the first stages, the `elite` cluster containing the group of best patterns must be located, after which the solution space is sampled in a more and more local sense to find the local optimum in this cluster. The transition(s) from global search behaviour to local search behaviour can be either prompt, by defining strictly separate search regimes, or gradual by introducing stochastic tests for the number of fuel bundles involved in a cyclic interchange. Equilibrium cycle optimization results are reported for a test PWR reactor core of modest size. (author)

  17. Reload pattern optimization by application of multiple cyclic interchange algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geemert, R. van; Quist, A.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Reload pattern optimization procedures are proposed which are based on the multiple cyclic interchange approach, according to which the search for the reload pattern associated with the highest objective function value can be thought of as divided in multiple stages. The transition from the initial to the final stage is characterized by an increase in the degree of locality of the search procedure. The general idea is that, during the first stages, the 'elite' cluster containing the group of best patterns must be located, after which the solution space is sampled in a more and more local sense to find the local optimum in this cluster. The transition(s) from global search behaviour to local search behaviour can be either prompt, by defining strictly separate search regimes, or gradual by introducing stochastic tests for the number of fuel bundles involved in a cyclic interchange. Equilibrium cycle optimization results are reported for a test PWR reactor core of modest size. (author)

  18. Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G.

    2005-01-01

    The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k eff results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation

  19. Multigroup adjoint transport solution using the method of cyclic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assawaroongruengchot, M.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The adjoint transport solution algorithm based on the method of cyclic characteristics (MOCC) is developed for the heterogeneous 2-dimensional geometries. The adjoint characteristics equation associated with a cyclic tracking line is formulated, then a closed form for adjoint angular flux can be determined. The acceleration techniques are implemented using the group-reduction and group-splitting techniques. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, the calculations are performed on the 17*17 PWR and Watanabe-Maynard benchmark problems. Comparisons of adjoint flux and k{sub eff} results obtained by MOCC and collision probability (CP) methods are performed. The mathematical relationship between pseudo-adjoint flux obtained by CP method and adjoint flux by MOCC method is presented. It appears that the pseudo-adjoint flux by CP method is equivalent to the adjoint flux by MOCC method and that the MOCC method requires lower computing time than the CP method for a single adjoint flux calculation.

  20. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: dmetzler@umd.edu [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  1. Kolkata Paise Restaurant Problem and the Cyclically Fair Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyodorshi; Mitra, Manipushpak; Mukherjee, Conan

    In this paper we revisit the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem by allowing for a more general (but common) preference of the n customers defined over the set of n restaurants. This generalization allows for the possibility that each pure strategy Nash equilibrium differs from the Pareto efficient allocation. By assuming that n is small and by allowing for mutual interaction across all customers we design strategies to sustain cyclically fair norm as a sub-game perfect equilibrium of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem. We have a cyclically fair norm if n strategically different Pareto efficient strategies are sequentially sustained in a way such that each customer gets serviced in all the n restaurants exactly once between periods 1 and n and then again the same process is repeated between periods (n+1) and 2n and so on.

  2. Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.

  3. Bending cyclic load test for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2018-02-01

    The failures induced by thermomechanical fatigue within crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are a common issue that can occur in any climate. In order to understand these failures, we confirmed the effects of compressive or tensile stresses (which were cyclically loaded on photovoltaic cells and cell interconnect ribbons) at subzero, moderate, and high temperatures. We found that cell cracks were induced predominantly at low temperatures, irrespective of the compression or tension applied to the cells, although the orientation of cell cracks was dependent on the stress applied. The fracture of cell interconnect ribbons was caused by cyclical compressive stress at moderate and high temperatures, and this failure was promoted by the elevation of temperature. On the basis of these results, the causes of these failures are comprehensively discussed in relation to the viscoelasticity of the encapsulant.

  4. Production of isomers by the cyclic activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaita, G.N.; Eapen, P.K.

    1974-01-01

    The isomeric states formation cross sections for 14.8 MeV neutron reactions in Mg, Al, As, Y, In, Hf, Tl, Pb, and Bi were measured using the cyclic activation technique and a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. Isomeric activities originating from the various isotopes of lead and thallium were separated by proper choice of cyclic timing parameters and energy discrimination. Long lived isomeric and ground state activities were investigated through conventional activation method. The isomeric cross section ratios, sigma/sub m//sigma/sub g/ for six elements, were measured and compared to the theoretical predictions of the Huizenga-Vandenbosch method. The half-lives of short-lived activities were determined using a wide range time-to-pulse height converter and a multi-channel analyzer

  5. New cytotoxic cyclic peptides and dianthramide from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Ching-Chung; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Su-Li; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2004-09-01

    Four new cyclic peptides, dianthins C-F (1-4), and a new dianthramide, 4-methoxydianthramide B (5), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus superbus. The sequences of cyclic peptides 1-4 were elucidated as cyclo(Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Phe(3)-Tyr(4)-Val(5)-Ile(6)-), cyclo(Gly(1)-Ser(2)-Leu(3)-Pro(4)-Pro(5)-Ile(6)-Phe(7)-), cyclo(Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Ile(3)-Ser(4)-Phe(5)-Val(6)-), and cyclo(Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Phe(3)-Val(4)-Phe(5)-) on the basis of ESI tandem mass fragmentation analysis, chemical evidence, and extensive 2D NMR methods. The conformation of compound 1 was established as an alpha-helix by CD analysis. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 5 showed cytotoxicities toward the Hep G2 cancer cell line with IC(50) values of 2.37 and 4.08, respectively.

