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Sample records for l-valine induced significant

  1. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

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    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators.

  2. Improvement of the redox balance increases L-valine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation conditions.

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    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Suda, Masako; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Production of L-valine under oxygen deprivation conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum lacking the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA and overexpressing the L-valine biosynthesis genes ilvBNCDE was repressed. This was attributed to imbalanced cofactor production and consumption in the overall L-valine synthesis pathway: two moles of NADH was generated and two moles of NADPH was consumed per mole of L-valine produced from one mole of glucose. In order to solve this cofactor imbalance, the coenzyme requirement for L-valine synthesis was converted from NADPH to NADH via modification of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase encoded by ilvC and introduction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus leucine dehydrogenase in place of endogenous transaminase B, encoded by ilvE. The intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and L-valine production drastically improved. Moreover, L-valine yield increased and succinate formation decreased concomitantly with the decreased intracellular redox state. These observations suggest that the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio, i.e., reoxidation of NADH, is the primary rate-limiting factor for L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions. The L-valine productivity and yield were even better and by-products derived from pyruvate further decreased as a result of a feedback resistance-inducing mutation in the acetohydroxy acid synthase encoded by ilvBN. The resultant strain produced 1,470 mM L-valine after 24 h with a yield of 0.63 mol mol of glucose(-1), and the L-valine productivity reached 1,940 mM after 48 h.

  3. Intervention of Dietary Dipeptide Gamma-l-Glutamyl-l-Valine (γ-EV) Ameliorates Inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of LPS-Induced Sepsis.

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    Chee, MacKenzie E; Majumder, Kaustav; Mine, Yoshinori

    2017-07-26

    Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with infection is one of the leading causes of death in critically ill patients in the developed world due to the lack of effective antisepsis treatments. This study examined the efficacy of dietary dipeptide gamma-l-glutamyl-l-valine (γ-EV), which was characterized previously as an anti-inflammatory peptide, in an LPS-induced mouse model of sepsis. BALB/c mice were administered γ-EV via oral gavage followed by an intraperitoneal injection of LPS to induce sepsis. The γ-EV exhibited antisepsis activity by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in plasma and small intestine. γ-EV also reduced the phosphorylation of the signaling proteins JNK and IκBα. We concluded that γ-EV could possess an antisepsis effect against bacterial infection in intestine. This study proposes a signaling mechanism whereby the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) allosterically activated by γ-EV stimulates the interaction of β-arrestin2 with the TIR(TLR/IL-1R) signaling proteins TRAF6, TAB1, and IκBα to suppress inflammatory signaling.

  4. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

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    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012).

  5. Importance of NADPH supply for improved L-valine formation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

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    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Zönnchen, Enrico; Makus, Pia; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Oldiges, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Cofactor recycling is known to be crucial for amino acid synthesis. Hence, cofactor supply was now analyzed for L-valine to identify new targets for an improvement of production. The central carbon metabolism was analyzed by stoichiometric modeling to estimate the influence of cofactors and to quantify the theoretical yield of L-valine on glucose. Three different optimal routes for L-valine biosynthesis were identified by elementary mode (EM) analysis. The modes differed mainly in the manner of NADPH regeneration, substantiating that the cofactor supply may be crucial for efficient L-valine production. Although the isocitrate dehydrogenase as an NADPH source within the tricarboxylic acid cycle only enables an L-valine yield of Y(Val/Glc) = 0.5 mol L-valine/mol glucose (mol Val/mol Glc), the pentose phosphate pathway seems to be the most promising NADPH source. Based on the theoretical calculation of EMs, the gene encoding phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) was deleted to achieve this EM with a theoretical yield Y(Val/Glc) = 0.86 mol Val/mol Glc during the production phase. The intracellular NADPH concentration was significantly increased in the PGI-deficient mutant. L-Valine yield increased from 0.49 +/- 0.13 to 0.67 +/- 0.03 mol Val/mol Glc, and, concomitantly, the formation of by-products such as pyruvate was reduced.

  6. L-valine, an antialgal amino acid from Streptomyces jiujiangensis JXJ 0074(T).

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    Zhang, Bing-Huo; Chen, Wei; Li, Han-Quan; Yang, Jian-Yuan; Zha, Dai-Ming; Duan, Yan-Qing; N Hozzein, Wael; Xiao, Min; Gao, Rui; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    An antialgal compound was isolated from the cultured broth of Streptomyces jiujiangensis JXJ 0074(T) by using bioassay methods. Based on the data of (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, ESI-MS, and thin layer chromatography, the active compound was identified as L-valine, which showed antialgal activity mainly against Microcystis. L-valine exhibited greater antialgal activities than both L-lysine and copper sulfate (CuSO4) did on Microcystis aeruginosa lawn. However, M. aeruginosa recovered growth earlier with higher growth rate in L-valine treatment than in L-lysine treatment. L-valine dissipated completely within 2 days, much quicker than L-lysine (6 days), which resulted in the lysing of more than 80 % M. aeruginosa cells and the release of amount of intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) within 2 days. As a resultant, the extracellular MC-LR content was more than twice of the control from day 1 to 5. Exposure to L-valine significantly promoted the synthesis of MC-LR. L-lysine also promoted the release and synthesis of MC-LR with much lesser efficiency than L-valine. L-valine could damage Microcystis severely, causing perforation and collapse of M. aeruginosa cells and decrease of the chlorophyll. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in L-valine-treated cells of M. aeruginosa initially increased with 32.94 ± 3.37 % higher than the control after 36 h and then decreased quickly. However, the increase rate of superoxide anion radical (O2 (-)) was much higher than that of SOD, which resulted in serious lipid peroxidation and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing L-valine active against cyanobacteria.

  7. Application of metabolic engineering for the biotechnological production of L-valine.

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    Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2014-07-01

    The branched chain amino acid L-valine is an essential nutrient for higher organisms, such as animals and humans. Besides the pharmaceutical application in parenteral nutrition and as synthon for the chemical synthesis of e.g. herbicides or anti-viral drugs, L-valine is now emerging into the feed market, and significant increase of sales and world production is expected. In accordance, well-known microbial production bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains, have recently been metabolically engineered for efficient L-valine production under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and the respective cultivation and production conditions have been optimized. This review summarizes the state of the art in L-valine biosynthesis and its regulation in E. coli and C. glutamicum with respect to optimal metabolic network for microbial L-valine production, genetic strain engineering and bioprocess development for L-valine production, and finally, it will shed light on emerging technologies that have the potential to accelerate strain and bioprocess engineering in the near future.

  8. Treatment with L-valine ameliorates liver fibrosis and restores thrombopoiesis in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

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    Nakanishi, Chikashi; Doi, Hideyuki; Katsura, Kazunori; Satomi, Susumu

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that treatment with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) increases the survival rates in cirrhotic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of L-valine, one of BCAAs, on liver fibrosis in rat. To induce liver fibrosis, male Wistar rats were injected carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intraperitoneally (2.0 mL/kg) twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats (seven to fifteen rats for each group) were then administered 1.688 g/kg/day of L-valine intravenously for 7 days or 10% amino acid preparation that provided the same amount of nitrogen. Seven days after the last administration, blood platelet counts and bone marrow megakaryocyte counts were significantly higher in the valine group than in the control group (131.2 +/- 38.3 vs. 106.3 +/- 14.5 x 10(4)/microL, p = 0.04; 18.0 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.5 +/- 2.2 per field, p valine group than the control group. Furthermore, hepatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in the valine group, and the mRNA levels of factors associated with liver fibrosis such as procollagen alpha1(III), transforming growth factor-beta1 and connective tissue growth factor were significantly lower in the liver of the valine group 10 days after the last administration. These results indicate that L-valine treatment ameliorates liver fibrosis and restores thrombopoiesis in rats exposed to CCl(4). Therefore, L-valine supplementation may be helpful for patients with liver cirrhosis.

  9. Biosensor-driven adaptive laboratory evolution of l-valine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

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    Mahr, Regina; Gätgens, Cornelia; Gätgens, Jochem; Polen, Tino; Kalinowski, Jörn; Frunzke, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution has proven a valuable strategy for metabolic engineering. Here, we established an experimental evolution approach for improving microbial metabolite production by imposing an artificial selective pressure on the fluorescent output of a biosensor using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cells showing the highest fluorescent output were iteratively isolated and (re-)cultivated. The L-valine producer Corynebacterium glutamicum ΔaceE was equipped with an L-valine-responsive sensor based on the transcriptional regulator Lrp of C. glutamicum. Evolved strains featured a significantly higher growth rate, increased L-valine titers (~25%) and a 3-4-fold reduction of by-product formation. Genome sequencing resulted in the identification of a loss-of-function mutation (UreD-E188*) in the gene ureD (urease accessory protein), which was shown to increase L-valine production by up to 100%. Furthermore, decreased L-alanine formation was attributed to a mutation in the global regulator GlxR. These results emphasize biosensor-driven evolution as a straightforward approach to improve growth and productivity of microbial production strains.

  10. Beneficial effects of l-leucine and l-valine on arrhythmias, hemodynamics and myocardial morphology in rats.

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    Mitręga, Katarzyna; Zorniak, Michał; Varghese, Benoy; Lange, Dariusz; Nożynski, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Białka, Szymon; Krzemiński, Tadeusz F

    2011-09-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to have a general protective effect on the heart in different animal models as well as in humans. However, so far no attempt has been made to specifically elucidate their influence on arrhythmias. Our study was performed to evaluate whether an infusion of either l-leucine or l-valine in a dose of 1mgkg(-1)h(-1) 10min before a 7-min period of left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 15min of reperfusion, had an effect on arrhythmias measured during the reperfusion phase in the ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias model in rats in vivo. The effect of the infusion of these substances on mean arterial blood pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. Both of the tested amino acids exhibited significant antiarrhythmic properties. l-Leucine reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation (Pvaline decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation (PValine lowered blood pressure in all phases of the experiment (Pvaline in the dose that was used attenuates arrhythmias and are hypotensive in their influence. Our findings lend support to the many ongoing investigations into the benefit of the application of l-leucine and l-valine in cardiology like their addition to cardioplegic solutions.

  11. Mechanism of specific influence of L-Glutamic acid on the shape of L-Valine crystals

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    Yoshiura, Hiromu; Nagano, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    The specific interaction between L-valine (L-Val) and L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) in the process of evaporative crystallization from an aqueous solution has been investigated. It was found that only 2.0% (wt/wt) of L-Glu against the total amount of L-Val was required to induce significant agglomeration of L-Val. Interestingly, the agglomeration was only induced under acidic conditions, suggesting that the electrostatic interaction was an effective factor for the agglomeration process. As well as the electrostatic interaction, the length of the amino acid side chain was identified as another important factor. In addition, we confirmed that the incorporation rate of L-Glu into L-Val crystals was different during the nucleation and crystal growth stages. Based on these results, a mechanism has been proposed for the interaction of L-Glu and L-Val during the agglomeration process.

  12. Comparative 13C metabolic flux analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient, L-valine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

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    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    L-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for L-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 for L-valine production.

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    Chen, Cheng; Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jinyu; Dong, Xunyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an L-valine-producing strain was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 through deletion of the three genes aceE, alaT and ilvA combined with the overexpression of six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnF and brnE. Overexpression of lrp1 alone increased L-valine production by 16-fold. Deletion of the aceE, alaT and ilvA increased L-valine production by 44-fold. Overexpression of the six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnE and brnF in the triple deletion mutant WCC003 further increased L-valine production. The strain WCC003/pJYW-4-ilvBNC1-lrp1-brnFE produced 243mM L-valine in flask cultivation and 437mM (51g/L) L-valine in fed-batch fermentation and lacked detectable amino-acid byproduct such as l-alanine and l-isoleucine that are usually found in the fermentation of L-valine-producing C. glutamicum.

  14. Growth and characterization of L-valine - a nonlinear optical crystal

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    Moitra, S.; Kar, T. [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2010-01-15

    The growth of a new nonlinear optical material L-valine by solvent evaporation method is reported here. To grow good quality crystals pH value of growth solution has been optimized and solubility of L-valine in different solvents and different pH values was determined. The grown crystals were characterized by IR, single crystal XRD, DTA and TGA, optical transmission and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement. SHG efficiency of L-valine was found equivalent to KDP and its transmission is 75%-80% from ultraviolet to near IR region. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for high-yield L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

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    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Suda, Masako; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated efficient L-valine production by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation. To achieve the high productivity, a NADH/NADPH cofactor imbalance during the synthesis of l-valine was overcome by engineering NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) and using NAD-specific leucine dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Lactate as a by-product was largely eliminated by disrupting the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA. Nonetheless, a few other by-products, particularly succinate, were still produced and acted to suppress the L-valine yield. Eliminating these by-products therefore was deemed key to improving theL-valine yield. By additionally disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc, succinate production was effectively suppressed, but both glucose consumption and L-valine production dropped considerably due to the severely elevated intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio. In contrast, this perturbed intracellular redox state was more than compensated for by deletion of three genes associated with NADH-producing acetate synthesis and overexpression of five glycolytic genes, including gapA, encoding NADH-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Inserting feedback-resistant mutant acetohydroxy acid synthase and NAD-preferring mutant AHAIR in the chromosome resulted in higher L-valine yield and productivity. Deleting the alanine transaminase gene avtA suppressed alanine production. The resultant strain produced 1,280 mM L-valine at a yield of 88% mol mol of glucose(-1) after 24 h under oxygen deprivation, a vastly improved yield over our previous best.

  16. Decomposition of L-valine under nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

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    Li, Yingying; Kojtari, Arben; Friedman, Gary; Brooks, Ari D; Fridman, Alex; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-02-13

    L-Valine solutions in water and phosphate buffer were treated with nonthermal plasma generated by using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device and the products generated after plasma treatments were characterized by (1)H NMR and GC-MS. Our results demonstrate that L-valine is decomposed to acetone, formic acid, acetic acid, threo-methylaspartic acid, erythro-methlyaspartic acid, and pyruvic acid after direct exposure to DBD plasma. The concentrations of these compounds are time-dependent with plasma treatment. The mechanisms of L-valine under the DBD plasma are also proposed in this study. Acetone, pyruvic acid, and organic radicals (•)CHO, CH3COCH2OO(•) (acetonylperoxy), and CH3COC(OH)2OO(•) (1,1-dihydroxypropan-2-one peroxy) may be the determining chemicals in DNA damage.

  17. Improvement of L-valine production at high temperature in Brevibacterium flavum by overexpressing ilvEBNrC genes.

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    Hou, Xiaohu; Ge, Xiangyang; Wu, Di; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Brevibacterium flavum ATCC14067 was engineered for L: -valine production by overexpression of different ilv genes; the ilvEBN(r)C genes from B. flavum NV128 provided the best candidate for L: -valine production. In traditional fermentation, L: -valine production reached 30.08 ± 0.92 g/L at 31°C in 72 h with a low conversion efficiency of 0.129 g/g. To further improve the L: -valine production and conversion efficiency based on the optimum temperatures of L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes (above 35°C) and the thermotolerance of B. flavum, the fermentation temperature was increased to 34, 37, and 40°C. As a result, higher metabolic rate and L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes activity were obtained at high temperature, and the maximum L: -valine production, conversion efficiency, and specific L: -valine production rate reached 38.08 ± 1.32 g/L, 0.241 g/g, and 0.133 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, at 37°C in 48 h fermentation. The strategy for enhancing L: -valine production by overexpression of key enzymes in thermotolerant strains may provide an alternative approach to enhance branched-chain amino acids production with other strains.

  18. Factors enhancing L-valine production by the growth-limited L-isoleucine auxotrophic strain Corynebacterium glutamicum DeltailvA DeltapanB ilvNM13 (pECKAilvBNC).

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    Denina, Ilze; Paegle, Longina; Prouza, Marek; Holátko, Jiri; Pátek, Miroslav; Nesvera, Jan; Ruklisha, Maija

    2010-07-01

    Cell growth limitation is known to be an important condition that enhances L: -valine synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum recombinant strains with L: -isoleucine auxotrophy. To identify whether it is the limited availability of L: -isoleucine itself or the L: -isoleucine limitation-induced rel-dependent ppGpp-mediated stringent response that is essential for the enhancement of L: -valine synthesis in growth-limited C. glutamicum cells, we deleted the rel gene, thereby constructing a relaxed (rel (-) ) C. glutamicum DeltailvA DeltapanB Deltarel ilvNM13 (pECKAilvBNC) strain. Variations in enzyme activity and L: -valine synthesis in rel (+) and rel (-) strains under conditions of L: -isoleucine excess and limitation were investigated. A sharp increase in acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) activity, a slight increase in acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) activity, and a dramatic increase in L: -valine synthesis were observed in both rel (+) and rel (-) cells exposed to L: -isoleucine limitation. Although the positive effect of induction of the stringent response on AHAS and AHAIR upregulation in cells was not confirmed, we found the stringent response to be beneficial for maintaining increased AHAS, dihydroxyacid dehydratase, and transaminase B activity and L: -valine synthesis in cells during the stationary growth phase.

  19. l-Valine functionalized ionic liquid catalyzed esterification reaction under approach

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    Parasuraman Karthikeyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental eco-friendly condensation of carboxylic acids with alcohols proceeded smoothly to afford esters, by using the combination of a novel l-valine amido ethyl methyl imidazolium bromide [l-Vaemim]Br and DBU, under solvent free condition. This method features reusability of catalyst and reduced waste discharge.

  20. Fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli for L-valine production based on in silico flux response analysis.

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    Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-04-01

    We have previously reported the development of a 100% genetically defined engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of producing L-valine from glucose with a high yield of 0.38 g L-valine per gram glucose (0.58 mol L-valine per mol glucose) by batch culture. Here we report a systems biological strategy of employing flux response analysis in bioprocess development using L-valine production by fed-batch culture as an example. Through the systems-level analysis, the source of ATP was found to be important for efficient L-valine production. There existed a trade-off between L-valine production and biomass formation, which was optimized for the most efficient L-valine production. Furthermore, acetic acid feeding strategy was optimized based on flux response analysis. The final fed-batch cultivation strategy allowed production of 32.3 g/L L-valine, the highest concentration reported for E. coli. This approach of employing systems-level analysis of metabolic fluxes in developing fed-batch cultivation strategy would also be applicable in developing strategies for the efficient production of other bioproducts.

  1. Escherichia coli W as a new platform strain for the enhanced production of L-valine by systems metabolic engineering.

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    Park, Jin Hwan; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Jeong Wook; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-05-01

    A less frequently employed Escherichia coli strain W, yet possessing useful metabolic characteristics such as less acetic acid production and high L-valine tolerance, was metabolically engineered for the production of L-valine. The ilvA gene was deleted to make more pyruvate, a key precursor for L-valine, available for enhanced L-valine biosynthesis. The lacI gene was deleted to allow constitutive expression of genes under the tac or trc promoter. The ilvBN(mut) genes encoding feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) I and the L-valine biosynthetic ilvCED genes encoding acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase, dihydroxy acid dehydratase, and branched chain amino acid aminotransferase, respectively, were amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The global regulator Lrp and L-valine exporter YgaZH were also amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The engineered E. coli W (ΔlacI ΔilvA) strain overexpressing the ilvBN(mut) , ilvCED, ygaZH, and lrp genes was able to produce an impressively high concentration of 60.7 g/L L-valine by fed-batch culture in 29.5 h, resulting in a high volumetric productivity of 2.06 g/L/h. The most notable finding is that there was no other byproduct produced during L-valine production. The results obtained in this study suggest that E. coli W can be a good alternative to Corynebacterium glutamicum and E. coli K-12, which have so far been the most efficient L-valine producer. Furthermore, it is expected that various bioproducts including other amino acids might be more efficiently produced by this revisited platform strain of E. coli.

  2. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure

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    Sawamura, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  3. Freezing capture of polymorphic aggregates of bolaamphiphilic (L)-valine-based molecular hydrogelators.

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    Nebot, Vicent J; Díaz-Oltra, Santiago; Smets, Johan; Fernández Prieto, Susana; Miravet, Juan F; Escuder, Beatriu

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured xerogels have been prepared by the freeze-drying of hydrogels and aggregates formed by bolaamphiphilic L-valine derivatives after aging under different environmental conditions. A wide variety of shapes and sizes has been achieved by a simple methodology. These nanostructures have been studied by SEM and WAXD and a dramatic influence of structural flexibility on the kinetics of aggregation has been observed. Such flexibility and a modulation of the hydrophobic effect have shown a profound influence in the packing of these compounds and revealed a high degree of polymorphism.

  4. Refractometry of uniaxially compressed triglycine sulphate crystals doped with L-valine

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    Stadnyk, V. Yo.; Kiryk, Yu. I.

    2012-05-01

    The temperature and spectral dependences of the refractive indices n i of triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals doped with L-valine have been investigated. Doping is found to weaken the temperature dependence of n i of TGS crystals. The electronic polarizabilities α i , refractions R i , and parameters of UV oscillators (λ0 i , B 1 i ) of mechanically distorted doped TGS crystals have been calculated. The temperature coefficients of the shift of the phase-transition point, ∂ T c /∂σ m , are found to be somewhat smaller than those for pure TGS crystals, which is confirmed by the increase in the hardness of TGS crystals after doping.

  5. Photoionization study of L-valine in the gas phase by vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation.

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    Zhou, Shaohui; Chu, Genbai; Cao, Lanlan; Shan, Xiaobin; Liu, Fuyi; Han, Ju-Guang; Sheng, Liusi

    2011-01-01

    The photoionization and photodissociation of L-valine are studied by tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry at the photon energy of 13 eV. The ionization energy of L-valine and the appearance energies of major fragments are measured by the photoionization efficiency spectrum in the photon energy range of 8-11 eV. Possible formation pathways of the major fragments, NH(2)CHC(OH)(2)(+) (m/z=75), NH(2)(CH(3))(2)(CH)(2)(+) (m/z=72) and NH(2)CHCO(+) (m/z=57), are discussed in detail with the theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31++G (d, p) level. Hydrogen migration is considered as the key way for the formation of NH(2)CHC(OH)(2)(+) (m/z=75) and NH(2)CHCO(+) (m/z=57). Furthermore, other fragments, NH(2)CHCOOH(+) (m/z=74), (CH(3))(2)(CH)(2)(+) (m/z=56), C(4)H(7)(+) (m/z=55), NH(2)CHOH(+) (m/z=46), NH(2)CH(2)(+) (m/z=30) and m/z=18, species are also briefly described.

  6. Measurement of Liquid Diffusion Coefficients of Aqueous Solutions of Glycine, L-Alanine, L-Valine and L-Isoleucine by Holographic Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长伟; 李继定; 马沛生; 夏淑倩

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions ofglycine, L-alanine, L-valine and L-isoleucine at 298.15 K were determined by holographic interferometry with accuracy and promptness while without disturbance. The density and viscosity of these solutions were also determined. According to original Gordon model, a model for correlating the diffusion coefficients of amino acids in aqueous solutions was developed and applied. The results showed that this model provided significant convenience in correlation of diffusion coefficients for amino acids system.

  7. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, L Ruby; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  8. Enthalpy characteristics of the dissolution of L-valine in water/formamide mixtures at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The thermochemical dissolution of L-valine in solvent mixtures H2O + (formamide, N-methylformamide, and N, N-dimethylformamide) is studied at an organic component concentration of x 2 = 0-0.35 molar fractions and a temperature of 298.15 K. The experimental data are used to calculate standard enthalpies of dissolution, the transferring of L-valine from water to a mixed solvent, and the enthalpy coefficients of pairwise interactions ( h xy ) with organic solvent molecules. The correlation between the enthalpy characteristics of the dissolution of L-valine with the composition of aqueous organic mixtures and the nature of the organic solvent (its physicochemical properties) is determined. A comparative analysis of the values of h xy of a number of aliphatic L-amino acids in similar solvent mixtures with the hydrophobicity parameters of their side chains is performed.

  9. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

  10. Conformational Studies of ε- CBz- L- Lysine and L- Valine Block Copolypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational studies of ε-CBz-L-lysine and L-valine block copoylpeptides using x- ray diffraction and CD spectra are described. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both side of the valine are ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks. The conformation of the copolypeptides changes with increases in the chain length of ε- CBz-L- lysine blocks. When length of ε- CBZ- L- lysine blocks is 9, the block copolypeptide has exclusive beta sheet structure. With the increase in chain length of ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks from 9 to 14, the block copolypeptide shows presence of both alpha helix and beta sheet components. With further increase in chain length of ε- CBz- L- lysine blocks, the beta sheet component disappears and block copolypeptides exhibits exclusive α -helix conformation.

  11. Crystal growth and characterization of L-valine cadmium acetate a semiorganic NLO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, J.; Ilayabarathi, P.; Maadeswaran, P.

    2012-08-01

    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-valine cadmium acetate, was grown successfully from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals characterized by using Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the structure of the grown title compound. The functional groups have been identified using FTIR spectral data. Transmittance compound was analyzed by using UV-vis spectrum. The thermal behavior of the grown crystal was determined with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric constant was studied as a function of frequency for various temperatures. The grown crystal has positive photoconductivity nature. The fluorescence spectrum of the crystal was recorded and its optical band gap is about 3.4479 eV. Second order nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by modified Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

  12. Time Series Analysis of Fed-batch Fermentation Process for L-valine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fed-batch fermentation processes are some of the most efficient and wildly applied types of cultivation for industrial production of most amino acids including L-valine. Time series analysis is an important tool for description of the experimental data. This article deals with statistical inference from the time series analysis of generalised stoichiometric equations as a hypothesis for modelling and optimisation. The aim of the article is to develop some time series models of generalized stoichiometric equations. The identification procedure includes the following steps: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; model structure selection for each stoichiometric equation; estimation of the model's parameters; verification of the derived models.

  13. (L)-Valine production with minimization of by-products' synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacterium flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohu; Chen, Xinde; Zhang, Yue; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 and Brevibacterium flavum JV16 were engineered for L-valine production by over-expressing ilvEBN ( r ) C genes at 31 °C in 72 h fermentation. Different strategies were carried out to reduce the by-products' accumulation in L-valine fermentation and also to increase the availability of precursor for L-valine biosynthesis. The native promoter of ilvA of C. glutamicum was replaced with a weak promoter MPilvA (P-ilvAM1CG) to reduce the biosynthetic rate of L-isoleucine. Effect of different relative dissolved oxygen on L-valine production and by-products' formation was recorded, indicating that 15 % saturation may be the most appropriate relative dissolved oxygen for L-valine fermentation with almost no L-lactic acid and L-glutamate formed. To minimize L-alanine accumulation, alaT and/or avtA was inactivated in C. glutamicum and B. flavum, respectively. Compared to high concentration of L-alanine accumulated by alaT inactivated strains harboring ilvEBN ( r ) C genes, L-alanine concentration was reduced to 0.18 g/L by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, and 0.22 g/L by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. Meanwhile, L-valine production and conversion efficiency were enhanced to 31.15 g/L and 0.173 g/g by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, 38.82 g/L and 0.252 g/g by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. This study provides combined strategies to improve L-valine yield by minimization of by-products' production.

  14. Study on optical properties of l-valine doped ADP crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, R N; Anis, Mohd; Shirsat, M D; Hussaini, S S

    2015-02-05

    Single crystal of l-valine doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate has been grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystalline nature of the grown crystal was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction technique. The different functional groups of the grown crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared analysis. The UV-visible studies were employed to examine the high optical transparency and influential optical constants for tailoring materials suitability for optoelectronics applications. The cutoff wavelength of the title crystal was found to be 280nm with wide optical band gap of 4.7eV. The dielectric measurements were carried to determine the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at room temperature. The grown crystal has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by the classical Kurtz powder technique and it is found to be 1.92 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The grown crystal was identified as third order nonlinear optical material employing Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser operating at 632.8nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Etching, micro hardness and laser damage threshold studies of a nonlinear optical material L-valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Kanakam, C. C.; Singh, S. P.; Pal, P. K.; Datta, P. K.

    2012-04-01

    A nonlinear optical crystal of L-valine was grown from an aqueous solution containing a small amount of phosphoric acid by the slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the unit cell parameters. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirmed the lattice parameters to be a = 9.6687(7) Å, b = 5.2709(4) Å, c = 12.0371(10) Å and β = 90.805(4)°. The results of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) indicate the presence of a small amount of phosphorus in the grown crystal. The Vickers micro hardness test was performed to study the mechanical strength of the crystals. Chemical etching studies were carried out to analyze the dislocation structure. The laser damaged threshold of the grown crystal was measured to be 11.11 GW/cm2 for 10 ns pulse at 1064 nm, which is higher than that of the standard nonlinear optical crystals like KDP. Second harmonic generation of the grown crystals was also 1.44 times that of KDP.

  16. Study on optical properties of L-valine doped ADP crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, R. N.; Anis, Mohd.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystal of L-valine doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate has been grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystalline nature of the grown crystal was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction technique. The different functional groups of the grown crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared analysis. The UV-visible studies were employed to examine the high optical transparency and influential optical constants for tailoring materials suitability for optoelectronics applications. The cutoff wavelength of the title crystal was found to be 280 nm with wide optical band gap of 4.7 eV. The dielectric measurements were carried to determine the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at room temperature. The grown crystal has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by the classical Kurtz powder technique and it is found to be 1.92 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The grown crystal was identified as third order nonlinear optical material employing Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  17. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grünberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of Ternary Copper(II Complex Derived from N-(salicylidene-L-valine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaramurthy Santha Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Schiff base copper(II complex [CuL(tmpda] (where H2L is N-(salicylidene-L-valine; tmpda is N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine has been characterized by UV-Vis., FTIR, and single crystal XRD. The crystal structure displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry in which Schiff base is bonded to the Cu(II ion via phenolate oxygen, imine nitrogen, and an oxygen atom of the carboxylate group through the basal plane and the chelating diamine, N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine, displays an axial and equatorial mode of binding via NN-donor atoms.

  19. Modelling of L-valine Repeated Fed-batch Fermentation Process Taking into Account the Dissolved Oxygen Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of variable volume fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  20. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.

  1. Chromatographic separation of cerium(Ⅲ) in L-valine medium using poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABALE Sandip R; MOHITE Baburao S

    2009-01-01

    A column chromatographic method has been developed for the separation and determination of cerium(Ⅲ) using poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6]. The separation was carried out in L-valine medium. The adsorption of cerium(Ⅲ) was quantitative from 1×10-1 to 1×10-4 mol/L L-valine. Amongst the various eluents, 1.0-8.0 mol/L hydrochloric acid, 1.0-8.0 mol/L hydrobromic acid, 1.0-8.0 mol/L perchloric acid, 1.0-2.0 mol/L sulfuric acid and 4.0-5.0 mol/L acetic acid, were found to be the efficient eluents for cerium(Ⅲ). The capacity of poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6] for cerium(Ⅲ) was (0.428±0.01) mmol/g. The method was applied to the separation of cerium(Ⅲ) from associated elements link uranium(Ⅵ) and thorium(Ⅳ). It was also applied for the determination of cerium(Ⅲ) in geological samples. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately±2% ).

  2. Growth of N-Glycyl-L-Valine (GV) single crystal and its spectral, thermal and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janarthanan, S.; Sugaraj Samuel, R.; Rajan, Y. C.; Suresh, P.; Thangaraj, K.

    2013-03-01

    A nonlinear optical crystal of N-Glycyl-L-Valine (GV) single crystals was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique from an aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters and the crystal structure were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral studies were carried out to identify the functional groups of the grown crystals. The ultraviolet visible near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of the grown crystal. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses revealed the thermal stability of the sample. The presence of second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  3. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine.

  4. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of L-Valine Zinc Sulphate: An organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhal Raj, A.; Ramachandra Raja, C.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid L-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36 °C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a = 9.969(3) Å, b = 7.238(3) Å, c = 24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00 Å3. Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with L-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal. A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to L-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure L-valine.

  5. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Vinitha, G.; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P21. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm2. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics.

  6. L-Valine derived chiral N-sulfinamides as effective organocatalysts for the asymmetric hydrosilylation of N-alkyl and N-aryl protected ketimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Xinjun; Zhou, Li; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-14

    L-Valine derived N-sulfinamides have been developed as efficient enantioselective Lewis basic organocatalysts for the asymmetric reduction of N-aryl and N-alkyl ketimines with trichlorosilane. Catalyst 3c afforded up to 99% yield and 96% ee in the reduction of N-alkyl ketimines and up to 98% yield and 98% ee in the reduction of N-aryl ketimines.

  7. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  8. Platform engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity for improved production of L-lysine, L-valine, and 2-ketoisovalerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Jens; Schwentner, Andreas; Brunnenkan, Britta; Gabris, Christina; Grimm, Simon; Gerstmeir, Robert; Takors, Ralf; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2013-09-01

    Exchange of the native Corynebacterium glutamicum promoter of the aceE gene, encoding the E1p subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), with mutated dapA promoter variants led to a series of C. glutamicum strains with gradually reduced growth rates and PDHC activities. Upon overexpression of the l-valine biosynthetic genes ilvBNCE, all strains produced l-valine. Among these strains, C. glutamicum aceE A16 (pJC4 ilvBNCE) showed the highest biomass and product yields, and thus it was further improved by additional deletion of the pqo and ppc genes, encoding pyruvate:quinone oxidoreductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. In fed-batch fermentations at high cell densities, C. glutamicum aceE A16 Δpqo Δppc (pJC4 ilvBNCE) produced up to 738 mM (i.e., 86.5 g/liter) l-valine with an overall yield (YP/S) of 0.36 mol per mol of glucose and a volumetric productivity (QP) of 13.6 mM per h [1.6 g/(liter × h)]. Additional inactivation of the transaminase B gene (ilvE) and overexpression of ilvBNCD instead of ilvBNCE transformed the l-valine-producing strain into a 2-ketoisovalerate producer, excreting up to 303 mM (35 g/liter) 2-ketoisovalerate with a YP/S of 0.24 mol per mol of glucose and a QP of 6.9 mM per h [0.8 g/(liter × h)]. The replacement of the aceE promoter by the dapA-A16 promoter in the two C. glutamicum l-lysine producers DM1800 and DM1933 improved the production by 100% and 44%, respectively. These results demonstrate that C. glutamicum strains with reduced PDHC activity are an excellent platform for the production of pyruvate-derived products.

  9. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.c (L-(+)-Valine): Characterization of organic substances for chemical purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Moad, Michael; Chan, Benjamin; Muñoz, Amalia; Conneely, Patrick; Ricci, Marina; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Garrido, Bruno C.; Violante, Fernando G. M.; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Fuhai; Quan, Can; Wang, Haifeng; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Gantois, Fanny; Lalerle, Béatrice; Dorgerloh, Ute; Koch, Matthias; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Philipp, Rosemarie; Piechotta, Christian; Recknagel, Sebastian; Rothe, Robert; Yamazaki, Taichi; Zakaria, Osman Bin; Castro, E.; Balderas, M.; González, N.; Salazar, C.; Regalado, L.; Valle, E.; Rodríguez, L.; Ángel Laguna, L.; Ramírez, P.; Avila, M.; Ibarra, J.; Valle, L.; Pérez, M.; Arce, M.; Mitani, Y.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Tang Lin, Teo; Liu, Qinde; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Nhlapo, Nontete; Visser, Ria; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Hwashim; Kankaew, Pornhatai; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Çergel, Muhiddin; Gonca Çoskun, Fatma; Uysal, Emrah; Gündüz, Simay; Ün, Ilker; Warren, John; Bearden, Daniel W.; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Schantz, Michele M.; Sieber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.c, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2012. Twenty National Measurement Institutes or Designated Institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of valine present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K55.c. The comparison samples were prepared from analytical grade L-valine purchased from a commercial supplier and used as provided without further treatment or purification. Valine was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of low structural complexity [molecular weight range 100-300] and high polarity (pKOW > -2). The KCRV for the valine content of the material was 992.0 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.3 mg/g. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. The relative expanded uncertainties reported by laboratories having results consistent with the KCRV ranged from 1 mg/g to 6 mg/g when using mass balance based approaches alone, 2 mg/g to 7 mg/g using quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR) based approaches and from 1 mg/g to 2.5 mg/g when a result obtained by a mass balance method was combined with a separate qNMR result. The material provided several analytical challenges. In addition to the need to identify and quantify various related amino acid impurities including leucine, isoleucine, alanine and α-amino butyrate, care was required to select appropriate conditions for performing Karl Fischer titration assay for water content to avoid bias due to in situ formation of water by self-condensation under the assay conditions. It also proved to be a challenging compound for purity assignment by qNMR techniques

  10. Lanthanum(Ⅲ) sorption studies on poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6] and its separation from uranium(Ⅵ) and thorium(Ⅳ) in L-valine medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; R.; Sabale; D.; V.; Jadhav; B.; S.; Mohite

    2009-01-01

    The sorption study of La(Ⅲ) was carried out on poly[dibenzo-18-crown-6] and L-valine medium. The quantitative adsorption of La(Ⅲ) was found at 1x10-2 to 1x10-5 mol/L L-valine. The various eluting agents were found efficient eluents for La(Ⅲ). The capacity of crown polymer for La(Ⅲ) was found to be 0.43 ±0.01 mmol/g. The tolerance limit of various cations and anions for La(Ⅲ) was determined.La(Ⅲ) was quantitatively separated from other metal ions in binary as well as multicomponont mixtures. The study was extended to sequen-tial separation of La(Ⅲ), U(Ⅵ) and Th(Ⅳ). The good separation yields were obtained and had good reproducibility (±2%). The method in-corporated the determination of La(Ⅲ) in real sample. The method was simple, rapid and selective.

  11. Measurement of Liquid Diffusion Coefficients of Aqueous Solutions of Glycine, L-Alanine, L-Valine and L-Isoleucine by Holographic Interferometry%激光全息干涉法测量甘氨酸、L-丙氨酸、L-缬氨酸和异亮氨酸液相扩散系数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长伟; 李继定; 马沛生; 夏淑倩

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions ofglycine, L-alanine, L-valine and L-isoleucine at 298.15 K were determined by holographic interferometry with accuracy and promptness while without disturbance. The density and viscosity of these solutions were also determined. According to original Gordon model, a model for correlating the diffusion coefficients of amino acids in aqueous solutions was developed and applied. The results showed that this model provided significant convenience in correlation of diffusion coefficients for amino acids system.

  12. Study on L-Valine Efficient Extraction Technology from the Fermentation Broth%从发酵液中高效提取L-缬氨酸的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新涛; 徐庆阳; 冯宁; 谢希贤; 陈宁

    2011-01-01

    目的:利用有机膜过滤和离子交换法分离提取发酵液中的L-缬氨酸.方法:通过有机膜过滤,除去发酵液中的菌体及蛋白,滤液浓缩结晶获得L-缬氨酸产品,通过离子交换法从结晶母液中回收部分L-缬氨酸.结果:确定了有机微滤膜和超滤膜去除发酵液中菌体蛋白和色素的操作条件;确定了采用离子交换法提取L-缬氨酸的操作条件:选择732强酸性阳离子树脂,料液pH值为3.0左右,用0.4 mol/L的氨水以1.0 mL/min的速度洗脱,L-缬氨酸的收率为89.2%.结论:通过有机膜过滤和离子交换法分离提取发酵液中的L-缬氨酸,可以提高提取收率和产品质量.%Objective: Using organic membrane filtration and ion exchange to extract L-valine from the fermentation broth. Methods: The bacteria and proteins in the fermentation broth were removed through organic membrane filtration, the filtrate was concentrated to obtain L-valine crystal products, the part of L-valine was further extracted from the crystal liquor by ion exchange. Results: The optimum conditions of organism membrane filtration, decolour and abstracton of L-valine were determined. 732 resin was the optimal resin for L-valine abstraction among the different kinds of resins. The optimal conditions of adsorption were as follow: dosage liquor pH3.0, and the elution of L-valine was carried out at the rate of 1.0 mL/min using 0.4 mol/L ammonia water as eluant. The recovery of L-valine was up to 89.2%. Conclution: L-valine extraction yield and product quality was improved by the way of organic membrane filtration and ion exchange.

  13. Temperature-Triggered Switchable Helix-Helix Inversion of Poly(phenylacetylene Bearing l-Valine Ethyl Ester Pendants and Its Chiral Recognition Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A phenylacetylene containing the l-valine ethyl ester pendant (PAA-Val was synthesized and polymerized by an organorhodium catalyst (Rh(nbdBPh4 to produce the corresponding one-handed helical cis-poly(phenylacetylene (PPAA-Val. PPAA-Val showed a unique temperature-triggered switchable helix-sense in chloroform, while it was not observed in highly polar solvents, such as N,N′-dimethylformamide (DMF. By heating the solution of PPAA-Val in chloroform, the sign of the CD absorption became reversed, but recovered after cooling the solution to room temperature. Even after six cycles of the heating-cooling treatment, the helix sense of the PPAA-Val’s backbone was still switchable without loss of the CD intensity. The PPAA-Val was then coated on silica gel particles to produce novel chiral stationary phases (CSPs for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. These novel PPAA-Val based CSPs showed a high chiral recognition ability for racemic mandelonitrile (α = 2.18 and racemic trans-N,N′-diphenylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxamide (α = 2.60. Additionally, the one-handed helical cis-polyene backbone of PPAA-Val was irreversibly destroyed to afford PPAA-Val-H by heating in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO accompanied by the complete disappearance of the Cotton effect. Although PPAA-Val-H had the same l-valine ethyl ester pendants as its cis-isomer PPAA-Val, it showed no chiral recognition. It was concluded that the one-handed helical cis-polyene backbone of PPAA-Val plays an important role in the chiral recognition ability.

  14. Study on the fermentation process conditions of L-valine produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum%L-缬氨酸的发酵工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾青兰; 孙连连; 王志勇

    2012-01-01

    以谷氨酸棒杆菌(Corynebacterium glutamicum)CICC20887为生产菌株,采用单因素实验研究了发酵工艺条件对L-缬氨酸产量的影响.结果表明,该菌发酵生产L-缬氨酸的适宜初糖浓度、生物素添加量、VB1添加量、玉米浆添加量分别为90 g/L、80 μg/L、0.20 mg/L、30 g/L,发酵期间,24 h前pH值应控制在6.5~6.7、后48 h应控制在7.0~7.2,温度30~31℃,发酵周期应控制在66~72 h.%Using Corynebacterium glutamicum CICC20887 as producing strain,the effect of fermentation process condition on the yield of L-valine were studied with single factor design; The results showed that the optimum concentration of initial glucose, D-biotin, VB1 and corn syrup were 90g/L,80μg/L,0. 20 mg /L, 30g/L respectively;The optimal fermentation conditions of pH, temperature and fermentation period were 6. 5~6. 7 (for the initial 24 hours) ,7. 0~7. 2 (during 24 to 72 hours), 30~31℃ , 66~72 h respectively. This study could offe a basis for industrial production of L-valine.

  15. L-缬氨酸高产菌诱变育种的研究%Studies on the Breeding of L-Valine Hyper-Producing Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 钱和

    2011-01-01

    Using Brevibacterium flavum XQ-2 ( Leu1 (-ABr AHVr 2-TAr) as a starting strain for stepwise mutagenesis by diethylsulfate (DES), N-methyl-N '-nitro-soguanidine (NTG) treatment, a L-valine hyper-producing mutant XQ-8 (Leu1 (-ABhr2-TAhrAHVhr) was obtained,which could be resistant to high concentration a-amino-butyric acid (α-AB), 2-thiazole-DLalanaine (2-TA) and a-amino-β- hydroxy-valeric acid (AHV). As a result, high L-valine concentration (64~66g/L) was obtained with shaking at 31 ±1℃ for 72h in the medium containing 135g/L glucose and 50g/L (NH4)2SO4.%以黄色短杆茵(Brevibacterium flavum)L-缬氨酸产生菌XQ-2为出发菌株,经硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)逐级诱变处理,氨基酸结构类似物α-氨基丁酸(α-AB)、2-噻唑丙氨酸(2-TA)和α一氨基-β-羟基戊酸(AHV)定向筛选,获得一株L-缬氨酸高产茵XQ-8(Leu1(-ABhr2-TAhrAHVht).在以135 g/L葡萄糖为碳源和50 g/L硫酸铵为氮源的培养基中摇瓶发酵72 h,产酸达64~66 g/L.

  16. Metabolic Engineering in Corynebacterium glutamicum to Increase L-Valine Production%谷氨酸棒杆菌生产缬氨酸的代谢工程研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小元

    2012-01-01

    L-缬氨酸是人体必需的三种支链氨基酸之一,在生命代谢过程中起着非常重要的作用,因此被广泛应用于食品、医药及饲料等行业.目前,L-缬氨酸主要采用微生物发酵法生产,而谷氨酸棒杆菌是最常用的生产菌种.作者分析了谷氨酸棒杆菌中L-缬氨酸的生物合成途径和代谢调控,综述了对其进行代谢工程改造来提高L-缬氨酸产量的最新研究进展.%L-valine, one of the three branched-chain amino acids, is essential for human, and plays an important role in the metabolism of life, therefore, it is widely used in products of food, medicine and feed. L-valine is mainly produced by bacterial fermentation, and the most used bacterium is Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this article, the pathway and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in C. glutamicum are analyzed and researches on metabolic engineering to increase L-valine production in C. glutamicum are reviewed.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and interaction of L-valine Schiff base divanadium(V) complex containing a V2O3 core with DNA and BSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiong; Li, Lianzhi; Dong, Jianfang; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Tao; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-01

    A divanadium(V) complex, [V2O3(o-van-val)2] (o-van-val = Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and L-valine), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure shows that both of the vanadium centers in the complex have a distorted octahedral coordination environment composed of tridentate Schiff base ligand. A V2O3 core in molecular structure adopts intermediate between cis and trans configuration with the O1dbnd V1⋯V1Adbnd O1A torsion angle 115.22 (28)° and the V1⋯V1A distance 3.455 Å. The binding properties of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, CD spectra and viscosity measurement. The results indicate that the complex binds to CT-DNA in non-classical intercalative mode. Meanwhile, the interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectra. Results indicated that the complex can markedly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process, and cause its conformational change. The calculated apparent binding constant Kb was 1.05 × 106 M-1 and the binding site number n was 1.18.

  18. Physicochemical characterization and tube-like structure formation of a novel amino acid-based zwitterionic amphiphile N-(2-hydroxydodecyl)-L-valine in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arjun; Dey, Joykrishna

    2008-05-29

    Surface activity and aggregation behavior of an amino acid-based zwitterionic amphiphile N-(2-hydroxydodecyl)-L-valine were studied in aqueous solutions (pH 13). The self-assembly formation was investigated by use of a number of techniques including surface tension, conductivity, viscosity, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The amphiphile exhibits two breaks in the surface tension vs concentration plot indicating stepwise aggregate formation and thus results in two values of critical aggregation concentration. The amphiphile was found to be very surface active compared to fatty acid soaps. The average hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of the aggregates were obtained from DLS measurements. Conductivity measurements suggested formation of vesicles or closed tubules. TEM pictures revealed the existence of spherical vesicles, separated tubules, and tubules with multiple Y-type junctions in going from dilute to moderately concentrated solution. However, in concentrated solution, the junctions break to form separate tubular structures which upon further increase of concentration are converted to rod-like micelles. The mechanism of branched tubule formation is discussed in light of the experimental observations.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and interaction of L-valine Schiff base divanadium(V) complex containing a V2O3 core with DNA and BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiong; Li, Lianzhi; Dong, Jianfang; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Tao; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-01

    A divanadium(V) complex, [V2O3(o-van-val)2] (o-van-val=Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and L-valine), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure shows that both of the vanadium centers in the complex have a distorted octahedral coordination environment composed of tridentate Schiff base ligand. A V2O3 core in molecular structure adopts intermediate between cis and trans configuration with the O1V1⋯V1AO1A torsion angle 115.22 (28)° and the V1⋯V1A distance 3.455Å. The binding properties of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, CD spectra and viscosity measurement. The results indicate that the complex binds to CT-DNA in non-classical intercalative mode. Meanwhile, the interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectra. Results indicated that the complex can markedly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process, and cause its conformational change. The calculated apparent binding constant Kb was 1.05×10(6)M(-1) and the binding site number n was 1.18.

