WorldWideScience

Sample records for kv international transmission

  1. Proposed amendment to presidential permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company's (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP's original amendment request remain valid

  2. First 735 kV transmission, Manicouagan, Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, L

    1964-11-01

    The 735 kV transmission network of Hydro Quebec is described giving reasons for choice of voltage, stability factors level of insulation, disposition of conductors, insulators, equipment used and state of readiness of the project.

  3. HVDC transmission preferred to 750 kV ac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-25

    It is unlikely that there will be a need in Britain for ac transmission voltages above 400 kV. But with the growing load density in the large conurbations with no possibility of local generation, high voltage dc transmission is likely to be most useful. It was concluded that by 1971 the 400 kV supergrid would be nation-wide and 6,200 circuit miles should be in service. With the expansion to accommodate the large new generating stations, the 400 kV supergrid would become an extremely high power distribution network rather than a transmission system. A higher voltage for transmission is outside the rational limit of speculation for a country the size of Britain.

  4. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline's pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE's review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest

  5. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  6. Method of selecting optimum cross arm lengths for a 750 kV transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, G N; Olorokov, V P

    1965-01-01

    A method is presented, based on both technical and economic considerations, for selecting cross arm lengths for intermediate poles of power transmission lines according to the effects of internal overvoltage, methods from probability theory and mathematical statistics employed. The problem of optimum pole size is considered in terms of the effect of internal overvoltages for a prescribed maximum level of 2.1 PU currently used in the USSR for the design of 750 kV lines.

  7. Survey of magnetic fields near BPA 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, N.; Aggarwal, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize typical levels and variability of 60Hz magnetic fields at the centerline and edge of right-of-way of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines. This was accomplished by taking magnetic field measurements at over 800 spans in Oregon and Washington. The spans were sampled using a stratified random sampling procedure with region (East vs. West), voltage (230-kV vs 500-kV), and circuit configuration as strata. There were five different circuit configuration groups for each region/voltage category requiring a total of 200 strata. Magnetic field measurements were taken at 13 locations under each span using an EMDEX-C as a survey meter. Additional information recorded for each span included conductor height (at 10 locations), right-of-way width, longitudinal and lateral slope, time of day, vegetation, terrain, weather conditions, temperature, wind speed, span length and presence of other lines in the corridor. 9 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs

  8. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  9. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park

  10. Internal services simulation control in 220/110kV power transformer station Mintia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulica, D.; Rob, R.

    2018-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the electric transport and distribution networks infrastructure are satisfying the electric energy demand, ensuring the continuity of supply to customers, minimizing electricity losses in the transmission and distribution networks of public interest. This paper presents simulations in functioning of the internal services system 400/230 V ac in the 220/110 kV power transformer station Mintia. Using simulations in Visual Basic, the following premises are taken into consideration. All the ac consumers of the 220/110 kV power transformer station Mintia will be supplied by three 400/230 V transformers for internal services which can mutual reserve. In case of damaging at one transformer, the others are able to assume the entire consumption using automatic release of reserves. The simulation program studies three variants in which the continuity of supply to customers are ensured. As well, by simulations, all the functioning situations are analyzed in detail.

  11. STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF 21M 132kV TRANSMISSION TOWER WITH MEDIUM WIND INTENSITY

    OpenAIRE

    V. LAKSHMI; A. RAJAGOPALA RAO

    2012-01-01

    Electric Power is today playing an increasingly important role in the life of the community. In the electric power system the production and transmission of power are two predominant factors. For the purpose of transmission of electricity towers are the main medium with some wires at required distances and altitudes. The remotehydroelectric power plants have given rise to the need for extra high voltage. Prior to 1950, 150 kV electric transmission lines were considered and still higher voltag...

  12. Measurements of Voltage Harmonics in 400 kV Transmission Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Pawełek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of voltage harmonics measurements performed in the 400 kV transmission network. The voltage was measured by means of three transducers: resistive voltage divider, inductive measuring transformer and capacitive voltage measuring transformer. Instrument errors were estimated for measuring transformers with reference to the harmonic values obtained from the voltage divider.

  13. Full Scale Experimental Study on the Air Insulation of 765kV Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Boo; Shin, Jeong Woon; Cho, Sung Bae; Chang, Sung Chil; Kwak, Joo Shik [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ik Soo; Lee, Heyoung Ho; Kang, Young Sik; Lee, Hong Sik; Choi, Beyoung Joo; Kim, Young Bae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Design and construction of testing yard. Technical specification of impulse voltage generator which was installed in testing yard. Corrosion and statistical analysis of test data. Test object setup and test results of flashover characteristic in various paths. Recommended optimum air clearance of 765kV transmission lines. (author). 163 refs., figs.