  6. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Dominik; Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.; Li, Chen; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance

  7. A secure cyclic steganographic technique for color images using randomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, K.; Ahmad, J.; Rehman, N.U.

    2014-01-01

    Information Security is a major concern in today's modern era. Almost all the communicating bodies want the security, confidentiality and integrity of their personal data. But this security goal cannot be achieved easily when we are using an open network like internet. Steganography provides one of the best solutions to this problem. This paper represents a new Cyclic Steganographic Technique (CST) based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) for true color (RGB) images. The proposed method hides the secret data in the LSBs of cover image pixels in a randomized cyclic manner. The proposed technique is evaluated using both subjective and objective analysis using histograms changeability, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). Experimentally it is found that the proposed method gives promising results in terms of security, imperceptibility and robustness as compared to some existent methods and vindicates this new algorithm. (author)

  8. STUDY OF ELECTROPOLIMERIZATION PROCESSES OF PYRROLE BY CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes and electrochemical properties of polypyrrole as electroactive polymer have been studied by cyclic voltammetric technique. Pyrrole was electropolymerized to form polypyrrole in water-based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte in several pH values. The pH of the solutions were varied by using Britton Robinson buffer. The results showed that oxidation potential limit of electropolymerization processes of pyrrole was 1220 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It can be seen that cyclic voltammetric respon of polypyrrole membrane that was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s was stable. While the processes of pyrrole electropolymerization carried out at the variation of pH showed that the best condition was at the pH range of 2 - 6.   Keywords: polypyrolle, electropolymer, voltammetric technique

  9. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  10. Low-temperature resistance of cyclically strained aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, H.R.; Richard, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of the resistance changes in high-purity, reinforced aluminum due to cyclic straining is presently underway. The purpose of this work is to determine the optimum purity of aluminum to be used as a stabilizing material for superconducting magnets used for energy storage. Since pure aluminum has a low yield strength, it is not capable of supporting the stress levels in an energized magnet. Therefore, it has been bonded to a high-strength material--in this case, 6061 aluminum alloy. This bonding permits pure aluminum to be strained cyclically beyond its elastic limit with recovery of large plastic strains upon release of the load. The resistance change in this composite material is less than that of pure, unreinforced aluminum

  11. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  12. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  13. Public administration and cyclical mechanisms socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kvitka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the cyclical mechanisms of socio-economic development as one of kinds of natural cycles. The author notes that in all cases the basis of the self-oscillations are cyclical. And they are only possible with the constant influx of three resources - energy, matter and information. On this basis, it is noted that the self-organization of coherent structures, regardless of their Genesis, is due to intrinsically contradictory unity of two interacting types of resource flows - energy, matter and information – And-stream forming system, and the In-flow that will disrupt her. The cycle of development of systems consists of two components: one that describes the development of a system with positive saturation, according to a logistic law (A>B; and another describing the development of the system with negative saturation.

  14. Cyclic mechanical fatigue in ceramic-ceramic composites: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D. III

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to cyclic mechanical fatigue effects in a number of ceramics and ceramic composites, including several monolithic ceramics in which significant residual stresses should be present as a result of thermal expansion mismatches and anisotropy. Fatigue is also noted in several BN-containing ceramic matrix-particulate composites and in SiC fiber-ceramic matrix composites. These results suggest that fatigue testing is imperative for ceramics and ceramic composites that are to be used in applications subject to cyclic loading. Fatigue process models are proposed which provide a rationale for fatigue effect observations, but do not as yet provide quantitative results. Fiber composite fatigue damage models indicate that design stresses in these materials may have to be maintained below the level at which fiber pullout occurs

  15. Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.

    2013-09-03

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one- pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin-binding domain. Despite their functional similarities, the plant CNGC family members appear to have different conserved amino acid motifs within corresponding functional domains than animal and bacterial CNGCs do. Here we describe the development and application of methods employing plant CNGC-specific sequence motifs as diagnostic tools to identify novel candidate channels in different plants. These methods are used to evaluate the validity of annotations of putative orthologs of CNGCs from plant genomes. The methods detail how to employ regular expressions of conserved amino acids in functional domains of annotated CNGCs and together with Web tools such as PHI-BLAST and ScanProsite to identify novel candidate CNGCs in species including Physcomitrella patens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  16. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Effect of loading history on cyclic stress-strain response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Weiss, B.; Melisova, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 314, 1/2 (2001), s. 1-6 ISSN 0921-5093. [TMS Annual Meeting. Nashville, 12.03.2000-16.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : cyclic plasticity * loading history * mean stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2001

  18. A cytotoxic cyclic heptapeptide from the seeds of Annona cherimola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wélé, Alassane; Zhang, Yanjun; Ndoye, Idrissa; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Pousset, Jean-Louis; Bodo, Bernard

    2004-09-01

    From a methanol extract of the seeds of Annona cherimola, a new cyclic heptapeptide, cherimolacyclopeptide C, has been isolated. The structure was elucidated on the basis of the MS/MS fragmentation using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI source, extensive 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. Cherimolacyclopeptide C exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50) value of 0.072 microM.