  20. Determination of L-valine by improved quantitative paper chromatography%纸层析法测定缬氨酸含量的改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫少文; 姚城镇; 张云开; 陈桂光; 梁智群

    2012-01-01

    改进了缬氨酸含量的测定方法。探讨了茚三酮与缬氨酸完全反应的质量分数范围;将传统的静置洗脱更改为匀速摇床洗脱,使洗脱更完全;在此基础上,详细研究了操作过程中的相关参数,使结果更精确。结果表明,该方法有很高的准确度和精密度,操作简便,成本低,可以广泛应用于茚三酮反应测定氨基酸。%An improved quantitative paper chromatography of L-valine was reported. The range of valine concentration to certain ninhydrin was discussed,shaker was used in decolorization to enhance the elution.What' s more,the related parameters of the operational process was researched in detail.The results showed that this method could be used to determine amino acids extensively, for its high accuracy and precision, and it was simpler and cheaper than HLPC.

  1. NH4+浓度对黄色短杆菌XV0505发酵生产L-缬氨酸的影响%Effect of NH4+concentration on L-valine fermentation by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁; 白亚磊; 徐庆阳; 谢希贤; 陈宁

    2011-01-01

    以L-缬氨酸(L-Val)生产菌黄色短杆菌XV0505为供试菌株,以(NH4)2SO4为唯一添加N源,考察不同NH4+浓度对发酵过程中菌体干质量、L-Val产量和葡萄糖消耗速率以及菌体内代谢流量的影响.研究表明:NH4+浓度过高或不足都会影响发酵水平,降低L-Val的产量.合适的初始NH4+浓度为225 mmol/L,产酸期NH4+维持浓度为35mmol/L时,有利菌体产酸.在此NH4+浓度下,在30L发酵罐发酵60h,发酵液中菌体生物量和L-Val质量浓度分别可达22.35和59.12g/L.%The ammonium sulfate was selected as the only feeding nitrogen source in the L-valine fermentation process by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505. Effects of different N H4+ concentrations on biomass,yield of L-valine,glucose consumption rate and the metabolic flux were studied in a 30 L fermentor. Results showed that excessive or insufficient concentrations of NH4+ would adversely affect the yield of L-valine and bacterial growth. Therefore,the appropriate additive dosage of NH4+ (225 mmol/l) was determined,and L-valine production was increased by keeping low NH4+ concentration(35 mmol/L) in the synthesis period of L-valine. With the optimum additional dosage of NH4+ , the yields of L-valine and DCW were up to 59. 12 and 22. 35 g/L (60 h) in the 30 L fermentor.

  2. Interaction of L-alanyl-L-valine and L-valyl-L-alanine with organic vapors: thermal stability of clathrates, sorption capacity and the change in the morphology of dipeptide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Marat A; Gubina, Nadezhda S; Gerasimov, Alexander V; Gorbatchuk, Valery V; Ziganshina, Sufia A; Chuklanov, Anton P; Bukharaev, Anastas A

    2015-08-21

    The strong effect of the amino acid sequence in L-alanyl-L-valine and L-valyl-L-alanine on their sorption properties toward organic compounds and water, and the thermal stability of the inclusion compounds of these dipeptides have been found. Generally, L-valyl-L-alanine has a greater sorption capacity for the studied compounds, but the thermal stability of the L-alanyl-L-valine clathrates is higher. Unusual selectivity of L-valyl-L-alanine for vapors of few chloroalkanes was observed. The correlation between the change in the surface morphology of thin film of dipeptides and stoichiometry of their clathrates with organic compounds was found. This discovery may be used to predict the influence of vapors on the morphology of films of short-chain oligopeptides.

  3. Tuning of Supramolecular Architectures of l-Valine-Containing Dicyanoplatinum(II) 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes by Metal-Metal, π-π Stacking, and Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Heidi Li-Ki; Po, Charlotte; He, Hexiang; Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Wong, Kam Sing; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-08-01

    A series of newly synthesized dicyanoplatinum(II) 2,2'-bipyridine complexes exhibits self-assembly properties in solution after the incorporation of the l-valine amino units appended with various hydrophobic motifs. These l-valine-derived substituents were found to have critical control over the aggregation behaviors of the complexes in the solution state. On one hand, one of the complexes was found to exhibit interesting circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) signals at low temperature due to the formation of chiral spherical aggregates in the temperature-dependent studies. On the other hand, systematic transformation from less uniform aggregates to well-defined fibrous and rod-like structures via Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt and π-π stacking interactions has also been observed in the mixed-solvent studies. These changes were monitored by UV/Vis absorption, emission, circular dichroism (CD), and CPL spectroscopies, and morphologies were studied by electron microscopy.

  4. Solid-state conformation of copolymers of ß-benzyl-L-aspartate with L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, γ-benzyl-L-glutamate, or ε-carbobenzoxy-L-lysine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sederel, Willem L.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Feijen, Jan; Anderson, James M.

    1980-01-01

    The solid-state conformation of copolymers of ß-benzyl-L-aspartate [L-Asp(OBzl)] with L-leucine (L-Leu), L-alanine (L-Ala), L-valine (L-Val), γ-benzyl-L-glutamate [L-Glu(OBzl)], or ε-carbobenzoxy-L-lysine (Cbz-L-Lys) has been studied by ir spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). The ir spectra in

  5. Solid-state conformation of copolymers of ß-benzyl-L-aspartate with L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, γ-benzyl-L-glutamate, or ε-carbobenzoxy-L-lysine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sederel, Willem L.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Feijen, Jan; Anderson, James M.

    1980-01-01

    The solid-state conformation of copolymers of ß-benzyl-L-aspartate [L-Asp(OBzl)] with L-leucine (L-Leu), L-alanine (L-Ala), L-valine (L-Val), γ-benzyl-L-glutamate [L-Glu(OBzl)], or ε-carbobenzoxy-L-lysine (Cbz-L-Lys) has been studied by ir spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). The ir spectra in

  6. X-ray structure and computational study for N-acryloyl-L-valine, a versatile monomer for preparing smart drug delivery carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamasi, Gabriella; Casolaro, Mario; Cini, Renzo

    2012-12-01

    The title compound (NAV) has been synthesized by the acylation reaction of L-valine with acryloyl chloride, in alkaline solution. The X-ray crystal and molecular structure was solved and refined in the P212121 space group and was characterized by an almost coplanar H2Cdbnd CHsbnd C(dbnd O)sbnd N(sbnd H)sbnd C system, Cdbnd Csbnd Csbnd N, Cdbnd Csbnd Cdbnd O and (Cdbnd )Csbnd C(dbnd O)sbnd N(sbnd H)sbnd C torsion angles being +anti periplanar (+ap) (trans, +172(1)°), -syn periplanar (-sp, cys) (-8(1)°), and (-ap, trans) (-175(1)°). The carboxylic group plane is almost perpendicular to the amide plane (dihedral angle: 83(1)°) and the Odbnd Csbnd C(sbnd H)sbnd N(sbnd H) torsion angle is-sp, cys (-28(1)°). The Csbnd O bond distance at amide is 1.240(3) Å, whereas the Csbnd O bond distances at carboxylic group are 1.200(3) and 1.303(3) Å, respectively allowing an easy assignment of protonation site. The molecule has been theoretically analyzed via the methods of density functional theory DFT and semi-empirical quantum mechanics at PM3 level (SEQMPM3) in order to examine the conformational surface at the gas phase and in the presence of solvent molecules. The DFT computations at B3LYP/6-311++G** are the most reliable ones among those performed in this work (SEQMPM3, and B3LYP/6-31G**) as the agreement between computed and XRD bond parameters is excellent. Even the conformations are very reliable and the effect of the solvent was evaluated in a box of water molecules (at SEQMPM3) and through the PCM method at DFT for water, methanol, chloroform and other solvents.

  7. 有机氮源对谷氨酸棒杆菌发酵L-缬氨酸的影响%The Effects of Organic Nitrogen Sources on the Fermentation of L-valine by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆阳; 孙家凯; 吴晓娇; 王晶; 谢希贤; 陈宁

    2012-01-01

    以L-缬氨酸生产菌谷氨酸棒杆菌XV0505为供试菌株,研究有机氮源对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响,确定了玉米浆代替豆饼水解液作为有机氮源的发酵工艺,降低了发酵成本;考察不同玉米浆浓度对谷氨酸棒杆菌XV0505发酵生产工一缬氨酸过程中生物量、耗糖速率、L-缬氨酸产量、副产物积累及氨消耗等方面影响,确定了玉米浆的适宜添加浓度;考察了玉米浆与生物素不同配比对L-缬氨酸分批发酵过程的影响,确定了最适生物素添加浓度。与原工艺相比,新工艺的菌体生物量及产酸提高了13.2%和18.5%。%The effects of organic nitrogen sources on the fermentation of L-valine were studied with L-valine-pro-ducing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum XV0505. Corn steep liquor was selected as the appropriate nitrogen source instead of soybean hydrolysates to reduce the cost of fermentation. The effects of initial concentration of corn steep liq-uor in fermentation process on biomass, glucose consumption rate, yield of L-valine, accumulation of byproduct and ammonia consumption rate were studied by carrying out fed-batch fermentation. The optimal initial concentration of corn steep liquor was also determined. The effects of the combined agents, biotin and corn steep liquor, on overpro-duction of L-valine were also studied, and the concentration of biotin was optimized. Compared with those of the origi-nal process, the biomass and L-valine production from the improved process were increased by 13.2% and 18.5 % respectively.

  8. The Effect of Nitrogen Sources and Its Additional Strategies on L-valine Fermentation by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505%氮源及其补加策略对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁; 白亚磊; 徐庆阳; 谢希贤; 陈宁

    2011-01-01

    通过分析黄色短杆菌xv0505发酵生产L-缬氨酸的过程,得知在菌体生长期和快速产酸期氮源对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响不同.以黄色短杆菌XV0505为供试菌株,研究了不同氮源种类及不同氮源浓度对L-缬氨酸发酵过程的影响,选定了以豆饼水解液和硫酸铵为氮源,并确定了合适的初始氮源浓度.在初始氮源浓度相同的情况下,考察了间歇流加补氮策略、恒氮源浓度补氮策略和幂函数流加补氮策略对L-缬氨酸发酵的影响,研究发现,幂指数补氮策略可减少频繁的取样及铵浓度检测,在缺乏在线监测系统和反馈自控系统的情况下,将发酵体系中氮源浓度维持在合适值,既可适度促进菌体生长,又可使L-缬氨酸的产量得到进一步提高.在最优的氮源添加策略下,在30 L发酵罐发酵60 h,发酵液中L-缬氨酸可达63.17 g/L,糖酸转化率24.69%.%By analyzing the L-valine fermentation process by Brevibacterium flavum XV0505, one of important factors influenced on the bacterial productivity and L-valine yield is nitrogen source and its additional strategies. The effect of nitrogen sources on the fermentation of L-valine was studied by adding different nitrogen sources with different concentrations. Therefore, soybean hydrolysates and ammonium sulfate were selected as the appropriate nitrogen source, and the best L-valine yield was obtained with the medium supplemented low initial concentration of 225 mmol/L. In the case of the same initial nitrogen concentration, the effects of three nitrogen feeding strategies (intermittent nitrogen feeding,constant concentration feeding and power function feeding) on biomass, yield of L-valine,concentration of byproduct and conversion rate were studied in the 30L fermentor. The result showed that the concentration and the feed rate of nitrogen source were effectively and timely manipulated by power function feeding, while lacking of online monitoring and feedback

  9. L-缬氨酸高产菌XQ-8补料分批发酵的研究%Study on the fed-batch fermentation of L-valine hyper-producer XQ-8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国’; 钱和; 乎守涛; 刘康乐; 程国平; 张苏龙; 聂晓东

    2012-01-01

    在分批发酵优化条件基础上,通过对补料分批发酵方式发酵过程的各种参数,包括产酸率、转化率和发酵周期等进行了研究,确定了L-缬氨酸高产菌XQ-8补料分批发酵的最优条件。在最优补料分批发酵奈件下发酵72h左右,L-缬氨酸产量达72g/L,糖酸转化率达38%以上,其结果明显优于分批培养。%On the basis of optimization of batch fermentation conditions, by way of the various parameters of the fed -batch fermentation process,including valine production,glucose/valine conversion rate and fermentation period were studied to determine optimal fed-batch fermentation conditions of the L-valine producer XQ-8.1n the optimal fed-batch fermentation conditions for about 72h,L-valine production was up to 72g/L,glucose/valine conversion rate was more than 38% ,the results were Petter than batch fermentation.

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-lysine plus chromium picolinate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-lysine plus chromium picolinate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. The target population proposed...... not been established between the consumption of the food, a combination of L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-lysine plus chromium picolinate, and a beneficial physiological effect for the target population....

  11. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in ... The dose-dependent effects of EGCG on H1155 xenograft tumor growth, as well as ..... of mitochondrial ROS and changes in .... ATM phosphorylates histone H2AX in response to DNA.

  12. New organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements: caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F.; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Sessions, Alex L.; Werner, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope−δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope−δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values from −210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ13CVPDB-LSVEC from −40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ15NAir from −5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a 2H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ2H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain 13C and carbon-bound organic 2H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies.

  13. 铂掺杂L-缬氨酸聚合膜对普萘洛尔的识别研究%Chiral recognition of propranolol based on Pt doped L-valine polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠; 李洋; 傅英姿

    2015-01-01

    该文将氯铂酸与L-缬氨酸按一定比例混合,通过循环伏安法在玻碳电极表面电沉积形成铂掺杂L-缬氨酸聚合膜,“一步”构建一个简单的手性传感平台,以普萘洛尔自身为氧化还原探针,采用差分脉冲伏安法研究了该手性传感平台与普萘洛尔对映异构体之间的相互作用。结果表明:该传感平台与普萘洛尔产生相互作用,并与R-普萘洛尔作用更强,能成功用于普萘洛尔的电化学识别。%In this work, chloroplatinic acid and L-valine (L-val) were mixed by a certain percentage, and then the L-val platinum-doped polymeric films were synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface with “one-step” strategy, building a simple chiral sensing nanoplatform, and used to electrochemical identify of propranolol enantiomers (R-or S-PRO) successfully. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was used to study the effect between this chiral interface and propranolol enantiomers, which propranolol was treated as redox probes. In addition, the recognition was considerably affected by the interface. The results showed that this chiral interface has a stronger interact with R-PRO, and it was efficacious to achieve the selective recognition of propranolol enantiomers.

  14. Mechanism and clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernschantz, Johan W; Albert, Daniel M; Hu, Dan-Ning; Drago, Filippo; Wistrand, Per J

    2002-08-01

    The new glaucoma drugs latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, travoprost, and bimatoprost cause increased pigmentation of the iris in some patients. The purpose of the present article is to survey the available preclinical and clinical data on prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation and to assess the phenomenon from a clinical perspective. Most of the data have been obtained with latanoprost, and it appears that there is a predisposition to latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation in individuals with hazel or heterochromic eye color. As latanoprost and travoprost are selective agonists for the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor, it is likely that the phenomenon is mediated by this receptor. Several studies indicate that latanoprost stimulates melanogenesis in iridial melanocytes, and transcription of the tyrosinase gene is upregulated. The safety aspects of latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation have been addressed in histopathologic studies, and no evidence of harmful consequences of the side effect has been found. Although a final assessment of the clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation currently is impossible to make, it appears that the only clear-cut disadvantage is a potential heterochromia between the eyes in unilaterally treated patients because the heterochromia is likely to be permanent, or very slowly reversible.

  15. Significance and nature of bystander responses induced by various agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neha; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2017-07-01

    Bystander effects in a biological system are the responses shown by non-targeted neighbouring cells/tissues/organisms. These responses are triggered by factors released from targeted cells when exposed to a stress inducing agent. The biological response to stress inducing agents is complex, owing to the diversity of mechanisms and pathways activated in directly targeted and bystander cells. These responses are highly variable and can be either beneficial or hazardous depending on the cell lines tested, dose of agent used, experimental end points and time course selected. Recently non-targeted cells have even been reported to rescue the directly exposed cells by releasing protective signals that might be induced by non-targeted bystander responses. The nature of bystander signal/s is not yet clear. However, there are evidences suggesting involvement of ROS, RNS, protein factors and even DNA molecules leading to the activation of a number of signaling pathways. These can act independently or in a cascade, to induce events leading to changes in gene expression patterns that could elicit detrimental or beneficial effects. Many review articles on radiation induced bystander responses have been published. However, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive review on bystander responses induced by other genotoxic chemicals and stress inducing agents has not been published so far. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to give an overview of the literature on different aspects of bystander responses: agents that induce these responses, factors that can modulate bystander responses and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been fo

  17. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been

  18. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been fo

  19. L-缬氨酸产生菌JVHK597的选育及无机盐对其产酸量的影响%Breeding of of L-valine Producing Strain JVHK597 and Influence of Inorganic Salt on Its Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕民; 葛向阳; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选L-缬氨酸高产菌株并研究其发酵条件.[方法]以黄色短杆菌(Brebvibacterium flavum)突变株ZGH61.28为出发菌株,采用紫外线(UV)、硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)3种诱变剂进行诱变处理,通过摇瓶培养筛选出L-缬氨酸高产突变菌株.[结果]经过UV、DES和NTG3种诱变剂处理菌株ZGH6128,逐步获得菌株JVHK597,并具有Leu营养缺陷、Ile营养缺陷、Met营养缺陷、α-AB抗性、2-TA抗性5种遗传标记.在未优化的条件下,菌株JVHK597摇瓶发酵72 h的产酸量达41.2 g/L.8次传代试验结果表明,菌株JVHK597的产酸能力稳定,经鉴定,菌株JVHK597的基因型为(Leu-,Ile-,Met-,α-ABr,2 -TAr),遗传标记具有稳定性.发酵培养基中硫酸镁( MgSO4·7H2O)和磷酸二氢钾的含量分别为0.6和1.4 g/L时,最有利于菌株生产L-缬氨酸.[结论]试验筛选出了L-缬氨酸高产菌株JVHK597,并为其发酵培养提供了指导.%[Objective]The aim was to screen superior strain of L-valine and study its fermentation condition. [ Method] With the mutant strain ZGH6128 of Brebvibacterium flavum as initial strain, 3 kinds of mutagens of ultraviolet (UV), diethyl sulfate (DES) and nitrosoguani-dine (NTG) were used in its mutagene treatments, its superior mutant strain of L-valine was screened out through shaking culture. [ Result] The strain ZGH6128 was treated with 3 kinds of mutagens of UV, DES and NTG and the mutant strain JVHK597 was obtained progressively. This mutant strain possessed 5 genetic marks of Leu auxotroph, Ile auxotroph, Met auxotroph, a-AB resistance and 2-TA resistance. Under non-optimized condition, the production of acid from the strain JVHK597 reached 41.2 g/L after fermentation for 72 h. The experimental results of 8 passages showed that the acid producing ability of the strain JVHK597 was stable and its genotype was identified to be (Leu-, Ile-, Met-, α-AB', 2-TA') and its genetic marks had stability. When the contents of bitter salt (Mg

  20. The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbonsink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhe, A.A.; Harte, J.; Harden, J.W.; Torn, M.S.

    2006-10-10

    Estimating carbon (C) balance in erosional and depositionallandscapes is complicated by the effects of soil redistribution on bothnet primary productivity (NPP) and decomposition. Recent studies arecontradictory as to whether soil erosion does or does not constitute a Csink. Here we clarify the conceptual basis for how erosion can constitutea C sink. Specifically, the criterion for an erosional C sink is thatdynamic replacement of eroded C, and reduced decomposition rates indepositional sites, must together more than compensate for erosionallosses. This criterion is in fact met in many erosional settings, andthus erosion and deposition can make a net positive contribution to Csequestration. We show that, in a cultivated Mississippi watershed and acoastal California watershed, the magnitude of the erosion-induced C sinkis likely to be on the order of 1 percent of NPP and 16 percent of erodedC. Although soil erosion has serious environmental impacts, the annualerosion-induced C sink offsets up to 10 percent of the global fossil fuelemissions of carbon dioxide for 2005.

  1. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  2. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  3. Significant anthropogenic-induced changes of climate classes since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Duo; Wu, Qigang

    2015-08-28

    Anthropogenic forcings have contributed to global and regional warming in the last few decades and likely affected terrestrial precipitation. Here we examine changes in major Köppen climate classes from gridded observed data and their uncertainties due to internal climate variability using control simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5). About 5.7% of the global total land area has shifted toward warmer and drier climate types from 1950-2010, and significant changes include expansion of arid and high-latitude continental climate zones, shrinkage in polar and midlatitude continental climates, poleward shifts in temperate, continental and polar climates, and increasing average elevation of tropical and polar climates. Using CMIP5 multi-model averaged historical simulations forced by observed anthropogenic and natural, or natural only, forcing components, we find that these changes of climate types since 1950 cannot be explained as natural variations but are driven by anthropogenic factors.

  4. 黄色短杆菌 ilvN 基因定点突变和 ilvBN、ilvC 串联表达对L-缬氨酸产量的影响%Effects of Brevibacterium flavum with directed mutagenesis of ilvN and co-expression of ilvBNC cluster on L-valine production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾邦定; 黄钦耿; 梁玲; 郭小雷; 王明兹; 施巧琴; 吴松刚

    2016-01-01

    由 ilvBN、ilvC 基因编码的乙酰羟酸合成酶(AHAS)和乙酰羟酸异构还原酶(AHAIR)是 L-缬氨酸合成途径的两个关键酶。本实验以黄色短杆菌 Brevibacterium flavum MD515为出发菌株,通过 PCR 技术扩增其 ilvBN和 ilvC 基因,对调节亚基 ilvN 进行定点突变,获得抗反馈抑制突变型编码基因 ilvBNrC;然后将其插入穿梭表达载体 pZ8-1中,构建串联表达质粒 pZ8-1-ilvBNrC 并转化出发菌株,筛选获得工程菌株 B.flavum MD515/pZ8-1-ilvBNrC。摇瓶发酵该工程菌株 L-缬氨酸产量达29.5 g·L−1,较出发菌株提高27.7%,同时生长速度和生物量也比出发菌株有所提高,丙氨酸含量降低,L-亮氨酸及 L-异亮氨酸含量提高。在30 L 发酵罐连续补料发酵60 h 后 L-缬氨酸产量达61.7 g·L−1,糖酸转化率为39.2%。菌株 MD515/pZ8-1-ilvBNrC 发酵液透光率较出发菌株高且蛋白含量低,这些特性有利于发酵液后期的分离提取。%Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) and acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) encoded by ilvBN and ilvC are two key enzymes which play important roles in the biosynthetic pathway of L-valine. Brevibacterium flavum MD515 was used as the origin strain and site-specific mutagenesis was performed in its ilvN gene which coded for the regulatory subunit of AHAS, resulting in the obtainment of an anti-feedback inhibition gene, named ilvBN'C. Then, the ilvBNrC gene was ligased to plasmid pZ8-1 for construction of the recombinant plasmid pZ8-1-ilvBNrC, which was subsequently transfored into B. flavum MD515. With this method, the targeted transformant B. flavum MD515/pZ8-1-ilvBNrC showed better L-valine producing capacity of 29.5 g·L−1, 27.7% increase than that of original strain when it was cultured in 250 ml shake flasks. Meanwhile, the yield of leucine and isoleucine also increased while the alanine decreased. The biomass and growth rate were also increased. Moreover

  5. Significance of terpenoids in induced indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory by arthropods with an induced emission of volatiles such as green leaf volatiles and terpenoids. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can attract carnivores, for example, predators and parasitoids. We investigated the significance of terpenoids in attracti

  6. Changes and significance of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in women with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Zhi Zeng; Bo Zhang; Yu-Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension, and to explore its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 88 cases of women with pregnancy induced hypertension who were admitted in our hospital from July 2011 to February 2016 were selected as the research objects, at the same time, 90 normal pregnant women were selected as normal late pregnancy group. The coagulation parameters, hemodynamics, blood rheology indexes were detected in the two groups.Results:Before delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly lower than those in the normal late pregnancy group, and the values of D-D and FIB were significantly higher than those in the normal late pregnancy group. After delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher, and the FIB value was significantly lower, there were no significant differences between the two group. But the D-D value was still significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnancy group. The blood flow dynamics parameter in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnant group, the differences were statistically significant. The whole blood high and low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, low shear reduction viscosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte electrophoresis time and fibrinogen in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than those in normal late pregnancy group.Conclusion:The blood indexes in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension showed a high coagulation state compared with the normal late pregnancy women. Timely detection of patients’ coagulation function, hemodynamics, and blood rheology indexes has important significance for the detection, auxiliary diagnosis and prevention of the disease.

  7. High-fat diet induces significant metabolic disorders in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hao; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Qiuxiao; Zhang, Chenglu; Qiao, Jie; Guan, Youfei; Kang, Jihong

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy associated with both reproductive and metabolic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently used to induce a PCOS mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause obesity and infertility in female mice. The possible effect of an HFD on the phenotype of DHEA-induced PCOS mice is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate both reproductive and metabolic features of DHEA-induced PCOS mice fed a normal chow or a 60% HFD. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (age 25 days) on the normal chow or an HFD were injected (s.c.) daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA for 20 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, both reproductive and metabolic characteristics were assessed. Our data show that an HFD did not affect the reproductive phenotype of DHEA-treated mice. The treatment of HFD, however, caused significant metabolic alterations in DHEA-treated mice, including obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and pronounced liver steatosis. These findings suggest that HFD induces distinct metabolic features in DHEA-induced PCOS mice. The combined DHEA and HFD treatment may thus serve as a means of studying the mechanisms involved in metabolic derangements of this syndrome, particularly in the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS.

  8. Change and significance of nuclear factor-κB in adriamycin induced cardiomyopathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-li; LIU Bin; ZHOU Ling-wang; YU Wei-han

    2005-01-01

    Background This study aimed at investigating the change and significance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin (ADR) in rats.Methods Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, ADR and ADR+pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) groups. After 30-day experiment, myocardial histopathological observation was performed. Location and distribution of NF-κB p50 was examined by immunohistochemical assay. Expression of NF-κB p50 protein was examined by immunobolt assay. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay examined activity of NF-κB; Myocardium p53 gene expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. Results The myocardial lesions of rats were less pronounced in ADR +PDTC group than in ADR group. Compared with control group, there were many myocardium nucleuses, which expressed NF-κB p50 and distribute under epicardium. Expression of NF-κB p50 protein in nucleus increased significantly in ADR group. The NF-κB binding activity increased significantly in ADR group. Myocardium expressions of p53 mRNA increased in ADR group. Conclusions The NF-κB binding activity increased significantly in cardiomyopathy induced by ADR in rats. Moreover, NF-κB plays an important role in causing degeneration of myocardial tissue and regulating expression of related-apoptosis genes.

  9. Identifying potentially induced seismicity and assessing statistical significance in Oklahoma and California

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Mark; Chiu, Kitkwan; Ranganath, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a statistical method for identifying induced seismicity from large datasets and apply the method to decades of wastewater disposal and seismicity data in California and Oklahoma. The method is robust against a variety of potential pitfalls. The study regions are divided into gridblocks. We use a longitudinal study design, seeking associations between seismicity and wastewater injection along time-series within each gridblock. The longitudinal design helps control for non-random application of wastewater injection. We define a statistical model that is flexible enough to describe the seismicity observations, which have temporal correlation and high kurtosis. In each gridblock, we find the maximum likelihood estimate for a model parameter that relates induced seismicity hazard to total volume of wastewater injected each year. To assess significance, we compute likelihood ratio test statistics in each gridblock and each state, California and Oklahoma. Resampling is used to empirically d...

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 significantly reduces complications of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Wacim; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Riadh; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 for preventing alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The oral administration of this probiotic was noted to significantly improve the immunological parameters, protect the pancreatic tissues, and reduce the pancreatic and plasmatic α-amylase activities and level of plasma glucose in the treated as compared to the control group of rats. Furthermore, this probiotic treatment was observed to markedly reduce pancreatic and plasmatic lipase activities and serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol rates and to increase the level of HDL-Cholesterol. It also exerted efficient protective effects on the liver and kidney functions evidenced by significant decreases in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, as well as creatinine and urea contents. Taken together, the findings indicate that L. plantarum TN627 exhibits attractive in vivo antidiabetic effects that may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats.

  11. Significantly enhanced lung metastasis and reduced organ NK cell functions in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, J; Hanke, J; Knauf, D; Ben-Eliyahu, S; Jacobs, R; Stangl, G I; Bähr, I; Kielstein, H

    2017-01-01

    Obesity was identified as a major risk factor for malignant diseases, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells, a pivotal aspect of innate immunity, are capable of identifying and killing virally infected and tumor cells. Previous studies have shown altered NK cell functions in obesity, and the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between altered NK cell functions and increased cancer risk in obesity. To induce obesity male F344-rats received a high-fat diet (34% fat) or a control diet (4% fat). Thereafter, syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma cells (MADB106) or a vehicle were intravenously (i.v.) injected. 15 min after injection, half of each group of rats were killed, lungs removed and immunohistochemically stained. Numbers of NK cells, MADB106 cells and NK cell-tumor cell interactions were quantified. Twenty-one days after tumor-cell injection the other half group of rats was killed and lung metastases were counted and relative mRNA concentrations of different NK cell receptors were determined. After short-term MADB106-challenge, DIO fed animals showed significantly decreased NK cell numbers in the blood and NK cell-tumor cell interactions in the lung as compared to their control littermates. Twenty-one days after MADB106 injection, the lungs of the DIO fed rats showed significantly more lung metastases compared to control animals, accompanied by reduced relative mRNA concentrations of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D. We conclude that induction of obesity in F344-rats leads to reduced lung NK cell function against tumor cells and results in significantly enhanced lung metastasis as compared to lean animals. It can be hypothesized that obesity-induced altered NK cell functions play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis.

  12. Changes and significance of IL-25 in chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiwen, Wang; Zhaoliang, Su; Yinxia, Zhao; Siamak, Sandoghchian Shotorbani; Zhijun, Jiao; Yuan, Xue; Heng, Yang; Dong, Zheng; Yanfang, Liu; Pei, Shen; Shengjun, Wang; Qixiang, Shao; Xinxiang, Huang; Liwei, Lu; Huaxi, Xu

    2012-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. It is a systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by chronic, symmetrical, multi-articular synovial arthritis. IL-25 (IL-17E) is a member of the recently emerged cytokine family (IL-17s), which is expressed in Th2 cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells. Unlike the other members of this family, IL-25 is capable of inducing Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and also promotes the release of some pro-immune factors (IL-6 and IL-8). IL-25 is also a pleiotropic factor, which constitutes a tissue-specific pathological injury and chronic inflammation. In this study, we used chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA) model in DBA/1 mice to investigate the relationship between IL-25 and other inflammatory factors, revealing the possible mechanism in CIA. Our results showed that the expression level of IL-25 was enhanced in the late stage of CIA, and IL-17 was increased in the early stage of the disease. It is well known that IL-17 has a crucial role in the development of RA pathogenesis, and IL-25 plays a significant role in humoral immune. For reasons given above, we suggested that the IL-25 inhibited IL-17 expression to some extent, while enhancing the production of IL-4. It was confirmed that IL-25 not only regulated the cellular immune, but also involved the humoral immune in rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly influences atherogenic risk and cytokine-induced oxidant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Corey M; Pompilius, Melissa; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis. However, no studies have determined whether altered mitochondrial oxidant production directly influences atherogenic susceptibility and response in primary cells to atherogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We undertook this study to determine whether increased mitochondrial oxidant production affects atherosclerotic lesion development associated with CVD risk factor exposure and endothelial cell response to TNF-α. We assessed atherosclerotic lesion formation, oxidant stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage in male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice with normal and decreased levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2; apoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-), respectively) exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or filtered air. Atherogenesis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial damage were significantly higher in apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-) mice than in apoE(-/-) controls. Furthermore, experiments with small interfering RNA in endothelial cells revealed that decreased SOD2 activity increased TNF-α-mediated cellular oxidant levels compared with controls. Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk factor that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Consequently, CVD risk factors that induce mitochondrial damage alter cellular response to endogenous atherogenic factors, increasing disease susceptibility.

  14. Changes and significance of SIRT3 expression in cellular senescence induced by high glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of the silent information regulator 3(SIRT3 in the decrepitude process of human diploid fibroblasts(WI-38 induced by high glucose.Methods The WI-38 cells [population doublings(PDs,20-32] were cultured in media containing different concentrations of glucose as follows: low glucose(3.34mmol/L,LG,normal glucose(5.56mmol/L,NG,and high glucose(25mmol/L,HG.The protein expression levels of p21,p27,catalase,MnSOD,and SIRT3 were evaluated through Western blot.The double-label immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the location and expression of SIRT3,MnSOD,and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci(SAHF in the WI-38 cells.The ROS level was determined with fluorescent probe.Results The results from the Western blot showed that the protein expression of SIRT3,catalase,and MnSOD decreased significantly in the HG group compared with the LG and NG groups(P 0.05.SIRT3 and MnSOD were highly expressed in the cytoplasm.The ROS levels in the HG group were elevated compared with those in the LG and NG groups.Conclusion SIRT3 may play an important role in cellular senescence induced by high glucose in human diploid fibroblasts.

  15. Sequential changes of hypoxia- inducible factor 1 alpha in experimental spinal cord injury and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠延; 贺民; 毛伯镛

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the sequential changes of HIF-1α(hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha) in experimental spinalcord injury in rats and to analyze its potential effects inSCI.Methods: A static compression model of SCI wasemployed in this study. Expressions of HIF-1α weremeasured with immunohistochemical staining, while flowcytometry was used to determine the apoptotic ratio andbcl-2 expressions.Results: HIF-1α began to increase 1 day after injury,and reached the peak at 3-7 days. Two weeks later, itdeclined significantly. The sequential changes of HIF-1αcoincided well with the alterations of apoptotic ratio andcontents of bel-2.Conclusions: HIF-1α possibly participates in thesecondary ischemic and hypoxic procedures after spinalcord injury, and may mediate the traumatic apoptosis.Further understanding of HIF-1α may provide newtherapeutic regimens for SCI.

  16. Significance of Shrinkage Induced Clamping Pressure in Fiber-Matrix Bonding in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The present paper accesses the significance of shrinkage inducedclamping pressure in fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms incementitious composite materials. The paper contains a description of an experimental setup whichallows mbox{measurement} of the clamping pressure which develops on anelastic...... acting on any elastic inhomogeneityembedded in the same cementitious matrix material. Fiber-shaped inhomogeneities are of special interest in cementitious composite material systems andresults are presented for the development of clamping pressure on three typical fiber types in two typical cementpastes...... used in high performance cementitious composite materials.Assuming a Coulomb type of friction on the fiber/matrix interface andusing typical values for the frictional coefficient it is shownthat the shrinkage induced clamping pressure could be one of the mostimportant factors determining the frictional...

  17. Clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in hepatitis B virus-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Li Piao; David R Brigstock; Jie Zhu; Man-Li Zhang; Run-Ping Gao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the utility of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) for assessing hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced chronic liver diseases (CLD-B).METHODS:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCN2 in sera from 107 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 39 patients with HBVinduced active liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy individuals.Liver samples from 31 patients with CHB,8 patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and 8 HBV carriers with normal liver histology were examined for transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or CCN2 mRNA levels by in situ hybridization,and computer image analysis was performed to measure integrated optimal density (IOD) of CCN2 mRNA-positive cells in liver tissues.Histological inflammation grading and fibrosis staging were evaluated by H and E staining and Van Gieson's method.RESULTS:Serum CCN2 concentrations were,respectively,4.0-or 4.9-fold higher in patients with CHB or active liver cirrhosis as compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.01).There was good consistency between the levels of CCN2 in sera and CCN2 mRNA expression in liver tissues (r =0.87,P < 0.01).The levels of CCN2 in sera were increased with the enhancement of histological fibrosis staging in patients with CLD-B (r =0.85,P < 0.01).Serum CCN2 was a reliable marker for the assessment of liver fibrosis,with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.94 or 0.85 for,respectively,distinguishing normal liver controls from patients with F1 stage liver fibrosis or discriminating between mild and significant fibrosis.CONCLUSION:Detection of serum CCN2 in patients with CLD-B may have clinical significance for assessment of severity of hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Expression and significance of PTEN, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha in colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-An Jiang; Li-Fang Fan; Chong-Qing Jiang; You-Yuan Zhang; He-Sheng Luo; Zhi-Jiao Tang; Dong Xia; Ming Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and significance of PTEN,hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and targeting gene VEGF during colorectal carciogenesis.METHODS: Total 71 cases colorectal neoplasms (9 cases of colorectal adenoma and 62 colorectal adenocarcinoma)were formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded, and all specimens were evaluated for PTEN mRNA, HIF-1α mRNA and VEGF protein expression. PTEN mRNA, HIF-1α mRNA were detected by in situ hybridization. VEGF protein was identified by citrate-microwave SP immunohistochemical method.RESULTS: There were significant differences in PTEN, HIF1α and VEGF expression between colorectal adenomas and colorectal adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). The level of PTEN expression decreased as the pathologic stage increased.Conversely, HIF-1α and VEGF expression increased with the Dukes stage as follows: stage A (0.1029±0.0457:0.1207± 0.0436), stage B (0.1656±0.0329: 0.1572±0.0514),and stage C+D (0.2335±0.0748: 0.2219±0.0803). For PTEN expression, there was a significant difference among Dukes stage A, B, and C+D, and the level of PTEN expression was found to be significant higher in Dukes stage A or B than that of Dukes stage C or D. For HIF-1α expression,there was a significant difference between Dukes stage A and B, and the level of HIF-1α expression was found to be significantly higher in Dukes stage C+D than that of Dukes stage A or B. The VEGF expression had similar results as HIF-1α expression. In colorectal adenocarcinoma,decreased levels of PTEN were significantly associated with increased expression of HIF-1α mRNA (r=-0.36, P<0.05)and VEGF protein (r=-0.48, P<0.05) respectively. The levels of HIF-1 were positively correlated with VEGF expression (r=0.71, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Loss of PTEN expression and increased levels of HIF-1α and VEGF may play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  19. The incidence of clinically significant contrast-induced nephropathy following non-emergent coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Hartwig, Kathryn C; Sonel, Ali F; Fine, Michael J; Palevsky, Paul

    2008-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the incidence of clinically significant contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) among patients undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography. Although retrospective analyses have emphasized the association of CIN with adverse patient outcomes, the actual incidence of clinically significant CIN following non-emergent coronary angiography is not clear. We prospectively identified patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) or = 25% and > or = 0.5 mg/dl. We tracked the need for dialysis, hospitalization related to kidney injury, and 30-day mortality to examine the association of CIN with these outcomes. We enrolled 181 patients with a median eGFR of 52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Of the 165 patients (91%) with post-procedure Scr data, the incidence of CIN was 6.1-8.5%. One patient required dialysis (0.55%) and one (0.55%) died within 30 days. Although 38 patients required hospital admission, CIN was not associated with the need for hospitalization. Patients with an increase in Scr > or = 25% demonstrated a trend toward increased risk for 30-day mortality (P = 0.09), whereas those with increments in Scr > or = 0.5 mg/dl had a marginally higher risk for dialysis (P = 0.06) and 30-day mortality (P = 0.06), although these associations failed to meet the level of statistical significance. Biochemically defined CIN occurs in a small, but notable proportion of patients undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography. However, clinically significant CIN is very uncommon. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Expression and significance of GIT1 in hippocampus of lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua ZHENG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the expression changes of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1 in lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic rat model and explore its role in the genesis and development of epilepsy.  Methods  The lithium-pilocarpine-induced model of status epilepticus (SE was established in 42 specific pathogen free (SPF male adult Wistar rats, and those rats were randomly divided into control group and 6 epilepsy groups (1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60 d after SE. The expression of GIT1 mRNA was detected by fluroescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, while the expression of GIT1 protein was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry was applied to test the expression of CA1 region, dentate gyrus and parahippocampal cortex in rat hippocampus at different time points.  Results  GIT1 mRNA level rised in acute phase on 1st and 3rd day after SE (P = 0.012, 0.002, then increased continously in latency on 7th and 14th day (P = 0.003, 0.001, and reached the peak in chronic phase on 30th and 60th day (P = 0.000, for all. GIT1 protein expression rised in acute phase and increased continously in chronic phase, but there was no significant difference compared with control group (P > 0.05, for all. Then, it reached the peak in chronic phase (P = 0.000, for all. Until the 30th day, the GIT1 expression of CA1 region, dentate gyrus and parahippocampal cortex in the hippocampus of rats in 6 epilepsy groups was significantly higher than that of control group (P = 0.000, for all.  Conclusions  The up-regulated expression of GIT1 in the hippocampus of epileptic rat was probably involved in the formation process of chronic epilepsy by regulating cytoskeleton dynamic regrouping to influence excitatory neural networks. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.011

  1. Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-induced Ego Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millière, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as “drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)”, for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). While these substances act on different neurotransmitter receptors, they all produce strong subjective effects that can be compared to the symptoms of acute psychosis, including ego dissolution. It has been suggested that neuroimaging of DIED can indirectly shed light on the neural correlates of the self. While this line of inquiry is promising, its results must be interpreted with caution. First, neural correlates of ego dissolution might reveal the necessary neurophysiological conditions for the maintenance of the sense of self, but it is more doubtful that this method can reveal its minimally sufficient conditions. Second, it is necessary to define the relevant notion of self at play in the phenomenon of DIED. This article suggests that DIED consists in the disruption of subpersonal processes underlying the “minimal” or “embodied” self, i.e., the basic experience of being a self rooted in multimodal integration of self-related stimuli. This hypothesis is consistent with Bayesian models of phenomenal selfhood, according to which the subjective structure of conscious experience ultimately results from the optimization of predictions in perception and action. Finally, it is argued that DIED is also of particular interest for philosophy of mind. On the one hand, it challenges theories according to which consciousness always involves self-awareness. On

  2. Significance of erosion-induced carbon fluxes in the carbon balance of a Mediterranean catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    Large uncertainties surround our knowledge of the processes through which carbon (C) sequestration takes place in terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, terrestrial ecosystems could be capturing up to one fourth of the CO2 that is emitted annually to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels and land use changes. Soils are the third largest C reservoir in the C cycle, storing around 1500 Gt of C. Over the last decades, geomorphologists and soil scientists have claimed the role of soil erosion within the C cycle and its potential contribution to the terrestrial C sink. In order to assess the impact of soil erosion on the C cycle, however, an understanding and quantification of the impact of soil erosion on soil C stocks is needed. This implies quantifying lateral and vertical C fluxes associated to detachment, transport and deposition of soil and sediment at different spatial scales. As an example, we present a C budget for a mountainous catchment in south-eastern Spain for a 28 year study period during which the catchment underwent significant land use changes and hydrological correction works (i.e. check-dam construction and reforestations). We quantified lateral C fluxes induced by soil erosion processes and closed a soil/sediment C budget by combining field measurements and numerical modeling. In addition, correlation analysis was conducted between catchment properties (topographic, land use, lithology) and measured C deposition rates to understand the controlling factors on C yield (export) and C concentration in sediments. The results showed that the highest C yields (associated to high sediment yields) were found in subcatchments dominated by soft lithologies and high drainage densities. On the other hand, C concentration in deposited sediments was higher in areas dominated by forest cover, and presented high variability in those parts of the catchment with smoother slopes. Overall, we estimated that around 4000 Mg of C were mobilized from the catchment

  3. Significance of nitric oxide on the pathogenesis of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Steroid-induced femoral head necrosis is claimed to be an ischemic femoral head disease. But there is no discussion on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the idiopathic disease. The concentration of NO indirectly in serum with steroid induced avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) and in controls are studied in this article.

  4. Risperidone significantly inhibits interferon-gamma-induced microglial activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takahiro; Monji, Akira; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2007-05-01

    Microglia has recently been regarded to be a mediator of neuroinflammation via the release of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia has thus been reported to play an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia remain unclear while some recent neuroimaging studies suggest even schizophrenia may be a kind of neurodegenerative disease. Risperidone has been reported to decrease the reduction of MRI volume during the clinical course of schizophrenia. Many recent studies have demonstrated that immunological mechanisms via such as interferon (IFN)-gamma and cytokines might be relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we thus investigated the effects of risperidone on the generation of nitric oxide, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and inflammatory cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by IFN-gamma-activated microglia by using Griess assay, Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. In comparison with haloperidol, risperidone significantly inhibited the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines by activated microglia. The iNOS levels of risperidone-treated cells were much lower than those of the haloperidol-treated cells. Antipsychotics, especially risperidone may have an anti-inflammatory effect via the inhibition of microglial activation, which is not only directly toxic to neurons but also has an inhibitory effect on neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis, both of which have been reported to play a crucial role in the pathology of schizophrenia.

  5. Mixed martial arts induces significant fatigue and muscle damage up to 24 hours post-combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Nihel; Tabben, Montassar; Miarka, Bianca; Tourny, Claire; Chamari, Karim; Coquart, Jeremy

    2017-06-22

    This study investigates the physiological/physical responses to a simulated mixed martial arts (MMA) competition over 24 hr. Twelve fighters performed a simulated MMA competition, consisting of three 5-min MMA matches. Physiological/physical data were assessed before (Trest), directly after round 1 (Trd1), round 2 (Trd2) and round 3 (Trd3), and then 30-min (Trecovery30min) and/or 24-hr (Trecovery24h) post-competition. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were assessed at Trest, Trd1, Trd2 and Trd3. Biological data were collected at Trest, Trd3, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h. Physical tests were performed at Trest, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h. HR, RPE and [La] were high during competition. Leukocytes, hemoglobin, total protein and glycemia were increased at Trd3 compared with all other time points (p<0.05). Cortisol was increased at Trd3 compared with Trest and Trecovery24h (p<0.05). Testosterone was higher at Trd3 and Trecovery30min than Trest (p<0.001). Higher values of uric acid were noted during recovery periods (p<0.001). Lactate dehydrogenase was lower at Trest compared with Trd3, Trecovery30min and Trecovery24h (p<0.05). Countermovement jump was higher at Trest than Trecovery30min (p=0.020). Consequently, MMA is a high-intensity intermittent combat sport that induces significant fatigue and muscle damage, both of which are still present 24-hr post-competition.

  6. A helicopter flight does not induce significant changes in systemic biomarker profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Kjekshus, John; Aukrust, Pål; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Wagstaff, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Whole-body vibration and noise are inherent characteristics of helicopter operations. The helicopter pilot is affected by vibration from both low-frequency noise and mechanical vibration sources. The way this energy is transmitted to different tissues and organs depends on intensity, frequency and resonance phenomena within the body. Whole-body vibration is known to affect the muscular and skeletal system in the lower part of the spine, but less is known about the response at the cellular level to this stimulation. In some studies, chronic pathological changes have been described in different types of tissue in people exposed to low-frequency noise and vibration. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible cellular reactions to acute exposure to low-frequency noise and vibration in a helicopter. Thirteen healthy males aged 38 (18-69) years were subjected to a 3.5 h helicopter flight in a Westland Sea King Rescue helicopter. Blood tests taken before and after the flight were analysed for more than 40 parameters, including acute phase reactants, markers of leucocyte and platelet activation, complement and hemostasis markers, as well as a broad panel of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. The subjects served as their own controls. With the exception of an increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) during the flight, no statistically significant changes in the biomarkers were found after controlling for diurnal variation in the control blood tests, which were observed independently of the helicopter flight. In conclusion, one helicopter flight does not induce measurable changes in systemic biomarkers.