  14. Voltage Analysis Improvement of 150 kV Transmission Subsystem Using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, P. A.; Hakim, D. L.; Sucita, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, testing improvements to the distribution voltage electricity at 150 kV transmission subsystem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology. One of them is by doing the control of active and reactive power through the power electronics equipment Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM). The subsystem is tested because it has a voltage profile are relatively less well when based on the IEEE / ANSI C.84.1 (142.5 - 157.5 kV). This study was conducted by analyzing the Newton-Raphson power flow on the simulator DigSilent Power Factory 15 to determine the profile of the voltage (V) on the system. Bus which has the lowest voltage to be a reference in the installation of STATCOM. From this research is known that the voltage on the conditions of the existing bus 28, as many as 21-23 still below standard buses (142.5 kV), after the installation is done using STATCOM, voltage on the buses improved by increasing the number of tracks that follow the standard / is in the range 142.5 kV -157.5 kV as many as 23-27 buses or 78.6% - 96%, with the optimum mounting on a bus Rancaekek STATCOM II with a capacity of 300 MVA.

  15. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  16. Analyzing the Health Risks Resulting from Extending the 400kV High Voltage Transmission Lines on the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Dervish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is difficult to imagine life without electricity, there are compiling confirmations show thatexposure to magnetic fields correlated electricity and radio frequencies pose magnificent hazards to human health. The most economist method to transfer electricity from power generation stations to users is by measures of high power transmission lines, buoyed by big transmission towers. The cables laced between the towers radiate magnetic and electric fields. In this research study, the magnetic field at ground level under 400 kV network lines extended in residential places have been conducted in two ways, mathematical calculation and practical measurement then the obtained results analyzed and compared with the international standards reference values. the reason of chose this type of transmission line is frequently using. The results indicate that they fall within the safe limiter commended by the WorldHealth Organization. the strength of radiation increasing with high of sea level and moisture ratiobecause of air ionization.

  17. California-Oregon 500-kV transmission line development of design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    The California-Oregon Transmission Project (COTP) encompassed the design and construction of a third 500-kV ac intertie between California and the Pacific Northwest Transmission system. Sargent ampersand Lundy's (S ampersand L) scope of work in the COTP includes the design of approximately 150 miles of new single-circuit, 500-kV transmission line from southern Oregon to the vicinity of Redding, California. This paper presents the development of the design criteria for this segment of the project, which crosses diverse topographic and climatic regions. This project is an example of the increasing utilization of computers in transmission line engineering. Almost all aspects of design involved the use of the computer. Also, the development of the design criteria for this project coincided with an early release of the TLWorkstation software package by EPRI. TLWorkstation is an engineering workstation containing a family of programs for various aspects of transmission line design. This engineering software allows for increasing refinement in the design and economic optimization of transmission lines and is becoming an important design tool for transmission engineers

  18. Rapid internalization of the oncogenic K+ channel K(V10.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kohl

    Full Text Available K(V10.1 is a mammalian brain voltage-gated potassium channel whose ectopic expression outside of the brain has been proven relevant for tumor biology. Promotion of cancer cell proliferation by K(V10.1 depends largely on ion flow, but some oncogenic properties remain in the absence of ion permeation. Additionally, K(V10.1 surface populations are small compared to large intracellular pools. Control of protein turnover within cells is key to both cellular plasticity and homeostasis, and therefore we set out to analyze how endocytic trafficking participates in controlling K(V10.1 intracellular distribution and life cycle. To follow plasma membrane K(V10.1 selectively, we generated a modified channel of displaying an extracellular affinity tag for surface labeling by α-bungarotoxin. This modification only minimally affected K(V10.1 electrophysiological properties. Using a combination of microscopy and biochemistry techniques, we show that K(V10.1 is constitutively internalized involving at least two distinct pathways of endocytosis and mainly sorted to lysosomes. This occurs at a relatively fast rate. Simultaneously, recycling seems to contribute to maintain basal K(V10.1 surface levels. Brief K(V10.1 surface half-life and rapid lysosomal targeting is a relevant factor to be taken into account for potential drug delivery and targeting strategies directed against K(V10.1 on tumor cells.