  19. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  20. The influence of cyclic structure on the radiolysis of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.; Cserep, Gy.; Horvath, Zs.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1975-01-01

    Aliphatic and cyclic C 3 -C 12 alkanes and alkenes have been irradiated in liquid phase by a 60 Co-γ-source with the nominal activity of 80 000 Ci. The dose rate was 1-2 Mrad/hr, the doses were between 0 and 10 Mrad. The following conclusions can be drawn from the experiments: 1., While no significant difference can be observed between radiolytic decomposition of n-hydrocarbon homologues, that of cyclic hydrocarbons is the function of the size of the ring. 2., Reactivity of cyclic hydrocarbons is influenced not only by their surplus enthalpy of formation (strain energy) but also by the individual components of this surplus enthalpy, e.g. bond deformation or repulsion between hydrogen atoms. 3., The overall yield of decomposition of higher than C 4 straightchain and cyclic alkanes activated by radiation and reacting via either C-C or C-H fission is approximately constant, with a G value of 6.5+-0.5. The structure of the molecules affects mainly the ratio of C-C and C-H bond rupture, i.e. these two processes are in competition. 4., Hydrogen yields from alkenes are affected mainly by the order and number of allylic C-H bonds, and by the possibility of the formation of allyl-type radicals. This latter is facilitated by ''free'' rotation in the case of open-chain hydrocarbons whereas it is hindered in the case of small and medium size cycles. (K.A.)

  1. A modelling approach for exploring muscle dynamics during cyclic contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Ross

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hill-type muscle models are widely used within the field of biomechanics to predict and understand muscle behaviour, and are often essential where muscle forces cannot be directly measured. However, these models have limited accuracy, particularly during cyclic contractions at the submaximal levels of activation that typically occur during locomotion. To address this issue, recent studies have incorporated effects into Hill-type models that are oftentimes neglected, such as size-dependent, history-dependent, and activation-dependent effects. However, the contribution of these effects on muscle performance has yet to be evaluated under common contractile conditions that reflect the range of activations, strains, and strain rates that occur in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a modelling framework to evaluate modifications to Hill-type muscle models when they contract in cyclic loops that are typical of locomotor muscle function. Here we present a modelling framework composed of a damped harmonic oscillator in series with a Hill-type muscle actuator that consists of a contractile element and parallel elastic element. The intrinsic force-length and force-velocity properties are described using Bézier curves where we present a system to relate physiological parameters to the control points for these curves. The muscle-oscillator system can be geometrically scaled while preserving dynamic and kinematic similarity to investigate the muscle size effects while controlling for the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator. The model is driven by time-varying muscle activations that cause the muscle to cyclically contract and drive the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator. Thus, this framework provides a platform to test current and future Hill-type model formulations and explore factors affecting muscle performance in muscles of different sizes under a range of cyclic contractile conditions.

  2. Micromechanics of intergranular creep failure under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Giessen, Erik; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    boundaries are modelled individually. The model incorporates power-law creep of the grains, viscous grain boundary sliding between grains as well as the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities until they coalesce and form microcracks. Study of a limiting case with a facet-size microcrack reveals....... The analyses provide some new understanding that helps to explain the sometimes peculiar behaviour under balanced cyclic creep. Copyright (C) 1996 Acta Metallurgica Inc....

  3. Ultrathin monomolecular films and robust assemblies based on cyclic catechols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zieger, M. M.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Verveniotis, E.; Preuss, C. M.; Zorn, M.; Reck, B.; Goldmann, A. S.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 670-679 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic catechols * ultrathin films * macromolecules monolayers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  4. A cyclic production problem: an application of max-algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Given are m identical machines, each of which performs the same N operations Oi, 1 ≤ i ≤ N, cyclically and indefinitely, i.e. a production run on a machine looksO1, O2,…,ON, O1, O2,…,ON, O1…. There are nim to to perform operation Oi. The tools are transported between the machines by means of an

  5. Cyclic plastic hinges with degradation effects for frame structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tidemann, Lasse; Krenk, Steen

    2017-01-01

    A model of cyclic plastic hinges in frame structures including degradation effects for stiffness and strength is developed. The model is formulated via potentials in terms of section forces. It consists of a yield surface, described in a generic format permitting representation of general convex shapes including corners, and a set of evolution equations based on an internal energy potential and a plastic flow potential. The form of these potentials is specified by five parameters for each gen...

  6. Methanophosphagen: Unique cyclic pyrophosphate isolated from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanodia, Sushila; Roberts, Mary Fedarko

    1983-01-01

    A unique cyclic pyrophosphate compound has been detected at 10-12 mM intracellular concentration in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum by in vivo31P NMR. This compound has been extracted from cells and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Studies with 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry have identified it as 2,3-cyclopyrophosphoglycerate, an intramolecularly cyclized pyrophosphate of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Chemical degradation to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate an...

  7. On L ∞-Morphisms of Cyclic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio Cattaneo, Alberto; Felder, Giovanni; Willwacher, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Recently the first two authors (Cattaneo and Felder in 2008) constructed an L ∞-morphism using the S 1-equivariant version of the Poisson Sigma Model. Its role in the deformation quantization was not entirely clear. We give here a “good” interpretation and show that the resulting formality statement is equivalent to formality on cyclic chains as conjectured by Tsygan and proved recently by several authors (Dolgushev et al. in 2008; Willwacher in 2008).