  7. Significance of CpG methylation for solar UV-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Ono, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Mutations detected in the p53 gene in human nonmelanoma skin cancers show a highly UV-specific mutation pattern, a dominance of C --> T base substitutions at dipyrimidine sites plus frequent CC --> TT tandem substitutions, indicating a major involvement of solar UV in the skin carcinogenesis. These mutations also have another important characteristic of frequent occurrences at CpG dinucleotide sites, some of which actually show prominent hotspots in the p53 gene. Although mammalian solar UV-induced mutation spectra were studied intensively in the aprt gene using rodent cultured cells and the UV-specific mutation pattern was confirmed, the second characteristic of the p53 mutations in human skin cancers had not been reproduced. However, studies with transgenic mouse systems developed thereafter for mutation research, which harbor methyl CpG-abundant transgenes as mutation markers, yielded complete reproductions of the situation of the human skin cancer mutations in terms of both the UV-specific pattern and the frequent occurrence at CpG sites. In this review, we evaluate the significance of the CpG methylation for solar UV mutagenesis in the mammalian genome, which would lead to skin carcinogenesis. We propose that the UV-specific mutations at methylated CpG sites, C --> T transitions at methyl CpG-associated dipyrimidine sites, are a solar UV-specific mutation signature, and have estimated the wavelength range effective for the solar-UV-specific mutation as 310-340 nm. We also recommend the use of methyl CpG-enriched sequences as mutational targets for studies on solar-UV genotoxicity for human, rather than conventional mammalian mutational marker genes such as the aprt and hprt genes.

  8. 'Bois noir' phytoplasma induces significant reprogramming of the leaf transcriptome in the field grown grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermastia Marina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoplasmas are bacteria without cell walls from the class Mollicutes. They are obligate intracellular plant pathogens which cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants including the grapevine (Vitis vinifera. Knowledge of their biology and the mechanisms of their interactions with hosts is largely unknown because they are uncultivable and experimentally inaccessible in their hosts. We detail here the global transcriptional profiling in grapevine responses to phytoplasmas. The gene expression patterns were followed in leaf midribs of grapevine cv. 'Chardonnay' naturally infected with a phytoplasma from the stolbur group 16SrXII-A, which is associated with the grapevine yellows disease 'Bois noir'. Results We established an on field experimental system in a productive vineyard that allowed application of molecular tools in a plant natural environment. Global transcription profiles of infected samples were compared with the healthy ones using microarray datasets and metabolic pathway analysis software (MapMan. The two-year-long experiment revealed that plant genes involved in primary and secondary metabolic pathways were changed in response to infection and that these changes might support phytoplasma nutrition. A hypothesis that phytoplasmas interact with the plant carbohydrate metabolism was proven and some possibilities how the products of this pathway might be utilized by phytoplasmas are discussed. In addition, several photosynthetic genes were largely down-regulated in infected plants, whereas defense genes from the metabolic pathway leading to formation of flavonoids and some PR proteins were significantly induced. Few other genes involved in defense-signaling were differentially expressed in healthy and infected plants. A set of 17 selected genes from several differentially expressed pathways was additionally analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR and confirmed to be suitable for a reliable

  9. Significant differences in genotoxicity induced by retrovirus integration in human T cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiyan; Wang, Yingjia; Chang, Tammy; Huang, He; Yee, Jiing-Kuan

    2013-04-25

    Retrovirus is frequently used in the genetic modification of mammalian cells and the establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via cell reprogramming. Vector-induced genotoxicity could induce profound effect on the physiology and function of these stem cells and their differentiated progeny. We analyzed retrovirus-induced genotoxicity in somatic cell Jurkat and two iPSC lines. In Jurkat cells, retrovirus frequently activated host gene expression and gene activation was not dependent on the distance between the integration site and the transcription start site of the host gene. In contrast, retrovirus frequently down-regulated host gene expression in iPSCs, possibly due to the action of chromatin silencing that spreads from the provirus to the nearby host gene promoter. Our data raises the issue that some of the phenotypic variability observed among iPSC clones derived from the same parental cell line may be caused by retrovirus-induced gene expression changes rather than by the reprogramming process itself. It also underscores the importance of characterizing retrovirus integration and carrying out risk assessment of iPSCs before they can be applied in basic research and clinics.

  10. [Exercise-induced atrioventricular block. Significance of the ischemic component. Report of 4 new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumoroso, J R; Montes Orbe, P M; Cembellín, J C; Pérez-García, P; González-Liébana, J; Gómez-Varela, S; Bodegas, A; Barrenetxea, J I

    1997-04-01

    We report four new cases of exercise-induced atrio-ventricular block (appearing during treadmill exercise testing). The mechanism was ischemia in two patients and the conduction disturbance disappeared after coronary artery bypass grafting. The literature on this matter is reviewed. Also the etiology, the natural history and management are discussed in these cases.

  11. Damage of vascular endothelial barrier induced by explosive blast and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Wang; Jing Chen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,injuries induced by explosive blast have got more and more attention owing to weapon development and frequent terrorist activities.Tear.bleeding and edema of tissues and organs are the main manifestations of blast shock wave damage.Vascular endothelial barrier is the main defense of tissues and organs' integrity.This article aims to discuss possible mechanisms of endothelial barrier damage induced by explosive blast and main manifestations of blood brain barrier,blood-air barrier,and intestinal vascular barrier impairments.In addition,the main regulatory factors of vascular permeability are also summarized so as to provide theoretical basis for prevention and cure of vascular endothelial barrier damage resulting from explosive blast.

  12. Significantly enhanced lung metastasis and reduced organ NK cell functions in diet-induced obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Spielmann, J.; Hanke, J; Knauf, D.; Ben-Eliyahu, S.; Jacobs, R.; Stangl, G. I.; B?hr, I.; Kielstein, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity was identified as a major risk factor for malignant diseases, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells, a pivotal aspect of innate immunity, are capable of identifying and killing virally infected and tumor cells. Previous studies have shown altered NK cell functions in obesity, and the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between altered NK cell functions and increased cancer risk in obesity. Methods To induce obesity male F344-rat...

  13. Significance of matrix metalloproteinases in norepinephrine-induced remodelling of rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briest, Wilfried; Hölzl, Alexander; Rassler, Beate; Deten, Alexander; Baba, Hideo A; Zimmer, Heinz-Gerd

    2003-02-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) induced hypertrophy and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the left ventricle (LV) of the rat heart with resulting fibrosis. However, there was no increased collagen deposition in the right ventricle (RV). To test the hypothesis that lack of RV fibrosis is the result of elevated cleavage of collagens we inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) by doxycycline (Doxy) and then measured function and collagen metabolism in the RV as compared to the LV. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 30 mg/kg per day doxycycline alone or in combination with i.v. infusion of NE (0.1 mg/kg per h). The activity of MMP-2 was increased both in the LV and RV after 3 days of NE infusion and reduced after concomitant doxycycline treatment which also caused inhibition when given alone. After 14 days of NE infusion in combination with doxycycline there was an additional increase in the NE-induced elevation of collagen accumulation in the LV (interstitial collagen fraction: NE-Doxy 1.797%, PDoxy: 36.4 mmHg) and RV dP/dt(max) (NE: 5500 mmHg/s, PDoxy: 2550 mmHg/s). Also in the NE-stimulated LV, the doxycycline-induced collagen accumulation was associated with reduced LV dP/dt(max) (NE-Doxy: 13169 mmHg/s; NE: 18849 mmHg/s, P<0.05). MMP inhibition leads to myocardial stiffness with negative functional consequences for the RV and LV in NE-treated rat hearts.

  14. [Etiological analysis and significance of anterior knee pain induced by gluteal muscles contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Liu, Yu-jie; Wang, Jun-liang; Qi, Wei; Qu, Feng; Yuan, Bang-tuo; Wang, Jiang-tao; Shen, Xue-zhen; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Juan-li

    2014-12-01

    To explore causes of gluteal muscle contracture induced anterior knee pain and curative effect of arthroscopic release. From March 2002 to August 2013,36 patients with gluteal muscle contracture induced anterior knee pain were treated, including 15 males, 21 females, aged from 9 to 40 years old with an average (18.7±7.2) years old; the courses of diseases ranged from 4 to 30 years. The clinical manifestations involved limited to symmelia, positive Ober sign, buttocks touch contracture belts, knee and patella slide to lateral when doing squat activities. All patients were performed gluteal muscle contracture release under arthroscopic. Postoperative complications were observed, Kujala scoring before and after operation was used for compare curative effect. All patients were followed up with an average of 29 months. The incision were healed well, and no complications were occurred. Postoperative Kujala score were improved more than preoperative. Gluteal muscle contracture release could alleviate hypertension of lateral patella, and palys an important role in preventing patellofemoral arthritis.

  15. Significance of chymase-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kazuki; Takai, Shinji; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Ishida, Kumi; Yoda, Yukiko; Inoue, Takuya; Jin, Denan; Umegaki, Eiji; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2010-02-01

    The side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include gastrointestinal damage not only in the stomach but also in the small intestine. Chymase converts promatrix metalloproteinase-9 to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which plays an important role in NSAID-induced gastric damage, but it has been unclear whether chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation is involved in the NSAID-induced small intestinal damage. To clarify the involvement of chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage, the effect of a chymase inhibitor, 2-[4-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)sulfonamido-3-methanesulfonylphenyl] thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (TY-51469), on indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats was evaluated. Until 6 h after oral administration of indomethacin in rats, intestinal MMP-9 activity was unchanged compared with normal rats, but significant increases in MMP-9 activity were observed 12 and 24 h after indomethacin administration. Significant increases in the small intestinal damage score were also observed 12 and 24 h after indomethacin administration. In the extract from the small intestine 24 h after indomethacin administration, the MMP-9 activation was significantly attenuated by TY-51469. Intraperitoneal injection of TY-51469 (10 mg/kg) 3 h before indomethacin administration significantly attenuated the MMP-9 activity in the small intestine compared with placebo treatment. Myeloperoxidase activity, which indicates accumulation of neutrophils, was significantly increased in the small intestine in the placebo-treated rats, but its activity was significantly attenuated by TY-51469 treatment. The area of small intestinal damage was also significantly ameliorated by TY-51469 treatment. These findings suggest that chymase-dependent MMP-9 activation has a significant role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in rats.

  16. Significance of Sulphur nutrition against metal induced oxidative stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mazid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur (S is available to plants as sulphate (SO42- in the soil to the roots and as gaseous SO2 in the atmosphere to the shoots. Of all the macronutrient, S is perhaps the nutrient which has attracted the most attention in soil science and plant nutrition due to its potential defensive characteristics to pests, good nutritive potentiality to crops and its relative immobility in the soil-plant system. This review highlights the mechanisms of uptake and translocation of S from soil and its transport in xylem and phloem tissues of plants. Moreover, it also throws new insights, have led us to revisit the hypothesis of S chelation in reference to oxidative stress induced by heavy metals sequestration.

  17. Sulforaphane-induced transcription of thioredoxin reductase in lens: possible significance against cataract formation

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    Varma SD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shambhu D Varma, Krish Chandrasekaran, Svitlana Kovtun Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA Purpose: Sulforaphane is a phytochemically derived organic isothiocyanate 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinyl-butane present naturally in crucifers, including broccoli and cauliflower. Biochemically, it has been reported to induce the transcription of several antioxidant enzymes. Since such enzymes have been implicated in preventing cataract formation triggered by the intraocular generation of oxy-radical species, the purpose of this investigation was to examine whether it could induce the formation of antioxidant enzymes in the eye lens. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR was used as the target of such induction. Methods: Mice lenses were cultured for an overnight period of 17 hours in medium 199 fortified with 10% fetal calf serum. Incubation was conducted in the absence and presence of sulforaphane (5 µM. Subsequently, the lenses were homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, followed by centrifugation. TrxR activity was determined in the supernatant by measuring the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced (NADPH-dependent reduction of 5,5´-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB. Non-specific reduction of DTNB was corrected for by conducting parallel determinations in the presence of aurothiomalate. The reduction of DTNB was followed spectrophotometrically at 410 nm. Results: The activity of TrxR in the lenses incubated with sulforaphane was found to be elevated to 18 times of that observed in lenses incubated without sulforaphane. It was also noticeably higher in the lenses incubated without sulforaphane than in the un-incubated fresh lenses. However, this increase was much lower than that observed for lenses incubated with sulforaphane. Conclusion: Sulforaphane has been found to enhance TrxR activity in the mouse lens in culture. In view of the protective effect of the antioxidant enzymes

  18. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy changes snoring management plan very significantly compared to standard clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaete, Karen; De Medts, Joris; Delsupehe, Kathelijne Godelieve

    2014-05-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a new tool in the work-up of patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We assessed the impact of DISE on the treatment plan of snoring patients. This is a single institution prospective longitudinal clinical trial. The setting is a private teaching hospital. A consecutive series of 100 snoring patients prospectively underwent a standardised questionnaire, clinical examination, rhinomanometry, allergy skin prick testing, DISE and polysomnography. Management plan before and after DISE evaluation was compared. In 61 patients (excluding 16 patients sent for continuous positive airway pressure, three patients refused sleep endoscopy and 20 were lost to follow-up), we compared the treatment plans. DISE showed single level airway collapse in 13 and multilevel collapse in 48 patients. The site of flutter did not add additional information as compared to the pattern and the location of the collapse. After DISE, the initial management plan changed in 41% of patients irrespective of the type of initial management plan. The only somewhat accurate initial treatment plan was uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (unchanged in 11/13 patients). Excluding moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea patients DISE is an indispensable tool in treatment decision in all SDB patients. We suggest to simplify the protocol for DISE reporting.

  19. Significant modulation of the hepatic proteome induced by exposure to low temperature in Xenopus laevis

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    Kazumichi Nagasawa

    2013-08-01

    The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is an ectothermic vertebrate that can survive at low environmental temperatures. To gain insight into the molecular events induced by low body temperature, liver proteins were evaluated at the standard laboratory rearing temperature (22°C, control and a low environmental temperature (5°C, cold exposure. Using nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 58 proteins that differed in abundance. A subsequent Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the tyrosine and phenylalanine catabolic processes were modulated by cold exposure, which resulted in decreases in hepatic tyrosine and phenylalanine, respectively. Similarly, levels of pyruvate kinase and enolase, which are involved in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, were also decreased, whereas levels of glycogen phosphorylase, which participates in glycogenolysis, were increased. Therefore, we measured metabolites in the respective pathways and found that levels of hepatic glycogen and glucose were decreased. Although the liver was under oxidative stress because of iron accumulation caused by hepatic erythrocyte destruction, the hepatic NADPH/NADP ratio was not changed. Thus, glycogen is probably utilized mainly for NADPH supply rather than for energy or glucose production. In conclusion, X. laevis responds to low body temperature by modulating its hepatic proteome, which results in altered carbohydrate metabolism.

  20. Xenobiotic-induced apoptosis: significance and potential application as a general biomarker of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Leonard I.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.; Omann, Geneva M.

    1999-01-01

    The process of apoptosis, often coined programmed cell death, involves cell injury induced by a variety of stimuli including xenobiotics and is morphologically, biochemically, and physiologically distinct from necrosis. Apoptotic death is characterized by cellular changes such as cytoplasm shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and plasma membrane asymmetry. This form of cell suicide is appealing as a general biomarker of response in that it is expressed in multiple cell systems (e.g. immune, neuronal, hepatal, intestinal, dermal, reproductive), is conserved phylogenetically (e.g. fish, rodents, birds, sheep, amphibians, roundworms, plants, humans), is modulated by environmentally relevant levels of chemical contaminants, and indicates a state of stress of the organism. Further, apoptosis is useful as a biomarker as it serves as a molecular control point and hence may provide mechanistic information on xenobiotic stress. Studies reviewed here suggest that apoptosis is a sensitive and early indicator of acute and chronic chemical stress, loss of cellular function and structure, and organismal health. Examples are provided of the application of this methodology in studies of health of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  1. Olanzapine-high potency antipsychotic drug inducing significant weight gain: A case report

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    Marić Nađa P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA with a high level of therapeutic effectiveness in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Along with the positive therapeutic effects, an increase of the body weight frequently occurs. According to the literature, the average weight gain is about 6-7 kg during several months of treatment. This could be valued as a moderate weight increase. CASE OUTLINE This article presents a case of a young female with schizophrenia, without clinical improvement with several antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, haloperidol and with the occurrence of significant neurological side effects. The treatment started with olanzapine (baseline was associated with good initial response (PANSS reduction 20% in the first two weeks and the improvement was maintained further on (PANSS reduction 50% after 16 weeks. Significant increase (20 kg, 40% in weight appeared during the following 16 weeks (BMI at baseline 17.9 kg/m2; BMI 16 weeks later 25.1 kg/m2. CONCLUSION High effectiveness of olanzapine in schizophrenia symptoms reduction was accompanied by a significant weight gain. However, this drug leads to impaired glucoregulation, dyslipidaemia etc. It also increases the risk of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, i.e. the main causes of mortality in schizophrenia after a suicide. Therefore, clinicians are suggested to focus on possible predictors of weight gain during olanzapine therapy, and act accordingly in order to prevent serious health consequences.

  2. Character, distribution, and ecological significance of storm wave-induced scour in Rhode Island Sound, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-04-01

    Multibeam bathymetry, collected during NOAA hydrographic surveys in 2008 and 2009, is coupled with USGS data from sampling and photographic stations to map the seabed morphology and composition of Rhode Island Sound along the US Atlantic coast, and to provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitats. Patchworks of scour depressions cover large areas on seaward-facing slopes and bathymetric highs in the sound. These depressions average 0.5-0.8 m deep and occur in water depths reaching as much as 42 m. They have relatively steep well-defined sides and coarser-grained floors, and vary strongly in shape, size, and configuration. Some individual scour depressions have apparently expanded to combine with adjacent depressions, forming larger eroded areas that commonly contain outliers of the original seafloor sediments. Where cobbles and scattered boulders are present on the depression floors, the muddy Holocene sands have been completely removed and the winnowed relict Pleistocene deposits exposed. Low tidal-current velocities and the lack of obstacle marks suggest that bidirectional tidal currents alone are not capable of forming these features. These depressions are formed and maintained under high-energy shelf conditions owing to repetitive cyclic loading imposed by high-amplitude, long-period, storm-driven waves that reduce the effective shear strength of the sediment, cause resuspension, and expose the suspended sediments to erosion by wind-driven and tidal currents. Because epifauna dominate on gravel floors of the depressions and infauna are prevalent in the finer-grained Holocene deposits, it is concluded that the resultant close juxtaposition of silty sand-, sand-, and gravel-dependent communities promotes regional faunal complexity. These findings expand on earlier interpretations, documenting how storm wave-induced scour produces sorted bedforms that control much of the benthic geologic and biologic diversity in Rhode Island Sound.

  3. Character, distribution, and ecological significance of storm wave-induced scour in Rhode Island Sound, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam bathymetry, collected during NOAA hydrographic surveys in 2008 and 2009, is coupled with USGS data from sampling and photographic stations to map the seabed morphology and composition of Rhode Island Sound along the US Atlantic coast, and to provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitats. Patchworks of scour depressions cover large areas on seaward-facing slopes and bathymetric highs in the sound. These depressions average 0.5-0.8 m deep and occur in water depths reaching as much as 42 m. They have relatively steep well-defined sides and coarser-grained floors, and vary strongly in shape, size, and configuration. Some individual scour depressions have apparently expanded to combine with adjacent depressions, forming larger eroded areas that commonly contain outliers of the original seafloor sediments. Where cobbles and scattered boulders are present on the depression floors, the muddy Holocene sands have been completely removed and the winnowed relict Pleistocene deposits exposed. Low tidal-current velocities and the lack of obstacle marks suggest that bidirectional tidal currents alone are not capable of forming these features. These depressions are formed and maintained under high-energy shelf conditions owing to repetitive cyclic loading imposed by high-amplitude, long-period, storm-driven waves that reduce the effective shear strength of the sediment, cause resuspension, and expose the suspended sediments to erosion by wind-driven and tidal currents. Because epifauna dominate on gravel floors of the depressions and infauna are prevalent in the finer-grained Holocene deposits, it is concluded that the resultant close juxtaposition of silty sand-, sand-, and gravel-dependent communities promotes regional faunal complexity. These findings expand on earlier interpretations, documenting how storm wave-induced scour produces sorted bedforms that control much of the benthic geologic and biologic diversity in Rhode Island Sound.

  4. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases.

  5. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase.

  6. Chronic stress induced disturbances in Laminin: a significant contributor to modulating microglial pro-inflammatory tone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Giovanni; Mabotuwana, Nishani; Zhao, Zidan; Mahmoud, Abdolhoseini; Johnson, Sarah J; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick R

    2017-09-21

    Over the last decade, evidence supporting a link between microglia enhanced neuro-inflammatory signalling and mood disturbance has continued to build. One issue that has not been well addressed yet are the factors that drive microglia to enter into a higher pro-inflammatory state. The current study addressed the potential role of the extracellular matrix protein Laminin. C57BL6 adult mice were either exposed to chronic stress or handled for 6 consecutive weeks. Changes in Laminin, microglial morphology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were examined in tissue obtained from mice exposed to a chronic restraint stress procedure. These in-vivo investigations were complemented by an extensive set of in-vitro experiments utilising both a primary microglia and BV2 cell line to examine how Laminin influenced microglial pro-inflammatory tone. Chronic stress was associated with enhanced the expression of Laminin, microglial de-ramification and pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling. We further identified that microglia when cultured in the presence of Laminin produced and released significantly greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; took longer to return to baseline following stimulation and exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity. These results suggest that chronic restraint stress is capable of modulating Laminin within the CNS, an effect that has implications for understanding environmental mediated disturbances of microglial function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Tactile cues significantly modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness independently of the level of physical skin wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-06-01

    Humans sense the wetness of a wet surface through the somatosensory integration of thermal and tactile inputs generated by the interaction between skin and moisture. However, little is known on how wetness is sensed when moisture is produced via sweating. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of skin cooling, intermittent tactile cues, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness, independently of the level of physical wetness. Ten males (22 yr old) performed an incremental exercise protocol during two trials designed to induce the same physical skin wetness but to induce lower (TIGHT-FIT) and higher (LOOSE-FIT) wetness perception. In the TIGHT-FIT, a tight-fitting clothing ensemble limited intermittent skin-sweat-clothing tactile interactions. In the LOOSE-FIT, a loose-fitting ensemble allowed free skin-sweat-clothing interactions. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, galvanic skin conductance (GSC), and physical (w(body)) and perceived skin wetness were recorded. Exercise-induced sweat production and physical wetness increased significantly [GSC: 3.1 μS, SD 0.3 to 18.8 μS, SD 1.3, P 0.05). However, the limited intermittent tactile inputs generated by the TIGHT-FIT ensemble reduced significantly whole-body and regional wetness perception (P < 0.01). This reduction was more pronounced when between 40 and 80% of the body was covered in sweat. We conclude that the central integration of intermittent mechanical interactions between skin, sweat, and clothing, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, significantly contributes to the ability to sense sweat-induced skin wetness.

  8. The changes and significance of T cell subsets and cytokines in the induced sputum in children with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Hui Tian; Feng-Qiong Zuo; Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes and significance of T cell subsets and cytokines in the induced sputum in children with asthma.Methods:A total of 86 cases of children with asthma were selected as research objects in the observation group, while a total of 35 cases of healthy children were chosen as research objects in the control group. Lung function indexes including the ratio (FEV1%) of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) and the maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF), and inflammatory cytokines in the induced sputum including interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and T cell subsets including Th1 cells, CD8+CD28- Treg cells, CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, Th2 cells and Th17 cells, and T cell subsets related cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were all detected and compared between the two groups.Results:The levels of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-6 in the induced sputum in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), while FEV1% and PEF were significantly decreased in the observation group compared with the control group (P<0.05); the number of Th1 cells, CD8+CD28- Treg cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in the induced sputum was significantly lower, while the number of Th2 cells and Th17 cells was significantly higher in the observation group than that in the control group (P<0.05); the expression levels of IFN-γ from Th1 cells and TGF-β from Treg cells were significantly lower, while the expression levels of IL-4 from Th2 cells and IL-17A from Th17 cells were significantly higher in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The number of T cell subsets in the induced sputum in children with asthma is abnormal, showing increases in the number of the Th2 cells and Th17 cells as well as their related cytokines, and decreases in the

  9. Clinical Significance of a Myeloperoxidase Gene Polymorphism and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕颖; 王文多; 张艳霞; 赵欣; 杨东亮

    2010-01-01

    The clinical significance of a myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene polymorphism and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in cirrhotic patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) was explored. Enrolled subjects were divided into three groups according to their disease/health conditions: the HPS group (cirrhotic patients with HPS; n=63), the non-HPS group (cirrhotic patients without HPS; n=182), and the control group (healthy subjects without liver disease; n=35). The distribution of the MPO-463 G/A geno...

  10. In a randomized placebo-controlled add-on study orlistat significantly reduced clozapine-induced constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhin, Evgeny; Takala, Pirjo; Hakko, Helinä; Raidma, Mirjam; Putkonen, Hanna; Räsänen, Pirkko; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Eronen, Markku; Joffe, Grigori

    2013-03-01

    Constipation is a common and potentially fatal side effect of clozapine treatment. Another important side effect of clozapine may also be significant weight gain. Orlistat is a weight-control medication that is known to induce loose stools as a common side effect. This study aimed to explore whether orlistat used to control clozapine-induced weight gain can simultaneously tackle clozapine-related constipation. In this 16-week randomized-controlled study, clozapine-treated patients received add-on orlistat (n=30) or add-on placebo (n=24). Colonic function was measured using the Bristol Stool Form Scale. There was a significant (P=0.039) difference in the prevalence of constipation in favor of orlistat over placebo in completers (n=40) at the endpoint. A decrease in the prevalence of constipation within the orlistat group (P=0.035) was observed (vs. no statistically significant changes in the placebo group). In clozapine-treated patients, orlistat may be beneficial not only for weight control but also as a laxative. As no established treatments for clozapine-induced constipation exist, orlistat can be considered for this population, although more studies are required.

  11. Significant correlation between expression level of HSP gp96 and progression of hepatitis B virus induced diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zhu; Cheng-Lin Li; Zhen-Wei Lang; George F Gao; Po Tien

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gp96, also known as Grp94, is a member of heat shock protein (HSP) family and binds repertoires of peptides thereof eliciting peptide-specific T cell immune responses.It predominantly locates inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with some cell surface expression in certain cancerous cells. Previous studies have shown that gp96 expression level was up-regulated in tumor cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, relationship between the extent of gp96 expression and disease progression especially HBV-induced chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, has not been addressed before. As primary HCC can be induced and progressed from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-induced cirrhosis, we designed an immunohistochemical experiment to test the correlation between gp96 expression level and HBV-induced disease progression, from chronic HBV infection, cirrhosis to HCC.METHODS: We chose liver samples from different patients of hepatitis B virus induced diseases, including chronic hepatitis B (77 patients), cirrhosis (27 patients) and primary HCC (30 patients), to test the expression level of gp96 in different affected groups. Formalin-fixed, and paraffinembedded liver tissues taken from these patients were immuno-stained by using an anti-gp96 monoclonal antibody for the expression level of gp96 protein in the sections. In addition, Western blotting of whole cell lysates derived from established human embryonic liver cell lines and several human HCC cell lines (Huh7, HepG2, SSMC-7721) was compared with the expression of gp96.RESULTS: We found that the extent of elevated gp96expression was significantly correlated with the disease progression, and was the highest in HCC patients, lowest in chronic HBV infection and was that of the cirrhosis in the middle.CONCLUSION: Increased expression of gp96 might be used as a diagnostic or prognostic bio-marker for the HBV infection and HBV-induced diseases.

  12. Significance of liver biopsy for the evaluation of methotrexate-induced liver damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Tatsuya; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kadota, Chikara; Hirano, Seiichi; Iwai, Yasuhiro; Hayakumo, Takanobu

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that long-term administration of methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can induce liver fibrosis via a steatohepatitis-like inflammatory process. Several non-invasive tests have been investigated as alternatives to liver biopsy, which is, however, still recognized as a final diagnostic modality to detect the MTX-induced liver damage. To clarify whether there is a significant discrepancy between clinical estimations and pathologic findings of this hepatic condition, we performed a following comparative study. Four RA patients (4 women, age 67-80 yr) with MTX-induced liver damage were reviewed. The severity of hepatic damage estimated clinically was compared with histopathologic findings. Consequently, the liver biopsies showed the relatively earlier stages of and milder degrees of hepatic damages than the clinical estimations. The histopathologic findings were more reliable and useful than any other clinical examinations, to plan and modify the treatment strategies, especially in cases of liver damages with multiple etiologies besides MTX. These findings suggest that liver biopsy is an unavoidable examination to assess precisely MTX-induced liver damage. Non-invasive tests may be useful to monitor the hepatic condition of RA patients receiving MTX but do not constitute an acceptable alternative to liver biopsy.

  13. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tonnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP. PMID:28316860

  14. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.

  15. Sustained systemic delivery of green tea polyphenols by polymeric implants significantly diminishes benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengxiao; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Spencer, Wendy A; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-06-20

    The polyphenolics in green tea are believed to be the bioactive components. However, poor bioavailability following ingestion limits their efficacy in vivo. In this study, polyphenon E (poly E), a standardized green tea extract, was administered by sustained-release polycaprolactone implants (two, 2-cm implants; 20% drug load) grafted subcutaneously or via drinking water (0.8% w/v) to female S/D rats. Animals were treated with continuous low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) via subcutaneous polymeric implants (2 cm; 10% load) and euthanized after 1 and 4 weeks. Analysis of lung DNA by (32)P-postlabeling resulted in a statistically significant reduction (50%; p = 0.023) of BP-induced DNA adducts in the implant group; however, only a modest (34%) but statistically insignificant reduction occurred in the drinking water group at 1 week. The implant delivery system also showed significant reduction (35%; p = 0.044) of the known BP diolepoxide-derived DNA adduct after 4 weeks. Notably, the total dose of poly E administered was >100-fold lower in the implant group than the drinking water group (15.7 versus 1,632 mg, respectively). Analysis of selected phase I, phase II, and nucleotide excision repair enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels showed no significant modulation by poly E, suggesting that the reduction in the BP-induced DNA adducts occurred presumably due to known scavenging of the antidiolepoxide of BP by the poly E catechins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sustained systemic delivery of poly E significantly reduced BP-induced DNA adducts in spite of its poor bioavailability following oral administration.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF THROMBOMODULIN AND PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR TYPE-I IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马水清; 白春梅; 边旭明

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To measure tbe circulating levels of thrombomodulin (TM) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-Ⅰ(PAI-I) in women with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).``Methods. Blood samples were drawn from 97 pregnant women in their third trimester, grouped as 25 mild PIH, 26 moderate PIH, 22 severe PIH and 24 normotensive healthy pregnant women for determining levels of TM by ELISA, PAI-I by colorimetric assay methods, and creatinine (Cr) in serum by biochemical method.``Results. Circulating levels of TM, PAId and TM/Cr ratio increased with increasing severity of PIH. There were no significant differences between mild and normotensive pregnant women. The parameters were significantly changed in the moderate and severe PIH groups.``Conclv, sion. TM and PAI-Ⅰ may serve as meaningful clinical markers for the assessment of the endothelial damage in PIH,which is very important in evaluating and following the development of PIH.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THROMBOMODULIN AND PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR TYPE-I IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马水清; 白春梅; 边旭明

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To measure the circulating levels of thrombomodulin (TM) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-I (PAI-I) inwomen with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Methods. Blood samples were drawn from 97 pregnant women in their third trimester, grouped as 25 mild PIH, 26 moderate PIH, 22 severe PIH and 24 normotensive healthy pregnant women for determining levels of TM by ELISA, PAI-I by colorimetric assay methods, and creatinine (Cr) in serum by biochemical method. Results. Circulating levels of TM, PAI-I and TM/Cr ratio increased with increasing severity of PIH. There were no significant differences between mild and normotensive pregnant women. The parameters were significantly changed in the moderate and severe PIH groups. Conclusion. TM and PAI-I may serve as meaningful clinical markers for the assessment of the endothelial damage in PIH,which is very important in evaluating and following the development of PIH.

  18. Expression and clinical significance of CD73 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Yi-Tian; Feng, Bing; Mao, Xiao-Bei; Yu, Bo; Chu, Xiao-Yuan

    2013-03-28

    To investigate the expression of CD73 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in human gastric carcinoma, and explore their clinical significance and prognostic value. CD73 and HIF-1α expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry in consecutive sections of tissue samples from 68 gastric carcinoma patients. The peritumor tissues 2 cm away from the tumor were obtained and served as controls. The presence of CD73 and HIF-1α was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the Envision technique. CD73 and HIF-1α expressions in gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in gastric mucosal tissues as control (P gastric carcinoma by both multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.021) and receiver operating characteristic curves (P = 0.001). CD73 expression correlates closely with HIF-1α expression in gastric carcinoma. CD73 could be an independent prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma.

  19. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing, E-mail: wuxingzhou@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2016-05-06

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall interactions. • The thermal conductivity of the inner tube is increased significantly due to protected by outer tube. • The outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer in multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  20. Significance of Cystatin C for Early Diagnosis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li; Yue, Rongzheng; You, Guiying; Zeng, Rui

    2016-08-22

    BACKGROUND Contrast-induced nephropathy is acute kidney injury caused by contrast medium exposure. Serum creatinine is the clinical diagnostic standard, but it does not yield quick results. The serum level of cystatin C is stable and it can reflect renal function sensitively. The study aimed to assess the usefulness of cystatin C for early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 300 patients who underwent CAG. According to the sCr at 48 h, patients were divided into 2 groups: CIN group and non-CIN group. Their demographics and basal renal function were recorded. Changes in sCr, Cys C, and e GFR were compared at the same time. ROC analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of Cys C in the early diagnosis of CIN. RESULTS Comparison of basal renal function and serum level of Cys C showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. Serum level of Cys C increased significantly at 24 h (p<0.001), and sCr increased significantly at 48 h. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of the change in Cys C between baseline and 24 h was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.879-0.992, p=0.000) and the optimum cut-off level was 0.26 mg/L (sensitivity=89.7% and specificity=95.6%). CONCLUSIONS The concentration change of Cys C is better than sCr as a biomarker in the early detection of CIN.

  1. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla;

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... with a MAP protein expressed in latent infection (FET11 vaccine). FET11 vaccine proteins were formulated with CAF01 adjuvant and injected to MAP challenged calves at two different ages. 28 calves divided into two FET11 vaccine groups, a commercial vaccine and a control group were used in the study...... and followed for a year. The FET11 vaccine induced a significant T cell response against constituent vaccine proteins characterized by a high percentage of CD4+ T cells and participation of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. Of the two different age groups, late FET11 vaccination conferred protective immunity...

  2. Radiation-induced bystander effect in healthy G{sub 0} human lymphocytes: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, Paola; Latini, Paolo [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio, E-mail: palitti@unitus.it [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    To study the bystander effects, G{sub 0} human peripheral blood lymphocytes were X-irradiated with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 Gy. After 24 h, cell-free conditioned media from irradiated cultures were transferred to unexposed lymphocytes. Following 48 h of medium transfer, viability, induction of apoptosis, telomere shortening, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and micronuclei (after stimulation) were analyzed. A statistically significant decrement in cell viability, concomitant with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, telomere shortening, increases in hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) with depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and higher frequencies of micronuclei, were observed in bystander lymphocytes incubated with medium from 0.5 and 3 Gy irradiated samples, compared to lymphocytes unexposed. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference between the response to 0.5 and 3 Gy of irradiation in bystander lymphocytes, was found. However, when lymphocytes were irradiated with 0.1 Gy, no bystander effect with regard to viability, apoptosis, telomere length, and micronuclei was observed, although a high production of ROS level persisted. Radiation in the presence of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suppressed oxidative stress induced by 3 Gy of X-rays with the effective elimination of bystander effects, suggesting a correlation between ROS and bystander signal formation in irradiated cells. The data propose that bystander effect might be mostly due to the reactions of radiation induced free radicals on DNA, with the existence of a threshold at which the bystander signal is not operative (0.1 Gy dose of X-rays). Our results may have clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure.

  3. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy significantly reduces Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal damage in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Chao Chang; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Gi-Shih Lien; Yuarn-Jang Lee; Horng-Yuan Lou; Ching-Ruey Hsieh; Chia-Lang Fang; Shiann Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of 4 d' anti-Helicobacter pyloritherapy on the H pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils based on physiological and pathological changes.METHODS: We used 6-wk-old male gerbils orally inoculated with H pylori (ATCC43504, 2x108 CFU/mL).Seven weeks after H pylori inoculation, the animals of study group received 4 d' anti-H pylori triple therapy (H pylorieradicated group). Seven days later, all animals of the H pylori-eradicated and control groups (H pylori-infected& H pylori-uninfected groups) were sacrificed. We examined gastric mucosal lesions macroscopically, studied gastritis microscopically and determined the stomach weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin (PG) E2 level.RESULTS: The results showed that both macroscopic and histological gastric damages were significantly less in H pylori-eradicated group than H pylori-infected group.Stomach weight ratio, MPO activity and PGE2 levels were significantly higher in H pylori-infected group than those in the other two groups.CONCLUSION: Four days' anti-H pylori therapy was effective in the improvement of H pylori-induced gastric lesions in Mongolian gerbils.

  5. The prognostic significance of hypoxia inducing factor 1-α in oropharyngeal cancer in relation to human papillomavirus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Angela; Zhang, Mei; Veillard, Anne-Sophie; Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Lee, C Soon; Jones, Deanna; Harnett, Gerald; Clark, Jonathan; Elliott, Michael; Milross, Chris; Rose, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the prognostic significance of hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Clinical details on 233 oropharyngeal SCCs were extracted from institutional databases. Recurrence in any form or death from any cause was recorded for a median of 51 months after diagnosis. HIF-1α expression was evaluated by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and HPV status was determined by HPV E6-targeted multiplex real-time PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry. Determinants of recurrence and mortality hazards were modeled using Cox regression with censoring at dates of last follow-up. The HIF-1α positivity rate was 58.8%. HIF-1α positivity was associated with higher T category (T3/T4 vs. T1/T2, 64.2% vs. 48.4%, p=0.001) and lower grade (Grade 1-2 vs. 3, 62% vs. 46.9%, p=0.001). There was no significant association between HIF-1α expression and HPV status. After adjustment for clinico-pathological variables, HPV status but not HIF-1α was a strong predictor of outcome. The combination of HPV and HIF-1α was not a prognostic variable but the worst outcomes were seen in those with HPV negative and HIF-1α positive cancers. There was no statistically significant evidence of an interaction between HPV and HIF-1α. The degree of hypoxia as measured by HIF-1α expression does not differ between HPV positive and HPV negative cancers. The role of hypoxia in HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer warrants further investigation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel ZnO:Ag nanocomposites induce significant oxidative stress in human fibroblast malignant melanoma (Ht144 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Arooj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of photoactive nanoparticles (NPs such as zinc oxide (ZnO and its nanocomposites has become a promising anticancer strategy. However, ZnO has a low photocatalytic decomposition rate and the incorporation of metal ions such as silver (Ag improves their activity. Here different formulations of ZnO:Ag (1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30% Ag were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford back scattering and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for their structure, morphology, composition and optical band gap. The NPs were investigated with regard to their different photocatalytic cytotoxic effects in human malignant melanoma (HT144 and normal (HCEC cells. The ZnO:Ag nanocomposites killed cancer cells more efficiently than normal cells under daylight exposure. Nanocomposites having higher Ag content (10, 20 and 30% were more toxic compared to low Ag content (1, 3 and 5%. For HT144, under daylight exposure, the IC50 values were ZnO:Ag (10%: 23.37 μg/mL, ZnO:Ag (20%: 19.95 μg/mL, and ZnO:Ag (30%: 15.78 μg/mL. ZnO:Ag (30% was toxic to HT144 (IC50: 23.34 μg/mL in dark as well. The three nanocomposites were further analyzed with regard to their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and induce lipid peroxidation. The particles led to an increase in levels of ROS at cytotoxic concentrations, but only HT144 showed strongly induced MDA level. Finally, NPs were investigated for the ROS species they generated in vitro. A highly significant increase of 1O2 in the samples exposed to daylight was observed. Hydroxyl radical species, HO•, were also generated to a lesser extent. Thus, the incorporation of Ag into ZnO NPs significantly improves their photo-oxidation capabilities. ZnO:Ag nanocomposites could provide a new therapeutic option to selectively target cancer cells.

  7. Choice of study endpoint significantly impacts the results of breast cancer trials evaluating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terry; Mazzarello, Sasha; Wang, Zhou; Hutton, Brian; Dranitsaris, George; Vandermeer, Lisa; Smith, Stephanie; Clemons, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endpoints can be used to evaluate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These endpoints reflect the various combinations of vomiting, nausea and rescue antiemetic use in the acute (0-24 h), delayed (>24-120 h) and overall (0-120 h) periods after chemotherapy. As the choice of outcome measure could potentially change the interpretation of clinical trial results, we evaluated CINV rates using different endpoints on a single dataset from a prospective cohort. Data from 177 breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline and cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy was used to calculate CINV control rates using the 15 most commonly reported CINV endpoints. As nausea remains such a significant symptom, we explored the frequency at which pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical company-funded studies included measures of nausea in their primary study endpoint. CINV control rates ranged from 12.5 %, 95 % (CI 7.6-17.4 %) for total control (no vomiting, no nausea and no rescue medication) in the overall period to 77.4 %, 95 % (CI 71.2-83.6 %) for no vomiting in the overall period. Similar differences were found in the acute and delayed periods. Non-pharmaceutical company-funded trials were more likely to include a measure of nausea in the primary study outcome (9/18, 50 %) than pharmaceutical-funded trials (1/12, 8.3 %). The choice of trial endpoint has an important impact on reported CINV control rates and could significantly impact on interpretation of the results. Primary endpoints of studies, including those mandated by regulatory bodies, should account for nausea to reflect patient experience. Reporting of endpoints should be more comprehensive to allow for cross-trial comparisons.

  8. Significance of the first transcribed nucleoside of capped RNA for ligand-induced folding of the cap-binding complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Remigiusz; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Mazza, Catherine; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Cusack, Stephen; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2005-05-01

    Many proteins, including those that bind RNA, change conformation upon binding a ligand, a phenomenon known as induced fit. CBP20, the small subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), recognizes specifically the 5' cap of eukaryotic mRNA and snRNA. The N- and C-terminal regions of the CBP20 subunit of the human nuclear cap-binding complex only acquire a proper fold in complex with capped RNA. The cap is composed of 7-methylguanosine linked by a 5'-to-5' triphosphate bridge to the first transcribed nucleoside of the RNA. The significance of the latter for the capped RNA-CBC association and local folding of CBC has been characterized by emission spectroscopy. Fluorescence titration of CBC has been performed for three selected, mono- and dinucleotide mRNA 5' cap analogues. The measured values of the equilibrium association constant and the corresponding Gibbs free energy depend on the type of the first transcribed nucleoside (purine or pyrimidine), and decrease ~10-fold in the case of a mononucleotide analogue, 7-methylguanosine triphosphate. However, the total quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence is similar for each analogue. Changes of the solvent-accessible CBC hydrophobic surface of CBC on binding of the structurally different cap analogues have been followed using bis-ANS fluorescent probe.

  9. Significance and Expression of Serum and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase in Kidney of Mice with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the expression and the role of three isoforms of Serum and Glucocorticoidinducible Kinase (SGK) in experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN), 12 male C57BL/6 mice of 8-weeks-old were divided into two groups. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy and normal controls were analyzed at the end of the 4th week after the induction of diabetes. Renal hemodynamics and histological studies were performed. The expression of SGK1 mRNA, SGK2 mRNA and SGK3 mRNA of kidney cortex were measured by RT-PCR, and the cortical SGK1 protein was detected with Western blotting. Our results showed that the blood glucose, blood HbA1c, 24-h urinary protein, creatinine clearance and the renal index were all increased in DN group. More extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation was observed. The level of cortical SGK1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in DN group in comparison with control group. SGK2 and SGK3 mRNA were elevated in DN mice. In DN, mRNA level of three SGK isoforms and SGK1 protein were increased significantly. It is concluded that SGKs may contribute to the early renal injury of DN.

  10. Changes and significance of occludin expression in rats with blood-brain barrier injury induced by microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang LI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes in occludin expression in hippocampus of rats injured by long-term microwave exposure at low dosage,and explore the mechanism of the effect of occludin on microwave-induced blood-brain barrier(BBB injury.Methods A total of 156 male Wistar rats were assigned into 4 groups(39 each according to the microwave dosage they received(0,2.5,5 and 10 mW/cm2.Irradiation was given 5 times/week and 6 minutes for each exposure for one month.Five rats of each group were sacrificed at each time point(6h and day 7,14,30 and 60 after irradiation,the structural changes in hippocampus tissues BBB were observed by light and electron microscopy.Another 3 rats of each group were sacrificed after an intravenous injection of 2% Evans blue(EB at the time points of 6h and day 7 and 30 after irradiation,and the change in BBB permeability was examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy.Western blotting,real-time PCR and image analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression of occludin in hippocampus of rats.Results After microwave irradiation in doses of 2.5,5 and 10 mW/cm2,respectively,on day 7,14 and 30,the astrocytes were found to be swollen,the capillary gaps of hippocampus were broadened and tight junction(TJ structure was inconspicuous or widened.In sham-group(0 mW/cm2,the red fluorescence of EB was limited in lumens of blood vessels,while in 5 and 10 mW/cm2 groups,Evans blue was dispersed surrounding the blood vessels at 6h and day 7 till day 30 in an irradiation dose-dependent manner.In 5 and 10 mW/cm2 groups,the expression of occludin protein in hippocampus decreased at day 14(P 0.05.In the 2.5,5 and 10 mW/cm2 groups,mRNA expression of occludin began to significantly decrease at day 7 and 14 and it lowered to the nadir at day 30(P 0.05.Conclusions A long-term microwave irradiation with dosage of 2.5 to 10 mW/cm2 may destroy the structure of BBB of rats’ hippocampus and increase permeability in a radiation

  11. 5-fluorouracil-based therapy induces endovascular injury having potential significance to development of clinically overt cardiotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Astrup; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the influence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy on the vascular endothelium and its association with 5-FU-induced heart ischemia.......This study aimed to elucidate the influence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy on the vascular endothelium and its association with 5-FU-induced heart ischemia....

  12. Expression of early growth response factor-1 in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Bo Gong; Li He; Yang Liu; Xue-Qing Chen; Bo Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the expressions of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-L) and tissue factor (TF) in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and to explore its significance.METHODS: A large dose of cerulein was used to create the experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats. The changes of Egr-1 mRNA and protein in rats were observed during 30 min to 4 h after the treatment and immunohistochemical method was used to observe the localized expression of Egr-1 in tissues. In addition to the mRNA expression of Egr-1 target gene, TF was also observed. A blank control group, and a bombesinadministered group were used for comparison.RESULTS: After the stimulation of a large dose of cerulein,the rats showed typical inflammatory changes of acute pancreatitis. Thirty minutes after the stimulation, the mRNA expression of Egr-1 in the pancreatic tissue reached its peak and then declined, while the expression of Egr-1protein reached its peak 2 h after the stimulation.Histologically, 2 h after the stimulation, almost all pancreatic acinar cells had the expression of Egr-1 protein,which was focused in the nuclei. The mRNA expression of TF occurred 1 h after the stimulation and gradually increased within 4 h. However, a large dose of bombesin only stimulated the pancreatic tissue to produce a little mRNA expression of Egr-1 and no mRNA expression of Egr-1 protein and TF.CONCLUSION: Egr-1 as a pro-inflammatory transcription factor may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis by modulating the expression of TF.