  19. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  20. High power cable with internal water cooling 400 kV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasquin, W.; Harjes, B.

    1982-08-01

    Due to the concentration of electricity production in large power plants, the need of higher power transmissions, and the protection of environment, developement of a 400 kV water cooled cable in the power range of 1 to 5 GVA was undertaken. The fabrication and testing of equipment, engineering of cable components, fabrication of a test cable, development of cable terminal laboratory, testing of test cable, field testing of test cable, fabrication of industrial cable laboratory, testing of industrial cable, field testing of industrial cable, and system analysis for optimization were prepared. The field testing was impossible to realize. However, it is proved that a cable consisting of an internal stainless steel water cooled tube, covered by stranded copper profiles, insulated with heavy high quality paper, and protected by an aluminum cover can be produced, withstand tests accordingly to IEC/VDE recommendations, and is able to fulfill all exploitation conditions.

  1. Impact of Considering 110 kV Grid Structures on the Congestion Management in the German Transmission Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffrichter, André; Barrios, Hans; Massmann, Janek; Venkataramanachar, Bhavasagar; Schnettler, Armin

    2018-02-01

    The structural changes in the European energy system lead to an increase of renewable energy sources that are primarily connected to the distribution grid. Hence the stationary analysis of the transmission grid and the regionalization of generation capacities are strongly influenced by subordinate grid structures. To quantify the impact on the congestion management in the German transmission grid, a 110 kV grid model is derived using publicly available data delivered by Open Street Map and integrated into an existing model of the European transmission grid. Power flow and redispatch simulations are performed for three different regionalization methods and grid configurations. The results show a significant impact of the 110 kV system and prove an overestimation of power flows in the transmission grid when neglecting subordinate grids. Thus, the redispatch volume in Germany to dissolve bottlenecks in case of N-1 contingencies decreases by 38 % when considering the 110 kV grid.

  2. The 12th 735-kV transmission line project: Hydro-Quebec network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is proposing to construct a 735-kV transmission line from the Chissibi station near the LG3 hydroelectric power plant to the Jacques-Cartier station near Quebec City. The width of the right-of-way will generally be 90 m and it is intended to install the line in two stages. The Chissibi-Chibougamau section should enter service in 1993 and the Chibougamau-Cartier section in 1994. The cost of the line is estimated at $1.21 billion, of which $900 million is for line construction and $310 million for station equipment. Prospective corridors for the line route have been selected, portions of which enable twinning with Hydro-Quebec's existing 9th 735-kV line. A series of hearings on the environmental and other impacts of the power line project was held by the Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement and results are summarized along with the views of the Bureau. The summary describes the justification for the project, the choice of the transmission line route, the evaluation of the impacts of the project on the natural and human environments, health effects due to magnetic fields, and effects on the economic development of northern Quebec. Recommendations are given for mitigating the impacts of the project. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Choice of 735 kV transmission economics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGillis, D T

    1966-01-01

    The present Hydro Quebec load is 8,000 MW and is expected to be 16,000 MW by the late 1970's and 26,000 MW by the middle of the 1980's. This load is concentrated in the area along the St. Lawrence River between Quebec City and Montreal where most of Quebec's six million people live. Fortunately there is in the Province of Quebec enough hydroelectric potential to meet the increase in load that is expected to develop over the next 15 to 20 years. These new sources are, however, at least 500 miles away from the Montreal-Quebec load area. Though this consideration had some bearing on the planning of the Hydro-Quebec ehv network, the choice of 735 kV transmission for the Manicouagan-Outardes project was based principally on economic studies of alternative transmission facilities for this specific project.

  4. Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO's circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western's existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations

  5. Flatiron-Erie 115kV transmission line project, Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to uprate its existing 115-kV Flatiron-Erie transmission line. The line is located in Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado, and passes through the City of Longmont. The line connects Flatiron Substation and several of the substations supplying Longmont. It is a single circuit 115-kV line, 31.5 miles long, and was built in 1950-51 on a 75-foot wide right-of-way (ROW) using wood H-frame structures. Western proposes to build 27 new structures along the line, to replace or modify 45 of the existing structures and to remote 11 of them. Many of these additions and changes would involve structures that are approximately 5 to 15 feet taller than the existing ones. The existing conductors and ground wires would remain in place. The purpose of these actions would be to allow the power carrying capability of the line to be increased and to replace deteriorating/structural members. Western would be the sole participant in the proposed project. This report gives an analysis of the study area environment and the development of alternative routes. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the primary alternative routes. The environmental consequences of this project are addressed

  6. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  7. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  8. 75 FR 9573 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc: Bemidji-Grand Rapids 230kV Transmission Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Rapids 230kV Transmission Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability... copy of the Draft EIS may be viewed online at the following Web sites: http://www.usda.gov/rus/water..., Longville, MN 56655; Walker Public Library, 207 4th St., Walker, MN 56484; Bovey Public Library--Village...