  8. 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptides for Noninvasive Monitoring of Tumor Integrin αvβ3 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the biologic evaluations of [99mTc(HYNIC-3P-RGD2(tricine(TPPTS] (99mTc-3P-RGD2: 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; 3P-RGD2 = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK]2; PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid; and TPPTS = trisodium triphenylpho-sphine-3,3′,3“-trisulfonate, [99mTc(HYNIC-3G-RGD2(tricine(TPPTS] (99mTc-3G-RGD2: 3G-RGD2 = G3-E[G3-c(RGDfK]2 and G3 = Gly-Gly-Gly, and 99mTcO(MAG2−3G-RGD2 (MAG2 = mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl as radiotracers for noninvasive imaging of tumor integrin αvβ3 expression in five xenografted tumor-bearing models. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG, MDA-MB-435, A549, HT29, or PC-3 tumor xenografts. Immunochemistry was performed using the cultured primary tumor cells and xenografted tumor tissues. It was found that the radiotracer tumor uptake followed the trend U87MG > MDA-MB-435 ≈ HT29 ≈ A549 > PC-3. The total integrin β3 expression levels followed the general trend: U87MG > MDA-MB-435 ≈ A549~HT29 > PC-3. There is a linear relationship between the radiotracer injected dose per gram tumor uptake and the total integrin β3 expression levels. On the basis of these, it was concluded that radiotracer tumor uptake is contributed by integrin αVβ3 expressed on tumor cells and activated endothelial cells of the tumor neovasculature. 99mTc-3P-RGD2 has the capability to monitor integrin αvβ3 expression in a noninvasive fashion.

  9. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  10. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  11. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  12. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  13. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  14. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  15. Assessment of burned coal shale properties based on cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygierek, Marcin; Kalisz, Piotr; Pacześniowski, Krzysztof; Pytlik, Andrzej; Zięba, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    Road surfaces that are subjected to cyclic loads generated by vehicle wheels must meet the requirements concerning the durability in the assumed period of use. The durability of the layered pavement construction systems depends on the value and frequency of the load as well as on the mechanical features of its individual layers. Layers of unbound, mechanically stabilized mixtures are a significant aspect of surfaces that are susceptible. Mixtures of this type can be applied both to the subgrade layers as well as to the bottom pavement layers, including the improved course. Considering the cyclic nature of the load on the surface of the entire system, mechanically stabilized layers are subject to continuous, but slow, densification during the period of use, which results in the formation of permanent deformations and so-called structural ruts. Post-mining waste is frequently used in road construction. which is the so-called burned shale that can be used for the bottom layers of the surface and layers of the improved subgrade (soil replacement). This material was the subject of the analysis. The evaluation was based mainly on the results of pilot studies covering cyclic loads of the layer/course made of the so-called red shale. The applied research method was aimed at preliminary assessment of its suitability for the assessment of the behaviour of the disintegrated medium under the conditions of test loads simulating the movement of vehicles.

  16. Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, R; Reichel, K; Malrieu, F; Masson, J P; Stoeckel, S

    2016-11-01

    Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In this paper, we describe distributions of genetic diversity under conditions of CP with various clonal phase lengths. Using a Markov chain model of CP for a single locus and individual-based simulations for two loci, our analysis first demonstrates that strong departures from full sexuality are observed after only a few generations of clonality. The convergence towards predictions made under conditions of full clonality during the clonal phase depends on the balance between mutations and genetic drift. Second, the sexual event of CP usually resets the genetic diversity at a single locus towards predictions made under full sexuality. However, this single recombination event is insufficient to reshuffle gametic phases towards full-sexuality predictions. Finally, for similar levels of clonality, CP and acyclic partial clonality (wherein a fixed proportion of individuals are clonally produced within each generation) differentially affect the distribution of genetic diversity. Overall, this work provides solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks).

  17. Cyclic joint remote state preparation in noisy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-yue; Bai, Ming-qiang; Zhou, Si-qi

    2018-06-01

    We propose a scheme of cyclic joint remote state preparation for three sides, which takes advantage of three GHZ states to compose product state as quantum channel. Suppose there are six legitimate participants, says Alice, Bob, Charlie, David, Emma and Fred in the scheme. It can be shown that Alice and David can remotely prepare a single-qubit state on Bob's side; meanwhile, Bob and Emma can remotely prepare a desired quantum state on Charlie's side, and Charlie and Fred can also remotely prepare a single-qubit state on Alice's side at the same time. Further, it can be achieved in the opposite direction of the cycle by changing the quantum channel. Based on it, we generalize this protocol to N (N≥3) sides utilizing three multi-qubit GHZ-type states as quantum channel. Therefore, the scheme can achieve cyclic joint remote state preparation, which remotely prepares N states in quantum network with N-party, simultaneously. In addition, we consider that the effect of amplitude-damping noise of the initial states is prepared in four different laboratory. Clearly, we use fidelity to describe how much information has been lost in the cyclic process. Our investigation about the effect of noise shows that the preparing of the initial state in different laboratories will affect the loss of information.