  13. Bacteria-induced or bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in mice and rabbits is preceded by a significant fall in serum progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, P I; Romero, R; Maymon, E; Hertelendy, F

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial products are thought to induce labor by stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in gestational tissues, leading to the onset of preterm parturition. Progesterone withdrawal is a prerequisite of parturition in many species. Yet a role for progesterone in the mechanisms responsible for preterm parturition, in the setting of infection, is unclear. The current studies were conducted to determine if a fall in serum progesterone concentrations occurs before the onset of bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in animals. Accordingly, pregnant mice at day 15 (70% gestation) were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 microg/mouse) and timed-pregnant rabbits were inoculated transcervically with a suspension of E. coli to cause an ascending intrauterine infection. Control animals in both groups received equal volumes of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. Blood specimens were collected at regular intervals and serum progesterone levels were determined by RIA. Within 14 h of LPS administration, mice delivered their pups. The median concentrations of serum progesterone were significantly lower at 1 h, 4 h, 10 h, and at the onset of preterm parturition (11-12 h) after LPS injection, compared to that in animals given PBS. Similarly, E. coli-inoculated rabbits delivered 1-2 days posttranscervical inoculation and demonstrated 60% decrease in serum progesterone within 12-24 h of inoculation compared to those given PBS. Parturition in both control groups occurred at term, following typical progesterone withdrawal. It is concluded that LPS administration to pregnant mice and ascending intrauterine infection in pregnant rabbits is associated with a dramatic fall in serum progesterone concentrations prior to the onset of parturition.

  14. Gomisin N isolated from Schisandra chinensis significantly induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Su Youn; Lee, You Jin; Lee, Yoen Kyung; Jung, Seung Eun; Kim, Ji Ha; Kim, Hak Jin; Son, Beung Gu; Park, Young Hoon; Lee, Young Guen; Choi, Young Whan; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2009-01-01

    Lignans isolated from Schisandria chinensis have been prescribed as anti-cancer and anti-hepatitis treatments in Chinese medicine. To investigate the applications of lignans isolated from Schisandria chinensis in hepatic carcinoma therapy, their apoptotic ability was screened using a cell proliferation assay. Compared to the other lignans, gomisin N induced high apoptotic levels in hepatic carcinoma. Cell morphology and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this lignan induced cell death at high concentrations, but did not induce any changes at low concentrations. In addition, the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, which are involved in the apoptotic pathway, were markedly increased in only the 320 µM-treated group compared to the vehicle and other concentration groups, while the expression level of p53 protein remained unchanged in this group. These results suggest that gomisin N is an anti-cancer drug candidate capable of inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of human hepatic carcinomas.

  15. Synthetic Beta-Lactam Antibiotic as a Selective Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis Inducer: Significance in Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    954. 48 Wan SB, Chen D, Dou OP, and Chan TH. Study of the green tea polyphenols catechin -3-gallate (CG) and epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) as proteasome... tea polyphenol epigallocatechin inhibits [26] Coultas L, Strasser A. The molecular control of DNA damage-induced DNA replication and consequently...Pommier Y. [20] Nam S, Smith DM, Dou QP. Ester bond-containing tea polyphenols Protein-linked DNA strand breaks induced by NSC 314622, a novel potently

  16. Sparingly-soluble phosphate rock induced significant plant growth and arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata from three contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2013-05-21

    We evaluated the ability of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) to remove As from As-contaminated soils over five harvests in 2.5 years in raised beds (162 kg soil/bed). We tested the hypothesis that a P-limiting environment would enhance PV growth and As uptake owing its unique ability to uptake P under As-rich environment. In Dec. 2009, PV was transplanted to three As-contaminated soils (pH of 5.5-7.2) containing 25-129 mg kg(-1) As, which was amended with sparingly-soluble phosphate rock (PR-soil) or soluble P fertilizer (P-soil). During the 2.5-year, PV obtained sufficient P (1882 vs 2225 mg kg(-1)) from PR-soils, with increased root biomass (33%) and root exudation (53%) compared to P-soils. In addition, its frond biomass increased by 20% consecutively with each harvest (six month interval) from 18 to 36 g plant(-1). Its frond biomass in PR-soils (52.2 g plant(-1) year(-1) or ∼12 mt ha(-1) year(-1)) averaged 39% more than that in P-soils. To our knowledge, this represented the largest PV frond biomass reported, demonstrating the unique ability of PV in using insoluble P from PR in alkaline soils. In addition to biomass increase, PV from PR-soils had ∼1.5 times more As in fronds (2540, 780, and 920 mg kg(-1)) than those from P-soils (1740, 570, and 400 mg kg(-1)), with soils containing 129, 25, and 30 mg kg(-1) As, respectively. The low available P in PR-soils induced substantial plant growth and As uptake by PV. This translated into significantly more As removal from soil, averaging 48% reduction in PR-soils and 36% in P-soils in 2.5 years. With multiple harvests and PR amendments, our results showed As removal by PV from contaminated soils was ∼7 times faster than published studies.

  17. Selective block of IKs plays a significant role in MAP triangulation induced by IKr block in isolated rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, N C; Traebert, M; Suter, W; Dumotier, B M

    2008-01-01

    The role of IKr (rapidly-activating delayed rectifier K(+) current) block in triangulation of monophasic action potentials (MAP) and in development of torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmia is known. Combined IKr and IKs (slowly-activating delayed rectifier K(+) current) block has been demonstrated to promote TdP. The aim of this study was to describe a possible implication of IKs block in MAP triangulation. Four contact electrodes were placed on the epicardium of the left ventricle of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts to record monophasic action potentials (MAP), with an IKr blocker d,l-sotalol (3 to 100 microM, n=6) or a non-selective IKr blocker, quinidine (1 to 30 microM, n=6). Their effects were assessed with or without a specific IKs blocker chromanol 293B (20 microM, n=6), on MAP duration at 30, 60 and 90% of repolarization (APD30, 60 and 90, respectively) and MAP triangulation (APD90-APD30) at 1 and 0.2 Hz. D,L-sotalol increased significantly APD90 and triangulation with reverse use-dependency for concentrations > or =10 microM. Quinidine markedly prolonged APD90 and triangulation with reverse use-dependency at concentrations > or =3 microM. Chromanol 293B alone had no effects on APD, but when combined with D,L-sotalol or quinidine (i) increased APD prolonging effects, (ii) lowered values of pro-arrhythmic concentrations, (iii) increased incidence and length of D,L-sotalol- or quinidine-induced Early Afterdepolarizations (EADs) and TdP. All these events were primarily due to an important slowing of final repolarization, i.e. a marked increased triangulation. IKs, even of low amplitude in rabbits, plays a key role in ventricular repolarization. IKs is involved in prolonged MAP duration mainly by triangulation and subsequent increased drug arrhythmogenicity. Therefore drug affinity for IKs must be evaluated with IKr studies as part of preclinical drug cardiac safety assessment.

  18. Memory accessibility and medical decision-making for significant others: the role of socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Dora; Coman, Alin; Hirst, William

    2013-01-01

    Medical decisions will often entail a broad search for relevant information. No sources alone may offer a complete picture, and many may be selective in their presentation. This selectivity may induce forgetting for previously learned material, thereby adversely affecting medical decision-making. In the study phase of two experiments, participants learned information about a fictitious disease and advantages and disadvantages of four treatment options. In the subsequent practice phase, they read a pamphlet selectively presenting either relevant (Experiment 1) or irrelevant (Experiment 2) advantages or disadvantages. A final cued recall followed and, in Experiment 2, a decision as to the best treatment for a patient. Not only did reading the pamphlet induce forgetting for related and unmentioned information, the induced forgetting adversely affected decision-making. The research provides a cautionary note about the risks of searching through selectively presented information when making a medical decision.

  19. Memory accessibility and medical decision-making for significant others: The role of socially-shared retrieval induced forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M Coman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical decisions will often entail a broad search for relevant information. No sources alone may offer a complete picture, and many may be selective in their presentation. This selectivity may induce forgetting for previously learned material, thereby adversely affecting medical decision-making. In the study phase of two experiments, participants learned information about a fictitious disease and advantages and disadvantages of four treatment options. In the subsequent practice phase, they read a pamphlet selectively presenting either relevant (Experiment 1 or irrelevant (Experiment 2 advantages or disadvantages. A final cued recall followed and, in Experiment 2, a decision as to the best treatment for a patient. Not only did reading the pamphlet induce forgetting for related and unmentioned information, the induced forgetting adversely affected decision-making. The research provides a cautionary note about the risks of searching through selectively presented information when making a medical decision.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and semaphorin4D genes involved with tumor-associated macrophage-induced metastatic behavior and clinical significance in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Linjun; Wang, Jinshen; Chen, Yuezhi; Li, Leping; Guo, Xiaobo; Zheng, Sheng; Jing, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes tumor angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a pivotal role in this process. Recently identified pro-angiogenic factor, semaphorin4D (Sema4D) also promotes angiogenesis and enhances invasive proliferation in some tumors. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can increase the expression of HIF-1α and Sema4D in cancer cells and thus influence tumor growth and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of TAMs on the expression of Sema4D and HIF-1α and the impact of biologic behavior in colon cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze HIF-1α and Sema4D expression in 86 curatively resected colon cancer samples and 52 normal colon tissues samples. The relationship between their expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed. Furthermore, macrophage-tumor cell interactions, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, were also studied using in vitro co-culture systems. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS Inc., USA). Differences between two groups were analyzed with Student's t test. HIF-1α (58%) and Sema4D (60%) were expressed at a significantly higher level in tumors than in normal tissues (P TNM stages (P 0.05). Sema4D expression was correlated with that of HIF-1α (r = 0.567, P colon cancer cells and subsequently increased their migration and invasion. HIF-1α and Sema4D expression are closely related to lymphatic metastasis, specific histological types and TNM stages in colon cancer. Furthermore, TAMs promote migration and invasion of colon cancer cells and endothelial tube formation, possibly through up-regulation of HIF-1α and Sema4D.

  1. Endomembrane Ca2+-AtPases play a significant role in virus-induced adaptation to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Bækgaard, Lone; Shabala, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of Ca2+ influx channels in oxidative stress signaling and cross-tolerance in plants is well established, little is known about the role of active Ca2+ efflux systems in this process. In our recent paper,17 we reported Potato Virus X (PVX)-induced acquired resistance to oxidative...... for practical applications in agriculture, after in-depth comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms involved in common responses to environmental factors at the genomic, cellular and organismal levels....

  2. Landolphia owariensis Attenuates Alcohol-induced Cerebellar Neurodegeneration: Significance of Neurofilament Protein Alteration in the Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinbo Charles A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol-induced cerebellar neurodegeneration is a neuroadaptation that is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Conventional drugs have been largely unsatisfactory in preventing neurodegeneration. Yet, multimodal neuro-protective therapeutic agents have been hypothesised to have high therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS conditions; there is yet a dilemma of how this would be achieved. Contrarily, medicinal botanicals are naturally multimodal in their mechanism of action.

  3. Herbal tea extract combined with light-induced significant in vitro cytotoxicity of human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nicholas E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, U. U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, and antidepressant activities of the Greek herb, Hypericum Perforatum L, HP L, have been attributed to the total extract or single constituents. We investigated the use of the extract,specifically of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Epirus"HPL in photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with recombinant Interferon-a2b (IFN) and gemcitabine (GCB) in the treatment of human bladder cancer cells. The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with petroleum ether. T-24 bladder cancer cells were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PMF 60ug/ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were subjected to laser light (630nm) treatment with 0, 1, 4 and 8 Joules. After reincubation for 24 hours, IFN, (50,000 IU) or GCB, (2ug/ml) was added to the PDT-treated cells. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT alone-induced percent cell kill of 0%, 8%, 44% and 80% versus 31%, 64 and 86 % for PMF-PDT and IFN, versus 63%, 80% and 88% for MPF-PDT plus GCB at 1, 2, 4 and 8 Joules respectively. IFN and GCB induced 20% and 53% cell kill respectively. Our data suggest that MPF may be an effective agent for in vitro photodynamic therapy. PMF-PDT combined with Intron A, or gemcitabine achieved improved kill of cultured bladder cancer cells. Confirmation of these results in preclinical studies may lead to clinical trials.

  4. The Road to Extremism: Field and Experimental Evidence That Significance Loss-Induced Need for Closure Fosters Radicalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, David; Babush, Maxim; Schori-Eyal, Noa; Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Anna; Hettiarachchi, Malkanthi; Bélanger, Jocelyn J; Moyano, Manuel; Trujillo, Humberto M; Gunaratna, Rohan; Kruglanski, Arie W; Gelfand, Michele J

    2017-09-04

    The present studies examined the hypothesis that loss of personal significance fuels extremism via the need for cognitive closure. Situations of significance loss-those that make one feel ashamed, humiliated, or demeaned-are inconsistent with the desire for a positive self-image, and instill a sense of uncertainty about the self. Consequently, individuals become motivated to seek certainty and closure that affords the restoration of personal significance. Extremist ideologies should thus increase in appeal, because they promise clear-cut strategies for such restoration. These notions were supported in a series of studies ranging from field surveys of political extremists imprisoned in the Philippines (Study 1) and Sri Lanka (Study 2) to experiments conducted with American samples (Studies 3-4). Implications of these findings are considered for the psychology of extremism, and for approaches to counterradicalization, and deradicalization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer.

  6. Clinical Significance of the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-lu; WANG Yong; ZHAO Jun; ZHANG Yi-liang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the expressive characteristics of iNOS in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and it's affection to the prognosis NSCLC patients. Methods: The expression of iNOS was detected in 50 NSCLC tissues by Immuno- histochemistry technology. Results: There was positive expression in NSCLC (positive rate 38.00%). The expression of iNOS had a correlation with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between positive expression of iNOS and lung cancer histological types, TNM stages, T stages (P>0.05). But the data suggested that there was a direct correlation between expression of iNOS and clinical prognosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Positive expression of iNOS was observed in NSCLC, which correlated with postoperative survival time and lymph node metastasis. Although iNOS level had no significant relation with T stage, we find the positive rate in T2 stage was much higher than that in T1 stage. The result suggested that positive expression of iNOS was related to bad clinical prognosis because of promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

  7. Genetic deletion of the P2Y2 receptor offers significant resistance to development of lithium-induced polyuria accompanied by alterations in PGE2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Pop, Ioana L; Carlson, Noel G; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2012-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-induced polyuria is due to resistance of the medullary collecting duct (mCD) to the action of arginine vasopressin (AVP), apparently mediated by increased production of PGE(2). We previously reported that the P2Y(2) receptor (P2Y(2)-R) antagonizes the action of AVP on the mCD and may play a role in Li-induced polyuria by enhancing the production of PGE(2) in mCD. Hence, we hypothesized that genetic deletion of P2Y(2)-R should ameliorate Li-induced polyuria. Wild-type (WT) or P2Y(2)-R knockout (KO) mice were fed normal or Li-added diets for 14 days and euthanized. Li-induced polyuria, and decreases in urine osmolality and AQP2 protein abundance in the renal medulla, were significantly less compared with WT mice despite the lack of differences in Li intake or terminal serum or inner medullary tissue Li levels. Li-induced increased urinary excretion of PGE(2) was not affected in KO mice. However, prostanoid EP(3) receptor (EP3-R) protein abundance in the renal medulla of KO mice was markedly lower vs. WT mice, irrespective of the dietary regimen. The protein abundances of other EP-Rs were not altered across the groups irrespective of the dietary regimen. Ex vivo stimulation of mCD with PGE(2) generated significantly more cAMP in Li-fed KO mice (130%) vs. Li-fed WT mice (100%). Taken together, these data suggest 1) genetic deletion of P2Y(2)-R offers significant resistance to the development of Li-induced polyuria; and 2) this resistance is apparently due to altered PGE(2) signaling mediated by a marked decrease in EP3-R protein abundance in the medulla, thus attenuating the EP3-mediated decrease in cAMP levels in mCD.

  8. ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2005-02-25

    We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB, the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1, DPPH (2, hydroxyl (3 and superoxide (4, were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1; 7.75 to 0.43 (2; 2.57 to 1.13 (3 and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials.

  10. Elevated expression of the toll like receptors 2 and 4 in obese individuals: its significance for obesity-induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rasheed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression profile of the toll like receptors (TLRs on PBMCs is central to the regulation of proinflammatory markers. An imbalance in the TLRs expression may lead to several types of inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, the dynamic regulation of inflammatory activity and associated impaired production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in obese individulas remain poorly understood. Therefore, we determined the perturbation in TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4, their adaptor proteins (MyD88, IRAK1 and TRAF6 expression in PBMCs/subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT as well as inflammatory cytokines changes in obese individuals. Methods mRNA expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, IL-6, TNF-α and adaptor proteins were determined by RT-PCR. TLR2, TLR4 and adaptor proteins expression in AT was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Obese and overweight individuals showed significantly increased expression of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in both PBMCs and AT as compared with lean individuals (P  Conclusions TLRs and adapter proteins were overexpressed in PBMCs from obese subjects, which correlated with increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6. This association may explain a potential pathophysiological link between obesity and inflammation leading to insulin resistance.

  11. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greculeasa, S. G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G.; Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A.; Lungu, G. A.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C. P.; Kuncser, V.

    2017-04-01

    Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe0.9Cr0.1 along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  12. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3-5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  13. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  14. The significance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages against encephalomyocarditis (EMC)-D virus-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounoue, Etsushi; Izumi, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Shuichiro; Kondo, Shiori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Akashi, Tomoyuki; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Mine; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Kurisaki, Hironori; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of protective mechanisms against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus-induced diabetes in mice, we studied the relative importance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages in the prevention of virus-induced diabetes. Neither T cell-deficient athymic nude mice nor B cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice showed an enhanced clinical course of EMC-D virus-induced diabetes, indicating that neither T cells nor B cells played a major role in the protection against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes. Transfer of a large amount of antiserum to EMC-D-virus-infected mice protected the development of diabetes only when transferred within 36 h of infection, the timing of which was earlier than that for the production of natural neutralizing antibodied. Since pretreatment of mice with the macrophage-activating immunopotentiator Corynebacterium parvum (CP) completely prevented the development of diabetes, we studied the clinical outcome of EMC-D-virus-infected mice pretreated with CP. Mice treated with CP showed reduced proliferation of EMC-D virus in the affected organs, including the pancreas, while the levels of development of neutralizing antibody and serum interferon were not enhanced compared with the controls. Finally, we studied the macrophages derived from mice pretreated with CP and found that they inhibited the growth of EMC-D virus in vitro more than those derived from non-treated and thioglycolate-treated mice. Taken together, it can be suggested that neither T cells nor B cells, which have to do with adaptive immunity, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes, while innate immunity, which is dependent on activated macrophages, contributes to in vivo resistance against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes.

  15. Gene-carried hepatoma targeting complex induced high gene transfection efficiency with low toxicity and significant antitumor activity

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    Zhao QQ

    2012-06-01

    was confirmed and the vector showed low cytotoxicity and strong targeting specificity to liver tumors in vitro. The in vivo study results showed that interleukin-12 delivered by the new gene vector CPT/DNA significantly enhanced the antitumor effect on ascites tumor-bearing imprinting control region mice as compared with polyethylenimine (25 kDa, CP, and other controls, which further demonstrate the targeting specificity of the new synthesized polymer.Conclusion: The synthesized CPT copolymer was proven to be an effective liver cancer-targeted vector for therapeutic gene delivery, which could be a potential candidate for targeted cancer gene therapy.Keywords: targeting, peptide, polyethylenimine, chitosan, antitumor

  16. Immunological aspects and therapeutic significance of an autoantibody against histone H1 in a rat model of concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Goto, Shigeru; Lai, Chia-Yun; Hsu, Li-Wen; Takaoka, Yuki; Kawamoto, Seiji; Chiang, Kuei-Chen; Shimada, Yayoi; Ohmori, Naoya; Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Shuji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Chao-Long

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated the immunosuppressive activity of anti-histone H1 autoantibody induced in experimental and clinical liver allograft tolerance. This study aimed to explore the immunological aspects of anti-histone H1 autoantibody in liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A). To establish a Con A-hepatitis model, 20 mg/kg Con A was intravenously injected into rats, after which liver function and histopathological analyses were performed. In this model, anti-histone H1 autoantibody was transiently induced in the sera during the natural recovery stage, 3-7 days after Con A injection. To evaluate the therapeutic significance of anti-histone H1 autoantibody, a polyclonal antibody against histone H1 was intraperitoneally injected immediately after Con A injection. We found that injection of anti-histone H1 antibody could reduce Con A-induced liver damage. Further mechanical analyses revealed that anti-histone H1 antibody altered the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kappaB and calcineurin via T-cell receptor signalling, suggesting that anti-histone H1 antibody may protect the liver from Con A-induced injury by inhibiting activation of effector T cells. These findings suggest that anti-histone H1 autoantibody may be a natural immune regulatory factor that protects inflamed livers suffering from autoimmune hepatitis and may lead to T-cell unresponsiveness through the selective regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB and calcineurin signalling.

  17. Reversal of apixaban induced alterations in hemostasis by different coagulation factor concentrates: significance of studies in vitro with circulating human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gines Escolar

    Full Text Available Apixaban is a new oral anticoagulant with a specific inhibitory action on FXa. No information is available on the reversal of the antihemostatic action of apixaban in experimental or clinical settings. We have evaluated the effectiveness of different factor concentrates at reversing modifications of hemostatic mechanisms induced by moderately elevated concentrations of apixaban (200 ng/ml added in vitro to blood from healthy donors (n = 10. Effects on thrombin generation (TG and thromboelastometry (TEM parameters were assessed. Modifications in platelet adhesive, aggregating and procoagulant activities were evaluated in studies with blood circulating through damaged vascular surfaces, at a shear rate of 600 s(-1. The potential of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs; 50 IU/kg, activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs; 75 IU/kg, or activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa; 270 μg/kg, at reversing the antihemostatic actions of apixaban, were investigated. Apixaban interfered with TG kinetics. Delayed lag phase, prolonged time to peak and reduced peak values, were improved by the different concentrates, though modifications in TG patterns were diversely affected depending on the activating reagents. Apixaban significantly prolonged clotting times (CTs in TEM studies. Prolongations in CTs were corrected by the different concentrates with variable efficacies (rFVIIa≥aPCC>PCC. Apixaban significantly reduced fibrin and platelet interactions with damaged vascular surfaces in perfusion studies (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Impairments in fibrin formation were normalized by the different concentrates. Only rFVIIa significantly restored levels of platelet deposition. Alterations in hemostasis induced by apixaban were variably compensated by the different factor concentrates investigated. However, effects of these concentrates were not homogeneous in all the tests, with PCCs showing more efficacy in TG, and rFVIIa being more effective

  18. A Tetravalent Sub-unit Dengue Vaccine Formulated with Ionizable Cationic Lipid Nanoparticle induces Significant Immune Responses in Rodents and Non-Human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Thoryk, Elizabeth A; Cox, Kara S; Smith, Jeffrey S; Wolf, Jayanthi J; Gindy, Marian E; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-10-05

    Dengue virus has emerged as an important arboviral infection worldwide. As a complex pathogen, with four distinct serotypes, the development of a successful Dengue virus vaccine has proven to be challenging. Here, we describe a novel Dengue vaccine candidate that contains truncated, recombinant, Dengue virus envelope protein from all four Dengue virus serotypes (DEN-80E) formulated with ionizable cationic lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Immunization studies in mice, Guinea pigs, and in Rhesus macaques, revealed that LNPs induced high titers of Dengue virus neutralizing antibodies, with or without co-administration or encapsulation of a Toll-Like Receptor 9 agonist. Importantly, LNPs were also able to boost DEN-80E specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Cytokine and chemokine profiling revealed that LNPs induced strong chemokine responses without significant induction of inflammatory cytokines. In addition to being highly efficacious, the vaccine formulation proved to be well-tolerated, demonstrating no elevation in any of the safety parameters evaluated. Notably, reduction in cationic lipid content of the nanoparticle dramatically reduced the LNP's ability to boost DEN-80E specific immune responses, highlighting the crucial role for the charge of the LNP. Overall, our novel studies, across multiple species, reveal a promising tetravalent Dengue virus sub-unit vaccine candidate.

  19. A Tetravalent Sub-unit Dengue Vaccine Formulated with Ionizable Cationic Lipid Nanoparticle induces Significant Immune Responses in Rodents and Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Thoryk, Elizabeth A.; Cox, Kara S.; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Wolf, Jayanthi J.; Gindy, Marian E.; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bett, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus has emerged as an important arboviral infection worldwide. As a complex pathogen, with four distinct serotypes, the development of a successful Dengue virus vaccine has proven to be challenging. Here, we describe a novel Dengue vaccine candidate that contains truncated, recombinant, Dengue virus envelope protein from all four Dengue virus serotypes (DEN-80E) formulated with ionizable cationic lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Immunization studies in mice, Guinea pigs, and in Rhesus macaques, revealed that LNPs induced high titers of Dengue virus neutralizing antibodies, with or without co-administration or encapsulation of a Toll-Like Receptor 9 agonist. Importantly, LNPs were also able to boost DEN-80E specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Cytokine and chemokine profiling revealed that LNPs induced strong chemokine responses without significant induction of inflammatory cytokines. In addition to being highly efficacious, the vaccine formulation proved to be well-tolerated, demonstrating no elevation in any of the safety parameters evaluated. Notably, reduction in cationic lipid content of the nanoparticle dramatically reduced the LNP’s ability to boost DEN-80E specific immune responses, highlighting the crucial role for the charge of the LNP. Overall, our novel studies, across multiple species, reveal a promising tetravalent Dengue virus sub-unit vaccine candidate. PMID:27703172

  20. Immunization of teenagers with a fifth dose of reduced DTaP-IPV induces high levels of pertussis antibodies with a significant increase in opsonophagocytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Audun; Herstad, Tove Karin; Merino, Samuel; Bolstad, Merete; Sandbu, Synne; Bakke, Hilde; Aaberge, Ingeborg S

    2011-08-01

    Waning vaccine-induced immunity against Bordetella pertussis is observed among adolescents and adults. A high incidence of pertussis has been reported in this population, which serves as a reservoir for B. pertussis. A fifth dose of reduced antigen of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine was given as a booster dose to healthy teenagers. The antibody activity against B. pertussis antigens was measured prior to and 4 to 8 weeks after the booster by different assays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of IgG and IgA against pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), IgG against pertactin (PRN), opsonophagocytic activity (OPA), and IgG binding to live B. pertussis. There was a significant increase in the IgG activity against PT, FHA, and PRN following the booster immunization (P antibodies against FHA and PRN contribute the most to the OPA and IgG binding.

  1. Progresses of basic research on L-valine biosynthesis and the breeding of L-valine hyper-producer%L-缬氨酸生物合成的基础研究和菌种选育的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕民; 张伟国

    2010-01-01

    L-缬氨酸在医药、食品及饲料领域中有着广泛的用途.L-缬氨酸合成途径的调节有很多特点:比如该途径与L-异亮氨酸合成途径有多步反应共用同一种酶;该途径与另外两支链氨基酸合成途径是平行关系;该途径涉及的关键酶的活性和基因的表达都存在多价调节机制.本文概述了L-缬氨酸的生物合成途径关键酶的性质和基因表达的特点的研究进展;并结合上述机理阐述了国内外L-缬氨酸生产菌的传统的诱变育种方法和兴起的基因工程育种方法的发展现状.

  2. [Significance of extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and in- trathoracic blood volume index in the differential diagnosis of burn-induced pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Jiajun, Sheng; Guangyi, Wang; Kaiyang, Lyu; Jing, Qin; Gongcheng, Liu; Bing, Ma; Shichu, Xiao; Shihui, Zhu

    2015-06-01

    To appraise the significance of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI), and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) in the differential diagnosis of the type of burn-induced pulmonary edema. The clinical data of 38 patients, with severe burn hospitalized in our burn ICU from December 2011 to September 2014 suffering from the complication of pulmonary edema within one week post burn and treated with mechanical ventilation accompanied by pulse contour cardiac output monitoring, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into lung injury group ( L, n = 17) and hydrostatic group (H, n = 21) according to the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. EVLWI, PVPI, ITBVI, oxygenation index, and lung injury score ( LIS) were compared between two groups, and the correlations among the former four indexes and the correlations between each of the former three indexes and types of pulmonary edema were analyzed. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation test, and accuracy test [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve]. There was no statistically significant difference in EVLWI between group L and group H, respectively (12.9 ± 3.1) and (12.1 ± 2.1) mL/kg, U = 159.5, P > 0.05. The PVPI and LIS of patients in group L were respectively 2.6 ± 0.5 and (2.1 ± 0.6) points, and they were significantly higher than those in group H [1.4 ± 0.3 and (1.0 ± 0.6) points, with U values respectively 4.5 and 36.5, P values below 0.01]. The ITBVI and oxygenation index of patients in group L were respectively (911 197) mL/m2 and (136 ± 69) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), which were significantly lower than those in group H [(1,305 ± 168) mL/m2 and (212 ± 60) mmHg, with U values respectively 21.5 and 70.5, P values below 0.01]. In group L, there was obviously positive correlation between EVLWI and PVPI, or EVLWI and ITBVI (with r values respectively 0.553 and 0.807, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and

  3. The combination of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and noncontact apoptosis-inducing radiofrequency achieved significant waist circumferential reduction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeyeon

    2017-06-30

    A paradigm shift towards noninvasive body contouring has occurred over the past few years. Radiofrequency (RF) is one popular treatment method. Noncontact-type RF systems with frequencies in the tens of megahertz represent a novel approach. The current pilot study investigated the efficacy of an interesting combination of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and an apoptosis-inducing RF (AiRF) system for circumferential reduction. Twenty-seven females, ages ranging from 13-69 years, (mean age 37.96 years) participated in the study. They were assigned to two treatment-based groups: Group A (n=19) and Group B (n=8). A voluntary daily dietary restriction plan of 500 kcal was put in place for all subjects. A combination of two different devices was used; an extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) system and a 27.12 MHz AiRF system. Either 4 (n=28) or 6 sessions (n=19) were given, one week apart. In Group A, the ESWT was applied before the RF with the reverse order of application in Group B. Weight and waist circumference were noted at baseline, then one week after the 4(th) and the 6(th) treatment sessions at which points clinical photography was also obtained. All patients showed statistically significant waist circumferential loss in both the 4- and 6-week treated groups: Group A, 6.3 cm and 8.8 cm; Group B, 5.9 cm and 6.4 cm, respectively. Greater circumference loss tended to be seen in Group A in both groups, but without statistical significance. No patient complained of pain during or after the treatment sessions, and there were no adverse events. This pilot study showed that the combination of ESWT and AiRF was safe and effective for significant waist circumferential reduction. The results tended to be better when ESWT was applied before AiRF, although the difference was not significant.

  4. Motavizumab, A Neutralizing Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv Monoclonal Antibody Significantly Modifies The Local And Systemic Cytokine Responses Induced By Rsv In The Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Hasan S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motavizumab (MEDI-524 is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters of disease severity. We evaluated the effect of motavizumab on the local and systemic immune response induced by RSV in the mouse model. Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 106.5 PFU RSV A2 or medium. Motavizumab was given once intraperitoneally (1.25 mg/mouse as prophylaxis, 24 h before virus inoculation. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and serum samples were obtained at days 1, 5 (acute and 28 (long-term post inoculation and analyzed with a multiplex assay (Beadlyte Upstate, NY for simultaneous quantitation of 18 cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC (similar to human IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, RANTES, IFN-γ and GM-CSF. Overall, cytokine concentrations were lower in serum than in BAL samples. By day 28, only KC was detected in BAL specimens at low concentrations in all groups. Administration of motavizumab significantly reduced (p

  5. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  6. Conformation of dehydropentapeptides containing four achiral amino acid residues – controlling the role of L-valine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Jewgiński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural studies of pentapeptides containing an achiral block, built from two dehydroamino acid residues (ΔZPhe and ΔAla and two glycines, as well as one chiral L-Val residue were performed using NMR spectroscopy. The key role of the L-Val residue in the generation of the secondary structure of peptides is discussed. The obtained results suggest that the strongest influence on the conformation of peptides arises from a valine residue inserted at the C-terminal position. The most ordered conformation was found for peptide Boc-Gly-ΔAla-Gly-ΔZPhe-Val-OMe (3, which adopts a right-handed helical conformation.

  7. Conformation of dehydropentapeptides containing four achiral amino acid residues – controlling the role of L-valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzciuk-Gula, Joanna; Makowski, Maciej; Latajka, Rafał; Kafarski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Summary Structural studies of pentapeptides containing an achiral block, built from two dehydroamino acid residues (ΔZPhe and ΔAla) and two glycines, as well as one chiral L-Val residue were performed using NMR spectroscopy. The key role of the L-Val residue in the generation of the secondary structure of peptides is discussed. The obtained results suggest that the strongest influence on the conformation of peptides arises from a valine residue inserted at the C-terminal position. The most ordered conformation was found for peptide Boc-Gly-ΔAla-Gly-ΔZPhe-Val-OMe (3), which adopts a right-handed helical conformation. PMID:24778717

  8. Restoration of bone mineralization by cinacalcet is associated with a significant reduction in calcitriol-induced vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Behets, Geert J; Jung, Susanne; Neven, Ellen; D'Haese, Patrick C; Querfeld, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated to what extent normalization of bone turnover goes along with a reduction of high-dose calcitriol-induced vascular calcifications in uremic rats. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: sham-operated controls (n = 7), subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) uremic (CRF) animals (n = 12), CRF + calcitriol (vitD) (0.25 μg/kg/day) (n = 12), CRF + vitD + cinacalcet (CIN) (10 mg/kg/day) (n = 12), and CRF + vitD + parathyroidectomy (PTX) (n = 12). Treatment started 2 weeks after SNX and continued for the next 14 weeks. High-dose calcitriol treatment in hyperparathyroid rats went along with the development of distinct vascular calcification, which was significantly reduced by >50 %, in both CIN-treated and PTX animals. Compared to control animals and those of the CRF group, calcitriol treatment either in combination with CIN or PTX or not was associated with a significant increase in bone area comprising ±50 % of the total tissue area. However, whereas excessive woven bone accompanied by a dramatically increased osteoid width/area was seen in the CRF + vitD group, CIN treatment and PTX resulted in significantly reduced serum PTH level, which was accompanied by a distinct reduction of both the bone formation rate and the amount of osteoid. These data indicate that less efficient calcium and phosphorus incorporation in bone inherent to the severe hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-treated uremic rats goes along with excessive vascular calcification, a process which is partially reversed by CIN treatment in combination with a more efficacious bone mineralization, thus restricting the availability of calcium and phosphate for being deposited in the vessel wall.

  9. Significant HLA class I type associations with aromatic antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced SJS/TEN are different from those found for the same AED-induced DRESS in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Elena; Bellón, Teresa; Tong, Hoi Y; Borobia, Alberto M; de Abajo, Francisco J; Lerma, Victoria; Moreno Hidalgo, Miguel A; Castañer, José L; Cabañas, Rosario; Fiandor, Ana; González-Ramos, Jessica; Herranz, Pedro; Cachafeiro, Lucía; González-Herrada, Carlos; González, Olga; Aramburu, José A; Laosa, Olga; Hernández, Rafael; Carcas, Antonio J; Frías, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the drugs most frequently involved in severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). This study investigated the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of HLA class-I and AED-induced SCARs in the Spanish population. HLA class-I genotypes were determined in AED (phenytoin[PHT],lamotrigine[LTG],carbamazepine[CBZ],phenobarbital[PB])-induced SJS/TEN (n=15) or DRESS (n=12) cases included in the Spanish SCAR registry, PIELenRed. There were 3 control groups: (A)tolerant to a single AED, (B)tolerant to any AED, and (C)Spanish population controls. For SJS/TEN, concomitant HLA-A*02:01/Cw15:02 alleles were significantly associated with PHT-cases compared to control groups B and C [(B)odds ratio(OR):14.75, p=0.009;(C)OR:27.50, p<0.001], and were close to significance with respect to control group A (p=0.060). The genotype frequency of the HLA-B*38:01 was significantly associated with PHT-LTG-cases compared with the 3 groups of controls [(A)OR:12.86, p=0.012;(B)OR:13.81; p=0.002;(C)OR:14.35, p<0.001], and with LTG-cases [(A)OR:147.00, p=0.001;(B)OR:115.00, p<0.001;(C)OR:124.70, p<0.001]. We found the HLA-B*15:02 allele in a Spanish Romani patient with a CBZ-case. The HLA-A*11:01 was significantly associated with CBZ-cases [(A)OR:63.89, p=0.002;(B)OR:36.33, p=0.005;(C)OR:28.29, p=0.007]. For DRESS, the HLA-A*24:02 genotype frequency was statistically significant in the PHT-LTG-cases [(A)OR:22.56, p=0.003;(B)OR:23.50. p=0.001; (C)OR:33.25, p<0.001], and in the LTG-cases [(A),OR:49.00, p=0.015;(B)OR:27.77, p=0.005; (C)OR:34.53, p=0.002]. HLA-A*31:01 was significantly associated with the CBZ-cases [(A)OR:22.00, p=0.047;(B)OR:29.50, p=0.033;(C)OR:35.14, p=0.006]. In conclusion, we identified several significant genetic risk factors for the first time in the Spanish Caucasian population: HLA

  10. Prognostic Significance of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A PRISMA-compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Li, Hongzhao; Ma, Xin; Gao, Yu; Chen, Luyao; Li, Xintao; Bao, Xu; Du, Qingshan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xu

    2015-09-01

    The prognostic value of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been evaluated in a large number of studies, but the reports were inconsistent and remained inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of HIF expression in RCC prognosis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Biological Abstracts were searched for eligible studies. Hazard ratio (HR) data for overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and progression-free survival (PFS) with 95% confidence interval (CI) related to the expression status of HIF-1α or HIF-2α detected by immunohistochemistry were all extracted. Data were combined using a random- or fixed-effects model based on the corresponding inter-study heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were also performed. A total of 14 studies composed of 1258 patients for HIF-1α evaluation and 619 patients for HIF-2α evaluation were included for further analysis. When initially analyzed as a whole, the HIF-1α expression was not significantly correlated with OS (HR 1.637, 95% CI 0.898-2.985, P = 0.108), CSS (HR 1.110, 95% CI 0.595-2.069, P = 0.744), and PFS (HR 1.113, 95% CI 0.675-1.836, P = 0.674). Similarly, HIF-2α expression was not significantly correlated with CSS (HR 1.597, 95% CI 0.667-3.824, P = 0.293) and PFS (HR 0.847, 95% CI 0.566-1.266, P = 0.417). However, subgroup analyses concerning subcellular localization of HIFs revealed that the high nuclear expression of HIF-1α was significantly associated with poor OS (HR 2.014, 95% CI 1.206-3.363, P = 0.007) and the high cytoplasmic expression of HIF -2α was significantly associated with poor CSS (HR 2.356, 95% CI 1.629-3.407, P = 0.000). The increased nuclear expression of HIF-1α and cytoplasmic expression of HIF-2α indicate unfavorable prognosis in RCC patients, which may serve as biomarkers

  11. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and its clinical significance in lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiwei; Mi, Denghai; Yang, Kehu; Cao, Nong; Tian, Jinhui; Li, Zheng; Ma, Bin

    2013-09-06

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in tumour progression and metastasis through activation of many target genes that are especially involved in pivotal aspects of cancer biology. However, the prognostic role of HIF-1α has been controversial in primary patients with lung cancer. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically evaluate whether HIF-1α expression is associated with the clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients. We retrieved relevant articles from Cochrane library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, CBM, VIP and Wan Fang Databases from inception to May 2012. Studies were selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed on the association between HIF-1α expression and clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients. All analyses were performed using the Revman 5.1 software. A total of 30 studies were identified as eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis. The expression of HIF-1α was significantly higher than those in normal lung tissue; and III-IV stage, lymph node metastasis, poorly differentiation, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly higher than those in I-II stage, no lymph node metastasis, well differentiation, adenocarcinomas and non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 19.00, 95% confidence interval (CI):12.12-29.78, p combines other proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or CA IX, might serve as important parameters in evaluating biological behaviour and prognosis of lung cancer; it will be of benefit to clinical treatment and prognostic evaluation.

  12. Citrus auraptene suppresses cyclin D1 and significantly delays N-methyl nitrosourea induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grand Robert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major problem in the United States leading to tens of thousands of deaths each year. Although citrus auraptene suppresses cancer in numerous rodent models, its role in breast cancer prevention previously has not been reported. Thus, our goal was to determine the anticarcinogenic effects of auraptene against breast cancer. Methods The effects of auraptene on cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells in culture was assessed by measuring metabolism of a substrate to a formazan dye. Dietary effects of auraptene on tumor incidence, multiplicity and latency were studied in the N-methyl nitrosourea (MNU induced mammary carcinogenesis model in female Sprague Dawley rats. The concentration of auraptene in rat tissues was analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Cyclin D1 expression in MCF-7 cells and rat tumors was measured by western blot. Results Auraptene (500 ppm significantly delayed median time to tumor by 39 days compared to the MNU only group (p Conclusion Overall, these observations suggest that the predominant effect of auraptene was to delay the development of tumors possibly through the suppression of cyclin D1 expression. These results point to the potential chemopreventive effects of auraptene in mammary carcinogenesis.

  13. Expression and significance of nuclear factor κB p65 in colon tissues of rats with TNBS-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Li; Jie-Ping Yu; Hong-Gang Yu; Xi-Ming Xu; Liang-Liang Yu; Shi-Quan Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of NF-κB in the pathogenesis of TNBS-induced colitis in rats.METHODS: Thirty-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley (SD)rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight each:normal, NS, model I, model Ⅱ groups in our study. Rat colitis model was established through 2-,4-,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. At the end of four weeks,the macroscopical and histological changes of the colon were examined and mucosa myeloperoxidase (MPO)activities assayed. NF-κB p65 expression was determined by Western blot assessment in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of colon tissue, and the expressions of TNF-αand ICAM-1 protein in colon tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry. The relativities between expression of NF-κBp65 and other parameters were analyzed.RESULTS: TNBS enema resulted in pronounced pathological changes of colonic mucosa in model Ⅱ group (macroscopic and histological injury indices 6.25±1.39 and 6.24±1.04,respectively), which were in accordance with the significantly elevated MPO activity (1.69±0.11). And the nuclear level of NF-κB and expression of TNF-α, ICAM-1 in rats of model Ⅱ group were higher than that of normal control (9.7±1.96 vs1.7±0.15, 84.09±14.52 vs16.03±6.21,77.69±8.09 vs13.41±4.91 P<0.01), Linear correlation analysis revealed that there were strong correlations between the nuclear level of NF-κB and the tissue positive expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1, MPO activities,macroscopical and histological indices in TNBS-induced colitis, respectively (r = 0.8235, 0.8780, 0.8572, 0.9152,0.8247; P<0.05).CONCLUSION: NF-κB plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, which might account for the up-regulation the expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1.

  14. Derivation of primordial germ cells from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells is significantly improved by coculture with human fetal gonadal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Galic, Zoran; Conway, Anne E; Lindgren, Anne; van Handel, Benjamin J; Magnusson, Mattias; Richter, Laura; Teitell, Michael A; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Lowry, William E; Plath, Kathrin; Clark, Amander T

    2009-04-01

    The derivation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem (hIPS) cells represents a desirable experimental model and potential strategy for treating infertility. In the current study, we developed a triple biomarker assay for identifying and isolating human primordial germ cells (PGCs) by first evaluating human PGC formation during the first trimester in vivo. Next, we applied this technology to characterizing in vitro derived PGCs (iPGCs) from pluripotent cells. Our results show that codifferentiation of hESCs on human fetal gonadal stromal cells significantly improves the efficiency of generating iPGCs. Furthermore, the efficiency was comparable between various pluripotent cell lines regardless of origin from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts (hESCs), or reprogramming of human skin fibroblasts (hIPS). To better characterize the iPGCs, we performed Real-time polymerase chain reaction, microarray, and bisulfite sequencing. Our results show that iPGCs at day 7 of differentiation are transcriptionally distinct from the somatic cells, expressing genes associated with pluripotency and germ cell development while repressing genes associated with somatic differentiation (specifically multiple HOX genes). Using bisulfite sequencing, we show that iPGCs initiate imprint erasure from differentially methylated imprinted regions by day 7 of differentiation. However, iPGCs derived from hIPS cells do not initiate imprint erasure as efficiently. In conclusion, our results indicate that triple positive iPGCs derived from pluripotent cells differentiated on hFGS cells correspond to committed first trimester germ cells (before 9 weeks) that have initiated the process of imprint erasure.

  15. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-07

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  16. Echinacea Purpurea Significantly Induces Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) but does not alter Lopinavir-Ritonavir Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzak, Scott R.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y.; Alfaro, Raul M.; Stevenson, James M.; Candidate, Pharm.D.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir, and on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity using the probe substrates midazolam, and fexofenadine, respectively. Design Open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Setting Outpatient clinic in a Federal Government research hospital. Subjects Thirteen (8 males) healthy volunteers (median age: 31 yrs). Measurements and main results Healthy volunteers received lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily for 30 days. On study day 16, subjects began taking Echinacea purpurea 500 mg three times daily, which they continued for four weeks, the first two weeks in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (pre and post-Echinacea, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hrs to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters using non-compartmental methods. Study subjects also received single doses of midazolam (8 mg orally) and fexofenadine (120 mg orally) before- and after 28 days of Echinacea purpurea to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, respectively. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 2 weeks of Echinacea coadministration. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 90% CI) for lopinavir area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to 12 hrs (AUC0–12) and maximum concentration (post-Echinacea/pre-Echinacea) were 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) and 1.00 (0.88, 1.12), respectively (P > 0.05). Conversely, GMRs (90% CIs) for midazolam AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and oral clearance were 0.73 (0.61, 0.85) (P = 0.008) and 1.37 (1.10, 1.63) (P = 0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ pre- and post-echinacea administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to

  17. Echinacea purpurea significantly induces cytochrome P450 3A activity but does not alter lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzak, Scott R; Robertson, Sarah M; Hunt, Jennifer D; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y; Alfaro, Raul M; Stevenson, James M; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    . To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir and on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein activity by using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Open-label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Outpatient clinic in a federal government research center. Thirteen healthy volunteers (eight men, five women). Subjects received lopinavir 400 mg-ritonavir 100 mg twice/day with meals for 29.5 days. On day 16, subjects received E. purpurea 500 mg 3 times/day for 28 days: 14 days in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir and 14 days of E. purpurea alone. In order to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activity, subjects received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, respectively, before and after the 28 days of E. purpurea. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (before and after E. purpurea administration, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hours to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental methods. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 14 days of E. purpurea coadministration. The post-echinacea: pre-echinacea geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for lopinavir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-12 hours and for maximum concentration were 0.96 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.10, p=0.82) and 1.00 (90% CI 0.88-1.12, p=0.72), respectively. Conversely, GMRs for midazolam AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity and oral clearance were 0.73 (90% CI 0.61-0.85, p=0.008) and 1.37 (90% CI 1.10-1.63, p=0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ before and after E. purpurea administration (p>0.05). Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to the presence of the potent CYP3A inhibitor, ritonavir. Echinacea purpurea

  18. Oxidative Stress Induced by Mycotoxins and Its Toxicological Significance%真菌毒素引起的氧化应激及其毒理学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 黄德玉; 吴庆华; 程古月; 袁宗辉

    2015-01-01

    真菌毒素是一类由真菌产生的次生代谢产物,由于其在自然界污染的普遍性和广泛的毒性作用,被给予了充分关注。从机理上入手来研究真菌毒素毒性作用的起因具有重要意义。真菌毒素根据结构分类可达400种之多,它们的机理也各有不同,但是越来越多的研究表明真菌毒素与氧化应激有重大关联。真菌毒素引起的氧化应激能引起细胞毒性作用,还参与了其他靶点的毒性反应。同时真菌毒素能干扰细胞抗氧化系统的功能,降低细胞对毒素的抵抗能力。本文主要综述了真菌毒素中与氧化应激有密切联系的几种毒素的毒性作用,重点阐述了其与氧化应激之间的关系,以期对真菌毒素的毒性机理有更进一步的认识。%Mycotoxins, a kind of secondary metabolites produced by fungi, have gotten much attention because of their widespread pollution and great toxicity. It is of great significance to investigate the mechanisms of these tox-ins. This investigation will help in the explanation of the toxic action. There are about 400 toxins according to their chemical structures, and their action modes are different. Recent studies indicated that oxidative stress might be one important toxic mechanism of the mycotoxins. Oxidative stress induced by mycotoxins presented obvious toxicity to cells and also resulted in the toxic effects of other targets. Furthermore, the function of the cellular antioxidant system was interfered by mycotoxins, and the resistance of cells to toxins was reduced. This paper mainly reviewed the toxic actions of the mycotoxins associated with oxidative stress closely, and the emphasis was placed on the re-lationship between mycotoxins and oxidative stress, which will contribute to deep understanding of the mechanism of mycotoxins.