  9. 75 FR 75170 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... availability of Record of Decision. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service, hereinafter referred to as RUS and/or the Agency, has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the... financing to construct the 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji...

  10. Improving the Transmission System Reliability for the 154kV Radial Network Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Jin Boo; Yoo, Myeong Ho; Yoon, Young Beum; Kim, Tae Won [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Won; Chung, Beom Jin; Jung, Jung Won; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Myung Hee; Kim, Hyun Jong; Kim, Chae Hee [KEYIN CO., (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Analyzing that 154kV radial network current ed operated, we developed Automatic Power Reconfiguration System(APRS) which restore blackout area. It consists of special data acquisition system(DAU) and central monitoring system for reason of protecting currently operating power system. In addition, it communicates using optical communication network for high speed data transmission and accuracy. An Accuracy of operation and stability of the developed system is tested using Real Time Digital Simulator in 3-bus equivalent model system. In An Outage case, our developed system can restore a blackout area in three second. An ability of the restoration of a blackout was verified by simulations. For the field test, the developed system was set up at SINCHON S/S, SESOMUN S/S, SINDANG S/S and MAJANG S/S governed by Seoul Power Transmission Center. If the system reliability is proved for a one year test in real power system, application of the system will be extended to the other substations.

  11. Novel adaptive distance relay algorithm considering the operation of 154 kV SFCL in Korean power transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.; Song, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents an outline of the new project of the 154 kV SFCL in Korea. • And then we review some protection problems for the application of 154 kV SFCLs. • This paper proposes a new adaptive protection algorithm for 154 kV SFCLs. • The developed algorithm is tested in a simple distance relay system. - Abstract: In general, SFCLs can have a negative impact on the protective coordination in power transmission system because of the variable impedance of SFCLs. It is very important to solve the protection problems of the power system for the successful application of SFCLs to real power transmission system. This paper reviews some protection problems which can be caused by the application of 154 kV SFCLs to power transmission systems in South Korea. And then we propose an adaptive protection algorithm to solve the problems. The adaptive protection algorithm uses the real time information of the SFCL system operation.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment on a 765 kV Venezuelan Transmission System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlu; Tremouille, Gilles; Beroual, Abderrahmane; Bessede, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    The demand to preserve the environment and form a sustainable development is greatly increasing in the recent decades all over the world, and this environmental concern is also merged in electrical power industry, resulting in many eco-design approaches in T and D industries. As a method of eco-design, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a systematic tool that enables the assessment of the environmental impacts of a product or service throughout its entire life cycle, i.e. raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. In T and D industries, LCA has been done for a lot of products individually, in order to see one product's environmental impacts and to seek for ways of improving its environmental performance. This eco-design for product approach is a rather well-developed trend, however, as only a single electrical product cannot provide the electrical power to users, electrical system consists of a huge number of components, in order to investigate system's environmental profile, the entire environmental profiles of different composing products has to be integrated systematically, that is to say, a system approach is needed. Under this philosophy, in this paper, an LCA using SimaPro (one kind of LCA software) is conducted on a whole Venezuelan 765 kV AC transmission system, which transmits 8000 MW hydro-electrical power through 760 km to this country's load centers, with total 7 substations, i.e. one sending end, 2 intermediate substations and 4 receiving ends. This LCA includes both transmission lines and substations, and then the environmental impacts of the whole transmission system are investigated. (authors)

  13. High power cable with internal water cooling 400 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasquin, W; Harjes, B

    1982-08-01

    The project was planned for a duration of 4 years. Afterwards it has been extended over 6 years and finally stopped after 3 1/2 years. Therefore, of course results of field tests with an internally cooled 400 kV cable are not available. Nevertheless, this conductor cooled high power cable has been developed to such an extend, that this manufactured cable could withstand type tests according to IEC/VDE recommendations. Even by missing field tests it is obvious that a high power cable for 400 kV is available.