  18. Radioprotection of mouse intestine by inhibitors of cyclic amp phosphodiesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1979-01-01

    The survival of colony-forming units of the jejunal crypt was used to assay the radioprotective capacity of various inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. DL-152, RO-20-1724 and the methyl xanthines, caffeine, theophylline, and methyl isbutyl xanthine (MIX) were all found to have some radioprotective effect. The degree of radioprotecton depended on the route of administration of the drug and on the timing of administration with respect to irradiation. Optimum survival of crypt stem cells was found following intraperitoneal administration of DL-152 (60 min before irradiation) or MIX (30 min before irradiaton), and following intravenous administration of caffeine (60 to 120 min before irradiaton) or theophylline (60 min before irradiation). When these protocols were used, crypt stem cell survival could be enhanced by a factor of from 6 to 7. All the compounds investigated produced some elevation of cyclic AMP content of the whole jejunum; this was found to be simultaneous with or to precede the period of maximum radioprotection. Cyclic AMP was localized with immunofluorescent staining; following injection of DL-152 it was found to be elevated in all parts of the jejunum but to the greatest extent in the lower part of the crypt. Survival curves for crypt stem cells from MIX and DL-152 treated mice were found to have almost the same exponential slope as the saline-injected control, suggesting that the mechanism of protection does not depend on induction of hypoxia

  19. Assessment of burned coal shale properties based on cyclic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygierek Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road surfaces that are subjected to cyclic loads generated by vehicle wheels must meet the requirements concerning the durability in the assumed period of use. The durability of the layered pavement construction systems depends on the value and frequency of the load as well as on the mechanical features of its individual layers. Layers of unbound, mechanically stabilized mixtures are a significant aspect of surfaces that are susceptible. Mixtures of this type can be applied both to the subgrade layers as well as to the bottom pavement layers, including the improved course. Considering the cyclic nature of the load on the surface of the entire system, mechanically stabilized layers are subject to continuous, but slow, densification during the period of use, which results in the formation of permanent deformations and so-called structural ruts. Post-mining waste is frequently used in road construction. which is the so-called burned shale that can be used for the bottom layers of the surface and layers of the improved subgrade (soil replacement. This material was the subject of the analysis. The evaluation was based mainly on the results of pilot studies covering cyclic loads of the layer/course made of the so-called red shale. The applied research method was aimed at preliminary assessment of its suitability for the assessment of the behaviour of the disintegrated medium under the conditions of test loads simulating the movement of vehicles.

  20. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škrnjug

    Full Text Available The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  1. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Rueckert, Christine; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  2. Fatigue crack growth behavior under cyclic thermal transient stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Kano, Takashi; Yoshitoshi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal fatigue tests were performed using straight pipe specimens subjected to cyclic thermal shocks of liquid sodium, and crack growth behaviors were estimated using striation patterns observed clearly on any crack surface. Crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain reaches the maximum at one depth, and after that it decreases gradually with crack depth. The peak location of crack growth rate becomes deeper by superposition of constant primary stress. Parallel cracks co-existing in the neighborhood move the peak to shallower location and decrease the maximum crack growth rate. The equivalent stress intensity factor range calculated by Walker's formula is successfully applied to the case of negative stress ratio. Fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain agreed well with that under the constant temperature equal to the maximum value in the thermal cycle. Simplified methods for calculating the stress intensity factor and the crack interference factor have been developed. Crack growth behavior under thermal fatigue could be well predicted using numerical analysis results. (author)

  3. Fatigue crack growth behavior under cyclic transient thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Kano, Takashi; Yoshitoshi, Atsushi.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal fatigue tests were performed using straight pipe specimens subjected to cyclic thermal shocks of liquid sodium, and crack growth behaviors were estimated using striation patterns observed clearly on any crack surface. Crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain reaches the maximum at one depth, and after that it decreases gradually with crack depth. The peak location of crack growth rate becomes deeper by superposition of constant primary stress. Parallel cracks co-existing in the neighborhood move the peak to shallower location and decrease the maximum crack growth rate. The equivalent stress intensity factor range calculated by Walker's formula is successfully applied to the case of negative stress ratio. Fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain agreed well with that under the constant temperature equal to the maximum value in the thermal cycle. Simplified methods for calculating the stress intensity factor and the crack interference factor have been developed. Crack growth behavior under thermal fatigue could be well predicted using numerical analysis results. (author)

  4. Methods of evaluation of thermal tolerance of cyclic sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kish А.А.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is investigation of thermal stability in athletes of cyclic sports and assessment of its influence on physical working capacity under hyperthermia. Material and methods. 15 male athletes of cyclic sports who had the senior degree as minimum were included in the study Middle age 24,2±1,1 years. Work was performed in the climatic camera of the Center of sports medicine and rehabilitation in several stages, on each of which assessment of physical working capacity and a thermal condition of athletes was carried out. Results. In the real work the burdening action of the heating climate on indicators of physical working capacity and a thermal condition of athletes of cyclic sports is shown; the operating ranges of high temperatures are determined. Conclusion. The data obtained by means of the offered technique, confirm importance of definition of individual thresholds of shipping of a thermal state at athletes and the burdening action of a heat on their physical working capacity.