  19. Direct sun and airborne MAX-DOAS measurements of the collision induced oxygen complex, O2O2 absorption with significant pressure and temperature differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Spinei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The collision induced O2 complex, O2O2, is a very important trace gas in remote sensing measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Some ground based MAX-DOAS measurements of O2O2 slant column density require correction factors of 0.75 ± 0.1 to reproduce radiative transfer modeling (RTM results for a near pure Rayleigh atmosphere. One of the potential causes of this discrepancy is believed to be uncertainty in laboratory measured O2O2 absorption cross section temperature and pressure dependence, due to difficulties in replicating atmospheric conditions in the laboratory environment. This paper presents direct-sun (DS and airborne multi-axis (AMAX DOAS measurements of O2O2 absorption optical depths under actual Earth atmospheric conditions in two wavelength regions (335–390 nm and 435–490 nm. DS irradiance measurements were made by the research grade MFDOAS instrument from 2007–2014 at seven sites with significant pressure (778–1013 hPa and O2O2 profile weighted temperature (247–275 K differences. Aircraft MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted by the University of Colorado AMAX-DOAS instrument on 29 January 2012 over the Southern Hemisphere subtropical Pacific Ocean. Scattered solar radiance spectra were collected at altitudes between 9 and 13.2 km, with O2O2 profile weighted temperatures of 231–244 K, and near pure Rayleigh scattering conditions. Due to the well defined DS air mass factors and extensively characterized atmospheric conditions during the AMAX-DOAS measurements, O2O2"pseudo" absorption cross sections, σ, are derived from the observed optical depths and estimated O2O2column densities. Vertical O2O2 columns are calculated from the atmospheric sounding temperature, pressure and specific humidity profiles. Based on the atmospheric DS observations, there is no pressure dependence of the O2O2 σ, within the measurement errors (3%. The two data sets are combined to derive peak σ temperature dependence of 360 and 477 nm

  20. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Azusa; Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda; Wouters, Bradly G; DaCosta, Ralph S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "发物"在皮肤病治疗中的意义%Significance of Disease-induced Food in the Course of Treating Skin Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 郑福保

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborated and analyzed the origin,concepts;classification and mechanism of disease in duced food from the point of TCM,strcssed the great importance of disease-induced food in treating and preventing of recurrence of the skin disease.%从中医药角度对发物的渊源、概念、分类、作用机制进行分析阐述,强调应重视"发物"在皮肤病治疗和防止复发中的意义.

  2. Systems analysis of MVA-C induced immune response reveals its significance as a vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS of clade C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Gómez

    Full Text Available Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144 with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the HIV-1 antigens Env/Gag-Pol-Nef of HIV-1 of clade C (referred as MVA-C. MVA-C infection of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs induced the expression of HIV-1 antigens at high levels from 2 to 8 hpi and triggered moDCs maturation as revealed by enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD86, CD40, HLA-A2, and CD80 molecules. Infection ex vivo of purified mDC and pDC with MVA-C induced the expression of immunoregulatory pathways associated with antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T cell and B cell responses. Similarly, human whole blood or primary macrophages infected with MVA-C express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved with T cell activation. The vector MVA-C has the ability to cross-present antigens to HIV-specific CD8 T cells in vitro and to increase CD8 T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The immunogenic profiling in mice after DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost combination revealed activation of HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses that are polyfunctional and with effector memory phenotype. Env-specific IgG binding antibodies were also produced in animals receiving DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost. Our systems analysis of profiling immune response to MVA-C infection highlights the potential benefit of MVA-C as vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS for clade C, the prevalent subtype virus in the most affected areas of the world.

  3. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with recombinant Dengue virus 3 envelope proteins induce significant and specific immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versiani, Alice F; Astigarraga, Ruiz G; Rocha, Eliseu S O; Barboza, Ana Paula M; Kroon, Erna G; Rachid, Milene A; Souza, Daniele G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F; Jorio, Ado; Da Fonseca, Flávio G

    2017-04-04

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. In this article we present results on the development, characterization and immunogenic evaluation of an alternative vaccine candidate against Dengue. The MWNT-DENV3E nanoconjugate was developed by covalent functionalization of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) with recombinant dengue envelope (DENV3E) proteins. The recombinant antigens were bound to the MWNT using a diimide-activated amidation process and the immunogen was characterized by TEM, AFM and Raman Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the immunogenicity of this vaccine candidate was evaluated in a murine model. Immunization with MWNT-DENV3E induced comparable IgG responses in relation to the immunization with non-conjugated proteins; however, the inoculation of the nanoconjugate into mice generated higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Cell-mediated responses were also evaluated, and higher dengue-specific splenocyte proliferation was observed in cell cultures derived from mice immunized with MWNT-DENV3E when compared to animals immunized with the non-conjugated DENV3E. Despite the recent licensure of the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine in some countries, results from the vaccine's phase III trial have cast doubts about its overall efficacy and global applicability. While questions about the effectiveness of the CYD-TDV vaccine still lingers, it is wise to keep at hand an array of vaccine candidates, including alternative non-classical approaches like the one presented here.

  5. Aqueous Synthesis of Protein-Encapsulated ZnSe Quantum Dots and Physical Significance of Semiconductor-Induced Cu(II) Ion Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Somashree; Maiti, Susmita; Ghosh, Debasmita; Roy, Chandra Nath; Saha, Abhijit

    2017-09-20

    In view of their promising bio-applicability, we have synthesized water-soluble bovine serum albumin (BSA)-encapsulated ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) with visible emission with longer average luminescence lifetimes of approximately 125 ns at ambient conditions. BSA-ZnSe QDs are shown to be efficient selective copper ion probes in the presence of physiologically important metal ions through luminescence quenching with a high Stern-Volmer constant (3.3×10(5)  m(-1) ). The mechanism of sensing has been explained in terms of electron transfer processes and the apparent rate of electron transfer (Ket ) from ZnSe QDs to Cu(2+) has been calculated to be 2.8×10(8)  s(-1) . It is demonstrated that the negative conduction band potential plays a major role in the feasibility of the electron transfer process, which is reflected in the higher efficacy of ZnSe QDs in sensing copper(II) ions over other group II-VI quantum dots, namely, CdSe, ZnS, or CdS. The results observed with cysteine-capped QDs are almost identical to those with BSA-encapsulated QDs and this presumably negates the possible reason of Cu(II) ion induced quenching ascribed to its binding with surface groups or replacement of metal sites as proposed by several groups previously. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Investigation on the mechanism of non-photocatalytically TiO2 -induced reactive oxygen species and its significance on cell cycle and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Ning, Zhi; Daoud, Walid; Brimblecombe, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles are widely used in daily human life, and were reported to elicit biological effects such as oxidative stress either generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) or causing cell necrosis without generating ROS, whose underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet known. In this study, the role of dissolved oxygen in TiO2 catalytic activity in dark environment, and long-term cytotoxic effects of TiO2 exposure were investigated. To determine the effect of dissolved oxygen, the anatase-TiO2 nanoparticle suspension was prepared both in deoxygenated and regular MilliQ water, and a ~ 9-fold higher ROS in regular MilliQ samples was observed compared to deoxygenated samples while in the dark, which suggested dissolved oxygen as the driving agent behind the TiO2 catalytic reaction. On the other hand, the differential cell viability and endogenous ROS activity was demonstrated through a sensitive macrophage-based assay, on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both the cell number and endogenous ROS activity increased with increase in time till 48 h, followed by a reduction at 72 h exposure period. Long-term exposures to these nanoparticles even at low concentrations were found detrimental to cells, where late apoptosis until 48 h and necrosis at 72 h leading to cell death were noted. Late apoptotic events and cell membrane cytoskeletal actin rearrangement observed were hypothesized to be induced by particle-mediated cellular ROS. This in addition to radical generation ability of TiO2 in the dark will help further in better understanding of the toxicity mechanism in cells beyond ROS generation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. SIGNIFICANCE OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE AS BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS AND AS PREDICTORS OF SEVERITY OF PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sonowal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH and serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST of normotensive pregnant women with those of preeclamptic and eclamptic women. To determine the relationship of levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum aspartate transaminase with severity of pregnancy-induced hypertension and its complications. MATERIALSAND METHODS The study was carried out on pregnant hypertensive patients attending outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, AMCH, Dibrugarh, Assam from 1 st July 2013 to 30 th June 2014. Normotensive pregnant women were taken as controls. Each serum sample from both the control group as well as study group was estimated for lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase using standard methods and a comparison is drawn and analysed using t-test and Chi-square test. RESULTS Serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum aspartate transaminase levels were higher in the study group in comparison to the study groups. The mean serum LDH was 198±30.03U/L in control group, whereas in preeclampsia and eclampsia, mean serum levels of LDH were 817±114U/L and 927±108U/L, respectively. The levels of the serum AST were found to be less than 600U/L in normotensive and preeclampsia patients and more than 600 U/L in eclampsia and other complications of PIH. CONCLUSION Serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum aspartate transaminase levels in patients suffering from preeclampsia and its complications are consistently higher compared to the normotensive pregnant patients. To determine the usefulness of inclusion of these enzymes along with other cardiac enzymes in the panel of investigations of pregnant women universally needs further large scale comparative studies.

  8. Significant enhancement in energy density of polymer composites induced by dopamine-modified Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Shen, Yang; Hu, Penghao; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, C. W.

    2012-10-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) nanofibers prepared via electrospinning and modified by dopamine are used as dielectric fillers in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based composites. With 4.4 vol. % of BST nanofibers, the extractable energy density of the BST/PVDF composites is more than doubled as compared with pure PVDF matrix. Such significant enhancement is attributed to the combined effect of both surface modification by dopamine and large aspect ratio of the BST nanofibers. Paraelectric or anti-ferroelectric fillers of large aspect ratio may serve as a general strategy for enhanced electric energy density in polymer composites.

  9. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  10. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  11. Significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with myocardial infarction involving the left circumflex artery. Evaluation by exercise thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi [Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [and others

    2000-04-01

    The significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with left circumflex artery involvement was investigated by comparing exercise electrocardiography with exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) and the wall motion estimated by left ventriculography. Tl-SPECT and exercise electrocardiography were simultaneously performed in 51 patients with left circumflex artery involvement (angina pectoris 30, myocardial infarction 21). In patients with myocardial infarction, exercise-induced ST depression was frequently found in the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and V{sub 4} leads. In patients with angina pectoris, ST depression was frequently found in the II, III, aV{sub F}, V{sub 5} and V{sub 6} leads. There was no obvious difference in the leads of ST depression in patients with myocardial infarction with ischemia and without ischemia on Tl-SPECT images. In patients with myocardial infarction, the lateral wall motion of the infarcted area evaluated by left ventriculography was more significantly impaired in the patients with ST depression than without ST depression (p<0.01). Exercise-induced ST depression in the precordial leads possibly reflects wall motion abnormality rather than ischemia in the lateral infarcted myocardium. (author)

  12. Pathophysiological significance of the two-pore domain K+ channel K2P5.1 in splenic CD4+CD25− T cell subset from a chemically-induced murine inflammatory bowel disease model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakura, Sawa; Matsui, Miki; Sato, Aya; Ishii, Mizuki; Endo, Kyoko; Muragishi, Sayaka; Murase, Miki; Kito, Hiroaki; Niguma, Hiroki; Kurokawa, Natsumi; Fujii, Masanori; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Ohya, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline pH-activated, two-pore domain K+ channel K2P5.1 (also known as TASK2/KCNK5) plays an important role in maintaining the resting membrane potential, and contributes to the control of Ca2+ signaling in several types of cells. Recent studies highlighted the potential role of the K2P5.1 K+ channel in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the pathological significance of the K2P5.1 K+ channel in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The degrees of colitis, colonic epithelial damage, and colonic inflammation were quantified in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse IBD model by macroscopic and histological scoring systems. The expression and functional activity of K2P5.1 in splenic CD4+ T cells were measured using real-time PCR, Western blot, and fluorescence imaging assays. A significant increase was observed in the expression of K2P5.1 in the splenic CD4+ T cells of the IBD model. Concomitant with this increase, the hyperpolarization response induced by extracellular alkaline pH was significantly larger in the IBD model with the corresponding intracellular Ca2+ rises. The expression of K2P5.1 was higher in CD4+CD25− T cells than in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. The knockout of K2P5.1 in mice significantly suppressed the disease responses implicated in the IBD model. Alternations in intracellular Ca2+ signaling following the dysregulated expression of K2P5.1 were associated with the disease pathogenesis of IBD. The results of the present study suggest that the K2P5.1 K+ channel in CD4+CD25− T cell subset is a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for IBD. PMID:26578971

  13. Oxidative stress as a significant factor for development of an adaptive response in irradiated and nonirradiated human lymphocytes after inducing the bystander effect by low-dose X-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakov, Aleksei V., E-mail: avePlato@mail.ru [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, ul. Moskvorechye, 1, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Konkova, Marina S.; Kostyuk, Svetlana V.; Egolina, Natalya A.; Efremova, Liudmila V.; Veiko, Natalya N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, ul. Moskvorechye, 1, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-02

    X-radiation (10 cGy) was shown to induce in human lymphocytes transposition of homologous chromosomes loci from the membrane towards the centre of the nucleus and activation of the chromosomal nucleolus-forming regions (NFRs). These effects are transmitted by means of extracellular DNA (ecDNA) fragments to nonirradiated cells (the so-called bystander effect, BE). We demonstrated that in the development of the BE an important role is played by oxidative stress (which is brought about by low radiation doses and ecDNA fragments of the culture medium of the irradiated cells), by an enzyme of apoptosis called caspase-3, and by DNA-binding receptors of the bystander cells, presumably TLR9. Proposed herein is a scheme of the development of an adaptive response and the BE on exposure to radiation. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis of the radiosensitive fraction of cells due to the development of the 'primary' oxidative stress (OS). DNA fragments of apoptotic cells are released into the intercellular space and interact with the DNA-binding receptors of the bystander cells. This interaction activates in lymphocytes signalling pathways associated with synthesis of the reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species, i.e., induces secondary oxidative stress accompanied by apoptosis of part of the cells, etc. Hence, single exposure to radiation may be followed by relatively long-lasting in the cellular population oxidative stress contributing to the development of an adaptive response. We thus believe that ecDNA of irradiated apoptotic lymphocytes is a significant factor of stress-signalling.

  14. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii induce distinct levels of dendritic cell cytokine secretion and significantly different T cell responses In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E;

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim...... of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii...... strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus...

  15. 变形链球菌诱导牙髓细胞MMP-8mRNA的表达及意义%The expression and significance of MMP-8 mRNA induced by streptococcus mutans in dental pulp cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑芬; 张影杰; 姜新朋; 张颖丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用变形链球菌诱导体外培养的人牙髓成纤维细胞,观察变形链球菌对人牙髓成纤维细胞中MMP-8影响,探讨MMP-8在牙髓炎症过程中的作用机制.方法 采用组织块法体外培养人牙髓成纤维细胞,通过变形链球菌上清液诱导建立牙髓细胞损伤实验模型,利用RT-PCR方法检测经变球链球菌诱导人牙髓成纤维细胞中MMP-8的表达.结果 经变形链球菌诱导后的人牙髓成纤维细胞中MMP-8的表达增强.结论 变形链球菌能够促进人牙髓成纤维细胞中MMP-8的合成和分泌,从而导致牙髓中细胞外基质的降解,产生不可逆性牙髓损伤.%Objective  Cultivate human pulp fibroblasts in vitro induced by streptococcus mutans ,observe the influence of streptococcus mutans on MMP-8 in human pulp fibroblasts ,and investigate the mechanism of action of MMP-8 in pulpitis .Methods  Cultivate human pulp fibroblasts with architecture method ,establish the experimental model of human pulp cells induced by streptococcus mutans supernatant ,and then detect the expression of MMP-8 in pulp fibroblasts by RT-PCR .Results  The expression of MMP-8 is significantly increased in human pulp fibroblasts induced by streptococcus mutans .Conclusion  Streptococcus mutans can induce the synthesis and expression of MMP-8 mRNA in human pulp fibroblasts ,resultin degradation of the extracellularm atrix ,which can cause the inconvertible pulp injuries .

  16. Significance of serum cystatin C in vancomycin-induced early kidney injury%血清胱抑素C测定在监测万古霉素致早期肾损害中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向波; 郑君德; 姜顺军; 李宁; 杨羚; 肖洪广

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of serum cystatin C in vancomycin-induced early kidney injury.Methods Sixty patients receiving vancomycin therapy in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College were enrolled in this study. None of these patients had a clinical history of kidney diseases. The levels of serum vancomycin concentration in these patients were monitored and analyzed for the correlation with the levels of serum eystatin C (CysC),blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre). Results Elevation of serum Cys C(63.3%) and BUN (47.5%) was noted in patients with vancomycin-induced early kidney injury. A medium to low degree of correlation between serum vancomycin concentrations and CysC/BUN was observed. There was no correlation between the level of vancomycin and Cre. Furthermore,a significant difference in the CysC level was seen in patients with high (>15 mg/L) or low (<15 mg/L) concentration of serum vancomycin. Conclusion CysC may be a good serum marker for the diagnosis of vancomycin-induced early kidney injury.%目的 探讨血清胱抑素C(CyaC)测定在监测万古霉素致早期肾损害中的意义.方法 既往无肾脏疾病、在广州医学院第一附属医院接受万古霉素治疗的患者60例,检测患者万古霉素血药浓度的同时检测CysC、血尿素氮(BUN)、血肌酐(Cre),分析其与血药浓度的相关性.结果 60例患者中CysC、BUN、Cre升高率分别为63.3%、47.5%和0;CysC与BUN或Cre对万古霉素所致肾损伤检测的阳性率差异有统计学意义(P15 mg/L的患者,其CysC水平差异有统计学意义.结论 CysC是一项优于BUN和Cre的用于监测万古霉素所致早期肾损害的良好指标.

  17. 凝血指标检测在妊娠高血压综合征的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Blood Coagulation Index Detection in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婵

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical signiifcance of analysis of blood coagulation indexes in pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome.Methods From December 2014 to December 2015, 38 cases of pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension were selected as the research objects, the same period 38 cases of normal pregnant women as control group, coagulation parameters were detected in all patients.Results Compared with the two groups of pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy and the blood coagulation index, compared with the normal control group, the pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome were compared with the normal control group. The difference was not statistically significant,P>0.05. Compared with the normal control group, the pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome were compared with the normal control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant,P<0.05ConclusionIn terms of normal pregnancy, if at the end of pregnancy, the coagulation index is presented in a highly condensed state, will be conducive to the bleeding of pregnant women postpartum, but the high coagulation status can’t occur in pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome, prone to thrombosis, therefore, for pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension need to pay attention to prevention.%目的:分析凝血指标检测在妊娠高血压综合征的临床意义。方法选取本院2014年12月~2015年12月收治的38例妊高征孕妇作为研究对象,将同期38例普通孕妇作为对照组。所有患者均进行凝血指标检测。结果对比两组孕妇在妊娠中期与妊娠晚期的凝血指标情况,患有妊娠高血压综合征的观察组孕妇与普通对照组孕妇在妊娠中期的各项指标相对比,差异无统计学意义,P>0.05;妊娠高血压综合征观察组孕妇与对照组孕妇妊娠晚期的各项指标相对比,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论就正常孕妇的妊娠

  18. Expression and Significance of CD36 on Acute Radiation-induced Lung Injury%急性放射性肺损伤肺组织CD36表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽艳; 于洪; 赵俊华; 赵玉霞; 门桐林; 赵娜; 刘丹; 白露

    2011-01-01

    采用健康雄性Wistar大鼠,6 MV X射线单次伞胸野照射15 Gv,于照后不同时间HE和Masson染色观察大鼠肺组织的病理改变,免疫组化方法分析凝血酶敏感蛋白-1受体CD36在肺组织中的表达,以探讨放射性肺损伤大鼠肺组织病理和CD36在不同时间段的表达和意义.结果表明,HE和Masson染色提示照射后的1周肺泡腔有炎性细胞渗出,继之间质水肿,4及8周出现肺泡腔变小甚至结构破坏,局部实变,肺问质出现胶原纤维;CD36免疫组化标记显示:照射组在照后的第1、2、4、8周时间段CD36表达均明显强于对照组(P<0.01).以上结果说明CD36参与了放射性肺损伤的发生发展过程,阻抑其表达可能对放射肺损伤有防治作用.%To investigate the pathology of acute radiation- induced lung injury and expression and significance of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) receptor CD36 during different phases in rats, forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (C) and radiation group (R). Both groups were radiated with 6WV X ray linear accelerator at dose of 15 Gy thoracically, 2 Gy/min, with SSD 1 m and radiation area 4.5 cm×4.5 cm. The pathological change of lung tissue and the expression of CD36 were detected with HE, Masson and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively. Result HE and Masson staining showed that only one week after radiation, the alveolar spaces had exudative inflammatory cells,following interstitial edema, and at 4 and 8 weeks, alveolar spaces shrank, even its structure was destroyed with local consol, and pulmonary interstitium appeared collagen fibers. The expression of CD36 was significantly higher in radiation group at all phases (p<0.01) . The expression of CD36 increased significantly in radiation-induced lung injuy. CD36 participated in the process of radation-induced lung injury, and inhibition of CD36 expression may have preventive effect on radation-induced lung injury.

  19. Organic Reference Materials for Hydrogen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Stable Isotope-Ratio Measurements : Caffeines, n-Alkanes, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, Glycines, L-Valines, Polyethylenes, and Oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmelrnann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F.; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groeing, Manfred; Helie, Jean-Francois; Herrero-Martin, Sara; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Sessions, Alex L.; Werner, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope-delta values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-60

  20. Effect of L-valine supplementation to a wheat-based diet with leucine excess on performance, gene expression, and serum concentration of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; García, H; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cota, M; Arce, N; Cervantes, M

    2012-12-01

    Excess Leu in the diet reduces the expression of the cationic AA transporter b(0,+), absorption of Lys and Arg, feed intake, and ADG of pigs. Because Val competes with Leu for absorption, surplus Val may correct some of these effects. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of surplus Val in a basal wheat (Triticum aestivum) diet fortified with free Lys, Thr, and Met and containing excess Leu and Ile on performance, expression of genes encoding b(0,+), and serum concentrations of AA. Sixteen pigs (30.3 ± 2.1 kg BW) were used. Treatments were wheat based with excess Leu and Ile (T1) and T1 plus 0.44% L-Val (T2). At the end of the 21-d study, 12 pigs were euthanized; jugular blood was collected to analyze serum AA and jejunal mucosa to measure expression of b(0,+). Surplus Val increased (P 0.10) b(0,+) expression. Although analyzed Val content in the basal diet was lower than calculated, the increased serum Lys and improved pig performance may suggest that excess Leu limits Val availability and that surplus Val could correct some of the negative effects of excess Leu.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure and Stability of a Ternary Cu(Ⅱ) complex with 1,10-Phenanthroline and L-Valinate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-hua; LE Xue-yi; LONG La-sheng; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction It is important to research the mixed-ligand copper complexes containing bioligands,such as amino acids, nucleic acids and proteins,in exploring the functional mechanism of microelement copper in organism because the reaction of any micronutrient with two or more bioligands in the concentrated bioligands background gives mixed-ligand ternary complexes, which are more stable[1]and related with storage of substance and transportation of metal ions in the life process.

  2. Diagnostic significance of differential cell count in induced sputum to chronic cough in children%高渗盐水诱导痰细胞学检查在儿童慢性咳嗽诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟帼钰; 陈德晖; 罗炜; 陈桥丽; 卢慧敏; 林育能; 潘小安; 吴上志; 赖克方

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高渗盐水诱导痰细胞学检查在儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断中的意义.方法 选择2007年1月至2007年12月广州医学院第一附属医院儿科门诊及住院的198例慢性非特异性咳嗽患儿,参考2006年ACCP《儿童慢性咳嗽临床循证实践指南》的诊断程序进行病因诊断,所有患儿均进行高渗盐水诱导痰细胞学检查,比较不同病因的慢性咳嗽儿童诱导痰细胞学分类的差异.同时选择159名健康儿童作为对照.结果 198例慢性咳嗽患儿中有175例痰诱导成功,成功率为88.4%,不良反应发生率为10.1%,主要表现为咽痒、恶心、咳嗽、头晕,停止诱导后可缓解.对175例痰诱导成功的慢性咳嗽患儿病因进行分析,获得明确诊断的有164例(93.7%),分别是咳嗽变异性哮喘(CVA) 65例(37.1%)、上气道咳嗽综合征(UACS)52例(29.7%)、感染后咳嗽(PIC)37例(21.1%)、嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎(EB)4例(2.3%)、胃食管反流性咳嗽(GERC)4例(2.3%)、肺结核(TB)1例(0.6%)、气道异物1例(0.6%),病因未明11例(6.3%).CVA、UACS、PIC是本组慢性咳嗽患儿最常见的病因.按年龄分为三组,Ⅰ组(4~6岁)51例(29.1%),Ⅱ组(7~11岁)66例(37.7%),Ⅲ组(12~14岁)58例(33.1%).不同年龄组病因分布差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).不同病因组与正常对照组,以及不同病因组之间诱导痰细胞学分类差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).结论 在儿童开展高渗盐水诱导痰细胞学检查是安全和成功率较高的检测手段,对儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断起着重要作用.%Objective To explore the diagnostic significance of differential cell count in induced sputum to chronic cough in children.Methods A totle of 198 children with chronic cough in outpatient and inpatient departments of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College from January 2007 to December 2007 were included.The causes were investigated by using the guidelines for

  3. 脓毒症大鼠生物喋呤的组织分布特点和意义%The significance of biopterin synthesis in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚咏明; 董宁; 于燕; 陆连荣; 李红云; 施志国

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨腹腔感染致脓毒症时重要器官生物喋呤及其合成限速酶基因表达的改变和病理生理意义。方法  腹腔感染致脓毒症模型采用盲肠结扎穿孔法(CLP),用反相高效液相分析法和逆转录-聚合酶链反应方法测定24只大鼠肝、肺、肾等组织生物喋呤含量及三磷酸鸟苷环水解酶I(GTP-CHI)mRNA的表达。结果 脓毒症大鼠2 h时肝、肺、肾组织生物喋呤含量显著增多[分别为(4.18±0.16)、(2.71±0.32)、(2.45±0.27) ng/g蛋白],同时不同组织GTP-CHI mRNA表达亦明显增强,各脏器功能均表现不同程度地损害(P<0.05)。相关分析显示,肝、肺组织生物喋呤与反映相应脏器功能的指标呈高度正相关(分别为r=0.791 6, P<0.001和r=0.800 4, P<0.001)。结论 生物喋呤参与了腹腔感染所致脓毒症的发生、发展过程。%Objective To study the potential role of changes in biopterin (tetrahydrobiopterin and more oxidized species) synthesis and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CHI) mRNA expression in sepsis induced by intra-abdominal infection in rats. Methods Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), HPLC and RT-PCR were used to detect contents of biopterin and GTP-CHI mRNA expression in liver, lung, and kidney tissues at 2, 8, 16 h following CLP. Results As compared with normal group, tissues biopterin levels were significantly elevated in liver, lung and kidneys at 2 h following CLP (4.18±0.16, 2.71±0.32, and 2.45±0.27 ng/g protein, respectively). Similarly, GTP-CHI mRNA induction in various tissues was significantly increased (P<0.05). Also, contents of tissue biopterin in liver, lungs and kidney were positively correlated with the levels of GTP-CHI mRNA expression (r=0.659 6, P=0.014 2; r=0.795 3, P=0.001 2 and r=0.910 1, P<0.001, respectively). In addition, heptic and pulmonary biopterin levels were positively correlated with glutamic pyruvic

  4. Expression and Significance of Treg Cells and IDO in a Spectrum of HPV-Induced Cervical Lesions%Treg细胞和IDO在HPV感染相关宫颈疾病组织中表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋艳萍; 曹来英; 洛若愚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of the level of regulatory T ( Treg ) cells and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase ( IDO ) in a Spectrum of HPV-Induced Cervical Lesions. Methods Human papillomavirus ( HPV ) testing, thinprep cytologic test ( TCT ) and cervical biopsy were performed in cervical mucosal from 194 women and then all patients were classified as normal cervices ( control subjects ), HPV-negative cervicitis, HPV-positive cervicitis, CIN I , CIN II , CINIH or cervical cancer. Flow cytometry was used to assess the percentages of Treg cells in CD4 + T cells in the cervical mucosal and quantitative PCR was used to analysis the cervical mRNA expression of IDO. Results Cervical cancer had higher numbers of Treg cells and expressed more IDO than other groups. The percentages of Treg cells in CD4 + T cells in the cervical mucosal were higher in CIN IH , CIN II , CIN I and HPV-positive cervicitis than what in HPV- negative cervicitis and control subjects. The expressions of IDO were significantly higher in CINIH and CIN II than what in CIN I , HPV-positive cervicitis, HPV-negative cervicitis and control subjects. Conclusion The development of HPV-induced cervical Lesions is assoiated with HPV persistenced infection and mucosal enrichment of Treg cells. IDO is over expressed in HPV-Induced CINIH ,CIN II and Cervical cancer. Treg cells and IDO may associated with cervical cancer immune escape mechanisms.%目的 探讨HPV感染相关宫颈疾病患者宫颈组织中Treg细胞和吲哚胺2,3-二氧酶(IDO)的表达及其临床意义.方法 对194例患者行HPV检测、宫颈TCT检查及宫颈病理学检查,然后按病变程度分为正常宫颈(对照组)、HPV阴性(HPV-)宫颈炎、HPV阳性(HPV+)宫颈炎、CINⅠ、CINⅡ、CINⅢ和宫颈癌6组实验组,应用Q-PCR、流式细胞术,检测各组宫颈组织中Treg细胞和吲哚胺2,3-二氧酶(IDO)的表达水平.结果 宫颈癌中Treg细胞占CD4+ T细胞的比例及IDO表达

  5. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  6. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  7. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii induce distinct levels of dendritic cell cytokine secretion and significantly different T cell responses In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E;

    2016-01-01

    driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic...

  8. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. Therapeutical Significance of Ligustrazine for Treating Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy%川芎嗪对链脲佐菌素诱导糖尿病肾病的治疗意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭明珠; 刘长山; 苏绍娟; 马璐璐

    2014-01-01

    Objective To research the therapeutical significance of ligustrazine for diabetic nephropathy. Methods 30 Wistar rats were selected, in which 10 rats were randomly taken as the normal control group ( A ) and remaining 20 rats were given streptozotocin ( STZ ) 60 mg/kg ) by intraperitoneal injection. After inducing diabetes, these model rats were equally divided into the two groups. The ligustrazine treatment group ( C ) was given ligustrazine 100 mg/ ( kg · d ) , while the diabetes control group ( B ) and the normal control group were given normovolemic normal saline 1 mL/100 g. Blood sugar and 24 h urine albumin quantity were measured at 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks. The rats were killed after 16 weeks for separating kidney. The aldose reductase ( AR ) activity in tissue was detected. The immuno-histochemical method was adopted to observe the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. The partial renal cortex was taken for conducting the pathological observation and the electronic microscopic observation on the morphologic change of renal cell apoptosis. Results The ex-pression of Bcl-2 protein in the ligustrazine treatment group was increased compared with the diabetes control group, while the ex-pression of Bax protein was decreased;the AR activity in the ligustrazine treatment group was significantly decreased compared with the diabetes control group ( P=0. 000 ) , and higher than that in the normal control group without statistical difference ( P>0. 05 ) . The blood sugar and AR activity in the diabetes control group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group ( P0.05)。B组血糖、醛糖还原酶活性均显著高于A组( P<0.01);C组电镜下凋亡形态学改变不明显,而B组呈典型的凋亡形态学改变,A组中未见凋亡性改变;B组肾小球基底膜增厚、系膜区域扩大,C组病变减轻;16周末,C组24 h尿白蛋白定量较B组显著下降( P=0.000)。结论川芎嗪能通过抑制醛糖还原酶活性

  10. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. Changes and clinical significance of concentration of serum total homocysteine in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension%妊娠高血压综合征患者血清总同型半胱氨酸的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦淑琴; 郑建华; 刘亚星; 邹丽红; 石大维

    2001-01-01

    目的 检测妊娠高血压综合征(妊高征)患者外周血中总同型半胱氨酸(tHcy)的水平,并探讨其与妊高征发病的关系。方法 应用高效液相色谱电化学检测(HPLC-ED)法检测未妊娠妇女、正常妊娠妇女以及妊高征患者血清中tHcy的水平。结果 ①非妊娠组的tHcy水平[(7.89±2.62)mol/L]与正常妊娠组[(5.91±1.96)μmol/L]相比较,差异有极显著性(P<0.001);正常妊娠组在孕中期tHcy水平[(5.23±1.88)μmol/L]降至最低。②妊高征组tHcy水平[(9.40±3.06)μmol/L]明显高于正常妊娠组(P<0.001),与非妊娠组妇女相比较,tHcy水平呈逐渐升高趋势(P值分别小于0.05,0.01,0.001);并随妊高征病情的加重,tHcy水平呈逐渐上升趋势,重度妊高征明显高于轻度妊高征(P<0.05)。结论 妊娠后tHcy水平显著升高可能是妊高征发病机制中的一个重要因素。%Objective To determine the changes in serum total homocysteine(tHcy) concentration that occur in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH),to explore the relationship between serum tHcy and pathogenesis of PIH.Methods Serum tHcy concentrations were measured in 30 healthy nonpregnant women (nonpregnancy group),36 normal pregnant women (normal pregnancy group) and 42 women with PIH (PIH group) by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection.Results ① Serum tHcy concentrations were significantly lower in normal pregnancy group,(5.91±1.96)μmol/L than those in nonpregnancy group,(7.89±2.62)μmol/L (P<0.001),the lowest level in the second trimester of pregnancy,(5.23±1.88)μmol/L.②Serum tHcy concentrations,(9.40±3.06)μmol/L in PIH group were significantly higher than those in normal pregnancy group,(5.91±1.96)μmol/L(P<0.001).There was a trend that serum tHcy concentrations in PIH group gradually increased as compared with nonpregnancy group(P<0.05,0.01,0

  13. The relevance of cytokines in the radiation-induced lung reaction. Experimental basis and clinical significance; Die Bedeutung von Zytokinen fuer die radiogene Lungenreaktion. Experimentelle Grundlagen und klinische Relevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Ruebe, C. [Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie, Univ. des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rodemann, H.P. [Sektion fuer Strahlenbiologie und Molekulare Umweltforschung, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radioonkologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Methods: published data on radiation-induced cytokine expression from experimental and clinical studies are reviewed. Results and conclusion: the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the radiation response of the lung include tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) appears to be of particular importance in the development of lung fibrosis. First approaches with radioprotective agents and gene therapy to modify radiation-induced cytokine expression have been investigated for prevention of late effects of irradiation lung damage in animal experiments. Preliminary data of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma TGF-{beta}-levels during radiotherapy may predict the development of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The biological impacts of endogenous radiation-induced cytokine production by tumor cells in respect of tumor behavior, potential damage to normal tissue, and clinical status of the host still need to be determined more precisely. (orig.)

  14. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  15. Influence of Genetic Variants in TPMT and COMT Associated with Cisplatin Induced Hearing Loss in Patients with Cancer : Two New Cohorts and a Meta-Analysis Reveal Significant Heterogeneity between Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagleitner, Melanie M.; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Patino-Garcia, Ana; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Vos, Hanneke I.; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Gelderblom, Hans; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; te Loo, Maroeska W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens causes hearing loss in 40-60% of cancer patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants in the genes encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) can predict the development of cisplatin-induced

  16. Influence of genetic variants in TPMT and COMT associated with cisplatin induced hearing loss in patients with cancer: two new cohorts and a meta-analysis reveal significant heterogeneity between cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M Hagleitner

    Full Text Available Treatment with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens causes hearing loss in 40-60% of cancer patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants in the genes encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT can predict the development of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and may explain interindividual variability in sensitivity to cisplatin-induced hearing loss. Two recently published studies however, sought to validate these findings and showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymorphisms in the TPMT and COMT genes in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Therefore we investigated two independent cohorts of 110 Dutch and 38 Spanish patients with osteosarcoma and performed a meta-analysis including all previously published studies resulting in a total population of 664 patients with cancer. With this largest meta-analysis performed to date, we show that the influence of TPMT and COMT on the development of cisplatin-induced hearing loss may be less important than previously suggested.

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  19. 4NQO诱导大鼠舌黏膜癌变过程中HSF1的表达及意义%Expression and significance of HSF1 in 4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传祝; 王飞; 王琼; 刘来奎

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and significance of heat shock factor 1 ( HSF1 ) in 4⁃nitroquinoline 1⁃oxide ( 4NQO) induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Methods:A total of 80 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. Rats in experi⁃ment group were administered orally with 0.001%⁃0.004%4NQO for 8⁃28 weeks, while rats in the control group were administered with tap water. Then the rats were killed at 8, 16, 20, 24, 28 weeks and their tongues were removed for general observation, histological assessment and HSF1 immunohistochemical staining. Results: Gross changes were observed, including granulations, white patches, verruca, cauliflower⁃like shape leukoplakia and ulcer⁃like changes on the posterior part of the tongue dorsum of experimental group with increasing concentrations and prolonged action of 4NQO. Their corresponding histopathological results ranged from hyperplasia, mild dysplasia (MiDP), moderate dysplasia (MoDP) and severe dysplasia(SDP), in situ carcinoma (ISC) to early invasive carcinoma ( EIC) . The incidence of tongue cancer in rats treated with 4NQO for 8, 16, 20, 24, 28 weeks was 0, 20.0%, 50.0%, 66.70% and 100%. Rat tongue mucosa epithelium of the control rats was almost negative or low for HSF1 staining. But with the aggravation of the tongue mucosal dysplasia, the positive expression of HSF1 of the experimental rats increased obviously. HSF1 was distributed through⁃out the entire cancer nest in carcinoma in situ. The expression of HSF1 was low in cancer epithelium of well⁃differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, while high in carcinoma stromal fibroblasts. Conclusions:4NQO drinking water can induce rat tongue carcinogenesis, wich helps to successfully establish the rat tongue carcinogenesis model and HSF1 may play a key role in the development of the cancer.%目的:探讨热休克因子1( HSF1)在4⁃硝基喹啉⁃1⁃氧化物(4NQO)饮水法诱导大鼠舌黏膜癌变过程中

  20. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  1. Mutants of bacteriophage T4 deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption: shutoff of host DNA and protein synthesis gene dosage experiments, identification of a restrictive host, and possible biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snustad, D P; Bursch, C J; Parson, K A; Hefeneider, S H

    1976-04-01

    The shutoff of host DNA synthesis is delayed until about 8 to 10 min after infection when Escherichia coli B/5 cells were infected with bacteriophage T4 mutants deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption (ndd mutants). The host DNA synthesized after infection with ndd mutants is stable in the absence of T4 endonucleases II and IV, but is unstable in the presence of these nucleases. Host protein synthesis, as indicated by the inducibility of beta-galactosidase and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel patterns of isoptopically labeled proteins synthesize after infection, is shut off normally in ndd-infected cells, even in the absence of host DNA degradation. The Cal Tech wild-type strain of E. coli CT447 was found to restrict growth of the ndd mutants. Since T4D+ also has a very low efficiency of plating on CT447, we have isolated a nitrosoguanidine-induced derivative of CT447 which yields a high T4D+ efficiency of plating while still restricting the ndd mutants. Using this derivative, CT447 T4 plq+ (for T4 plaque+), we have shown that hos DNA degradation and shutoff of host DNA synthesis occur after infection with either ndd98 X 5 (shutoff delayed) or T4D+ (shutoff normal) with approximately the same kinetics as in E. coli strain B/5. Nuclear disruption occurs after infection of CT447 with ndd+ phage, but not after infection with ndd- phage. The rate of DNA synthesis after infection of CT447 T4 plq+ with ndd98 X 5 is about 75% of the rate observed after infection with T4D+ while the burst size of ndd98 X 5 is only 3.5% of that of T4D+. The results of gene dosage experiments using the ndd restrictive host C5447 suggest that the ndd gene product is required in stoichiometric amounts. The observation by thin-section electron microscopy of two distinct pools of DNA, one apparently phage DNA and the other host DNA, in cells infected with nuclear disruption may be a compartmentalization mechanism which separates the pathways of host DNA degradation and

  2. TFCC损伤导致腕尺侧痛的解剖学研究及其意义%Ulnar wrist pain induced byTFCC injurie:anatomy and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋磊; 刘志刚; 陈雷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate anatomic features of TFCC (Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex) structure, for surgical treating of ulnar wrist pain induced by TFCC injuries. Methods 30 adult cadaveric wrist specimens were involved in this study. The innervation of ulnar carpal soft tissues and TFCC was observed. Structure, origin and attachment of the ligaments around TFC were also studied. Results (l)The ligaments around TFC included ulnounate ligament, ulnotriquetrum ligament, both attached to the volar side of the corresponding carpal bones, collateral ulnar ligament, distal radioulnar ligament, radioulnar triquetral ligament and the sheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris. In addition, dorsal ulnounate ligament and dorsal ulnotriquetrum ligament could be found. (2) The innervation of ulnar carpal soft tissues and TFCC was from the branches of ulnar nerve. Conclusions The ulnounate and ulnotriquetrum ligaments attach to both volar and dorsal side of corresponding carpal bones. The innervation of ulnar carpal soft tissues and TFCC is from dorsal branches of ulnar nerve. Ulnar wrist pain can be treated by the selected enervation.%目的 研究TFCC的解剖构成,明确TFC周围韧带的组成及神经分布,为开展支配神经切除术治疗腕尺侧痛的术式奠定基础.方法 对30例成年男性腕关节标本进行解剖,首先观察腕尺侧组织及TFCC的神经支配,之后观察TFC周围韧带的组成及起止.结果 (1)TFCC的韧带组成除包括国内外报道的尺月韧带、尺三角韧带(均抵止于对应腕骨掌侧)、桡尺骨远端韧带、尺侧副韧带、尺侧腕伸肌腱鞘之外,还包括新观察到的尺月、尺三角背侧韧带.(2)腕尺侧及TFCC的神经支配主要来自于尺神经手背支的腕关节支.结论 (1) TFCC的尺月、尺三角韧带不仅止于对应腕骨的掌侧,同时也发出纤维抵止于对应腕骨的背侧.(2)腕尺侧及TFCC的神经支配主要来自于尺神经手背支的腕关节支,因此TFCC或尺神

  3. Sonic hedgehog在二乙基亚硝胺诱发大鼠肝癌发生过程中的表达及意义%Expression and Significances of Sonic Hedgehog During Hepatocarcinogenesis Induced by Diethylnitrosamine in the Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 李红星; 李笑岩; 白咸勇; 李雅娜

    2011-01-01

    To observe expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in tissue of liver,to explore its role during hepato-carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in the rats.On the Basis of this liver cancer model,the morphological changes of liver tissue were observed by HE staining,the expression of Shh protein and mR-NA were measured with immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively.Based on morphological characters during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis,the rats were divided into control group,hepatic lesion group,hepatic proliferation/cirrhosis group and hepatic carcinogene-sis group.The cells of Shh protein expression mainly distributed in the epithelia of interlobular bile duct,hy-perplasia node,cancerous tissues and pericancerous tissues.The positive expression rate of Shh protein inthe control group,hepatic toxic lesion,hepatic proliferation/cirrhosis and hepatic carcinogenesis were 0%,30%,53.33% and 79.17% (χ2=42.67,P<0.05) respectively.The expression rate of Shh mRNA increased gradually with the hepatocarcinogenesis (χ2=13.35,P<0.05).The result that the binds of Shh mRNA positive expression were analyzed showed that its expression increased gradually with the hepatocarcinogenesis (F= 110.26,P<0.05).The expression rate of Ptch mRNA increased gradually with the hepatocarcinogenesis(χ2=19.83,P<0.05).The result that the binds of Ptch mRNA positive expression were analyzed showed that its expression increased gradually with the hepatocarcinogenesis (F=68.28,P<0.05).Experimental results in-di-cated that the abnormal expression of Shh caused abnormal activation of Shh signaling pathway,and con-tin-ually affected the cells of liver,and involved the process of hepatocarcinogenesis.%观察肝脏组织中Sonic hedgehog (Shh)的表达情况,探讨其在肝癌发生发展过程中的作用.用二乙基亚硝胺(diethylnitrosamine,DEN)制备诱发型肝癌模型,利用光镜技术观察诱癌过程中肝组织的形态学

  4. CNX-012-570, a direct AMPK activator provides strong glycemic and lipid control along with significant reduction in body weight; studies from both diet-induced obese mice and db/db mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Tharappel M; Harish, Chandrashekaran; Lakshmi, Mudigere N; Harsha, Krishnareddy; Onkaramurthy, Mallappa; Sathish Kumar, Venkatesh; Shree, Nitya; Geetha, Venkatachalaiah; Balamurali, Gundalmandikal V; Gopala, Aralakuppe S; Madhusudhan Reddy, Bobbili; Govind, Madabosse K; Anup, Mammen O; Moolemath, Yoganand; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Jagannath, Madanahalli R; Somesh, Baggavalli P

    2014-01-25

    AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the coordination of anabolic and catabolic processes and is an attractive therapeutic target for T2DM, obesity and metabolic syndrome. We report the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of CNX-012-570 is an orally bioavailable small molecule (molecular weight of 530 Daltons) that directly activates AMPK in DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes. Activity and efficacy of the compound was tested in cell based as well as cell free systems in vitro. Male C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) were assigned to either vehicle or CNX-012-570 (3 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 8 weeks (n = 8). Genetically diabetic db/db mice on chow diet were dosed with vehicle control or CNX-012-570 (2.5 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 6 weeks (n = 8). CNX-012-570 is a highly potent and orally bioavailable compound activating AMPK in both cell and cell free systems. It inhibits lipolysis (33%) and gluconeogenesis (28%) in 3T3L1 cells and rat primary hepatocytes respectively. The efficacy of the molecule was translated to both DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes. CNX-012-570 has reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 14%, body weight by 24% and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) by 24%. CNX-012-570 showed a 22% reduction in fed serum cholesterol levels and 19% increase in HDL levels.In db/db mice model, CNX-012-570 has shown 18% decrease in fed glucose and 32% decrease in fasting glucose with a 2.57% reduction in absolute HbA1c. Decrease in serum insulin and glucose AUC indicates the increased insulin sensitivity. Body weight was reduced by 13% with increased browning of adipose tissue and decreased inguinal and mesenteric fat mass. There was significant reduction in liver TG and liver total cholesterol. CNX-012-570 has the potential to control hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also reduces body weight gain with an additional benefit of minimizing cardiovascular risks in diabetics.