  14. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  15. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  16. Long term investigation of thermal behaviour of 110 kV underground transmission lines in the Belgrade area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sredojevic, M.R.; Naumov, R.M.; Popovic, D.P. [Nikola Tesla Electrical Engineering Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Simic, M.D. [Electrical Utility Co., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes the procedure for applying a special cable backfill material, developed and manufactured at the Institute ``Nikola Tesla`` for the thermal stabilisation and reduction of hot spot cable operating temperature, on specific hot spots of 110 kV underground transmission lines in the Belgrade area. The results presented in this paper are an important contribution to the proof of the justification and necessity of defining and introducing in practice new procedures for the thermal stabilisation and reduction of operating temperature of existing, as well as of new, underground transmission cable lines to be built. (author)

  17. Comparing Effects of TCR and TSC on MHO Distance Protection Setting in 400 kV Algerian Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the performances of distance relays setting in 400 kV in Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Sonelgaz Group (Algerian company of Electrical and Gas compensated by shunt Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS. The facts are used for controlling transmission voltage, power flow, reactive power, and damping of power system oscillations in high power transfer levels. The effects of SVC devices i.e. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR and the Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC insertion, on the total impedance of a transmission line protected by MHO distance relay are investigated. The modified setting zones protections for three forward zones (Z1, Z2 and Z3 have been calculated in order to improve the performances of distance relay protection and prevent circuit breaker nuisance tripping.

  18. Study of a phase-to-ground fault on a 400 kV overhead transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagăr, A.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Power utilities need to supply their consumers at high power quality level. Because the faults that occur on High-Voltage and Extra-High-Voltage transmission lines can cause serious damages in underlying transmission and distribution systems, it is important to examine each fault in detail. In this work we studied a phase-to-ground fault (on phase 1) of 400 kV overhead transmission line Mintia-Arad. Indactic® 650 fault analyzing system was used to record the history of the fault. Signals (analog and digital) recorded by Indactic® 650 were visualized and analyzed by Focus program. Summary of fault report allowed evaluation of behavior of control and protection equipment and determination of cause and location of the fault.

  19. Distance Protection Impedance Measurement for Inhomogeneous Multiple-Circuit 400/150 kV Transmission Lines with Shared Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Sigurbjörnsson, Ragnar; Bukh, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    are interconnected in a simple way but via transformers and infeed from remaining parts of the network. Distance relay measured fault loop impedance shows wide ranges of variations for both phase-phase loops as well as phase-earth loops. No simple relations exist. Simulation models can be used to study fault loop...... impedance for combined faults and thereby shed light on relay trips. This study uses actual fault records, analytical method and PSCAD simulation studies to analyse combined faults in an existing 400 and 150 kV transmission line owned by Danish TSO Energinet.dk. The results clearly show that an accurate...

  20. AC transmission, with very high voltages and the 750 kV line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocker, H

    1964-01-01

    The economic case for adoption of extra-high voltages for transmitting electric power over distances of the order of 1000 km is discussed. Some special technical developments for solving the problems attached to such high voltages are briefly discussed, particularly in the fields of switching and transients suppression. The first 750-kV projects in Canada and Russia are mentioned. Equipment, e.g., bushings, transformers, etc., operating at such voltages are illustrated.

  1. Proposal to amend existing operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, Routt, Jackson and Larimer Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, is proposing to amend an existing US Forest Service operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, which are located in Routt, jackson, and Larimer counties, Colorado. These transmission lines cross portions of the Roosevelt and Routt National Forests. The long-term use authorization Western is requesting from the Forest Service would be for the life of the Ault-Craig and Hayden-Archer transmission lines. This environmental assessment addresses those access road and right-of-way maintenance activities identified by Western that would be performed on Forest Service managed lands during the next approximately five years

  2. Proposal to amend existing operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, Routt, Jackson and Larimer Counties, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, is proposing to amend an existing US Forest Service operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, which are located in Routt, jackson, and Larimer counties, Colorado. These transmission lines cross portions of the Roosevelt and Routt National Forests. The long-term use authorization Western is requesting from the Forest Service would be for the life of the Ault-Craig and Hayden-Archer transmission lines. This environmental assessment addresses those access road and right-of-way maintenance activities identified by Western that would be performed on Forest Service managed lands during the next approximately five years.