  5. Structural Principles in the Development of Cyclic Peptidic Enzyme Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Andreasen, Peter A.; Huang, Mingdong

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes our studies in the development of small cyclic peptides for specifically modulating enzyme activity. Serine proteases share highly similar active sites but perform diverse physiological and pathological functions. From a phage-display peptide library, we isolated two mono-cyclic peptides, upain-1 (CSWRGLENHRMC) and mupain-1 (CPAYSRYLDC), which inhibit the activity of human and murine urokinase-type plasminogen activators (huPA and muPA) with Ki values in the micromolar or sub-micromolar range, respectively. The following affinity maturations significantly enhanced the potencies of the two peptides, 10-fold and >250-fold for upain-1 and mupain-1, respectively. The most potent muPA inhibitor has a potency (Ki = 2 nM) and specificity comparable to mono-clonal antibodies. Furthermore, we also found an unusual feature of mupain-1 that its inhibitory potency can be enhanced by increasing the flexibility, which challenges the traditional viewpoint that higher rigidity leading to higher affinity. Moreover, by changing a few key residues, we converted mupain-1 from a uPA inhibitor to inhibitors of other serine proteases, including plasma kallikrein (PK) and coagulation factor XIa (fXIa). PK and fXIa inhibitors showed Ki values in the low nanomolar range and high specificity. Our studies demonstrate the versatility of small cyclic peptides to engineer inhibitory potency against serine proteases and to provide a new strategy for generating peptide inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:29104489

  6. Annotating and Interpreting Linear and Cyclic Peptide Tandem Mass Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptides often possess pronounced bioactivity, and thus, they are often interesting hit compounds in natural product-based drug discovery programs. Their mass spectrometric characterization is difficult due to the predominant occurrence of non-proteinogenic monomers and, especially in the case of cyclic peptides, the complex fragmentation patterns observed. This makes nonribosomal peptide tandem mass spectra annotation challenging and time-consuming. To meet this challenge, software tools for this task have been developed. In this chapter, the workflow for using the software mMass for the annotation of experimentally obtained peptide tandem mass spectra is described. mMass is freely available (http://www.mmass.org), open-source, and the most advanced and user-friendly software tool for this purpose. The software enables the analyst to concisely annotate and interpret tandem mass spectra of linear and cyclic peptides. Thus, it is highly useful for accelerating the structure confirmation and elucidation of cyclic as well as linear peptides and depsipeptides.

  7. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  8. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  9. The Cyclic AMP-Vfr Signaling Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Inhibited by Cyclic Di-GMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almblad, Henrik; Harrison, Joe J; Rybtke, Morten

    2015-01-01

    infection give rise to rugose small colony variants (RSCVs), which are hyper-biofilm-forming mutants that commonly possess mutations that increase production of the biofilm-promoting secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). We show that RSCVs display a decreased production of acute virulence factors...... as a direct result of elevated c-di-GMP content. Overproduction of c-di-GMP causes a decrease in the transcription of virulence factor genes that are regulated by the global virulence regulator Vfr. The low level of Vfr-dependent transcription is caused by a low level of its coactivator, cyclic AMP (c......AMP), which is decreased in response to a high level of c-di-GMP. Mutations that cause reversion of the RSCV phenotype concomitantly reactivate Vfr-cAMP signaling. Attempts to uncover the mechanism underlying the observed c-di-GMP-mediated lowering of cAMP content provided evidence that it is not caused...

  10. Cyclic Creep Behavior of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel at 600 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Dae Whan; Jang, Jin Sung; Park, Jae Young

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic deformation behavior is important in practice because high-temperature structural components are exposed under the cyclic conditions of repeated loading. In static creep (SC), the response of the material is simple as a static state of monotonic loading. However, in cyclic creep (CC), it is complex as dynamic loading. Cyclic creep data have been rarely reported until now. In particular, it is not understood well whether cyclic creep will accelerate or retard the creep rate compared with static creep, because it is not only the plastic deformation under cyclic loading is drastically different from monotonic loading, but also the cyclic response is dependent on the cycling frequency, stress range, stress ratio, and hold periods of cycling. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the cyclic creep behavior influencing the creep deformation and fracture process. In this study, a series of cyclic creep tests was carried out using magnitudes of stress range of constant stress ratio (R=0.1) under continuous tension-tension loading cycles at a hold time of 10 minutes. Cyclic curves were monitored and obtained with time variations, and the properties of the cyclic creep tests were compared with those of static creep tests. The fracture microstructures were observed and analyzed

  11. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  12. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  13. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  14. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  15. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  16. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  17. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  18. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  19. Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