  5. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  6. 妊娠高血压患者血清淀粉样蛋白 A、血浆内皮素1和一氧化氮水平变化及其相互关系%Significance of serum amyloid A,endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峻; 王小娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the significance of serum amyloid A (SAA),endothelin-1 (ET-1)and nitric oxide (NO)in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension and their relationship.Methods A total of 65 patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension were selected as pregnancy-induced hypertension group,including 24 cases with solely pregnancy-induced hypertension, 1 9 cases with mild preeclampsia and 22 cases with severe preeclampsia according to disease severity.At the same period,30 healthy pregnant women and 20 healthy women were selected as normal pregnancy control group and healthy control group,respectively.The levels of SAA,ET-1 and NO in pregnancy-induced hypertension group,normal pregnancy group and healthy control group were detected and their relationship with disease severity was observed.Results ① The levels of SAA and ET-1 in pregnancy-induced hypertension group and normal pregnancy group were significantly higher than those of healthy control group,and the levels of SAA and ET-1 were significantly higher in pregnancy-induced hypertension group than in normal pregnancy group (P <0.01);while the level of NO was significantly decreased,and the level of NO was significantly decreased in pregnancy-induced hypertension group than in normal pregnancy group (P <0.01).②The levels of SAA and ET-1 in severe preeclampsia and mild preeclampsia group were significantly higher than in pregnancy-induced hypertension group,and the indexes in severe preeclampsia group were significantly higher than those of mild preeclampsia group;while NO level was significantly decreased,and NO level was significantly decreased in severe preeclampsia group than in mild preeclampsia group (P < 0.05 ).③ The SAA level in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension was positively correlated with ET-1 (r =0.876,P <0.05),while the SAA level was negatively correlated with NO (r =-0.761,P <0.05).Conclusion Endothelial dysfunction is found in pregnancy-induced hypertension,the markers of SAA

  7. The significance of human induced and natural erosion features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael S. Zavada, Yeqiao Wang, Gérard Rambolamanana, Andriamiranto Raveloson, Hélène Razanatsoa

    Kull .... pattern is rather simple, we employed unsupervised classifi- cation on the ... spectral clusters into general categories of lavaka, riparian, and grassland ..... lavaka, and the mobility of these soils may relieve soil compac- tion permitting ...

  8. Vismodegib induces significant clinical response in locally advanced trichoblastic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesant, P; Crinquette, M; Alkeraye, S; Mirabel, X; Dziwniel, V; Cribier, B; Mortier, L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma due to local extension or metastatic disease were previously at a therapeutic impasse. Targeted inhibition of the sonic hedgehog pathway by vismodegib represents a new therapeutic strategy. Adnexal carcinomas are rare malignant skin tumours derived from epithelial annexes. Conventional treatment of adnexal tumours is based on surgical excision. Although the radiosensitivity of adnexal carcinomas has not been established, radiotherapy could be offered alone or in combination in locally advanced or inoperable disease. Chemotherapy represents a therapeutic option in the treatment of metastatic adnexal tumours. Currently there is no effective treatment for these tumours when they become metastatic or unresectable, and treatment is palliative. Sunitinib represents a new therapeutic strategy, with efficiency described in the literature for a small number of patients. However, its efficacy is partial, and its tolerance is not always good. We report a patient with trichoblastic carcinoma, initially diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma, treated effectively with vismodegib. The remarkable response we have observed in this patient suggests an encouraging therapeutic role of vismodegib in trichoblastic carcinoma that should be evaluated in a carefully designed trial.

  9. 代谢性酸中毒诱导新生大鼠视网膜新生血管缺氧诱导因子-lα的表达及其意义%Expression and significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in retinal neovascularization induced by metabolic acidosis in newborn rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉真; 王娟; 乔立兴; 蒋犁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retinal neovascularization by metabolic acidosis in newborn rats. Methods One hundred and twenty newborn SD rats were randomly divided into acidosis (experiment) and normoxia (control) groups. A total of 60 newborn rats in experiment group underwent tubal feeding day for 6 days and followed by a period of recovery. The rats in the two groups were sacrificed at the 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th, 13th and 20th day after birth, respectively. The morphologic changes of retinal vessels were estimated by observing the vascular pattern in adenosine diphosphatase stained retina flat mounts. The newborn vessels were quantified by HE staining. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect HIF-1α expression. Results In experiment group, numerous neovascularization and un-perfused area at the periphery of vessels occurred on the 10th day. The result of HE staining showed that in experiment group of 10-day old,the number of neovascular nuclei extending into the vireo was 28.78±7.53, and that of the control group was 1.22±1.48 (t=11.169,P<0.01). The results of immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of HIF-1α protein were stronger in the experiment group than in the control group on the 8th, 10th and 13th day, and there were significant differences between the two groups (108.87±15.21, 183.68±26.58 and 129.42±9.85 vs 74.98±4.50, 76.38± 3.38 and 74.78±1.86, t=4.625, 9.023 and 9.672,P<0.05). Conclusions HIF-lα might play an important role in retinal neovascularization.%目的 探讨缺氧诱导因子-lα(hypoxia-inducible factor-lα,HIF-lα)在代谢性酸中毒诱导视网膜新生血管中的表达和意义.方法 将120只新生SD大鼠随机分为酸中毒模型组和正常对照组,各60只.酸中毒模型组出生后第2天开始按535 mg/(kg·d)的剂量管饲氯化铵溶液 (质量浓度为50 mg/ml),2次/d,连续6 d,停药进入恢复期.2

  10. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  11. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  12. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  13. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  14. 妊高征孕妇凝血功能、血流动力学、血液流变学的变化及意义%Changes and significance of coagulation function,hemodynamics and blood rheology in women with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾帮智; 张博; 王余娜

    2016-01-01

    目的::观察妊高征孕妇凝血功能、血流动力学、血液流变学的变化,并探讨其临床意义.方法:选择2011年7月~2016年2月我院收治的88例妊娠期高血压患者为研究对象,同时选择入院的90例正常妊娠孕妇为正常晚孕组,检测两组各凝血参数、血流动力学、血液流变学指标.结果:分娩前,妊高征组的凝血酶原时间(PT)、抗凝血酶Ⅲ(AT-Ⅲ)值明显低于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)、D-D、血浆纤维蛋白原(FIB)值明显高于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).分娩后,妊高征组的 PT、AT-Ⅲ值明显升高,FIB 值明显降低,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),且与正常晚孕组无显著差异.但 D-D 值仍然明显高于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).妊高征组的各血流动力学参数明显高于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).妊高征组的全血高低切黏度、血浆黏度、高低切还原黏度、红细胞压积、红细胞变形指数、红细胞电泳时间及纤维蛋白原值均明显高于正常晚孕组(P<0.05).结论:妊高征患者的血液各项指标相对于正常妊娠孕晚期孕妇呈现高凝状态.适时检测患者的各项凝血功能、血流动力学、血液流变学指标,对于监测病情,辅助诊断及预防有重要意义.%Objective:To observe the changes of coagulation function,hemodynamics and blood rheology in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension,and to explore its clinical significance.Methods:A total of 88 cases of patients with preg-nancy induced hypertension admitted in our hospital from July 201 1 to February 201 6 were selected as the research objects,at the same time,90 normal pregnant women were selected as normal late pregnancy group.The coagulation parameters,hemo-dynamics,blood rheology indexes were detected in the two groups.Results:Before delivery,values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced

  15. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  16. 血清瘦素、胱抑素C和人绒毛膜促性腺激素在妊娠高血压综合征检测中的意义%Study on clinical significance of serum leptin,cystatin C and human chorionic gonadotropin in patients with pregnancy - induced hyper- tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳刚; 李虹; 刘大庆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察血清瘦素、胱抑素 C(CysC)和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β- HCG)在妊娠高血压综合征检测中的意义。方法选取2011年1月至2014年6月收治的妊娠高血压患者150例为妊高症组;同期正常妊娠的患者60例为正常妊娠组;另选同期健康非妊娠妇女30例为健康对照组。观察健康对照组,正常妊娠组和妊高症组的瘦素、CysC 和β- HCG 水平,与妊高症严重程度的关系,各指标之间的相互关系。结果正常妊娠组和妊高症组的瘦素、CysC 和β-HCG 水平明显高于健康对照组( P ﹤0.01),而妊高症组明显高于正常妊娠组( P ﹤0.01)。随着妊高症病情严重程度的增加,瘦素,CysC 和β- HCG 水平出现明显的增高( P ﹤0.01)。妊高症患者瘦素水平与 CysC( r =0.673,P ﹤0.01)和β- HCG( r =0.838,P ﹤0.01)水平呈正相关,CysC 与β- HCG( r =0.792,P ﹤0.01)水平呈正相关。结论检测瘦素、CysC 和β- HCG 水平有助于对妊娠高血压患者的诊断和分级,其异常升高应引起临床的高度重视。%Objective To observe the clinical significance of serum leptin,cystatin C(CysC)and human chorionic gonadotropin(β -HCG)in patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension. Methods A total of 150 patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension during January 2011 to June 2014 were selected as pregnancy - induced hypertension group;60 patients with normal pregnancy at the same period were allocated in normal pregnancy group,and 30 healthy women without pregnancy were selected as healthy control group. Levels of leptin,CysC and β - HCG were examined among pregnancy - induced hypertension group,normal pregnancy group and healthy control group,the relationship among levels of leptin,CysC and β - HCG and the severity of patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension were observed,the correlation between each marker had been evaluated. Results Levels of leptin

  17. UTRF、ET-1和CysC在诊断妊娠高血压患者早期肾功能损害中的价值%Significance of UTRF, ET-1 and CysC in pregnancy-induced hypertension patients with renal impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽岩; 刘艳庚; 颜媛

    2015-01-01

    group(71cases) and renal dysfunction group(59 cases). The levels of UTRF,ET-1 and CysC were observed in pregnancy-induced hypertension group,normal pregnancy group and the healthy control group and the relationship were observed among their levels and the severity of pregnancy-induced hypertension and renal dysfunction.Results The levels of UTRF,ET-1 and CysC in pregnancy hypertension group were significantly higher than those in normal pregnancy group and healthy control group(P<0.01),and the levels of the normal pregnancy group were significantly higher than that of the healthy control group(P<0.01). As the pregnancy-induced hypertension severity increased,the urinary UTRF,ET-1 and CysC levels significantly increased(P<0.01). The levels of urinary UTRF,ET-1 and CysC in renal dysfunction group were significantly higher than those of the normal renal function group (P<0.01).Conclusion UTRF,ET-1 and CysC levels could be better monitoring indicators for pregnancy-induced hypertension in patients with renal dysfunction syndrome,and for the judge of the severity of gestational hypertension.

  18. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  19. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  20. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  1. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  2. [Stress echocardiography: development and significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenhofer, C; Ritter, M; Jenni, R

    1994-08-27

    Exercise electrocardiography is still the primary method used in the non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease. Stress echocardiography is now being increasingly used as a more sensitive adjunct technique to assess ischemia. Ischemia provoked by stress can induce reversible wall motion abnormalities which are disclosed by cross-sectional 2-dimensional echocardiography and standard projections. The types of stress used are physical exercise (bicycle, treadmill), atrial pacing or pharmacologic stimulation. In the latter, the catecholamine dobutamine has emerged as preferable to the vasodilators dipyridamole and adenosine. The diagnostic accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography is comparable to that of bicycle or treadmill exercise echocardiography, but dobutamine stress echocardiography is technically simpler and can be performed in patients unable to exercise. Its sensitivity in diagnosing ischemic or viable myocardium is comparable to that of nuclear methods, MRI or PET. In contrast to nuclear methods, stress echocardiography is however free of radiation. In the assessment of patients with coronary artery disease, stress echocardiography has been shown to be valuable for diagnosis, preoperative risk stratification and determination of prognosis. Furthermore, low dose dobutamine echocardiography can be used to detect viable myocardium. Despite these very promising aspects of the method, there are recognized disadvantages and limitations: stress echocardiography is very time-consuming and operator-dependent; its sensitivity correlates strongly with the number of studies performed; analysis of wall motion is performed qualitatively on a purely subjective level, and hence lacks the objectivity of a quantitative approach. These factors emphasize the need for intensive research to render stress echocardiographic analysis more objective. Automatic boundary detection of left ventricular endocardium, color-Doppler-based tissue imaging and three

  3. Esterification of all four monoribonucleotides with acetyl-D-L-valine proceeds with a preference for the D-isomer but the D/L ratio in the products declines as a function of the hydrophobicity of the nucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. S.; Lacey, J. C. Jr; Lacey JC, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    We recently reported that esterification of 5'-AMP with N-acetyl amino acids proceeds with a preference for D-amino acids, and the D/L ratio in products declines as the hydrophobicity of the amino acid declines. Using one amino acid, Ac-Val, we now show that esterification of all four nucleotides proceeds with a preference for the D-isomer and the preference declines as the hydrophobicity of the nucleotide declines. So, in both types of experiments, the preferences seem determined by hydrophobic interactions.

  4. L-缬氨酸产生菌的选育及其代谢流分析%Breeding of L-valine Producer and Its Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀敏; 杨毅; 姜绪林; 张星元

    2003-01-01

    以谷氨酸棒杆菌(Corynebacterium glutamicum)AS1.495(Leu-)为出发菌株,通过多次亚硝基胍(NTG)诱变,给AS1.495(Leu-)依次叠加L-AAHss,2-TAr,Vd-的遗传标记,得到突变株AATV341(Leu-,L-AAHss,2-TAr,Vd-),可在8%的葡萄糖培养基积累L-缬氨酸24.5 g/L,比出发菌株提高了5.13倍.同时运用代谢流量分析理论,测定出发菌株AS1.495及其突变株AATV341在L-缬氨酸合成阶段的代谢流量,并初步进行比较和分析,发现遗传标记的引入使流量分配发生了重大变化,流量分配朝着有利于L-缬氨酸合成的方向改变.

  5. ANALYSIS OF L-VALINE BIOSYNTHESIS MECHANISM BY METABOLIC FLUX BALANCE MODEL%L-缬氨酸生物合成中的代谢流量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克旭; 赵丽丽; 张蓓; 陈宁

    2003-01-01

    应用流量平衡模型,通过物料衡算和MATLAB线性规划方法得到了发酵中后期L-缬氨酸合成过程的代谢流量分步.代谢流分析结果表明,在分批培养生成L-缬氨酸的过程中,有62.8%的葡萄糖进入糖酵解途径生成L-缬氨酸,38.2 %进入HMP途径,仅9.2%的碳架进入TCA循环.实验条件下的代谢流(58)与理想代谢流(92.31)相比,仍应从遗传改造和发酵控制方面降低TCA循环的代谢流,减少副产氨基酸的生成来进一步提高缬氨酸的产率.

  6. Breeding of L-valine producing strain and optimum of fermentation condition%L-缬氨酸生产菌的选育及发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丽; 刘忠

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究L-缬氨酸生产菌的选育及发酵条件的优化.方法 以黄色短杆菌LNV10为出发菌株,经紫外线、硫酸二乙酯逐级诱变处理,在含磺胺胍(SG)、α-氨基丁酸(α-AB)、2-噻唑丙氨酸(2-TA)结构类似物平板上定向筛选,通过响应面分析对培养基的组成进行优化,同时对发酵条件如温度、pH值等进行了探索.结果 获得L-缬氨酸高产菌株LNV270,优化了发酵条件.结论 在最优条件下发酵65h,可产L-缬氨酸46.89g·L-1.

  7. New organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements: caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, Anita

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope–δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (c

  8. New organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements : caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Brand, Willi A; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen Felicity; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim A; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groening, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A J; Sauer, Peter E; Sessions, Alex Lee; Werner, Roland A

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope-δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (c

  9. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    CERN Document Server

    Fortnow, Lance

    2010-01-01

    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  10. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  11. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  12. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  13. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  14. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  15. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  16. NAG,CysC 和 mALB 检测对妊娠高血压综合征早期肾损害的诊断意义%Significance of NAG, CysC and mALB for early renal damage of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峻; 马琼燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the significance of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ( NAG) , cystatin ( CysC) and microalbuminuria ( mALB) for early renal damage of pregnancy-induced hypertension.Methods 80 patients with pregnan-cy-induced hypertension were observed as pregnancy-induced hypertension group, in which there were 20 cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension, 34 cases of mild preeclampsia and 26 cases of severe preeclampsia, and according to serum creatinine (Ccr) they were divided into renal dysfunction group (42 cases)(Ccr <80 mL/min) and normal renal function group (38 cases) ( Ccr≥80 mL/min) .30 normal pregnant women at the same period were selected as normal pregnancy group.The lev-els of NAG, Cys C and mALB were observed in the two groups, the relation among the levels of those, severity of the disease and renal dysfunction were analyzed.Results The levels of NAG, Cys C and mALB is significantly higher than those in normal pregnancy group (P<0.01).The levels of NAG, Cys C and mALB in pregnancy-induced hypertension group increased as the severity of hypertension gradually increased (P<0.01).The levels of NAG, Cys C and mALB in normal renal function group were significantly lower compared with the renal dysfunction group (P<0.01).Conclusion The serum levels of NAG, Cys C and mALB in pregnancy-induced hypertension increase as the severity of disease rises, combined detection maybe help to early detect renal impairment in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension.%目的:探讨尿N-乙酰-B-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶( NAG)、血清胱抑素C( Cys C)、尿微量白蛋白( mALB)检测在妊娠高血压综合征(妊高征)早期肾损害诊断中的临床意义。方法选取妊高征患者80例作为妊高征组,其中妊娠高血压20例,子痫前期轻度34例和子痫前期重度26例,按照内生肌酐清除率( Ccr)水平将80例妊高征患者分为肾功能异常组(Ccr<80 mL/min)42

  17. 妊高征肾病患者血浆ET-1和血清TGF-β1、 IL-10检测及其临床意义%Clinical Significance of Determination of Changes on Plasma ET-1 and Serum TGF-β1,IL-10 Levels in Patients with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Complicated with Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of determination of changes on plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-βl ,IL-10 levels after treatment in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension complicated with nephropathy. Methods Plasma ET-1 and serum IL-10 (with RIA) ,serum TGF-βl (with ELISA) levels were measured in 32 patients and compared with 35 normal controls. Re-sults Before treatment plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-pl, IL-10 levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P0.05), plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with TGF-βl,IL-10 levels (r =0.4812,0.5784,P 0.05),血浆ET-1和血清TGF-β1、IL-10水平呈正相关(r=0.4812、0.5784,P<0.01)结论:检测妊高征肾病患者血浆 ET-1和血清TGF-β1、IL-10水平的变化,对患者的病情判断、疗效观察具有重要的临床价值.

  18. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  19. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  20. β2-MG、α1-MG和M-ALB在妊娠高血压疾病中的检测意义%The Significance ofβ2-MG,α1-MG and M-ALB in Pregnancy-induced Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安莉莉; 张红霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the significance ofβ2-MG,α1-MG and M-ALB in pregnancy-induced hypertension.Methods:Select 52 patients with gestational hypertension (PIH) from May 2011 to May 2012,theβ2-MG in blood and urine specimens,α1-MG and M-ALB in urine were detected.Results:Theβ2-MG in blood and urine specimens,α1-MG and M-ALB in urine were higher in the observation group than which in the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The early detection of the blood and urine β2-MG,urine α1-MG and M-ALB in gestational hypertension is conducive to the early detection of kidney injury,it is important guiding significance in clinical delivery.%  目的:探究β2-MG、α1-MG和M-ALB在妊娠高血压疾病中的检测意义.方法:对2011年5月-2012年5月收治的52例妊娠期高血压(PIH)孕产妇血尿标本中的β2-MG、尿α1-MG和M-ALB进行检测.结果:观察组受检患者的血、尿β2-MG,尿α1-MG、M-ALB均较对照组高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:对妊娠期高血压患者早期行血尿β2-MG、尿α1-MG和M-ALB检测,有利于早期发现肾脏损伤,对临床分娩有重要的指导意义.

  1. Expressions and clinical significances of nuclear factor-κB and hypoxia inducible factor-1α in prostate cancer%核转录因子-κB和缺氧诱导因子-1α在前列腺癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星; 何朝宏; 许长宝; 李云鹏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究核转录因子-κB (nuclear factor kappa B,NF-κB)和缺氧诱导因子-1α(hypoxia inducible factor-1α,HIF-1α)在前列腺癌中的表达及其临床意义.方法:采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)和免疫组织化学光谱纯试剂(spectrum pure,SP)法检测62例前列腺癌组织及17例良性前列腺增生组织中NF-κB和HIF-1α的mRNA和蛋白的表达.结果:(1)RT-PCR结果显示NF-κB和HIF-1α的mRNA在前列腺癌组中的相对表达量明显高于前列腺增生(P<0.05).免疫组织化学结果显示NF-κB和HIF-1α蛋白在前列腺癌组中的阳性表达率分别为62.90%和66.13%,明显高于前列腺增生组11.77%和5.88%(P<0.05).(2)NF-κB和HIF-1α的阳性表达均与前列腺癌的Gleason分级、临床分期有关(P<0.05),而与年龄无关(P>0.05).(3)NF-κB和HIF-1α的表达呈正相关(rs=0.368,P<0.05).结论:NF-κB和HIF-1α可能与前列腺癌的发生、发展密切相关,并可能在前列腺癌的浸润和转移中起重要作用.%Objective:To study expressions and clinical significances of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in prostate cancer.Methods:RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry SP method were used to detect NF-κB and HIF-1α mRNA and protein expressions in 62 cases of prostate cancer tissues and 17 cases of prostatic hyperplasia tissues.Results:(1)RT-PCR results showed that NF-κB and HIF-1α mRNA expression levels were relatively significantly higher in prostate cancer group than in prostatic hyperplasia group,with statistical differences(P<0.05).Immunohistochemical results showed that positive expression rates of NF-κB and HIF-1α proteins in prostate cancer group were 62.90% and 66.13%,8.33% and 5.88%,significantly higher than those in prostatic hyperplasia group with statistically significant differences (P<0.05).(2) Expressions of NF-κB and HIF-1 α were correlated with Gleason grade

  2. 噬血细胞综合征患者趋化因子γ-IFN和IP-10的表达及临床意义%Expressions of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and interferon inducible protein-10 and their significance in infection associated with hemophagocytic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漏佳颖; 沈悦娣; 谢军军; 童向民

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expressions and significance of interferon - gamma and interferon inducible protein -10 (IP - 10) in the patients with hemophagocytic syndrome. Methods: The expression of serum IP - 10 and interferon - gamma were detected by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 56 patients with HPS, 35 infected patients without HPS in infected group and 25 healthy people in normal group were established as controls. Results: Except the normal group, the concentration of serum IP -10 and interferon - gamma in infected patients increased, while the patients with HPS increased significantly. Conclusion: The obvious rise of interferon - gamma in infected patients with HPS can stimulate IP - 10 to secrete, and may activate and collect more T lymphocyte, whose abnormal expression may relate to pathological mechanisms of HPS.%目的:探讨γ-干扰素,干扰素诱导蛋白10(IP-10)在噬血细胞综合征(HPS)患者中的表达及意义.方法:采用EL ISA方法检测56例HPS患者血清γ-干扰素,IP-10表达.并设立无HPS的感染组35例和正常组20例作为对照.结果:除正常对照组外,感染患者血清γ-干扰素和IP10水平均升高,但是HPS患者升高非常明显.结论:感染性HPS中γ-干扰素明显升高刺激了IP-10的分泌,并有可能激活和募集更多T淋巴细胞,这些细胞因子的异常表达可能与HPS的病理机制有关.

  3. Change and significance of Ca2+ concentration in proliferation of HEK293 cells induced by angiotensin Ⅱ%血管紧张素Ⅱ诱导HEK293细胞增殖中Ca2+的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱国莹; 纪泽泉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish proliferation models of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells by angiotensin II , detect the effect of proliferation, Ca2+ concentration change, and expression of TRPC6, and observe the intervention effect of Losartan. Methods: Different concentrations of angiotensin II (10-8 mol/L, 10 -7 mol/L, 10-6 mol/L, and 10 -5mol/L) were used to induce HEK293 cells, MTT method and trypan blue staining were used to detect proliferation and activity of HEK293 cells at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours to confirm the optimal concentration and opportunity to construct proliferation model. After intervention with Losartan for 24 hours, confocal laser scanning microscope was used to detect the change of Ca2+ concentration, RT - PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of TRPC6. Results; After inducing HEK293 cells with 10-6 mol/L angiotensin II for 24 hours, cell proliferation and increase of Ca2+ concentration increased obviously, after intervention with Losartan, cell proliferation and increase of Ca 2+ concentration decreased significantly. The expression of TRPC6 was too weak to detect in cytomembrane or cytoplasm. Conclusion; Proliferation of HEK293 cells induced by angiotensin Ⅱ was correlated with increase of Ca2+ concentration, showing a certain time - and dose - dependent manner. Inhibition of cell proliferation and decrease of Ca2+ concentration after intervention of Losartan was correlated with AT1R. TRPC6 didnt express in HEK293 cells, which can be used to further research the relationship between exogenous TRPC6 and change of Ca2+ concentration.%目的:建立血管紧张素Ⅱ( AngⅡ)诱导人胚肾细胞(HEK293)增殖模型,检测增殖效果与Ca2+变化及TR-PC6的表达,并观察氯沙坦(Losartan)的干预作用.方法:用不同浓度AngⅡ( 10 -8 mol/L、10 -7 mol/L、10 -6 mol/L、10-5mol/L)诱导细胞,在不同时间(0h、6h、12h、24 h、48 h),采用MTr法及台盼蓝法检测细胞增殖及活性,确定最适浓度

  4. 妊高症早期肾损伤检测视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平的意义%Significance of testing the retinol binding protein in the early kidney injury of the pregnancy-induced hypertenision syn-drome diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹登成

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妊高症早期肾损伤检测视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平的意义,为临床诊治提供依据。方法选择2011年2月-2013年10月确诊为妊高症的孕妇100例设为试验组,选择同期健康孕检妊娠者100例设为对照组,分别检测视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C 的浓度水平,对结果进行分析。结果试验组孕妇的视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C浓度水平明显高于对照组,差异显著(P <0.05),且随着患者病情的加重呈现递增的趋势;试验各组患者孕妇的视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C 的阳性检出率分别两两比较均无明显差异(P >0.05),且患者的视黄醇结合蛋白阳性检出率均超过85.0%;临床确诊结果与视黄醇结合蛋白检测结果的 Kappa 一致性分析得出 Kappa 值等于0.86。结论视黄醇结合蛋白是一种同胱抑素 C 一样对妊高症早期肾损伤具有诊断价值的有效指标,具有较高的灵敏度和临床符合性。%Objective To explore the application meaning of the early kidney injury of the Pregnancy-induced hyper-tension syndrome diagnosis by the retinol binding protein testing,and providing the basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Choosing 100 cases of the Pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients for the experimental group and 100 cases healthy check-upes for the control group,testing the retinol binding protein and Cystatin C,analy-zing the results.Results Compared with the control group,there were significantly increased of retinol binding protein and Cystatin Cof the experimental group (P 0.05),and the positive rate of the retinol binding protein of the experimental group was more than 85.00%.The Kappa of the retinol binding protein results and the clinical diagnosis was 0.86.Conclusion There is a good indicators of the retinol binding protein whcih as the Cystatin C for the early kidney injury of the Preg-nancy-induced hypertension syndrome

  5. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  6. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRESS HORMONES IN PSORIASIS

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    F Z Zangeneh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  7. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  8. 妊高征肾病患者血清TGF-β1、IL-8和VEGF检测的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Determination of Changes of Serum TGF-β1, IL-8 and VEGF Levels in Patients with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Complicated with Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 吴玲; 陈海霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of changes of serum TGF-β1, IL-8 and VEGF levels in patients with hyper tensive disorder complicating pregnancy. Methods Serum IL-8 ( with RiA ), serum TGF-β1, VEGF ( with ELISA ) levels were measured in 33 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension complicated with nephropathy, as well as in 35 healthy controls. Results The serum TGF-β1, IL-8 and VEGF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in controls ( P <0.01 ). Serum TGF-β1 levels were positively correlated to IL-8 ( r = 0. 6132, 0. 5834, P < 0.01 ). Conclusion VEGF levels were closely related with the diseases process of PIH. Determination of their changes might be useful for clinical diagnosis and predicting therapeutic effects in patients with PIH.%目的:探讨了妊高征肾病患者血清TGF-β1、IL-8和VEGF水平的变化及临床意义.方法:应用放射免疫分析和酶联法对33例妊高征肾病患者进行了血清TGF-β1、IL-8和VEGF测定,并与35名正常健康人作比较.结果:妊高征肾病患者血清TGF-β1、IL-8和VEGF水平均非常显著地高于正常人组(P<0.01),且血清TGF-β1水平与IL-8和VEGF水平呈正相关(r=0.6132、0.5834,P<0.01).结论:检测妊高征患者血清TGF-β1、IL-8和VEGF水平的变化对患者的病情的判断、临床治疗效果均有重要的临床价值.

  9. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  10. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudas Khilnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT

  11. 溶血磷脂酸与抗心磷脂抗体联合检测在妊高症患者中的临床意义%Clinical significance of combined detection of LPA and ACA in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢建琴; 郭兆荣; 王忠叶

    2014-01-01

    with pregnancyinduced hypertension syndrome increased successively with the progression of the disease and were higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05) ; the anticardiolipin antibody positive rate of severe PIH group was higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05).The plasma level of LPA of the patients whose anticardiolipin antibody was positive in severe PIH group increased significantly,and the gestational age was small when onset,weight of perinatal low,and neonatal Apgar score low,which statistically differed from those of the negative group (P < 0.05 or 0.01).Conclusions The severity of pregnancy-induced hypertension correlates with plasma LPA level; the more severe the disease becomes,the level of LPA is higher.Anticardiolipin antibody correlates with the pathogenesis of severe PIH.The combined detection of LPA and ACA can predict the severity of pregnancyinduced hypertension syndrome and pregnancy outcome,and it is expected to become the important measure of disease monitoring and prognosis.

  12. Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daisuke; Igarashi, Toshinori; Aoyama, Kenji

    2014-02-19

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus establish a symbiotic relationship in milk; however, S. thermophilus predominantly grows in soymilk. This study determined that excess diacetyl was notably generated mainly by S. thermophilus in soymilk, and this flavor compound created an unpleasant odor in fermented soymilk. The addition of l-valine to soymilk reduced the amount of diacetyl and increased the levels of acetoin during fermentation by S. thermophilus . In addition, it was found that the expression of the ilvC gene was repressed and that of the als and aldB genes was stimulated in S. thermophilus by l-valine. Sensory evaluations with the triangle difference test and a preference test showed that the soymilk fermented with l-valine was significantly preferred compared with that without l-valine. In this study, we successfully controlled the metabolic flux of S. thermophilus in soymilk and produced more favorable fermented soymilk without the use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria strains.

  13. Expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 and nuclear factor-κB in ventilator-induced lung injury in rats%大鼠呼吸机相关肺损伤热休克蛋白70和核因子-κB的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付笑飞; 刘东雷; 王建军

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨呼吸机所致肺损伤(VILI)炎症反应中热休克蛋白70(HSP70)和核因子-κB(NF-κB)表达的意义.方法 健康SD大鼠30只,实施麻醉和气管切开术后分别接受不同潮气量(VT)的通气(通气时间均为4 h).随机分为以下3组:对照组(A组);常规通气组(B组,VT=10ml/kg);损伤通气组(C组,VT=40ml/kg).4 h后放血处死动物,测定肺湿/干比重、髓过氧化物酶(MPO)活性及肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中总蛋白含量,光镜下行白细胞(WBC)计数;Western blot检测肺组织HSP70及NF-κB的表达.结果 在大潮气量机械通气4 h后,BALF中总蛋白含量、肺湿干比、WBC计数和MPO水平(3.89±0.31、5.83±0.42、6.10±0.80、7.31±1.21)均明显更高(P<0.05);肺组织中HSP70、NF-κB表达水平(1.36±0.13、0.41±0.07)均显著增加,且两者呈负相关.结论 HSP70可通过抑制NF-κB的活性,保护肺组织避免VILI.%Objective To investigate the expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Methods Thirty healthy SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (each 10 rats): control group (group A, no ventilation), conventional ventilation group (group B, VT = 10 ml/kg), lung injury group (group C, VT =40 ml/kg). After anesthesia and tracheotomy were performed, rats received ventilation with different volumes for 4 h. The rats were killed by exsanguinations. The lung wet/dry weight, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and total protein level and counts of white blood cells (WBC) in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were tested. The expression of HSP70 and NF-κB was detected by using Western blotting.Results After injurious ventilation for 4 h, the level of lung wet/dry weight, MPO activity and total protein level and counts of WBC were 5.83 ± 0.42, 7.31 ± 1.21, 3.89 ± 0.31, 6. 10 ± 0. 80, respectively.The average values of HSP70 and NF-κB proteins were 1.36 ±0.13, and 0. 41 ±0

  14. Significance of β-catenin expression and its localization during mouse liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride%β-catenin在四氯化碳诱导的小鼠肝纤维化过程中的定位、表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊喜峰; 何伟业; 谢湘梅; 匡芳梅; 刘玉荣; 马宁芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肝纤维化发生过程中β-连环蛋白(β-catenin)定位、表达及意义.方法 健康雄性昆明小鼠(n=45)随机分为对照组(n=15)与实验组(n=30).实验组小鼠皮下注射50% 四氯化碳(CCl4)-粟米油混合液(6ml/kg),2次∕周,对照组皮下注射同等剂量的粟米油.各组分别于造模1周、4周和8周后取小鼠肝脏,常规制作石蜡切片,Masson染色及Desmin免疫组织化学法观察比较不同组别小鼠肝纤维化病理变化,RT-PCR及免疫组织化学方法检测不同时间点各组小鼠肝组织内β-catenin的表达及定位.结果 Masson染色结果显示,对照组肝汇管区结缔组织内及血管壁有少量细小纤维,实验组小鼠肝脏汇管区和中央静脉及其周围胶原纤维增多;随损伤时间延长纤维增生愈加明显.Desmin免疫组织化学结果显示,各组别均有阳性表达,但损伤组各时间点desmin阳性表达细胞数明显高于对照组(P0. 05 ). Immunostaining showed that the (3-catenin was mainly expressed and localized in the membrane of hepatic cells and bile duct epithelium cells of the controlgroup, and in the cytosol of proliferated bile duct epithelioid cells and bile duct epithelium cells of the experimental group. The integrated optical density was significant different between control and experimental groups( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion The expression of (3-catenin protein in mouse fibrosis liver induced by CC14 is not coincident with its mRNA expression; the positive cells are mainly proliferated cell mass and the bile duct epithelial cells.

  15. Changes of Interleukin-27, Interleukin-35 and Epstein-Barr virus -induced Gene 3 Expressions in Peripheral Blood of Children with Bronchial Asthma and Its Significance%支气管哮喘患儿外周血 IL-27、IL-35及 EBI3的表达变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月朋; 李俊杰; 李晓东; 王伟; 陶开山; 钱钻好

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of interleukin-27 (IL-27), interleukin-35 (IL-35) and Ep-stein-Barr virus -induced gene 3 (EBI3) expressions in different stages in children with bronchial asthma and its signifi-cance. Methods Seventy-eight children with bronchial asthma (observation group) and seventy-five healthy children (control group) during February 2012 and December 2013 were selected. The samples of peripheral blood were collected in the two groups in the stage of uncontrolled stage, 1 week after partly controlled stage and 1 week after controlled stage. Expression levels of serum IL-27, IL-35 and EBI3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent test, and the ex-pression levels of IL-27, IL-35 EBI3 and mRNA of mononuclearcell were also detected using real-time fluorescent quanti-tation RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) method. Results Levels of serum IL-27 and IL-35 in the stage of uncontrolled stage, 1 week after partly controlled stage and 1 week after controlled stage in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P 0. 05). Conclusion The dynamic monitoring of IL-27, IL-35 and mRNA in the peripheral blood and serum level may be used as indexes of control level of asthma in children.%目的:探讨支气管哮喘患儿外周血白介素27(IL-27)、白介素35(IL-35)及 EBI3在不同阶段表达水平的变化及意义。方法采集2012年2月—2013年12月78例支气管哮喘患儿未控制期、部分控制后1周、控制后1周及对照组75例健康儿童外周血,利用酶联免疫吸附试验检测血清中 IL-27及 IL-35的表达水平,并利用实时荧光定量 RT-PCR 的方法检测外周血中单个核细胞中 IL-27、IL-35及 EBI3的 mRNA 的表达情况。结果未控制期、部分控制后1周、控制后1周血清 IL-27、IL-35均明显低于对照组(P 0.05)。结论动态监测外周血中的 IL-27、IL-35 mRNA 及血清水平可以作为儿童哮喘控制水平的指标。

  16. The expression and significance of NKx2.5 in the embryos heart defects induced by pregnant rat obesity%NKx2.5基因在孕鼠肥胖致胚胎心脏畸形中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 陶芳标; 汪思应; 黄德武; 王晓红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and significance of NKx2. 5 gene mRNA and its protein in the embryos heart defects induced by pregnant rat obesity. Methods 100 three-week old SD female rats were randomly divided into control group( n =40 ) and high-fat group( n =60 ). The rats in the control group were fed with stand- ard forage and the rats in the high fat group were fed with high-fat diet. After 8 weeks, the rats in the high-fat group with body weight more than 20% of average body weight of control group and total cholesterol, triglyceride level were significantly higher than control group were selected as the obese rats. Random choice of obese rats( n = 20 ) and normal rats( n = 20 ) mate with male counterparts to access to pregnancy. All the embryos were removed on the thirteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth and nineteenth day and cut section for microscopic examination to observe heart malformation. The expression of NKx2. 5 mRNA by RT-PCR was observed. The expression of NKx2. 5 protein by Western blot was investigated. Results The number of rats with the embryonic heart defects in obese pregnant rat group were significantly higher than those in the control group( P < 0. 01 ). The expression of NKx2. 5 mRNA and protein was significantly decreased in the embryonic heart defects rats of obese rats versus the normal heart rats of the control group ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Pregnant rat obesity can increase the incidence of embryonic heart defects. Pregnant rat obesity can restrain the expression of NKx2. 5 mRNA and protein in the embryos heart, which might lead to the morphological changes of heart and congenital heart defects.%目的 探讨NKx2.5基因mRNA及其蛋白在肥胖孕鼠胚胎畸形心脏中的表达水平及相关意义.方法 3周龄SPF级SD雌鼠100只,随机分为两组:正常组(40只)给予基础饲料;高脂组(60只)给予高脂饲料.8周后,以高脂组体重超过正常组平均体重的20%且血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)含量

  17. Expression and clinical significance of human antigen R and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in renal cell carcinoma%人抗原R与乏氧诱导因子1α在肾细胞癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 叶烈夫; 林乐; 朱庆国; 何延瑜; 李涛; 杨风光; 陈新; 黄水通

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance and correlation of human antigen R (HuR) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) expressions in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).Methods Immuno-histochemistry PV9000 method was used to detect the expression of HuR and HIF-1α in 76 cases of RCC tissues,20 cases of para-carcinoma tissues and 15 cases of normal renal tissues.The correlation between the two proteins and clinical pathological parameters of RCC patients were analyzed.KaplanMeier estimates were used for survival analysis,and correlation analyses were conducted by using Spearman rank correlation method and chi-square test.Results The cytoplasm positive expression rate (38.2%) of HuR in RCC was higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues (10.0%) and normal renal tissues (13.3%,P<0.05).The nucleus positive expression rate (48.7%) of HIF-1α in RCC was significantly higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues (5.0%) and normal renal tissues (0,P<0.05).The expression level of HuR in cytoplasm was significantly correlated with the clinical stage,histological subtype and lymph node metastasis status (P<0.05) in RCC.There was significant correlation between the expression level of nucleus HIF-1α and clinical stage,pathological grade and lymph node metastasis status in RCC (P<0.05).There was positive correlation between cytoplasm HuR and nucleus HIF-1α expression level (P<0.05) in RCC.Sixty-six RCC patients were followed up for 6 to 67 months,patients with negative cytoplasm HuR or negative nucleus HIF1α expression had better overall survival rate and longer mean survival time than those with positive expression (P<0.05).Conclusions The expression levels of cytoplasm HuR and nucleus HIF-1α are associated with the clinical pathological parameter of RCC patients.HuR and HIF-1α may play an important role in the prognosis assessment of RCC patients.%目的 探讨人抗原R(HuR)与乏氧诱导因子1α(HIF-1α)在肾细胞癌中表达

  18. Cyclic RGD-peptide-modified nanoliposome significantly reduced the effective dosage and administration frequency of oxymatrine on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats%RGD环肽修饰纳米脂质体显著降低氧化苦参碱抗大鼠四氯化碳肝纤维化有效剂量与用药频次

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐东; 吴建新; 陆伟跃; 陈源文; 葛文松; 朱长红; 周韵斓; 熊敏莉; 范建高

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cRGD-NL-OM could reduce the effective dosage and administration frequency of oxymatrine on carbon tetrachloride ( CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats by structuring cyclic RGD-pep-tide modified nanoliposome (cRGD-NL) to encapsulate oxymatrine and comparing the antifibrotic effect between low dosage OM (2 mg/kg, q2w) alone and oxymatrine nanoliposome ( with or without cRGD modification) delivering similiar amount of oxymatrine. Methods Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 8 per group): normal group,model (CCl4) group, NL-treated (CCl4 + NL) group, OM-treated ( CCl4 + OM) group, NL-OM-treated (CCl4 + NL-OM) group and cRGD-NL-OM-treated ( CCl4 + cRGD-NL-OM) group. After modeling for 4 weeks, corresponding drugs or vehicles were given twice a week for another 4 weeks in each group (OM 2 mg/kg body mass). At the end of 8th week, all animals were sacrificed to sample serum and livers. HE and Masson staining were performed for evaluation of liver histopathological changes;liver function and collagen metabolism status were determined by biochemical analysis and ELISA respectively; collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1 A2) mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR; the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with model group,cRGD-NL-OM group and NL-OM treatment group significantly improved the serum indexes and liver histopathology,COL1A2 mRNA expression and α-SMA protein level also significantly decreased in the two groups. Moreover, cRGD-NL-OM treatment group showed further improvement than NL-OM-treated group. In contrast, NL-treated group and OM-treated group showed no significant improvement compared with model group. Conclusion cRGD-NL-OM could significantly reduce the effective antifibrotic dosage and administration frequency of oxymatrine. This new compound may be promising for clinical application.%目的构建RGD环肽修饰纳米脂质体(cRGD-NL),利用其包

  19. Significance of mtDNA expression in acute peritonitis induced by monosodium urate in mice%单钠尿酸盐晶体诱导小鼠急性腹膜炎模型中线粒体DNA的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟妮; 杨程德; 陈晓翔; 杜蕙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish acute peritonitis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) of in mice and observe the significance of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) expression in the inflammatory processes.Methods The mouse models of acute peritonitis were made by intraperitoneal injection of MSU.Sixty-four male C57BL16 mice were randomly divided into the MSU group which were treated with 0.2 ml of 15 mg/ml MSU solution by i.p.injection and the control group which were treated with 0.2 ml of PBS.Respectively four mice from MSU group and four mice from control group were killed 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours 12 hour, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours later and whole blood, peritoneal lavage and peritoneum were collected respectively.Four the mice from the MSU group and four mice from the control group were killed and whole blood, peritoneal lavage and peritoneum were collected.Immunoflourescence study of peritoneum tissues was performed.The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 in plasma and peritoneal lavage were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).DNA was extracted from blood and peritoneal lavage, and mtDNA level was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The data was analyszied by multivariate analysis of variance.Results As compared with those killed at other time points from the MSU groups and the control group, the levels of IL-1β [(27.0±2.0) pg/ml vs (26.8±2.1) pg/ml], IL-18 [(673±454) pg/ml vs(752±495) pg/ml] in plasma and peritoneal lavage were increased progressively in those which were killed after i.p.injection of 2 hours and 4 hours from in the MSU group (F=22.778, P<0.05;F=6.660, P<0.05).The mtDNA in plasma and peritoneal lavage of the mice began to be expressed 4 hours after i.p.injection 4 hours from in the MSU group.The peak level was detected in those i.p.injected MSU 6 hours later [(9.85±4.59)×106 copies, (7.81±3.43)×106 copies].Then 8 hours later the mtDNA began to slowly decreased.At these

  20. Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ram Seo

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  1. 足细胞相关分子在多柔比星肾病大鼠模型中mRNA 的表达及意义%Expression and significance of podocyte molecules mRNA in Doxorubicin-induced nephrotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄逸辉; 于力; 王辉阳; 于生友; 蒋罗; 张瑶

    2016-01-01

    论足细胞相关分子在 ADN 大鼠模型中 mRNA 表达异常,可能是蛋白尿发生发展的关键因素之一。%Objective To observe the expression of mRNA of podocin,nephrin,CD2AP and α - actin - 4 in Doxorubicin - induced nephrotic(ADN)rats,and explore the possible mechanisms of podocyte molecule during the de-velopment of proteinuria. Methods Forty - eight Sprague - Dawley(SD)rats were divided into ADN model group(in-jected with 6. 5 mg/ kg Doxorubicin in tail vein,n = 24)and control group(injected with saline solution in tail vein,n =24). After the nephropathy model was established,6 rats were killed at the end of 1st ,2nd ,4th ,6th week in each group. The changes of the following indicators were observed:(1)24 - hour urinary protein,serum albumin and cholesterol were detected;(2)mRNA expression of nephrin,podocin,CD2AP and α - actin - 4 in cortex of kidney were examined by real time fluorescence quantification PCR. Results The model group came out massive proteinuria(15. 66 ± 1. 50) mg/ 24 h,(45. 98 ± 1. 45)mg/ 24 h,(65. 58 ± 4. 68)mg/ 24 h,(82. 83 ± 8. 43)mg/ 24 h in 1,2,4,6 weeks respec-tively,hypoalbuminemia(27. 4 ±2. 5)g/ L,(23. 6 ±2. 9)g/ L,(20. 6 ±1. 5)g/ L,(6. 9 ± 2. 3)g/ L in 1,2,4,6 weeks respectively and hypercholesterolaemia(2. 00 ± 0. 25)mmol/ L,(2. 16 ± 0. 44)mmol/ L,(4. 02 ± 0. 81)mmol/ L, (7. 54 ± 1. 12)mmol/ L in 1,2,4,6 weeks respectively,and the differences of proteinuria,plasma albumin and total cholesterol compared with control group at each time point had statistical significance(all P ﹤ 0. 01). Compared with the control group,podocin mRNA expression in the model group decreased at the end of 1st week(10. 56 ± 3. 62),de-creased significantly at the end of 2nd week(20. 44 ± 9. 03),and decreased at the end of 4th week(2. 19 ± 0. 18)com-pared with the control group;nephrin mRNA expression decreased at the end of 1st week(2. 41 ± 1. 10)and reached to the peak value,decreased at the end of 4th week(0. 52 ± 0. 18);CD2AP mRNA expression did not

  2. Estimating Hydraulic Parameters When Poroelastic Effects Are Significant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S.J.; Hsieh, P.A.; Illman, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    For almost 80 years, deformation-induced head changes caused by poroelastic effects have been observed during pumping tests in multilayered aquifer-aquitard systems. As water in the aquifer is released from compressive storage during pumping, the aquifer is deformed both in the horizontal and vertical directions. This deformation in the pumped aquifer causes deformation in the adjacent layers, resulting in changes in pore pressure that may produce drawdown curves that differ significantly from those predicted by traditional groundwater theory. Although these deformation-induced head changes have been analyzed in several studies by poroelasticity theory, there are at present no practical guidelines for the interpretation of pumping test data influenced by these effects. To investigate the impact that poroelastic effects during pumping tests have on the estimation of hydraulic parameters, we generate synthetic data for three different aquifer-aquitard settings using a poroelasticity model, and then analyze the synthetic data using type curves and parameter estimation techniques, both of which are based on traditional groundwater theory and do not account for poroelastic effects. Results show that even when poroelastic effects result in significant deformation-induced head changes, it is possible to obtain reasonable estimates of hydraulic parameters using methods based on traditional groundwater theory, as long as pumping is sufficiently long so that deformation-induced effects have largely dissipated. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Progesterone treatment of threatened abortion,maternal serum levels of progesterone -induced blocking fac-tor and its clinical significance%黄体酮治疗先兆流产时孕妇血清孕酮诱导的封闭因子水平变化及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石纳玉; 石瑞生

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨黄体酮治疗先兆流产时孕妇血清孕酮诱导的封闭因子(PIBF)水平变化及临床意义,为黄体酮治疗先兆流产提供理论参考。方法选取先兆流产孕妇(观察组)及无先兆流产孕妇(对照组)各50例。观察组给予黄体酮治疗,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测观察组治疗前及治疗2周后、对照组入选时及入选2周后血清孕酮及 PIBF 水平变化。结果观察组黄体酮治疗后47例患者保胎成功,保胎成功率94.00%,保胎流血停止时间8.42 d,腹痛消失时间11.32 d;观察组 PIBF(313.52±90.43)mmol/L,低于对照组的(398.47±104.25)mmol/L,差异有统计学意义(t =10.90,P <0.05);观察组治疗2周后孕酮(92.35±20.85)mmol/L,高于治疗前的(74.49±14.22)mmol/L,较对照组同一时点孕酮水平[(83.26±20.14)mmol/L和(78.05±15.38)mmol/L]高,差异有统计学意义(t =7.96、8.11,均 P <0.05);PIBF 观察组治疗2周后(510.73±87.49)mmol/L,高于对照组同一时点的(498.26±69.88)mmol/L,差异有统计学意义(t =4.35,P <0.05)。随访观察组保胎成功孕妇足月分娩率为95.74%,分娩胎儿未见畸形发生,对照组孕妇足月分娩率为94.00%,分娩胎儿未见畸形发生,足月分娩率比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论妊娠早期 PIBF 降低可能是引起先兆流产的原因之一,采用黄体酮治疗能上调 PIBF 的表达,可能通过此途径起到了保胎作用,因此在采用黄体酮保胎时监测 PIBF 水平变化有助于评估保胎疗效。%Objective To investigate the treatment of threatened abortion progesterone maternal serum pro-gesterone -induced blocking factor (PIBF)levels and clinical significance,in order to be able to provide theoretical references of progesterone treatment of threatened

  4. CD147在膀胱尿路上皮癌组织中的表达及临床意义%Expression and clinical significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer molecule CD1 4 7 in bladder urothelial carcinoma tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 毛向明; 薛义军; 邹晓峰; 袁源湖; 肖日海; 张国玺; 伍耿青; 王晓宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer CD147 in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma and its relationship with clinicopathologic features and prognosis.Methods RT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of CD147 in cancer tissues and corresponding paracanerous tissues from 20 patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma;tissue microarray containing specimens from 108 patients with bladder urothelial carcino-ma and 20 normal controls was constructed and immunohistochemistry was applied to examine the expression of CD147,and the correlations between CD147 and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were also analyzed.Results Expression level of CD147 mRNA and protein in cancer tissues from 20 bladder urothelial carcinoma patients was significantly higher than that of cor-responding adjacent tissues(P0.05).Kaplan-Meier survival curves analysis showed that the survival time of patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma whose ex-pression of CD147 were high was significant lower than that of patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma whose expression of CD147 were low(P<0.01).Univariate analysis showed that histological grade,tumor stage,lymph node metastasis,tumor size and CD147 expression were all positively correlated with a poor prognosis(P<0.05).Cox-multivariate analysis revealed that histologi-cal grade,tumor stage,lymph node metastasis,and CD147 expression level were independent predictors of an unfavorable prognosis (P<0.05).Conclusion High expression of CD147 in bladder urothelial carcinoma may be correlate with the its progress and its expression state is an independent prognosis factor.%目的:探讨细胞外基质金属蛋白酶诱导因子CD147在膀胱尿路上皮癌组织中的表达及其与临床病理特征和预后的关系。方法应用RT-PCR和Western blot法检测CD147 mRNA和蛋白在20例膀胱尿路上皮癌和对应的癌旁组织中的表达

  5. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  6. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  7. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnikov, N V

    2010-01-01

    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  8. Therapeutic Non Thermal Plasma, Significance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed

    2014-06-01

    general consequences that could result from plasma treatment. Therefore, it becomes necessary to conduct efficacy and safety studies before inducing a new plasma device for human clinical applications. In this sense, our research team started an endeavour to treat cattle infected by coxiella burnetii, a zoonotic pathogens, in selected areas of south of Iraq by applying a custom-made dielectric barrier discharge plasma atomizer. Our preliminary experiments indicated some promising results compared with medical drugs. In line with our research plan and objectives, we proposed a hot topic theme entitled “Therapeutic non thermal plasma, significance and challenges” as a special issue of Letters in Applied NanoBioScience aimed to concise the up-to-date results and observations of recent researches undertaken in this field, which would represent a considerable add to the knowledge reported so far. It was our pleasure and appreciation to receive several submissions from respected researchers in the field and accordingly all received manuscripts were subjected to peer review process. Unfortunately, not all of the received manuscripts fulfilled the requirements and thereby excluded. Though, we were so delighted to discriminate and accept three fruitful researches for publication in the special issue, as in the following details: Haertel et al., Differential Effect of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Angiogensis: This study focused on the effects of plasma on angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and rat aortic ring (AOR test, in which plasma-treated PBS or medium was applied. Barni et al., Effects of a Pulsed Operation on Ozone Production in Dielectric Barrier Air Dischargees: An experimental investigation of ozone production in a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor was performed, in which measurements of ozone in the gas-phase as a function of the power level was undertaken. Zhu et al., Review of Mercury Removal from Fue

  9. 妊娠中晚期血清同型半胱氨酸、叶酸、维生素B 12水平检测对妊高征患者意义%The significance of blood serum Hcys,folic acid,vitamin B12 detection in mid and late pregnancy for the the patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈湘玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠中晚期血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、叶酸、维生素B12水平检测对妊娠高血压综合征(简称妊高征)患者的意义。方法选取2012年1月至2013年12月于该院分娩的孕妇76例。其中,38例为妊高征患者(妊高征组),38例为健康孕妇(健康孕妇组)。采集上述孕妇空腹静脉血,采用荧光偏振免疫分析法测定血清 Hcy水平,离子捕捉免疫分析法测定血清叶酸的水平,微粒子酶联免疫分析法测定维生素B12水平,并对两组孕妇的上述指标进行比较。结果妊高征组血清 Hcy水平比健康孕妇组高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);叶酸的水平比健康孕妇组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组间血清维生素B12水平比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论血清 Hcy、叶酸水平的检测有助于指导妊高征患者的治疗。%Objective To study the significance of homocysteine(Hcy) ,folic acid ,vitamin B12 detection in mid and late pregnancy for the the patients with pregnancy‐induced hypertension syndrome .Methods 76 women who gave birth in the hospital from Janu‐ary 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled in the study .38 of them were patients with pregnancy‐induced hypertension syndrome (pregnancy‐induced hypertension group) ,the other 38 were healthy pregnant women(normal pregnancy group) .Fasting venous blood of those pregnant women were collected and tested for Hcy ,folic acid ,and vitamin B12 concentrations by using fluorescence polarization immunoassay ,ion serum folate levels capture immunoassay and microparticle enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay re‐spectively .Then the test results were compared between the two groups .Results The serum concentrations of Hcy in pregnancy‐induced hypertension group were higher than that in normal pregnancy group ,and the difference was pregnancy‐induced hyperten‐sion gourp statistically significant(P0 .05

  10. Inducing labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor induction; Pregnancy - inducing labor; Prostaglandin - inducing labor; Oxytocin - inducing labor ... threaten the health of you or your baby. Oxytocin may also be started after a woman's labor has started, but her contractions have not been ...