  3. Analysis of a back flashover across insulator strings on a 115 kV transmission line tower by PSCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worakit Anekthanasuwan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightning striking on a transmission tower induces high ground potential rise and high voltage at tower arms in which potential is normally at ground level, and subsequently causes overvoltage across an insulator string. If this overvoltage is higher than the withstanding voltage of the insulator string according to the v-t (voltage-time curve, back flashover phenomena will occur and this event may cause outage. The main objective of this paper is to study the factors influencing the back flashover phenomena. The computer program PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC is used to simulate lightning striking on a transmission tower 115kV. Lightning current, transmission towers, ground resistance, insulator strings and back flashover phenomena are modeled. Main simulations are lightning striking on different towers, different soil resistivity, different lightning current magnitudes and wave shapes, different locations, and different phase angles of source voltage. Simulation results show that the higher tower encounters higher induced voltage. A back flashover occurs at the top tower arm easier than at the middle and lower arms. The higher soil resistivity induces higher voltage. The larger lightning current magnitude impacts on higher induced voltage. The longer rise time of lightning current generates lower induced voltage. Lightning strikes directly on tower generate higher voltage than that of striking on overhead ground wires.

  4. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  5. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE CHOICE OF THE NEW GENERATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TRANSMISSION LINE 220 kV OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTOLATI V.M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission Power Lines of new generation are described in the article (single- compact, double-circuit compact, double-circuit Controlled Self-compensating High Voltage Transmission Power Lines (CSHVL. Basic principles of creation, design elements and comparative characteristics of the transmission lines of the new generation are described, the advantages of its are showed. Methodical approaches to the choosing of a new generation of transmission lines and facilities management FACTS are formulated. Methodical approaches to the choice of options for transmission lines 220 kV and facilities management are shown.

  6. Power transmission pricing: issues and international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenhoefer, H.J.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    A key aspect of electricity industry reorganization is transmission pricing because it heavily influences the degree of effective competition in 'liberalized' electricity markets. this paper presents an overview transmission pricing models, of issues related to an effective design of a transmission pricing approach, and presents approaches implemented internationally. A conclusion is that, due to the great number of institutional designs of electricity market organizations, particularly in Europe, it will be difficult to design/implement a model of cross-border transmission pricing that is capable of inducing a high degree of non-discriminatory international competition in electricity markets. (author)

  7. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations

  8. Attainment of 40.5 pm spatial resolution using 300 kV scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with fifth-order aberration corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Ishikawa, Ryo; Kohno, Yuji; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2018-02-01

    The achievement of a fine electron probe for high-resolution imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy requires technological developments, especially in electron optics. For this purpose, we developed a microscope with a fifth-order aberration corrector that operates at 300 kV. The contrast flat region in an experimental Ronchigram, which indicates the aberration-free angle, was expanded to 70 mrad. By using a probe with convergence angle of 40 mrad in the scanning transmission electron microscope at 300 kV, we attained the spatial resolution of 40.5 pm, which is the projected interatomic distance between Ga-Ga atomic columns of GaN observed along [212] direction.

  9. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  10. 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This books contains the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions, that was held in Sinaia, Romania from June 20 -23, 2012. Power Transmissions is a very complex and multi-disciplinary scientific field of Mechanical Engineering that covers the different types of transmissions (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic) as well as all the machine elements involved, such as gears, bearings, shafts, couplings and a lot more. It concerns not only their basic theory but also their design, analysis, testing, application and maintenance. The requirements set to modern power transmissions are really tough to meet: They need to be more efficient, stronger, smaller, noiseless, easier to produce and to cost less. There is a strong demand to become easier in operation and maintenance, or even automatic and in maintenance-free. Last but not least, they should be easily recycled and respect the environment. Joint efforts of specialists from both academia and industry can significantly contribute to fulf...

  11. The first 100 Mw Brazil - Argentina interconnection. The design of the 500/525 Kv Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi-Ita power transmission line; Primeira interconexao 1000 MW Brasil-Argentina. Projeto da LT 500/525 kV Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi-Ita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Batista Guimaraes Ferreira da; Guimaraes, Rogerio Peixoto; Menezes, Luciene Oliveira; Amaro, Rania Carla Peixoto [ABB, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: joao-batista.ferreira@br.abb.com; Silva, Vilson Renato da [Engelineas Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Menezes, Ruy Carlos Ramos de [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nolasco, Joao Felix [JFNolasco Consultoria Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bugallo, Francisco [Companhia de Interconexao Energetica (CIEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This document reports the main design aspects and also displays how the implantation challenges had been overcome in relation to the Brazil-Argentina energetic first interconnection, through the frequency converter station in Garabi and the 500 Kv / 50 Hz Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi transmission line and 500 Kv / 60 Hz Garabi-Ita transmission line, resulting in a total of 490 Kilometers. Firstly, it is presented the basic design characteristics involving the drawing definitions and electrical parameters determination. Afterwards, are presented the transmission line mechanical aspects, as well as the main obtained results. Finally, the project technical viability and the reached benefits had been discussed as well.