  20. A direct radiolabeling of 99Tcm cyclic RGD peptide, an antagonist of αvβ3 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianwei; Liu Guangyuan; Liu Kaiyuan; Huang Dingde; Xie Ganfeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: It has been reported that Cys-Asp-Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys-Lys-Cys (RGD) peptides, as integrin α v β 3 receptor antagonists, might inhibit angiogenesis of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of direct labeling of 99 Tc m to a cyclic nine peptide containing RGD sequence (RGD-4CK), to observe the effects of different conditions on labeling efficiency, and to evaluate the radiochemical property of 99 Tc m -RGD-4CK. Methods: The peptide RGD-4CK contained the sequence of Cys-Asp-Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys-Lys-Cys. It was labeled directly by 99 Tc m with 'pretinning' method. The Rf value of 99 Tc m -RGD-4CK and 99 Tc m O 4 were determined in 3 MM paper chromatography. The labeling efficiency and specific activity were calculated. The influences of various conditions to the labeling rate were studied. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and Sep-Pak C18 chromatography were used to assess the property of radiolabeled 99 Tc m -RGD-4CK. The stability in vitro, the cysteine replacement and the serum protein combination were also tested. Results: The Rf values of 99 Tc m -RGD-4CK were 0 and 0.8-0.9 respectively in mobile phase of acetone and V(NH 4 OH): V(ethanol): V(water) = 1: 2: 5. The radiochemical yield was (97.8±0.4)% and the specific activity (11.90±0.05) TBq/mmol in the basic condition of labeling. The labeling efficiency remained over 95% under the condition of 150-300 μg stannous tartrate, pH value 2.0-3.5, temperature 60 degree C and incubation time over 6 h in the process of pretinning reaction, the activity of 99 Tc m O 4 - was 37-185 MBq within volume of 200 μl. With the labeling temperature of 95 degree C in 30 min, the retention of 99 Tc m -RGD-4CK was in accordance with the major peak of time-activity curve from the analytical HPLC. The radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -RGD-4CK remained above 95% after 6 h at room temperature. The amount of 99 Tc m O 4 - ; increased only by 0.5% as measured with Sep

  1. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  2. Biosynthesis of cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Isolation and characterization of 2-phosphoglycerate kinase and cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate synthetase from Methanothermus fervidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmacher, A; Vogt, A B; Hensel, R

    1990-10-15

    Starting from 2-phosphoglycerate the biosynthesis of cDPG comprises two steps: (i) the phosphorylation of 2-phosphoglycerate to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and (ii) the intramolecular cyclization to cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. The involved enzymes, 2-phosphoglycerate kinase and cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate synthetase, were purified form Methanothermus fervidus. Their molecular and catalytic properties were characterized.

  3. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-06-01

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate as a component of a new branch in gluconeogenesis in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, A; Roberts, M F

    1993-07-01

    A unique compound, cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG), is the major soluble carbon and phosphorus solute in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H under optimal conditions of cell growth. It is a component of an unusual branch in gluconeogenesis in these bacteria. [U-13C]acetate pulse-[12C]acetate chase methodology was used to observe the relationship between cDPG and other metabolites (2-phosphoglycerate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate [2-PG and 2,3-DPG, respectively]) of this branch. It was demonstrated that cells could grow exponentially under conditions in which 2-PG and 2,3-DPG, rather than cDPG, were the major solutes. While the total concentration of these three phosphorylated molecules was maintained, rapid interconversion of 13C label among them was observed. Label flow from 2-PG to 2,3-DPG to cDPG to polymer is the usual direction in this pathway in exponentially growing cells, while the reverse reactions sometimes predominate in the stationary phase. Evidence of the presence of a polymeric compound in this pathway was provided by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (one-dimensional and two-dimensional INADEQUATE) studies of solubilized cell debris.

  5. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  10. Different approaches to labelling parasitoids using strontium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Wäckers, F.L.; Steindl, P.; Günther, D.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    Labelling parasitoids with trace elements is a potentially powerful technique for studying dispersal and trophic interactions in these usually small insects. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of different methods for trace element labelling of the

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  12. The solvent effect on the enthalpy of hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate : a quantum chemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers - Sap, Miek; Buck, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The solvent effect on the enthalpy of hydrolysis has been studied by the Extended-Hückel method for the hydrolysis reactions of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic 3',5'-AMP) and related cyclic phosphate diesters. The results show that the difference in enthalpy of hydrolysis between cyclic

  13. Melanoma targeting with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogs labeled with fac-[99mTc(CO)3]+: effect of cyclization on tumor-seeking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposinho, Paula D; Xavier, Catarina; Correia, João D G; Falcão, Soraia; Gomes, Paula; Santos, Isabel

    2008-03-01

    Early detection of primary melanoma tumors is essential because there is no effective treatment for metastatic melanoma. Several linear and cyclic radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) analogs have been proposed to target the melanocortin type 1 receptor (MC1R) overexpressed in melanoma. The compact structure of a rhenium-cyclized alpha-MSH analog (Re-CCMSH) significantly enhanced its in vivo tumor uptake and retention. Melanotan II (MT-II), a cyclic lactam analog of alpha-MSH (Ac-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2]), is a very potent and stable agonist peptide largely used in the characterization of melanocortin receptors. Taking advantage of the superior biological features associated with the MT-II cyclic peptide, we assessed the effect of lactam-based cyclization on the tumor-seeking properties of alpha-MSH analogs by comparing the pharmacokinetics profile of the 99mTc-labeled cyclic peptide betaAla-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2 with that of the linear analog betaAla-Nle-Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys-NH2 in melanoma-bearing mice. We have synthesized and coupled the linear and cyclic peptides to a bifunctional chelator containing a pyrazolyl-diamine backbone (pz) through the amino group of betaAla, and the resulting pz-peptide conjugates were reacted with the fac-[99mTc(CO)3]+ moiety. The 99mTc(CO)3-labeled conjugates were obtained in high yield, high specific activity, and high radiochemical purity. The cyclic 99mTc(CO)3-labeled conjugate presents a remarkable internalization (87.1% of receptor-bound tracer and 50.5% of total applied activity, after 6 h at 37 degrees C) and cellular retention (only 24.7% released from the cells after 5 h) in murine melanoma B16F1 cells. A significant tumor uptake and retention was obtained in melanoma-bearing C57BL6 mice for the cyclic radioconjugate [9.26 +/- 0.83 and 11.31 +/- 1.83% ID/g at 1 and 4 h after injection, respectively]. The linear 99mTc(CO)3-pz-peptide presented lower values for