  11. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  12. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  13. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  14. 诱导细胞死亡的DFF45样效应因子-B在宫颈癌组织中的表达及意义%Expression and Significance of Cell-death-inducing DNA- fragmentation-factor-like Effector-B in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温冬雪; 鲁艳明; 李海霞; 张淑兰

    2009-01-01

    目的 检测诱导细胞死亡的DFF45样效应因子-B(the cell-death-inducing DNA-fragmentation-factor-like effector-B,CIDE-B)在人宫颈癌组织中的表达,探讨其与宫颈癌发生发展的关系.方法 采用免疫组化技术检测45例宫颈癌、33例癌前病变和10例正常宫颈组织中CIDE-B的表达.结果 CIDE-B蛋白在宫颈癌组织中的表达高于癌前病变及正常宫颈组织(P0.05).结论 CIDE-B蛋白高表达可能与宫颈癌的发生发展有关.

  15. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  16. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan A.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  17. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  18. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  19. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  20. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  1. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  2. Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sushil Sharma,1 Afsha Rais,1 Ranbir Sandhu,1 Wynand Nel,1 Manuchair Ebadi21Saint James School of Medicine, Bonaire, The Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, Center of Excellence in Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Mammalian metallothioneins (MTs are low molecular weight (6–7 kDa cysteine-rich proteins that are specifically induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs. MT induction in cell therapy may provide better protection by serving as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic agents, and by augmenting zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Liposome-encapsulated MT-1 promoter has been used extensively to induce growth hormone or other genes in culture and gene-manipulated animals. MTs are induced as a defensive mechanism in chronic inflammatory conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, hence can serve as early and sensitive biomarkers of environmental safety and effectiveness of newly developed NPs for clinical applications. Microarray analysis has indicated that MTs are significantly induced in drug resistant cancers and during radiation treatment. Nutritional stress and environmental toxins (eg, kainic acid and domoic acid induce MTs and aggregation of multilamellar electron-dense membrane stacks (Charnoly body due to mitochondrial degeneration. MTs enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-1, a rate-limiting enzyme complex involved in the oxidative phosphorylation. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (eg, selegiline inhibit α-synuclein nitration, implicated in Lewy body formation, and inhibit 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium and 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced apoptosis in cultured human dopaminergic neurons and mesencephalic fetal stem cells. MTs

  3. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  4. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  5. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  6. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  7. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Significance of Studies of Stylistics and Rhetoric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙越

    2015-01-01

    Stylistics is a scientific study of style. It is a mode of encoding and decoding language and can be associated with various fields. In this paper,we talk about the great significances of stylistic and rhetoric studies. It refers to great help in expressing and understanding languages;in combining the linguistics and literary criticism and linguistics;great help in promoting and developing computer science and information technology;great significance in sharing heritage of human civilizations.

  9. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekai

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  10. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  11. Metallothioneins I and II: neuroprotective significance during CNS pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Stankovic, Roger; Chung, Roger

    2006-01-01

    isoforms of the protein (MT-I and MT-II) are induced by numerous stimuli and pathogens but most importantly their induction by metals is closely linked to the physiological metabolism of zinc and protection from the toxic affects following heavy metal exposure. Although the preservation of their genetic......Metallothioneins (MTs) constitutes a superfamily of highly conserved, low molecular weight polypeptides, which are characterized by high contents of cysteine (sulphur) and metals. As intracellular metal-binding proteins they play a significant role in the regulation of essential metals. The major...... may provide neurotherapeutic targets offering protection against neuronal injury and degeneration....

  12. Expression and significance of relative factors in HEK-293 apoptosis induced by hantavirus%凋亡相关蛋白在汉坦病毒诱导HEK-293细胞凋亡过程中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 王晓燕; 刘伟; 康鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide reference to possible mechanism of injury in human embryonic kidney 293 cell (HEK-293), which was induced by hantavirus by means of investigating the variation of Bcl-2、Bax and Caspase-3. Methods HEK-293 in vitro culture was divided into normal control group and infection group processed by hantavirus. Hantavirus antigen in HEK-293 cells were detected by indirectimmunofluorescent assay and the expression of Bcl-2N Bax and Caspase-3 were assessed by Western blot. Results Fluorescence-positive cells e-merged one day after HEK-293 cells were infected with hantavirus, and with time going on, fluorescence intensity increased gradually, as well as a large amount of foliated or granular greenyellow fluorescence in intracytoplasm. As Western blot results showed ,in contrast to control group, the expression of Bel-2、Bax and Caspase-3 did not present marked change 1 day postinfection (P >0. 05) ,and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased with that of Bax and Caspase-3. activation increasing 3 or 5 days postinfection ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The injury mechanism produced by hantavirus which infected and proliferated in HEK-293 cell could be relative to the decrease of Bcl-2 expression and the up-regulation of Bax protein, as well as apoptosis of HEK-293 cells induced by mitochondrial-mediated manner.%目的 探讨Bcl-2、Bax及Caspase-3在汉坦病毒诱导人胚肾细胞(HEK-293)凋亡过程中的变化,为研究汉坦病毒诱导人胚肾细胞损伤的机制提供参考.方法 体外培养HEK-293细胞,分为正常对照组和汉坦病毒处理的感染组,采用间接免疫荧光法检测HEK-293内汉坦病毒抗原;用Westen blot方法检测Bcl-2、Bax及Caspase-3蛋白表达水平.结果 汉坦病毒感染HEK-293细胞1d后即开始出现荧光阳性细胞,随着时间延长,荧光强度逐渐增强,细胞胞浆内出现大量片状或颗粒性的黄绿色荧光;Western blot结果显示,与对照组比较,汉坦病毒感染1d后Bcl-2

  13. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  14. Significance of oxygen transport through aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiazek, Janusz J.; Xu, Hao; Tan, Xiangfeng; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Morte, Asunción

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast. Two of the most promising O2-transporters (Homo sapiens AQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum PIP1;3) were confirmed to facilitate O2 transport in the spectrophotometric assay using yeast protoplasts. The over-expression of NtPIP1;3 in yeasts significantly increased their O2 uptake rates in suspension culture. In N. tabacum roots subjected to hypoxic hydroponic conditions, the transcript levels of the O2-transporting aquaporin NtPIP1;3 significantly increased after the seven-day hypoxia treatment, which was accompanied by the increase of ATP levels in the apical root segments. Our results suggest that the functional significance of aquaporin-mediated O2 transport and the possibility of controlling the rate of transmembrane O2 transport should be further explored. PMID:28079178

  15. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  16. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  17. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  18. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  19. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  20. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  1. Can Educationally Significant Learning Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that assessment is a central feature of teaching, particularly as a means to determine whether what has been taught has been learnt. However, I take issue with the current trend in education which places a significant amount of emphasis upon large-scale public testing, which in turn has exacerbated the…

  2. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  3. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  4. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  5. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  6. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argues...

  7. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  8. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his...

  9. Expression of Wisp-1, β-catenin, TGF-β1 and Smad4 in gold hamster induced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and their significance%金黄地鼠诱发性肝内胆管癌中 Wisp-1、β-catenin、TGF-β1及Smad4的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筱莉; 蹇顺海; 文彬

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To establish a golden hamster model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) using BOP [N-nitrosobis (2-oxo-propyl) amine] and to explore the protein expression of Wisp-1,β-catenin, TGF-β1 and Smad4 in ICC and their relationship with the tumorigenesis. Methods 57 female golden hamsters aged 8 to 9 weeks (39 in experimental group, 18 in control group), the experi-mental animals were subjected to subcutaneous injection of BOP, the control group was injected with saline. The liver was removed and paraffin sections were prepared for histopathological observation. The protein expression of Wisp-1,β-catenin, TGF-β1 and Smad4 was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in these blocks. Results Most of the animals in the experimental group (29/39) developed ICC, part of the animal (8/39) developed bile duct dysplasia, 1 developed focal bile duct hyperplasia, and 1 was not found bile duct hyperplasia. The positive expression rates of four protein markers in ICC, bile duct dysplasia and normal intrahepatic bile duct tissues were Wisp-1,79. 3%, 87. 5% and 5. 0%,β-catenin, 96. 6%, 100. 0% and 15. 0%, Smad4, 96. 6%, 100. 0% and 25. 0%, TGF-β1, 62. 1%, 12. 5% and 5. 0%, respectively. The positive expression rates of Wisp-1, beta-catenin and Smad4 protein in both the ICC and the tissue of bile duct dysplasia were higher than that of normal intrahepatic bile duct tissue ( P<0. 001 ) , The positive ex-pression of TGF-β1 in the ICC tissue was higher than that of normal intrahepatic bile duct tissue and bile duct dysplasia (P<0. 001). Conclusions The study showed that BOP can induce a golden hamster model of ICC and provides a reliable animal model for the study of ICC. The high expression of Wisp-1,β-catenin, TGF-β1 and Smad4 in BOP-induced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is closely re-lated to occurrence, development and infiltration of ICC.%目的:利用BOP[N-亚硝基双(2-氧丙基)胺]创建金黄地鼠肝内胆管癌(intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, ICC

  10. Biological significance of glucocorticoid receptor beta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) primary transcript produces two receptor isoforms, termed hGRα and hGRβ. hGRα is a ligand-activated transcription factor which, in the hormone-bound state, modulates the expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes by binding to specific glucocorticoid response element (GRE) DNA sequences. In contrast, hGRβ dose not bind glucocorticoids and is transcriptionally inactive. We demonstrate here that hGRβ inhibits the hormone-induced, hGRα-mediated stimulations of gene expression, including glucocorticoid-responsive reporter gene (cat) and endogenous p21 gene. We also demonstrate that hGRβ can inhibit hGRα-mediated regulation of proliferation and differentiation of a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603). Our studies on the expression of hGR mRNA in nephrotic syndrome patients indicate that the hGRα/hGRβ mRNA ratio in peripheral white blood cell of hormone-resistant patients is lower than that of hormone-sensitive patients and health volunteers. These results indicate that hGRβ may be a physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant endogenous inhibitor of hGRα

  11. Interactions of trace elements: clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G J; Hill, G M; Dick, R D; Prasad, A S; Cossack, Z T

    1985-01-01

    We examined interaction of the trace element zinc with copper and lead. In sickle cell anemia, the usual situation is one of mild to moderate zinc deficiency owing to renal loss of zinc. Zinc deficiency seems to produce a mild overburden of copper and an increased ceruloplasmin level, probably by enhancing copper absorption. With zinc therapy, this process is reversed. Pharmacological doses of zinc, when administered in a way to ensure effectiveness (without food) will usually lead to copper deficiency. We have taken advantage of the copper-depleting effect of zinc to design a new therapy for Wilson's disease. Zinc, by inducing intestinal metallothionein, inhibits absorption of copper from food, and inhibits reabsorption of endogenously secreted copper, thereby producing a negative copper balance in Wilson's disease. Once we are certain that zinc blocks accumulation of copper in the liver of Wilson's disease patients, zinc therapy will be available as one approach for treating this fatal disease. The animal literature indicates that zinc protects against lead toxicity when both elements are given orally, no doubt through the intestinal metallothionein mechanism. In preliminary experiments in rats, we have not been able to show that toxicity from lead that arrives into the body through a nonoral route is affected by oral zinc supplements.

  12. On significance of VLBI/Gaia offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, L

    2016-01-01

    We have cross matched the Gaia Data Release 1 secondary dataset that contains positions of 1.14 billion objects against the most complete to date catalogue of VLBI positions of 11.4 thousand sources, almost exclusively active galactic nuclei. We found 6,064 matches, i.e. 53% radio objects. The median uncertainty of VLBI positions is a factor of 4 smaller than the median uncertainties of their optical counterparts. Our analysis shows that the distribution of normalized arc lengths significantly deviates from Rayleighian shape with an excess of objects with small normalized arc lengths and with a number of outliers. We found that 8% matches have radio optical offsets significant at 99% confidence level. Therefore, we conclude there exists a population of objects with genuine offsets between centroids of radio and optical emission.

  13. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  14. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of community structure partitioned is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a novel framework analyzing the significance of social community specially. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using log-likelihood sco...

  15. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.erasmus@gmail.com [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2013-05-15

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  16. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  17. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  18. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  19. Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westover Kenneth D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Truth claims in the medical literature rely heavily on statistical significance testing. Unfortunately, most physicians misunderstand the underlying probabilistic logic of significance tests and consequently often misinterpret their results. This near-universal misunderstanding is highlighted by means of a simple quiz which we administered to 246 physicians at two major academic hospitals, on which the proportion of incorrect responses exceeded 90%. A solid understanding of the fundamental concepts of probability theory is becoming essential to the rational interpretation of medical information. This essay provides a technically sound review of these concepts that is accessible to a medical audience. We also briefly review the debate in the cognitive sciences regarding physicians' aptitude for probabilistic inference.

  20. Evaluative meaning and its cultural significance

    OpenAIRE

    Drazdauskiene, Maria Liudvika

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of traditional descriptive semantics, evaluative meaning is defined as an aspect of affective meaning. By virtue of its general positive and negative evaluation, evaluative meaning finds its place in the compartment of interpersonal meaning in functional linguistics. The concept of evaluative meaning is also in agreement with the categorisation of meaning in contemporary stylistics. Having stated its spread and disagreement with logic, the cultural significance of...

  1. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  2. 幼年特发性关节炎白介素6、γ干扰素诱导蛋白10和白介素17的表达及意义%Expression and significance of interleukin-6, interferon-inducible protein-10 and interleukin-17 in serum and synovial fluid of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞娟; 唐雪梅; 刘玮; 周娟; 安云飞; 秦仕英; 邹宗毅

    2013-01-01

    polyarticular JIA (pJIA) and 28 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Nineteen patients with no marked arthritis symptom or only temporary arthralgia were enrolled in probable sJIA group.SF from 18 patients with 7 sJIA,11 pJIA were examined for cytokine levels.Result (1) The statistically significant difference in serum IL-6 was detected between sJIA and healthy control group [28.0(4.2-59.2) ng/L vs.12.3 (2.1-13.8) ng/L,P < 0.05],but no significant difference between probable sJIA and healthy control group [11.8 (7.7-39.2)ng/L vs.12.3 (2.1-13.8) ng/L,P > 0.05] was found.There were statistically significant differences between sJIA group and healthy control group in serum concentrations of IL-17 [14.0(9.8-34.3) ng/L vs.9.8 (7.9-16.2) ng/L,P < 0.05],yet compared to healthy control group,no significant difference in concentration level of IL-17 was found in pJIA Group [14.2(9.9-16.9) ng/L vs.9.8(7.9-16.2) ng/L,P > 0.05].(2) In sJIA and pJIA SF,the median IP-10 level was significantly higher compared to respective PB levels [619.7 (160.9,873.1) ng/L vs.64.8 (27.4-111.9) ng/L;660.9 (401.9,1349.8) ng/L vs.97.4 (41.9-222.1) ng/L,P < 0.01,respeetively],but there was only significant difference in IL-17 between pJIA SF and PB[22.9 (17.1,45.8) ng/L vs.14.2 (9.9-16.9) ng/L,P <0.01].Conclusion IL-6 may play more important role in the pathogenesis of sJIA.Moreover,IL-6 may be the biomarker associated with arthritis in early JIA stage.Both autoinflammation and autoimmune response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sJIA.IL-17 enrichment may only occur in local joint,the levels of IL-17 in PB may not be significantly increased.The prominent expression gradient between SF and PB of IP-10 maybe the basis of performing chemotaxis and further causing joint damage.

  3. 氟化锂和蓝宝石单晶冲击消光及其对辐射测温的影响%Shock-induced optical extinction in LiF and sapphire crystals and its significance in the radiant temperature determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周显明; 操秀霞; 李俊; 李加波; 卢铁城

    2012-01-01

    Shock-induced optical extinction in LiF and sapphire single crystals had been studied using a time-resolved multi-wavelength pyrometry measurements incorporated with a dynamically generated in-situ light source. Shock pressure in the samples covers a 50~183 GPa range and the central wavelength in the pyrometer ranges from 254 nm to 800 nm. Our results demonstrate that the measured transmit-tance in the LiF samples under investigation varies little which has a negligible influence on the fitted in-terfacial temperature with an apparent emissivity decreased a little. When the pressure in the sapphire sample is less than 90 GPa, the fitted results show similar behavior as it does in the LiF window. As the shock pressure is over 99 GPa, the sapphire samples show remarkable extinction decay of light radiation. The measured optical extinction coefficient increases with the increasing pressure, and decreases with the wavelength, which is in consistent with the 255 GPa high-pressure results in the literature. We also find that the optical extinction behavior in shocked sapphire under high-pressures has an essential influence on the interfacial temperature measurements, and resulted in a lower fitted temperature. Thepresent study may have some reference value for developing technique of shock temperature measurement for opaque materials.%采用冲击波压缩原位光源技术结合时间分辨多波长高温计测量,研究了氟化锂和蓝宝石单晶样品的冲击消光现象,实验压力范围50~183了GPa,中心波长覆盖254~800 nm.结果表明,氟化锂单晶样品在实验压力下透过率变化不大,对界面温度的拟合值影响不明显,只是使表观发射率略有下降;当压力低于90GPa时,蓝宝石的消光情况同氟化锂接近,对界面温度的拟合影响也不明显;而当压力高于99 GPa时,蓝宝石呈现明显的消光衰减现象,实验测定的消光系数随压力增加而增加,与波长间呈反比关系,与文献报道250 0

  4. Prevalence of liver disease-related antibodies in patients with acute drug-induced liver injury and its ;clinical significance%急性药物性肝损伤患者肝病相关抗体阳性率调查及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丹; 段志军

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析急性药物性肝损伤患者肝病相关抗体阳性情况。方法复习2002年6月~2012年3月大连医科大学附属第一医院住院患者中诊断为急性药物性肝损伤患者的资料,分析肝病相关抗体的阳性情况。结果104例患者中肝病相关抗体阳性率为54.81%,其中ANA 45.19%,ASMA 14.42%;ANA高滴度(≥1:320)的患者占ANA阳性患者的34.04%;2种抗体同时阳性的占阳性患者的26.32%,以ANA和ASMA阳性最常见;3种抗体同时阳性的占阳性患者的8.77%,以ANA/AMA/AMA-M2同时阳性多见;女性患者抗体阳性率高于男性,肝细胞损伤型患者抗体阳性率高于胆汁淤积型和混合型患者(P<0.05)。结论急性药物性肝损伤患者肝病相关抗体的阳性率高达一半以上,尤其是女性、肝细胞损伤型患者,应注意鉴别。%Objective To explore the prevalence of serial autoimmune antibody associated with liver dis-eases in patients with acute drug-induced liver injury (ADILI). Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted over 104 patients with ADILI,admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from June 2002 to March 2012,and the prevalence of liver disease-related autoimmune antibody were analyzed. Results The positive rate of liver disease-related autoantibodies in 104 cases was 54.81%;Among the positive patients ,ANA was positive in 47 cases (45.19%) and ASMA in 15 cases (14.42%);The high ANA titer (≥1:320) accounted for 34.04% in ANA-positive cases;Two antibodies positive accounted for 26.32% in 57 antibody-positive cases, and ANA/ASMA was the most common;Serum ANA/AMA/AMA-M2 positive accounted for 8.77% in 57 antibody-positive cases;Female had higher antibody positive rate than male did,and the antibody positive rate was higher in patients with hepatocellular injury pattern than those in cholestatic or mixed pattern. Conclusions The preva-lence of liver disease-related antibodies was

  5. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  6. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  7. Least significant qubit algorithm for quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jianzhi; Wang, Shen; Li, Qiong

    2016-11-01

    To study the feasibility of the classical image least significant bit (LSB) information hiding algorithm on quantum computer, a least significant qubit (LSQb) information hiding algorithm of quantum image is proposed. In this paper, we focus on a novel quantum representation for color digital images (NCQI). Firstly, by designing the three qubits comparator and unitary operators, the reasonability and feasibility of LSQb based on NCQI are presented. Then, the concrete LSQb information hiding algorithm is proposed, which can realize the aim of embedding the secret qubits into the least significant qubits of RGB channels of quantum cover image. Quantum circuit of the LSQb information hiding algorithm is also illustrated. Furthermore, the secrets extracting algorithm and circuit are illustrated through utilizing control-swap gates. The two merits of our algorithm are: (1) it is absolutely blind and (2) when extracting secret binary qubits, it does not need any quantum measurement operation or any other help from classical computer. Finally, simulation and comparative analysis show the performance of our algorithm.

  8. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    mediators to speed the process along like the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC in RNAi. The independence of motif position and antisense activity also allows us to bypass consideration of this feature in the modelling process, promoting model efficiency and reducing the chance of overfitting when predicting antisense activity. The increase in SVR correlation with significant features compared to nearest-neighbour features indicates that thermodynamics alone is likely not the only factor in determining antisense efficiency.

  9. Clinical significance of creatinin kinase-MB and cardiac troponin I in diagnosis of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury%CK-MB及cTnI在严重创伤后继发性心脏损伤中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔真; 周宁

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价CK-MB和cTnI对严重创伤后继发性心肌损伤的诊断价值。探讨低血容量性休克对严重创伤后继发性心肌损伤的影响。方法回顾性分析104例严重创伤患者,依据是否并发低血容量性休克分为休克组(56例)与对照组(48例),入院24小时内检测血清CK-MB及cTnI,观察严重创伤后CK-MB及cTnI的变化情况并进行组间对比。结果两组入选患者在性别比、年龄、ISS评分方面相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。104例患者中,90例(86.5%)出现了CK-MB升高,其中休克组54例(96.4%),对照组36例(75.0%)。38例(36.5%)出现了cTnI升高,其中休克组34例(60.7%),对照组4例(8.3%)。定量比较显示,休克组及对照组CK-MB中位数(39ng/mL vs 13.8ng/mL)相比,差异有统计学意义(P0.05). The median CK-MB level of the shock group was 39 ng/ml, significantly higher than that of the control group (13.8 ng/ml,P<0.001). The median cTnI of the shock group was 0.31 ng/ml, significantly higher than that of the control group (0.01 ng/ml,P<0.001). Conclusion Increased cTnI level is a sensitive index for TISCI and ACES in patients with severe trauma. Hypovolemic shock may be an important risk factor for TISCI.

  10. Significance of Transients in Soil Temperature Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of observation scale on the estimation of soil thermal properties. Transients are usually filtered out and ignored when classical Fourier approaches are used to deconstruct and model temperature time series. It was hypothesized that examination of such transients may be more important in identifying and quantifying short-term perturbations in internal soil heat transfer induced by agronomic disturbances.Data-logged temperatures were collected at 10-minute intervals from thermistor probes installed at 10 and 25 cm depths in isolated areas of two grassed plots. One plot (6T) had been treated twice with 6 Mg ha-1 composted turkey litter as received. The other plot (NPK) was fertilized at the same time with NPK fertilizer. Various methods were used to analyze the series to obtain apparent soil thermal diffusivity (D-value) at various time scales. Results supported the hypothesis that short-term differences in internal soil heat transfer between the 6T and NPK plots were more manifest and effectively captured by estimated D-values calculated from the monthly and daily partial series. The 6T plot had higher soil organic matter content than the NPK plot and had lower apparent soil thermal diffusivity. Diurnal soil temperature amplitudes,required to calculate the mean D-values from partial series, were more effectively obtained using a temperature change rate method. The more commonly used Fourier analysis tended to be effective for this purpose when the partial series reasonably presented well-defined diurnal patterns of increasing and decreasing temperatures.

  11. Hippocampal sharp waves: their origin and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, G

    1986-11-29

    This study investigated the spatial distribution and cellular-synaptic generation of hippocampal sharp waves (SPW) in the dorsal hippocampus of the awake rat. Depth analyses of SPWs were performed by stepping the recording electrode in 82.5 microns increments. SPWs were present during slow wave sleep, awake immobility, drinking, grooming and eating (0.01-2/s). The largest negative SPWs were recorded from the middle part of the stratum radiatum of CA1, the stratum lucidum of CA3, the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and from layer I of the subiculum, in that order. The polarity of the SPWs was positive in layers II-IV of the subiculum, in stratum oriens and stratum pyramidale of CA1 and CA3, and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. The electrical gradients across the null zones of the field SPWs were as large as 8-14 mV/mm. SPWs were associated with population bursts of pyramidal cells and increased discharges of interneurons and granule cells. During the SPW the excitability of granule cells and pyramidal cells to afferent volleys increased considerably. Picrotoxin and atropine and aspiration lesion of the fimbria-fornix increased either the amplitude or the frequency of SPWs. Diazepam and Nembutal could completely abolish SPWs. It is suggested that: hippocampal SPWs are triggered by a population burst of CA3 pyramidal cells as a result of temporary disinhibition from afferent control; and field SPWs represent summed extracellular PSPs of CA1 and subicular pyramidal cells, and dentate granular cells induced by the Schaffer collaterals and the associational fibers of hilar cells, respectively. The relevance of the physiological SPWs to epileptic interictal spikes and long-term potentiation is discussed.

  12. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  13. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  14. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  15. Significance of Jane Eyre' s Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文涛

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre, by far the best known of Charlotte Bronte' s literary production, published 1847. Jane, the heroine, a governess's rebelliousness, her hate ot servility, her insistence on equality with her master, and her declaration that she has a right to feelings and passions that impresses me most. This paper, from what Jane Eyre experiences and what she thinks about the happenings, analyses Jane Eyreg independent characters and spirits in five segments each with its own setting: Gateshead, Lowood, Thnmfield, Moor House, Femdean, points out the significance of Jane Eyre's independence in her ages.

  16. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  17. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯建华; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  18. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  19. Change of Serum Procalcitonin in Children with Antibiotics Induced Diarrhea of Intestinal Dysbacteriosis and Its Clinical Significance%抗生素致肠道菌群失调性腹泻患儿血清降钙素原变化的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金忠芹; 武庆斌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨抗生素致肠道菌群失调性腹泻患儿治疗前后血清降钙素原(PCT)变化的意义.方法 选择2010年1-12月在本院住院治疗的肠道菌群失调性腹泻患儿97例为研究对象.采用单克降抗体透射比浊法检测患儿治疗前后血清PCT水平.选取同期本院体检的健康儿童22例作为健康对照组.应用SPSS 11.0软件分析患儿治疗前后血清PCT水平变化,并与健康对照组比较;对患儿血清PCT水平与患儿性别、年龄的关系进行相关性分析.结果 97例抗生素致肠道菌群失调性腹泻患儿治疗前血清PCT水平为(17.58±6.30) μg·L-1,与健康对照组[(0.63+0.49) μg·L-1]比较差异有统计学意义(t=12.70,P<0.01).经过停用广谱抗生素,使用窄谱抗生素及应用微生态制剂治疗后,患儿的各项症状得到明显改善.治疗后患儿血清PCT水平为[(3.14±2.56) μg·L-1],与治疗前比较明显降低(=6.50,P <0.01).治疗前患儿血清PCT水平与患儿性别、年龄均无相关性(Pa>0.05).结论 抗生素致肠道菌群失调性腹泻患儿治疗后血清PCT明显降低.检测血清PCT水平,对诊断和治疗肠道菌群失调性腹泻具有重要的临床意义.%Objective To explore the change of serum procalcitonin (PCT)in children with diarrhea of intestinal dysbacteriosis before and after treatment and its clinical significance . Methods Ninety - seven children with diarrhea of intestinal dysbacteriosis were selected from Jan. To Dec. 2010.The serum concentration of PCT was measured by monoclonal antibody turbidimetry, and 22 healthy children were as healthy control group. The contents of PCT in children with diarrhea of intestinal dysbacteriosis before and after treatment were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 software. The relationships between the contents of PCT in children's with diarrhea of intestinal dysbacteriosis and the children's gender, ages were also analyzed. Results Levels of serum PCT in 97 children with diarrhea of

  20. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  1. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  2. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to

  3. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  4. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  5. The origins and significance of contemporary terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Terrorism has been the subject of many presidential and prime ministerial statements over the years. Sixteen weeks before the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the American Secretary of State, referred to a report that indicated an 8 per cent increase in international terrorist attacks during year 2000 and stated that terrorism shows the dark side of globalization. Of the 423 recorded attacks, 200 were directed against the United States. This paper emphasizes three points to understand the significance of terrorism. First, it is necessary to understand the context within which terrorist acts are carried out, namely the modern world in its spiritual and its material dimensions. It is also necessary to understand the direction and trajectory of recent trends in terrorism and what can be done to stop it. 97 refs.

  6. Human error: A significant information security issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    One of the major threats to information security human error is often ignored or dismissed with statements such as {open_quotes}There is not much we can do about it.{close_quotes} This type of thinking runs counter to reality because studies have shown that, of all systems threats, human error has the highest probability of occurring and that, with professional assistance, human errors can be prevented or significantly reduced Security analysts often overlook human error as a major threat; however, other professionals such as human factors engineers are trained to deal with these probabilistic occurrences and mitigate them. In a recent study 55% of the respondents surveyed considered human error as the most important security threat. Documentation exists to show that human error was a major cause of the consequences suffered at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Bhopal, and the Exxon tanker, Valdez. Ironically, causes of human error can usually be quickly and easily eliminated.

  7. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  8. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CNOOC Sales Revenues Rise Significantly in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC),the country's third largest oil and gas producer,saw its full year sales revenues of 2008 rose 22.4 percent from a year ago to 98.3 billion yuan (US$14.37 billion).By the end of 2008,the total assets of the company were 428.5 billion yuan,up 267 percent from five years earlier.The company's listed ann CNOOC Ltd.said in mid-January it planed to lift its 2009 crude and gas production by 16 percent to 18 percent,as some significant projects are expected to come online this year.Total production will be 225 million to 231 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE),compared with the estimated production of 194 million to 196 million BOE for 2008.

  10. On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Frauley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions. In doing so these works highlight criminology’s persistent epistemological and methodological weaknesses. The broad and fragmented “imaginative criminology” movement offers a challenge to an orthodox criminology that is guided by the coercive and constraining bureaucratic categories of criminal justice administration and the criminal law. Imaginative criminology displaces these as the governing categories of criminological thought and practice. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and C. Wright Mills this paper considers the movement’s epistemological significance and the challenge posed to criminological orthodoxy.

  11. [Pathogenesis and significance of diabetic dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, M; Zák, A

    2004-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at the higher risk of development of on arteriosclerosis based cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetic dislipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia, presence of small dense LDL subfraction, low concentration of HDL-cholesterol and increased postprandial lipemia can represent a serious threat. Several studies have found significant decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after a treatment of diabetic dislipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates. Contemporary therapeutic algorhithms of European and American professional societies for the hyperlipidemia treatment classify diabetes mellitus as an equivalent of already developed complication of atherosclerosis. Our article presents pathophysiology of the diabetic dislipidemia, recommended target values of pasma lipids in diabetic patients and an overview of present possibilities of pharmacotherapy of the diabetic dislipidemia.

  12. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  13. Biotechnological significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, F Garcia; Rodríguez, J Gallardo; Mirón, A Sánchez; García, M C Cerón; Belarbi, E H; Chisti, Y; Grima, E Molina

    2007-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microalgae that are associated with the production of many marine toxins. These toxins poison fish, other wildlife and humans. Dinoflagellate-associated human poisonings include paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and ciguatera fish poisoning. Dinoflagellate toxins and bioactives are of increasing interest because of their commercial impact, influence on safety of seafood, and potential medical and other applications. This review discusses biotechnological methods of identifying toxic dinoflagellates and detecting their toxins. Potential applications of the toxins are discussed. A lack of sufficient quantities of toxins for investigational purposes remains a significant limitation. Producing quantities of dinoflagellate bioactives requires an ability to mass culture them. Considerations relating to bioreactor culture of generally fragile and slow-growing dinoflagellates are discussed. Production and processing of dinoflagellates to extract bioactives, require attention to biosafety considerations as outlined in this review.

  14. Significant new quantitative EGG patterns in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Navarro López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We analyzed the EEG recordings of a sample of fibromyalgia patients, with the goal of looking for new, more objective indicators on the diagnosis and severity assessment of this pathology, and looking also to establish the relationship of these new indicators with different psychological and neuropsychiatric tests. Methods: We compared the EEG recordings of a group of 13 fibromyalgia patients with a normalized database built into the software of the equipment used (Neuronic, and also with a control group of 13 individuals; both groups were selected under the same criteria of inclusion-exclusion. Patients and controls underwent quantitative EEG (eyes closed, according to international 10-20 EEG system and were specifically evaluated throughout various neuropsychiatric and psychological questionnaires. Results: We obtained the absolute powers of QEEG (quantitative for the different electrode sites and frequency bands, we determined the corresponding values of the deviation from normal (Z-scores, and estimated various indicators and ratios, as well as correlations with the results of psychological tests. Interestingly, the ratios of theta and beta frequencies in relation with alpha appear as one of the most relevant indicators of the severity of the pathology; significant differences were also found in the peak frequency (maximum power per Hz of the alpha band, and in the frequency peak of the total spectrum. Conclusions: The consistency of the abnormal EEG patterns of fibromyalgia patients revealed the presence of systemic dysfunction at the central nervous system level, beyond possible peripheral anomalies and specific tissue pathologies. Among the indicators and benchmarks achieved, the most important changes concern the frequencies theta, alpha and beta, and still more significant were the values of their ratios in the comparison between patients and controls. The relative values of peak frequencies are also of

  15. Vitronectin significantly influences prognosis in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Lan, Rui-Long; Tao, Xuan; Wu, Chao-Yang; Hong, Hai-Feng; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional adhesive protein, is found in association with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis in a variety of (human) tumors. But no studies concerning its correlation to osteosarcoma prognosis were found. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Vitronectin (Vn) in osteosarcoma. Here, we studied the expression of VN in the tumor tissues from 67 patients with osteosarcoma and 20 patients with osteochondroma using immunohistochemistry and estimated the effects of VN expression in osteosarcoma on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier curve and COX proportional hazards regression model. Increased expression of VN in osteosarcoma tissue compared to no VN expression in osteochondroma tissue was shown in immunohistochemical assay. No associations were observed between VN expression and osteosarcoma patients' gender (P = 0.675), age (P = 0.813), tumor size (P = 0.436), histologic subtype (P = 0.0.543) or tumor location (P = 0.456). Univariate survival analysis demonstrated significant correlations of high VN expression with shorter PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.001); multivariate survival analysis revealed high VN expression as a significant independent prognostic indicator for shorter PFS (HR 2.788, P = 0.003) and OS (HR2.817, P = 0.003). In conclusion, the high expression of VN in tumor cells independently indicated poor clinical prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma, other than large tumor size and non-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that VN may serve as a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

  16. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  17. The significance of the integumentary profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satravaha, S; Schlegel, K D

    1987-11-01

    Profile analysis was performed on 180 Thai female subjects with ages ranging from 16 to 21 years. Seventy were of Chinese origin. The determination of the profile analysis mean values was based on the methods of Schwarz, Subtelny, Ricketts, Burstone, and Schwartz. The results were compared to Caucasian standards and to the findings of our previous study on a Javanese population. For the profile forms, our investigated groups showed mainly prognathic faces (75% to 84%). A "shift backward" profile flow dominated. We found a "prognathic face" combined with a "shift backward" in 50% to 60% of the Asian subjects analyzed. Our soft-tissue profile results (approximately 165 +/- 6 degrees) showed less convexity than that of the Caucasians and there was no significant difference in overall profile between the 2 Thai groups (approximately 134 +/- 5 degrees); this is in the range given by Subtelny (141 degrees to 131 degrees) except for that of the Javanese subjects. For the lip analysis, we listed a posterior position or a lip position upon the esthetic line between 60% to 70% of both Thai groups with respect to the upper lip and only 28% to 33% for the lower lip. The Javanese group, however, showed 90% anterior position of the upper lip and 93% of the lower lip to this line. It is significant that proper blending of the integumentary profile produces an esthetically pleasing face and this varies in different ethnic groups. A good combination could even make a "prognathic face shift backward" very acceptable as illustrated by a profile analysis of Miss Thailand, 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance.

  19. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindelevitch Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  20. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  1. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  2. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  3. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, E

    1994-07-01

    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  4. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  5. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  6. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).

  7. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  8. Object caching in corvids: incidence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena; Mioduszewska, Berenika; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Food caching is a paramount model for studying relations between cognition, brain organisation and ecology in corvids. In contrast, behaviour towards inedible objects is poorly examined and understood. We review the literature on object caching in corvids and other birds, and describe an exploratory study on object caching in ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws. The captive adult birds were presented with an identical set of novel objects adjacent to food. All three species cached objects, which shows the behaviour not to be restricted to juveniles, food cachers, tool-users or individuals deprived of cacheable food. The pattern of object interaction and caching did not mirror the incidence of food caching: the intensely food caching ravens indeed showed highest object caching incidence, but the rarely food caching jackdaws cached objects to similar extent as the moderate food caching New Caledonian crows. Ravens and jackdaws preferred objects with greater sphericity, but New Caledonian crows preferred stick-like objects (similar to tools). We suggest that the observed object caching might have been expressions of exploration or play, and deserves being studied in its own right because of its potential significance for tool-related behaviour and learning, rather than as an over-spill from food-caching research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  10. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Smith, Kyle S.; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; de, Subhajyoti

    2016-06-01

    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulatory motif perturbation, and chromatin signatures in one composite index called REDACT score, we identified potential duon mutations. Several such mutations are detected in known cancer genes in multiple cancer types. For instance a potential duon mutation in TP53 is associated with increased expression of the mutant allelic gene copy, thereby possibly amplifying the functional effects on the downstream pathways. Another potential duon mutation in SF3B1 is associated with abnormal splicing and changes in angiogenesis and matrix degradation related pathways. Our findings emphasize the need to interrogate the mutations in coding regions beyond their obvious effects on protein structures.

  11. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Cooper, David S

    2008-02-01

    Subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) is defined as serum free T(4) and free T(3) levels within their respective reference ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels. SCTD is being diagnosed more frequently in clinical practice in young and middle-aged people as well as in the elderly. However, the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is much debated. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism can have repercussions on the cardiovascular system and bone, as well as on other organs and systems. However, the treatment and management of SCTD and population screening are controversial despite the potential risk of progression to overt disease, and there is no consensus on the thyroid hormone and thyrotropin cutoff values at which treatment should be contemplated. Opinions differ regarding tissue effects, symptoms, signs, and cardiovascular risk. Here, we critically review the data on the prevalence and progression of SCTD, its tissue effects, and its prognostic implications. We also examine the mechanisms underlying tissue alterations in SCTD and the effects of replacement therapy on progression and tissue parameters. Lastly, we address the issue of the need to treat slight thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in relation to the patient's age.

  12. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  13. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  15. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmena, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  16. Augustine, his sermons, and their significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Oort

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine’s sermons provide a unique source in explaining his influence from the 5th century onwards as a theologian and pastor, a minister of the Word preached and celebrated in the sacrament. Of particular value in this regard are his sermons on the Psalms. Issues of authenticity are also considered in this article. The influence of Augustine’s sermons was widespread through their tradition and adaptation by others. A substantial and reliable corpus of his sermons is available today. As a pastor, Augustine was anxious to challenge heresy in his preaching, especially to confront the Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians. His preaching is considered in the wider context of congregational worship with its origins in the synagogue. Of special importance are his preaching techniques, while his doctrine of ‘the inner teacher’ (magister interior is equally significant. Essential elements of Augustine’s theory and practice became influential in the early days of the Protestant Reformation (Luther, Calvin and others. The author briefly touches on the question of their relevance for today’s congregational worship.

  17. Significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the molecular level in scales smaller than 1 µm, normally 1-100 nm, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components, which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. In addition, as the need for the development of new medicines is pressing, and given the inherent nanoscale functions of the biological components of living cells, nanotechnology has been applied to diverse medical fields such as oncology, cardiovascular medicine, and in treatment of other chronic diseases. Indeed, nanotechnology is being used to refine discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery and drug delivery, which could be applicable to management of these patients. In this review, we will focus upon significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences, as well as the plausible side effects related to their use.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Panhuis, Tami M; Stoehr, Andrew M

    2012-04-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential adaptive significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity.

  19. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  20. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev

    2011-01-01

    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  1. Cytochrome P450 structure, function and clinical significance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palrasu, Manikandan; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-01-25

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions. CYP enzymes can be transcriptionally activated by various xenobiotics and endogenous substrates through receptor-dependent mechanisms. CYP enzyme inhibition is a principal mechanism for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Many chemotherapeutic drugs can cause drug interactions due to their ability to either inhibit or induce the CYP enzyme system. Predictions based on in silico analyses followed by validation have identified several microRNAs that regulate CYPs. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in CYP genes may be responsible for inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. Knowledge about the substrates, inducers, inhibitors of CYP isoforms, and the polymorphisms of CYP enzymes may be used as an aid by clinicians to determine therapeutic strategy, and treatment doses for drugs that are metabolized by CYP gene products. The present review is a comprehensive compilation of cytochrome P450 structure, function, pharmacogenetics, and pharmacoepigenetics and clinical significance.

  2. Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Shaw, R E; Guthrie, J A; Dunlop, K J; Roberts

    1995-03-01

    The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

  3. Practical significance of weld strength matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloterdijk, W. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands); Schipaanboord, W.N. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1996-10-01

    Defect tolerance in welds in pipelines constructed in modern high strength material depends on the balance in strength between weld material and pipe material. The Guidelines on the assessment of girth weld defects published by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) define in Tier 2 defect limits assuming that the (actual) weld metal yield strength is equal or greater than the yield strength of the parent material. The defect limits according to Tier 2 exceed the defect limits in `workmanship standards` (l>25 mm). Nevertheless, the draft European welding standard EN 288 does not yet require a test to measure and verify the weld metal yield strength. Gasunie has performed a test program with the aim to look at the practical significance of weld strength matching in a strain controlled situation and to verify the relevance of limits given in the European welding and line pipe codes, in combination with the EPRG Guidelines. It is concluded that the results of the tests confirm the defect acceptance limits according to Tier 2 of the EPRG Guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Zulaessigkeit von Fehlern in Rundschweissnaehten in Rohrleitungen aus modernen hochfesten Baustaehlen haengt von dem Verhaeltnis der Werkstofffestigkeit des Schweissgutes zu der des Grundwerkstoffs ab. Die von der European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) veroeffentlichte Richtlinie zur Bewertung von Schweissnahtfehlern gibt in der zweiten Bewertungsstufe (Tier 2) Werte fuer zulaessige Schweissnahtfehlergroessen unter der Bedingung an, dass die Dehngrenze des Schweissgutes groesser oder gleich der Dehngrenze des Grundwerkstoffs ist. Die nach Tier 2 zulaessigen Fehler sind groesser als die in `Good-workmanship`-Regelwerken angegebenen Fehlerlaenge (l>25 mm). Demgegenueber fehlt im Entwurf der europaeischen Schweissnorm EN 288 bislang ein solcher Dehngrenzennachweis. Gasunie hat ein Versuchsprogramm durchgefuehrt, um die Bedeutung der Schweissgutfestigkeit bei dehnungskontrollierter Belastung sowie

  4. Expression and significance of CHIP in canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanan; Yang, Xu; Jin, Yipeng; Pei, Shimin; Zhang, Di; Ma, Wen; Huang, Jian; Qiu, Hengbin; Zhang, Xinke; Jiang, Qiuyue; Sun, Weidong; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Degui

    2015-11-01

    CHIP (Carboxy terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that can induce ubiquitination and degradation of several oncogenic proteins. The expression of CHIP is frequently lower in human breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. However, the expression and role of CHIP in the canine mammary gland tumor (CMGT) remain unclear. We investigated the potential correlation between CHIP expression and mammary gland tumor prognosis in female dogs. CHIP expression was measured in 54 dogs by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. CHIP protein expression was significantly correlated with the histopathological diagnosis, outcome of disease and tumor classification. The transcriptional level of CHIP was significantly higher in normal tissues (P=0.001) and benign tumors (P=0.009) than it in malignant tumors. CHIP protein expression was significantly correlated with the transcriptional level of CHIP (P=0.0102). The log-rank test survival curves indicated that patients with low expression of CHIP had shorter overall periods of survival than those with higher CHIP protein expression (P=0.050). Our data suggest that CHIP may play an important role in the formation and development of CMGTs and serve as a valuable prognostic marker and potential target for genetic therapy.

  5. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  6. Prognostic significance of aberrantly silenced ANPEP expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Abildgaard, Mette Opstrup; Haldrup, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Background:Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PC) are urgently needed. This study investigates the expression, epigenetic regulation, and prognostic potential of ANPEP in PC.Methods:Aminopeptidase N (APN; encoded by ANPEP) expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays...... representing 267 radical prostatectomy (RP) and 111 conservatively treated (CT) PC patients. Clinical end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), respectively. The ANPEP promoter methylation levels were determined by bisulphite sequencing or MethyLight analysis in 278...... nonmalignant and PC tissue samples, and in cell lines.Results:The APN expression was significantly downregulated in PC compared with nonmalignant prostate tissue samples. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation was frequently observed in PC tissue samples, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced ANPEP expression...

  7. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  8. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Thilo; Zschäbitz, Stefanie; Becker, Verena; Giese, Thomas; Bergmann, Frank; Hinz, Ulf; Keleg, Shereen; Heller, Anette; Sipos, Bence; Klingmüller, Ursula; Büchler, Markus W; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150), serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87) and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104) was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05) and PDAC (p<0.001), reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46), 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99) but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85). Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01)--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml) were not significantly different in M0 (20%) and M1 (30%) groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05). The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold ≥16 mU/ml by endogenous or exogenous means may predispose to or

  9. The Significance of Adolescents' Relationships with Significant Others and School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala-Zysk, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as…

  10. On the significance of density-induced speed of sound variations on US-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; Meer, Skadi van der; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Department, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To show the effect of speed of sound (SOS) aberration on ultrasound guided radiotherapy (US-gRT) as a function of implemented workflow. US systems assume that SOS is constant in human soft tissues (at a value of 1540 m/s), while its actual nonuniform distribution produces small but systematic errors of up to a few millimeters in the positions of scanned structures. When a coregistered computerized tomography (CT) scan is available, the US image can be corrected for SOS aberration. Typically, image guided radiotherapy workflows implementing US systems only provide a CT scan at the simulation (SIM) stage. If changes occur in geometry or density distribution between SIM and treatment (TX) stage, SOS aberration can change accordingly, with a final impact on the measured position of structures which is dependent on the workflow adopted. Methods: Four basic scenarios were considered of possible changes between SIM and TX: (1) No changes, (2) only patient position changes (rigid rotation-translation), (3) only US transducer position changes (constrained on patient's surface), and (4) patient tissues thickness changes. Different SOS aberrations may arise from the different scenarios, according to the specific US-gRT workflow used: intermodality (INTER) where TX US scans are compared to SIM CT scans; intramodality (INTRA) where TX US scans are compared to SIM US scans; and INTERc and INTRAc where all US images are corrected for SOS aberration (using density information provided by SIM CT). For an experimental proof of principle, the effect of tissues thickness change was simulated in the different workflows: a dual layered phantom was filled with layers of sunflower oil (SOS 1478 m/s), water (SOS 1482 m/s), and 20% saline solution (SOS 1700 m/s). The phantom was US scanned, the layer thicknesses were increased and the US scans were repeated. The errors resulting from the different workflows were compared. Results: Theoretical considerations show that workflows implementing SOS correction based on SIM-CT scan (INTERc, INTRAc) give null errors in all scenarios except when tissues thickness changes, where an error proportional to the degree of change in SOS maps between SIM and TX ({Delta}SOS) occurs. An uncorrected workflow such as INTER produces in all scenarios a pure SOS error, while uncorrected INTRA produces a null error for rotation-translation of the patient, a {Delta}SOS error for changing tissues thickness and an error proportional to the degree of SOS distribution change along the different lines of view when shifting the transducer. The dual layered phantom demonstrated experimentally that the effect of SOS change between SIM and TX is clinically nonrelevant, being less than the intrinsic resolution of imaging systems, even when a substantial change in thicknesses is applied, provided that a SIM-CT-based SOS aberration correction is applied. Noncorrected workflows produce errors up to 4 mm for INTER and to 3 mm for INTRA in the phantom test. Conclusions: A SOS correction is advantageous for all US-gRT workflows and clinical cases, where the effect of SOS change can be considered a second order effect.

  11. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  12. Vasospasm is a significant factor in cyclosporine-induced neurotoxicity : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Hilde M. H.; Lodder, Jan; Postma, Alida A.; Span, Lambert F. R.; Mess, Werner H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of central nervous system lesions observed in cerebral cyclosporine neurotoxicity remains controversial. Case presentation: We report a 48-year-old woman with a non-severe aplastic anaemia who presented with stroke-like episodes while on cyclosporine treatment. Transcranial

  13. CT-discography; diagnostic accuracy in lumbar disc herniation and significance of induced pain during procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, En Hao [Yan Bian Medical College, Beijing (China); Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Kim, Young Soo; Roh, Sung Woo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and the accuracy of CT-discography in lumbar disc disease by analyzing the findings of CT-discogram and types of evoked pain during the procedure. CT-discograms were retrospectively evaluated in 47 intervertebral discs of 20 patients with multilevel involvement of lumbar disc diseases. In 28 herniated discs confirmed at surgery, the findings of CT-discogram (28 disc levels/20 patients), MRI(23/16) and CT(21/15) were comparatively analysed. The type of pain after infusion of contrast media during CT-discography was compared with that prior to the procedure. The accuracy for determining types of the herniated lumbar disc when compared with post-operative results was 96.4%(27 discs/28 discs) in the CT-discogram, 82.6%(19 discs/23 discs) in MRI and 71.4%(15 discs/21 discs) in the CT scan. Pains encountered during discography were radiating pain in 12 discs and back pain in 24 discs. CT-discography was especially helpful in 10 patients with multilevel involvement of the lumbar disc diseases to evaluate the exact location of diseased disc(s) that provoked the pain. CT-discography is a highly accurate method in diagnosis of the herniated lumbar intervertebral discs and is very useful in determining the precise location related to the development of pain in such cases.

  14. Influenza vaccination-induced B cell response in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tete, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Monoklonale gammopathie van onbepaalde betekenis (MGUS) is een proliferatieve plasma cel stoornis die voornamelijk voorkomt onder ouderen. Deze stoornis kan uiteindelijk leiden tot een kwaadaardige vorm van multipel myeloom. Er is sprake van een intrinsiek defect in de productie van immunoglobulines

  15. Mechanism of regulation of 'chromosome kissing' induced by Fob1 and its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Malay; Zaman, Shamsu; Jiang, James C; Jazwinski, S Michal; Bastia, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Protein-mediated "chromosome kissing" between two DNA sites in trans (or in cis) is known to facilitate three-dimensional control of gene expression and DNA replication. However, the mechanisms of regulation of the long-range interactions are unknown. Here, we show that the replication terminator protein Fob1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoted chromosome kissing that initiated rDNA recombination and controlled the replicative life span (RLS). Oligomerization of Fob1 caused synaptic (kissing) interactions between pairs of terminator (Ter) sites that initiated recombination in rDNA. Fob1 oligomerization and Ter-Ter kissing were regulated by intramolecular inhibitory interactions between the C-terminal domain (C-Fob1) and the N-terminal domain (N-Fob1). Phosphomimetic substitutions of specific residues of C-Fob1 counteracted the inhibitory interaction. A mutation in either N-Fob1 that blocked Fob1 oligomerization or C-Fob1 that blocked its phosphorylation antagonized chromosome kissing and recombination and enhanced the RLS. The results provide novel insights into a mechanism of regulation of Fob1-mediated chromosome kissing. © 2015 Choudhury et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Mechanism of regulation of ‘chromosome kissing’ induced by Fob1 and its physiological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Malay; Zaman, Shamsu; Jiang, James C.; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated “chromosome kissing” between two DNA sites in trans (or in cis) is known to facilitate three-dimensional control of gene expression and DNA replication. However, the mechanisms of regulation of the long-range interactions are unknown. Here, we show that the replication terminator protein Fob1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoted chromosome kissing that initiated rDNA recombination and controlled the replicative life span (RLS). Oligomerization of Fob1 caused synaptic (kissing) interactions between pairs of terminator (Ter) sites that initiated recombination in rDNA. Fob1 oligomerization and Ter–Ter kissing were regulated by intramolecular inhibitory interactions between the C-terminal domain (C-Fob1) and the N-terminal domain (N-Fob1). Phosphomimetic substitutions of specific residues of C-Fob1 counteracted the inhibitory interaction. A mutation in either N-Fob1 that blocked Fob1 oligomerization or C-Fob1 that blocked its phosphorylation antagonized chromosome kissing and recombination and enhanced the RLS. The results provide novel insights into a mechanism of regulation of Fob1-mediated chromosome kissing. PMID:26063576

  17. Vasospasm is a significant factor in cyclosporine-induced neurotoxicity : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Hilde M. H.; Lodder, Jan; Postma, Alida A.; Span, Lambert F. R.; Mess, Werner H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of central nervous system lesions observed in cerebral cyclosporine neurotoxicity remains controversial. Case presentation: We report a 48-year-old woman with a non-severe aplastic anaemia who presented with stroke-like episodes while on cyclosporine treatment. Transcranial

  18. The significance and function of IFN-γ on the changes of peripheral blood platelet count during tumor-rejection induced by a low dose of melphalan in C57BL/6 mice%γ-干扰素在小剂量美法仑治愈肿瘤过程中对荷瘤小鼠外周血血小板计数的影响及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传刚; 舒晓宏; 韩丹; 李墨林; Michael Notter; 秦志海

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance and function of IFN-γ on the changes of peripheral blood platelet count during tumor-rejection induced by a low dose of melphalan in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: Mouse tumor rejection model induced by a single dose of melphalan was used in this experiment. Different gene-type tumor-bearing mice (IFN-γ~(+/-) and IFN-γ~(-/-)), which had the same genetic background of C57BL/6, were treated intraperitoneally with melphalan (7.5 mg/kg). Tumor size was observed and recorded every one to three days in these different gene-type mice subsequently. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different days before and after melphalan treatment, and then complete blood counts were performed. The function of IFN-γ on the efficacy of chemotherapy and the changes of blood platelet count in IFN-γ~(+/-) and IFN-γ~(-/-) mice after melphalan treatment was analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in tumor sizes and blood platelet count between IFN-γ~(-/-) and IFN-γ~(+/-) mice (P>0.05). On the first day after melphalan (7.5 mg/kg) treatment, there were no significant changes in tumor sizes between mice in these two groups (P>0.05). Tumors shrank a little in IFN-γ~(-/-) mice and then grew gradually. Tumors relapsed in 2 w after melphalan injection in all IFN-γ~(-/-) mice, while tumor volumes decreased progressively and tumor cured at last in IFN-γ~(+/-) mice. The number of blood PLT in IFN-γ~(+/-) mice increased to (1935±378)×10~9/L 6 h after melphalan treatment, significantly higher than before (P0.05); While it sustained in normal range in IFN-γ~(-/-) mice. There was no significant difference in blood platelet count between IFN-γ~(-/-) and IFN-γ~(+/-) mice. CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood platelet count increased on the first day after melphalan treatment and tumors cured in IFN-γ~(+/-) mice; While tumors relapsed and there is no increase in blood platelet count on the first day after melphalan treatment in IFN

  19. Significance of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin I2 in acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Ooijen (B.); W.J. Kort (Wil); C.J. Tinga (Cor); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractPlasma thromboxane concentrations were found to be significantly elevated in acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats, whereas prostaglandin I2 levels were not. The significance of these alterations was investigated. Pancreatitis was induced by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate into the

  20. Dimethyl fumarate-associated lymphopenia: Risk factors and clinical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbrake, Erin E; Naismith, Robert T; Parks, Becky J; Wu, Gregory F; Cross, Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), causes lymphopenia in a fraction of patients. The clinical significance of this is unknown. Several cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in lymphopenic fumarate-treated patients have raised concerns about drug safety. Since lymphocytes contribute to MS pathology, lymphopenia may also be a biomarker for response to the drug. Objective The objective of this manuscript is to evaluate risk factors for DMF-induced lymphopenia and drug failure in a real-world population of MS patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 221 patients prescribed DMF at a single academic medical center between March 2013 and February 2015. Results Grade 2–3 lymphopenia developed in 17% of the total cohort and did not resolve during DMF treatment. Older age (>55), lower baseline absolute lymphocyte count and recent natalizumab exposure increased the risk of developing moderate to severe lymphopenia while on DMF. Lymphopenia was not predictive of good clinical response or of breakthrough MS activity on DMF. Conclusions Lymphopenia develops in a significant minority of DMF-treated patients, and if grade 2 or worse, is unlikely to resolve while on the drug. Increased vigilance in lymphocyte monitoring and infection awareness is particularly warranted in older patients and those switching from natalizumab. PMID:26550483

  1. Significant improvements in long trace profiler measurement performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bresloff, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical efforts and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-}0.1{degrees}C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. We illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500mm, trace length. We are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500mm long trace length, and we are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 run.

  2. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  3. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV. However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA still remains unclear. In addition, it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to the prognosis. The aims of this study were to 1 further explore the relationship between the plasma fibrinogen concentration and the stage and metastases of lung cancer 2 evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with lung cancer 3 explore the prognostic value of the change in fibrinogen levels between pre and post-chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from 370 patients with lung cancer were enrolled into this study. The plasma fibrinogen levels were compared with the clinical and prognostic significance of lung cancer. The association between the plasma fibrinogen level and clinical-prognostic characteristics were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: 1 The median pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels were 4.20g/L. Pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.013. A higher plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (4.83±1.50 g/L versus 4.15±1.30 g/L; P<0.001, there was a significant association between plasma fibrinogen level and metastases of lung cancer, pointing a higher plasma fibrinogen level in lymph nodes or distant organ metastases (p < 0.001. 2 Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrates higher overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen

  4. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Phospho-ATM Expression in Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Bhandaru

    Full Text Available UV radiation induced genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM is one of the initial events that follow DNA damage. Phospho-ATM (p-ATM plays a key role in the activation of DNA repair and several oncogenic pathways as well as in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was therefore performed to understand the significance of p-ATM in melanoma progression and to correlate it with patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis were employed to study the expression of p-ATM in melanoma patients. A total of 366 melanoma patients (230 primary melanoma and 136 metastatic melanoma were used for the study. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p-ATM expression. Results revealed that both loss of, and gain in, p-ATM expression were associated with progression of melanoma from normal nevi to metastatic melanoma. Patients whose samples showed negative or strong p-ATM staining had significantly worse 5-year survival compared to patients who had weak to moderate expression. Loss of p-ATM expression was associated with relatively better 5-year survival, but the corresponding 10-year survival curve almost overlapped with that of strong p-ATM expression. p-ATM expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year but not for 10-year patient survival. In conclusion our findings show that loss of p-ATM expression and gain-in p-ATM expression are indicators of worse melanoma patient survival.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Phospho-ATM Expression in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandaru, Madhuri; Martinka, Magdalena; McElwee, Kevin J; Rotte, Anand

    2015-01-01

    UV radiation induced genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is one of the initial events that follow DNA damage. Phospho-ATM (p-ATM) plays a key role in the activation of DNA repair and several oncogenic pathways as well as in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was therefore performed to understand the significance of p-ATM in melanoma progression and to correlate it with patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis were employed to study the expression of p-ATM in melanoma patients. A total of 366 melanoma patients (230 primary melanoma and 136 metastatic melanoma) were used for the study. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p-ATM expression. Results revealed that both loss of, and gain in, p-ATM expression were associated with progression of melanoma from normal nevi to metastatic melanoma. Patients whose samples showed negative or strong p-ATM staining had significantly worse 5-year survival compared to patients who had weak to moderate expression. Loss of p-ATM expression was associated with relatively better 5-year survival, but the corresponding 10-year survival curve almost overlapped with that of strong p-ATM expression. p-ATM expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year but not for 10-year patient survival. In conclusion our findings show that loss of p-ATM expression and gain-in p-ATM expression are indicators of worse melanoma patient survival.

  6. 维医异常黏液质型阳痿病证大鼠模型血脂水平与肝功能相关指标的改变及其生物学意义%The changes of blood lipid and liver function indexs with its biological significance in rat model with abmormal balgam syndrome and impotence disease induced by Uyghur medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盼盼; 刘新军; 阿地力江·伊明; 刘凤霞; 阿莱·巴合提汗; 朱颜刘莹; 李建勇; 阿卜杜热伊木江·如则; 迪丽达尔·库德热提

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the changes of blood lipid and liver function indexs with its biological sig-nificance in rat model with abnormal balgam syndrome and impotence disease induced by Uygur medicine. Methods Fifty normal mature male SD rats were selected in the study,10 of them were randomly chosen as the control group;40 were treated with spinach and coriander diet in a cold and humid environment until the model of abnormal balgam syndrome was established.To select the impotence disease rats model via APO and sexual behavior tests at 20 weeks until establishment of abnormal balgam syndrome rats model, 8 rats were abnormal balgam syndrome and impotence disease model group,the other 8 rats were abnormal balgam syndrome group.All the rats starve for 8 h,then 1% sodium pentobarbital anesthesia (40 mg/kg)was intraperitoneal injected to the rats,take blood from the abdominal aorta.Detected serum triglycerides (TG),cholesterol (CHOL),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),ALB,ALB/GLB,ALT and AST.Results TC level of abnormal balgam syndrome with impotence disease model group and abnormal balgam syndrome model group was significantly lower than normal control group (P <0.05);LDL-C level of abnormal balgam syndrome with impotence disease model group was significantly higher than abnormal balgam syndrome model group and normal control group (P <0.05);ALB,ALB/GLB level of abnormal balgam syndrome with impotence disease model group was significantly lower than normal control group (P <0.05).AST level of abnormal balgam syndrome with impotence disease model group was significantly higher than normal control group (P <0.05).Conclusion There may be a hepatic cellular damage and lipid metabolism disorders in abnor-mal balgam syndrome with impotence disease model group.%目的:研究维医异常黏液质型阳痿病证大鼠模型血脂水平和肝功能相关指标的改变及其生物学意义。方法选用50

  7. Changes and Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Its Tissue Inhibitor in Plasma and Cardiac Muscle of Rats with Chronic Cardiac Failure Induced by Volume Overload%基质金属蛋白酶及其抑制物在容量过负荷致慢性心力衰竭大鼠血浆及心肌组织中的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超英; 李晓惠; 伏瑾; 崔小岱

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察容量过负荷致慢性心力衰竭大鼠血浆及心肌组织基质金属蛋白酶-8(MMP-8)及其抑制物-1(TIMP-1)的表达变化,探讨其在慢性心力衰竭发病中的病理生理作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠17只,随机分为分流组(n=9)和对照组(n=8).分流组通过腹主动脉下腔静脉穿刺术建立容量过负荷致慢性充血性心力衰竭动物模型,对照组大鼠除不做穿刺外,余操作过程同分流组.分别测定2组大鼠心功能及血流动力学指标,检测血浆MMP-8及TIMP-1水平,实时荧光定量PCR测定大鼠左心室、右心室MMP-8 mRNA、TIMP-1 mRNA的表达.结果 术后8周,分流组大鼠左心室收缩压、左心室舒张压、左心室内压差、左心室内压最大上升速率及最大下降速率较对照组明显降低(Pa<0.05,0.01);左心室舒张末压较对照组明显升高(P<0.05).分流组大鼠血浆MMP-8、TIMP-1水平均较对照组明显升高(Pa<0.05).与对照组相比,分流组大鼠左心室心肌组织MMP-8 mRNA及左、右心室心肌组织TIMP-1 mRNA水平均有升高趋势,右心室MMP-8 mRNA水平有下降趋势,但2组比较差异均无统计学意义(Pa>0.05);左心室和右心室心肌组织中MMP-8/TIMP-1明显降低,右心室较左心室下降更明显.结论 MMP-8与TIMP-1通过影响胶原代谢,参与容量过负荷致慢性充血性心力衰竭的病理生理过程.%Objective To observe the changes of matrix metalloproteinase - 8 ( MMP - 8 ) and its tissue inhibitors of metallopreteinase -1 ( TIMP - 1 ) in plasma and cardiac muscle of rats with chronic cardiac failure induced by volume overload, and to explore those roles in physiology of chronic cardiac failure. Methods Seventeen male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups as follows:9 shunt rat models were established by abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt operation and 8 rats after sham operation served as controls. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained 8 weeks

  8. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  9. Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P crashes at night (P = .03). Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.

  10. Atomic vacancies significantly degrade the mechanical properties of phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Ying-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Due to low formation energies, it is very easy to create atomic defects in phosphorene during its fabrication process. How these atomic defects affect its mechanical behavior, however, remain unknown. Here, we report on a systematic study of the effect of atomic vacancies on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that atomic vacancies induce local stress concentration and cause early bond-breaking, leading to a significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the material. More specifically, a 2% concentration of randomly distributed mono-vacancies is able to reduce the fracture strength by ∼40%. An increase in temperature from 10 to 400 K can further deteriorate the fracture strength by ∼60%. The fracture strength of defective phosphorene is also found to be affected by defect distribution. When the defects are patterned in a line, the reduction in fracture strength greatly depends on the tilt angle and the loading direction. Furthermore, we find that di-vacancies cause an even larger reduction in fracture strength than mono-vacancies when the loading is in an armchair direction. These findings provide important guidelines for the structural design of phosphorene in future applications.

  11. Acute Chorioamnionitis and Funisitis: Definition, Pathologic Features, and Clinical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-01-01

    Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis, and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intra-amniotic infection has been generally considered to be the cause of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that “sterile” intra-amniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms but can be induced by “danger signals”, is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intra-amniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient favoring the migration of neutrophils from maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and is present in 3-5% of placentas delivered at term, but in 94% of placentas delivered between 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks for the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in fetal plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multi-organ fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults

  12. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mansour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

  13. Determining the clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a SEER-Medicare population analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ronald S; Gundrum, Jacob D; Neuner, Joan M

    2015-03-01

    Clinical guidelines have recommended annual follow-up examinations of most patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); however, evidence supporting this practice is lacking. We performed a population-based study to examine the patterns of disease presentation and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancies) comparing those with or without a previous MGUS follow-up examination. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy from 1994 through 2007 were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database and divided into 2 cohorts: those with follow-up (MGUS follow-up examination preceding the diagnosis) and those with no follow-up (no such follow-up examination). We compared the outcomes, including the rates of major complications at cancer diagnosis (acute kidney injury, cord compression, dialysis use, fracture, and hypercalcemia) and survival using propensity score adjustment and Cox proportional hazard models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Of the 17,457 study patients, 6% had undergone MGUS follow-up. After multivariable modeling, the follow-up group had significantly fewer major complications at diagnosis (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.80) and better disease-specific (median, 38 vs. 29 months, P < .001; hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and overall (median, 23 vs. 19 months, P < .001; HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95) survival. Patients with MGUS follow-up preceding the diagnosis of a monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy can experience fewer major complications and have longer survival than those without such follow-up examinations. Future studies replicating our findings in the non-Medicare population and determining the optimal schedule and cost-effectiveness of MGUS follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuni National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot S Bass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in

  15. Metabolomics changes in a rat model of obstructive jaundice: mapping to metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids as well as oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yue; Dong, Xin; Yuan, Yawei; Huang, Jinqiang; Song, Jiangang; Sun, Yumin; Lu, Zhijie; Yang, Liqun; Yu, Weifeng

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the global metabolic and some biochemical changes in rats with cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serum samples were collected in male Wistar rats with BDL (n = 8) and sham surgery (n = 8) at day 3 after surgery for metabolomics analysis using a combination of reversed phase chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS). The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Key changes after BDL included increased levels of l-phenylalanine, l-glutamate, l-tyrosine, kynurenine, l-lactic acid, LysoPC(c) (14:0), glycine and succinic acid and decreased levels of l-valine, PC(b) (19:0/0:0), taurine, palmitic acid, l-isoleucine and citric acid metabolism products. And treatment with BDL significantly decreased the levels of GSH, T-AOC as well as SOD, GSH-Px activities, and upregulated MDA levels. The changes could be mapped to metabolism of amino acids and lipids, Krebs cycle and glycolysis, as well as increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capability. Our study indicated that BDL induces major changes in the metabolism of all 3 major energy substances, as well as oxidative stress.

  16. Inducing autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Lea M; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Andersen, Jens S.

    2014-01-01

    catabolism, which has recently been found to induce autophagy in an MTOR independent way and support cancer cell survival. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to investigate the initial signaling events linking ammonia to the induction of autophagy. The MTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used...

  17. [Significance of macrophage and cytokines in expression of stone matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T

    1996-05-01

    (BACKGROUND). Urinary calculus consists of inorganic substances as a major component and organic substances as a minor component. In this study, the organic substances playing an important role in the formation of calculus, such as osteopontin, calprotectin, macrophage and cytokines, are investigated for their significance in the calculus formation mechanism. (METHODS). Using renal tissues of rats having intraperitoneal glyoxylic acid-induced calculus, mode of the expression of osteopontin was examined by in situ hybridization method, immunohistological staining and northern blot method. Then human renal tissues obtained from the nephrectomy specimen conducted for a renal calculus were subjected to immunohistological staining by an enzyme antibody method using antibodies against osteopontin, calprotectin, macrophage and cytokines. (RESULTS). In rats, while the expression of osteopontin mRNA was observed in renal distal tubular cells, no expression was observed in glomerulus or renal interstitial tissues. The level of osteopontin mRNA expression in calculus forming rats was higher than in control rats by northern blot method. In human tissues, all of osteopontin, calprotectin, macrophage exhibited positive results in the renal distal tubular cells and in the calculus nucleus in the renal distal tubular cavity. Calprotectin and macrophage exhibited positive result also in the renal interstitial tissues. Cytokines exhibited positive results for interleukin-1,6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta. Cytokines exhibited positive results in the distal tubular cells. Negative results were observed for interleukin-2,4 and 5. (CONCLUSION). Based on the findings described above, it is concluded that accumulation of macrophage in the renal interstitial tissues takes place and then one type of cytokines sensitive to macrophage is secreted. Subsequently, in the renal distal tubular cells stimulated with macrophage and cytokines, the expression of

  18. A designer bleomycin with significantly improved DNA cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Zhiyang; Wang, Liyan; Galm, Ute; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2012-08-15

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are used clinically in combination with a number of other agents for the treatment of several types of tumors, and the BLM, etoposide, and cisplatin treatment regimen cures 90-95% of metastatic testicular cancer patients. BLM-induced pneumonitis is the most feared, dose-limiting side effect of BLM in chemotherapy, which can progress into lung fibrosis and affect up to 46% of the total patient population. There have been continued efforts to develop new BLM analogues in the search for anticancer drugs with better clinical efficacy and lower lung toxicity. We have previously cloned and characterized the biosynthetic gene clusters for BLMs from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003, tallysomycins from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, and zorbamycin (ZBM) from Streptomyces flavoviridis SB9001. Comparative analysis of the three biosynthetic machineries provided the molecular basis for the formulation of hypotheses to engineer novel analogues. We now report engineered production of three new analogues, 6'-hydroxy-ZBM, BLM Z, and 6'-deoxy-BLM Z and the evaluation of their DNA cleavage activities as a measurement for their potential anticancer activity. Our findings unveiled: (i) the disaccharide moiety plays an important role in the DNA cleavage activity of BLMs and ZBMs, (ii) the ZBM disaccharide significantly enhances the potency of BLM, and (iii) 6'-deoxy-BLM Z represents the most potent BLM analogue known to date. The fact that 6'-deoxy-BLM Z can be produced in reasonable quantities by microbial fermentation should greatly facilitate follow-up mechanistic and preclinical studies to potentially advance this analogue into a clinical drug.

  19. Thrombosis and its significance after experimental pulmonary thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季颖群; 张中和; 张平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study thrombosis and its significance after acute experimental pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods The acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) model of rabbits was established by intravenous injection of autologous blood clots (0.04 g/kg) which were stabilized in temperature-controlled (70℃) distilled water for 10 min. The process of thrombosis was observed grossly and microscopically. The Quick's method was used to examine the coagulability of blood and radioimmunoassay was employed to measure the level of plasma thromboxane A2 and endothelin. Results Thrombotic propensity was observed at 1 h, fresh thrombus started to form and the blood coagulation system was activated at 24 h following clots infusion. Emboli were completely or partly dissolved at 5 d and appeared to organize at both 10 d and 14 d after clots were infused. Venous plasma thromboxane A2 concentration began to increase at 5 min (2489.59±714.68 ng/L) and reached its maximum at 15 min (2545.46±590.58 ng/L) then declined at 60 min after clot infusion (P<0.001, respectively, vs 626.59±510.02 ng/L of pre-clot). The level of endothelin in both arterial and venous blood increased at 5 d post-clot infusion (840.74±154.19 ng/L, 230.35±52.39 ng/L, respectively) compared to the one before infusion (602.66±453.26 ng/L, 148.01±53.28 ng/L, respectively, P<0.05).Conclusions Thrombosis occurs after autologous-blood-clot-induced PTE. The interactions between thrombus formation, fibrinolysis and organization determines the consequences of emboli. Abnormalities of endothelin metabolism and the increment of thromboxane A2 may play an important role in PTE.

  20. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  1. Pseudothrombocytopenia in perioperative patient: A significant laboratory artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Menezes, Ritesh G; Jena, Narendra Nath; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2013-10-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid induced platelet aggregation observed in a healthy perioperative male patient is reported in order to create awareness among anesthesiologist and laboratory personnel. The mechanisms for such changes have been highlighted.

  2. Pseudothrombocytopenia in perioperative patient: A significant laboratory artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Senthilkumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid induced platelet aggregation observed in a healthy perioperative male patient is reported in order to create awareness among anesthesiologist and laboratory personnel. The mechanisms for such changes have been highlighted.

  3. Pseudothrombocytopenia in perioperative patient: A significant laboratory artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Senthilkumaran; Ritesh G Menezes; Narendra Nath Jena; Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid induced platelet aggregation observed in a healthy perioperative male patient is reported in order to create awareness among anesthesiologist and laboratory personnel. The mechanisms for such changes have been highlighted.

  4. Novel submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity: significant effects on oral mucositis in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takako; Sako, Nobutomo; Matsuda, Takakuni; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a novel rebamipide liquid for an effective treatment of oral mucositis. The healing effects of a variety of liquids comprising submicronized rebamipide crystals were investigated using a rat cauterization-induced oral ulcer model. Whereas 2% rebamipide liquid comprising micro-crystals did not exhibit significant curative effect, 2% rebamipide liquids comprising submicronized crystals with moderate viscosities exhibited healing effects following intra-oral administration. The 2% and 4% optimized rebamipide liquids showed significant healing effects in the rat oral ulcer model (prebamipide liquid significantly reduced the percent area of ulcerated injury (prebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity following intra-oral administration showed better both healing effect in the rat oral ulcer model and preventive effect in the rat irradiation-induced glossitis model.

  5. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Clinical versus statistical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In clinical research, study results, which are statistically significant are often interpreted as being clinically important. While statistical significance indicates the reliability of the study results, clinical significance reflects its impact on clinical practice. The third article in this series exploring pitfalls in statistical analysis clarifies the importance of differentiating between statistical significance and clinical significance. PMID:26229754

  6. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. ...

  7. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  8. Significant Learning, Significant Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The acknowledgment that advisees are learners and advisors are teachers may be the most powerful philosophical change in advising in 30 years. This article builds generally on the growing momentum to view academic advising as an extension of student learning, and specifically as an expansion of "Advising as Learning" in which Hemwall and Trachte…

  9. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  10. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  11. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  12. Rapid cold hardening process of insects and its ecologically adaptive significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianhui; QI Xianlei; KANG Le

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to overwintering cold hardening, a rapid cold hardening process has recently been described in insects. This process can rapidly enhance cold tolerance of insects in several hours or even minutes. The characteristics of rapid cold hardening include inducing conditions, cold hardening effects, and fitness costs. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of rapid cold hardening include rapid changes in the phospholipid composition and the increase in hemolymph osmolalities, polyols production, proline and cold-induced proteins. Moreover, there are different views about the ecologically adaptive significance of rapid cold hardening in insects. This paper reviews research results about rapid cold hardening of insects since 1987, focusing on forms of cold injury, strategies of cold tolerance, and definitions, characteristics, physiological and biochemical mechanisms and adaptive significance of rapid cold hardening.

  13. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    indicates that they must be viewed as potential problems until fuller data can be assembled. Toxicity to insects of PCB's of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCB's enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCB's and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCB's also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Fish and crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Residues of PCB's in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCB's may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. PCB's induce microsomal enzyme activity in birds and mammals and the lower chlorinated mixtures have estrogenic activity in rats. Exposure to PCB's increased the susceptibility of mallard ducklings to duck hepatitis virus. Offspring of pheasants whose parents received high dosages of PCB's made poor choices in visual cliff tests. Egg production and hatching after pipping also were affected. Long-term studies of the reproductive effects of Aroclor 1254 on mallards and bobwhite quail and of Aroclor 1254 plus DDE on quail showed no significant differences from controls. In studies of chickens, however, egg production, hatchability, and shell thickness were impaired by high doses of Aroclor 1254 and by low doses of Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available indicates that they must be

  14. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  15. American Samoa ESI: CASSPT (Coral Areas of Special Significance - Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for "Coral Areas of Special Significance" in American Samoa. Coral Areas of Special Significance were...

  16. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  17. MICROENTERPRISES AND SIGNIFICANT RISK FACTORS IN LOAN PROCESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaroslav Belás; Sergej Vojtovic; Aleksandr Kljucnikov

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper was to define and quantify significant risk factors of microenterprises' credit financing in the current dynamic economic environment and to compare the significant position...

  18. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy...... less than 0.02). Thrombolysis resulted in a non-significant reduction in exercise-induced ST segment depression: prevalence 43% vs 62% in controls. However, during ambulatory monitoring the duration of transient myocardial ischaemia was significantly reduced in thrombolysed patients: 322 min vs 1144...... myocardial ischaemia. This may explain the improvement in myocardial function during physical activities, which was also observed in this study....

  19. Clinical significance in nursing research: A discussion and descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Denise F

    2017-05-10

    It is widely understood that statistical significance should not be equated with clinical significance, but the topic of clinical significance has not received much attention in the nursing literature. By contrast, interest in conceptualizing and operationalizing clinical significance has been a "hot topic" in other health care fields for several decades. The major purpose of this paper is to briefly describe recent advances in defining and quantifying clinical significance. The overview covers both group-level indicators of clinical significance (e.g., effect size indexes), and individual-level benchmarks (e.g., the minimal important change index). A secondary purpose is to describe the extent to which developments in clinical significance have penetrated the nursing literature. A descriptive analysis of a sample of primary research articles published in three high-impact nursing research journals in 2016 was undertaken. A total of 362 articles were electronically searched for terms relating to statistical and clinical significance. Of the 362 articles, 261 were reports of quantitative studies, the vast majority of which (93%) included a formal evaluation of the statistical significance of the results. By contrast, the term "clinical significance" or related surrogate terms were found in only 33 papers, and most often the term was used informally, without explicit definition or assessment. Raising consciousness about clinical significance should be an important priority among nurse researchers. Several recommendations are offered to improve the visibility and salience of clinical significance in nursing science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Quantitative Framework for Event Significance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Durk Hun; Kim, Min Chull [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Maryland (United States)

    2010-10-15

    There is an increasing trend in quantitative evaluation of the safety significance of operational events using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique. An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance has been developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which consists of an assessment hierarchy and a number of matrices. The safety significance of various events, e.g., internal or external initiating events that occurred during at-power or shutdown conditions, can be quantitatively analyzed using this framework, and then, the events rated according to their significance. This paper briefly describes the basic concept of the integrated quantitative framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  1. Induced-charge Electrokinetic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Squires, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of AC electro-osmosis near micro-electrodes, we predict a broad class of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena involving induced interfacial charge. By considering various polarizable objects (metals or dielectrics) in DC and AC applied fields, we develop a simple physical picture of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO), the fluid slip at a surface due to an electric field acting on the diffuse charge it induces. We also discuss `induced-charge electrophoresis' (ICEP), the analogous motion of a freely-suspended polarizable particle. Both differ significantly from their classical linear counterparts. We present a mathematical theory of ICEO flows in the weakly nonlinear limit of thin double layers. As an example, we calculate the time-dependent ICEO slip around a metallic sphere with a thin dielectric coating in a suddenly-applied DC field. We briefly discuss possible applications of ICEO to microfluidics and of ICEP to colloidal manipulation.

  2. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Induced abortion and psychosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Kulier, R; Perrin, E; Campana, A

    2000-12-01

    Little information exists on the impact of induced abortion on psychosexuality. Negative psychological effects and psychiatric complications due to termination of pregnancy seem to be rare. The objective of this study was to review the impact of induced abortion on sexuality and couple relationships. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Studies had to report a quantitative or qualitative evaluation of sexuality after pregnancy termination. Four studies were included. In the one prospective study using a control group, no difference in sexual functioning between groups after 1 year was reported. In the remaining observational studies, sexual dysfunction was reported in up to 30% of women after termination. Women undergoing abortion had significantly more conflicts in their partnerships. This was similar in all studies. Separation occurred in about one-quarter of all couples. Some studies report sexual dysfunction after termination of pregnancy. In about half of the couples separated after termination, abortion seemed not to have led to the separation. Psychological factors, together with relationship problems, might have played a role in failed contraception. The impact of induced abortion on sexuality needs to be studied in greater detail with rigorous methodology to draw firm conclusions.

  4. Expression and significance of CHIP in canine mammary gland tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huanan; Yang, Xu; Jin, Yipeng; Pei, Shimin; Zhang, Di; Ma, Wen; Huang, Jian; QIU, Hengbin; Zhang, Xinke; JIANG, Qiuyue; Sun, Weidong; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Degui

    2015-01-01

    CHIP (Carboxy terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that can induce ubiquitination and degradation of several oncogenic proteins. The expression of CHIP is frequently lower in human breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. However, the expression and role of CHIP in the canine mammary gland tumor (CMGT) remain unclear. We investigated the potential correlation between CHIP expression and mammary gland tumor prognosis in female dogs. CHIP expression was measured i...

  5. Renal fructose-metabolizing enzymes: significance in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranhold, J F; Loh, D; Morris, R C

    1969-07-25

    In patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, which is characterized by deficient aldolase activity toward fructose-1-phosphate, fructose induces a renal tubular dysfunction that implicates only the proximal convoluted tubule. Because normal metabolism of fructose by way of fructose-1-phosphate requires fructokinase, aldolase "B," and triokinase, the exclusively cortical location of these enzymes indicates that the medulla is not involved in the metabolic abnormality presumably causal of the renal dysfunction.

  6. Significance of humoral neopterin in clinical diagnostics and prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanchun; Hu Zhidong

    2011-01-01

    Neopterin is bioactive substance released by the activated monocyte/macrophage,and an early and sensitive marker used for reflection of cellular immune activation status induced by the lymphocyte macrophage system.Observation of neopterin levels is conducive to the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases. This article reviews the existing evidence that neopterin has an important role in cardiovascular risk,infectious diseases,malignancy,autoimmune diseases and transplantaiton.

  7. Thyroid cytology-nuclear versus architectural atypia within the "Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance" Bethesda category have significantly different rates of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tiffany Rui Xuan; Nga, Min En; Lum, Jeffrey Huey Yew; Wong, Wendy Meihua; Tan, Wee Boon; Parameswaran, Rajeev; Ngiam, Kee Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used classification system for the reporting of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimens. However, the "atypical" category ("atypia of undetermined significance" [AUS] or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" [FLUS]) continues to cause diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. The objectives of this study were to describe the differential malignancy rates of FNACs diagnosed as AUS/FLUS based on nuclear or architectural atypia and to assess the significance of demographic and ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy in this category. A retrospective review was performed of all thyroid FNACs between 2008 and 2014 that were diagnosed as AUS/FLUS at a tertiary referral center in Singapore. Patient demographics, preoperative ultrasonographic features, and follow-up data were collected and correlated with the final histopathologic diagnosis in resected cases. In total, 309 thyroid nodules were diagnosed as AUS/FLUS, and 137 (44%) were surgically excised. Final histology yielded 37 (27%) malignancies. The malignancy rate for nodules that featured nuclear atypia was significantly higher at 36.8% than the rate for nodules that had only architectural atypia at 14.7% (P < .01). After up to 3 repeat FNACs, 67.1% of cases had a more definitive diagnosis. The only predictive sonographic finding for malignancy was irregular margins (P < .01). The disparity between malignancy risks within the Bethesda "atypical" category suggests that cytologic (nuclear) atypia is significantly more predictive of malignancy than architectural atypia. This supports the substratification of patients according to risk and a corresponding management approach within this category. A sonographic finding of irregular margins is also predictive for malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:245-256. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  9. MHC class II expression in human basophils: induction and lack of functional significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid L Voskamp

    Full Text Available The antigen-presenting abilities of basophils and their role in initiating a Th2 phenotype is a topic of current controversy. We aimed to determine whether human basophils can be induced to express MHC Class II and act as antigen presenting cells for T cell stimulation. Isolated human basophils were exposed to a panel of cytokines and TLR-ligands and assessed for MHC Class II expression. MHC Class II was expressed in up to 17% of isolated basophils following incubation with a combination of IL-3, IFN-γ and GM-CSF for 72 hours. Costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86 were expressed at very low levels after stimulation. Gene expression analysis of MHC Class II-positive basophils confirmed up-regulation of HLA-DR, HLA-DM, CD74 and Cathepsin S. However, MHC Class II expressing basophils were incapable of inducing antigen-specific T cell activation or proliferation. This is the first report of significant cytokine-induced MHC Class II up-regulation, at both RNA and protein level, in isolated human basophils. By testing stimulation with relevant T cell epitope peptide as well as whole antigen, the failure of MHC Class II expressing basophils to induce T cell response was shown not to be solely due to inefficient antigen uptake and/or processing.

  10. How to Measure Significance of Community Structure in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2010-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for complex networks, which can simplify their functional analysis considerably. Recently, many approaches were proposed to community structure detection, but few works were focused on the significance of community structure. Since real networks obtained from complex systems always contain error links, and most of the community detection algorithms have random factors, evaluate the significance of community structure is important and urgent. In this paper, we use the eigenvectors' stability to characterize the significance of community structures. By employing the eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix of a given network, we can evaluate the significance of its community structure and obtain the optimal number of communities, which are always hard for community detection algorithms. We apply our method to many real networks. We find that significant community structures exist in many social networks and C.elegans neural network, and that less significant community stru...

  11. Algorithm for Detecting Significant Locations from Raw GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi

    We present a fast algorithm for probabilistically extracting significant locations from raw GPS data based on data point density. Extracting significant locations from raw GPS data is the first essential step of algorithms designed for location-aware applications. Assuming that a location is significant if users spend a certain time around that area, most current algorithms compare spatial/temporal variables, such as stay duration and a roaming diameter, with given fixed thresholds to extract significant locations. However, the appropriate threshold values are not clearly known in priori and algorithms with fixed thresholds are inherently error-prone, especially under high noise levels. Moreover, for N data points, they are generally O(N 2) algorithms since distance computation is required. We developed a fast algorithm for selective data point sampling around significant locations based on density information by constructing random histograms using locality sensitive hashing. Evaluations show competitive performance in detecting significant locations even under high noise levels.

  12. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators. Statistical significance tests are highly controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with s...

  13. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Highway Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  14. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Aviation Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  15. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Transit Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  16. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  17. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis for four days induces vascular abnormalities and myocardial infarct areas but not significant arterial hypertension Inibição da síntese do óxido nítrico durante quatro dias induz anormalidades vasculares e áreas de infarto miocárdico, porém, não induz hipertensão arterial significativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Xavier-Vidal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is an endothelium vasorelaxing factor and at least in some cases is the main cause of arterial hypertension, which is one of the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of mortality, representing about 30% of the total deaths. The L-NAME (Nω-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester blocks the nitric oxide synthesis necessary to maintain the normal arterial pressure. OBJECTIVE: To study lesions in myocardium due to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis during four days (via L-NAME oral administration, concentration: 75 mgs versus 100 mL-1. METHODS: Fourteen normotensive young adults Wistar rats were submitted, during four days, to L-NAME. Six rats were utilized as the Control Group. At day 4 of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, weighed, and their thoraxes were opened, and the cardiotomy was performed. The hearts were weighed, fixed, and processed using routine methods, and they were sectioned in 3 µm and stained. RESULTS: Abnormalities were observed in the wall of arterial vessels of any dimension, as vascular damage with increasing wall thickness related mainly to proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cell in submitted animals. Proliferation of cells in the intimal layer and its thickening were also observed in small arterial vessels (arteriole. Infarct areas were present. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggested that inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis for four days induces vascular abnormalities and myocardial infarct areas, but not arterial hypertension.CONTEXTO: O óxido nítrico é um fator de relaxamento vascular e, pelo menos em certos casos, é a principal causa de hipertensão arterial no ser humano. A hipertensão arterial é um importante fator de risco de doenças cardiovasculares. No Brasil, as doenças cardiovasculares são a primeira causa de mortalidade, representando cerca de 30% do total de óbitos. O L-NAME (N

  18. Microcracks and Overpressure- Induced Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)<