  14. Precambrian cyclic rhythmites: solar-climatic or tidal signatures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    For more than 60 years geologists have sought evidence of solar-climatic cyclicity in rhythmically laminated sedimentary rocks, but claims in general have not been persuasive. Three Precambrian rhythmite sequences in Australia that comprise varve-like laminae recently have received attention, however, as their conspicuous cycles of ca. 10-14 and/or 20-25 laminae have been ascribed a sunspot-cycle origin. They are the 2500 Ma old Weeli Wolli Formation, the 1750 Ma old Wollogorang Formation and the 650 Ma old Elatina Formation. New observations for the Weeli Wolli Formation, a siliceous banded iron-formation, suggest a cycle period exceeding the 23 microband couplets proposed by Trendall, casting doubt on the solar interpretation. The Weeli Wolli cyclicity may record Earth-tidal rhythms that modulated the discharge and composition of silica- and iron-bearing fumarolic waters. The structure of the cycles of silty dolomite and mudstone in the Wollogorang Formation does not support a sunspot-cycle origin, and a tidal control on sedimentation should be considered. The Elatina sequence of cyclic sandstone and siltstone laminae displays several empirical similarities to the sunspot series. The discovery of thicker, more complex lamina-cycles in the correlative Reynella Siltstone has, however, caused reappraisal of the solar interpretation of the Elatina rhythmites. The Elatina series may encode unique information on lunar orbital periods and the Earth's palaeorotation: the data indicate ca. 30.5 days per lunar month, 13.1 lunar months and ca. 400 days per year, and lunar apsides and lunar nodal cycles of 9.7 and ca. 19.5 years respectively some 650 Ma ago. (author)

  15. Differential model of macroeconomic growth with endogenic cyclicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Geraskin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to elaborate a mathematical model of economic growth taking into account the cyclical nature of macroeconomic dynamics with the model parameters based on the Russian economy statistics. Methods economic and mathematical modeling system analysis regression factor analysis econometric time series analysis. Results the article states that under unstable economic growth in Russia forecasting of strategic prospects of the Russian economy is one of the topical directions of scientific studies. Furthermore construction of predictive models should be based on multiple factors taking into account such basic concepts as the neoKeynesian HarrodDomar model Ramsey ndash Cass ndash Koopmans model S. V. Dubovskiyrsquos concept as well as the neoclassical growth model by R. Solow. They served as the basis for developing a multifactor differential economic growth model which is a modification of the neoclassical growth model by R. Solow taking into account the laborsaving and capitalsaving forms of scientifictechnical progress and the Keynesian concept of investment. The model parameters are determined based on the dynamics of actual GDP employment fixed assets and investments in fixed assets for 19652016 in Russia on the basis of official statistics. The generalized model showed the presence of longwave fluctuations that are not detected during the individual periods modeling. The cyclical nature of macroeconomic dynamics with a period of 54 years was found which corresponds to the parameters of long waves by N. D. Kondratiev. Basing on the model the macroeconomic growth forecast was generated which shows that after 2020 the increase of scientifictechnical progress will be negative. Scientific novelty a model is proposed of the scientifictechnical progress indicator showing the growth rate of the capital productivity ratio to the saving rate a differential model of macroeconomic growth is obtained which endogenously takes cyclicity into account

  16. Bovine and human lactoferricin peptides: chimeras and new cyclic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; McDonald, Lindsey J; Haney, Evan F; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Vogel, Hans J

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important antimicrobial and immune regulatory protein present in neutrophils and most exocrine secretions of mammals. The antimicrobial activity of LF has been related to the presence of an antimicrobial peptide sequence, called lactoferricin (LFcin), located in the N-terminal region of the protein. The antimicrobial activity of bovine LFcin is considerably stronger than the human version. In this work, chimera peptides combining segments of bovine and human LFcin were generated in order to study their antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action. In addition, the relevance of the conserved disulfide bridge and the resulting cyclic structure of both LFcins were analyzed by using "click chemistry" and sortase A-catalyzed cyclization of the peptides. The N-terminal region of bovine LFcin (residues 17-25 of bovine LF) proved to be very important for the antimicrobial activity of the chimera peptides against E. coli, when combined with the C-terminal region of human LFcin. Similarly the cyclic bovine LFcin analogs generated by "click chemistry" and sortase A preserved the antimicrobial activity of the original peptide, showing the significance of these two techniques in the design of cyclic antimicrobial peptides. The mechanism of action of bovine LFcin and its active derived peptides was strongly correlated with membrane leakage in E. coli and up to some extent with the ability to induce vesicle aggregation. This mechanism was also preserved under conditions of high ionic strength (150 mM NaCl) illustrating the importance of these peptides in a more physiologically relevant system.

  17. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  18. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  19. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  20. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.