  12. International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Electricity transmission system operators (TSO) in Europe are increasing subject to high-powered performance-based regulation, such as revenue-cap regimes. The determination of the parameters in such regimes is challenging for national regulatory authorities (NRA), since there is normally a single...... TSO operating in each jurisdiction. The solution for European regulators has been found in international regulatory benchmarking, organized in collaboration with the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) in 2008 and 2012 for 22 and 23 TSOs, respectively. The frontier study provides static cost...... weight restrictions and a correction method for opening balances....

  13. First multivendor scheme in CFE to protection of 400 kV transmission line, using optical TC's, digital relays and bus IEC 61850-9-2; Primer esquema multivendedor en CFE para proteccion de linea de transmision de 400 kV, utilizando TC's opticos, relevadores digitales y bus IEC 61850-9-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Colon, V.R; Rasgado, J.P [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lara C, H; Melendez, C; Juarez, N [Subdireccion de Transmision, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    This paper presents the details of design, installation and putting into service in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), of the first multi-vendor scheme that exists in the world, for the protection of a 400kV transmission line, which uses optical current transformers and digital relays IEC 61850-9-2. This system arises as a pilot project of the Subdireccion de Transmision of the CFE with the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). To ensure success in the implementation of the protection scheme, CFE joined a team coordinated by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)involving nine international companies and a university. Pilot protection scheme is in operation under continuous monitoring, in one of the transmission lines of CFE that interconnect Manuel Moreno Torres with El Juile substations. The construction features, the challenges that were overcome and the first results obtained in operation are presented below. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta los detalles del diseno, instalacion y puesta en servicio en la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del primer esquema multivendedor que existe en el mundo, para la proteccion de una linea de transmision de 400kV, que utiliza transformadores de corriente opticos y relevadores digitales IEC 61850-9-2. Este sistema surge como un proyecto piloto de la Subdireccion de Transmision de la CFE con el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Para asegurar el exito en la implementacion del esquema de proteccion, la CFE integro un equipo de trabajo coordinado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en el que participaron 9 empresas internacionales y una universidad. El esquema de proteccion piloto, se encuentra en operacion bajo monitoreo continuo, en una de las lineas de transmision de la CFE que interconecta las subestaciones de Manuel Moreno Torres y El Juile. Las caracteristicas de construccion, los retos que fueron vencidos y los primeros resultados obtenidos en su operacion se

  14. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  15. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  16. A Design of a 345-kV Electric Power Transmission Line Interlinking Ramu and Rouna Grids in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakato Francis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to PNG Power Limited (PPL, Papua New Guinea’s peak power demand is expected to increase from 210 MW in 2012 to 347 MW in 2026. Under the current state of the power sector in Papua New Guinea (PNG, it is critical to implement measures to cope with the increasing power demand to promote investment, economic growth, and ultimately to achieve poverty reduction through economic growth. One of the solutions identified to improve the reliability of PNG power systems and thus to meet the demand is to interconnect the major grids in the country so that the loads could be shared among them. This project embarks in designing a 345-kV electric power transmission line to interlink the Ramu and Rouna power grids of Papua New Guinea. The design is done by analysing all the necessary aspects of the transmission lines with in-depth calculations performed using MATHCAD software. This design is the basis for extra-high voltage (EHV transmission network in anticipation for the power generation and demand growth in PNG.

  17. Residual life assessment of overhead transmission lines 110 kV and above and determination of their reconstruction terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uteuliyev Bauyrzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is given a method for assessment the residual life of overhead transmission lines on reinforced concrete supports with centrifuged poles. Reinforced concrete poles of supports, wires and lightning protection cables are adopted as the main elements. The intensity of change in the actual state parameters of these elements is determined by the laws of random variables distribution that allow predicting the residual life and the timing of repairs and reconstruction of overhead transmission lines. The parameters of natural climatic conditions and other external factors are considered by including of coefficients into the formula for changing the actual state parameters.

  18. Model for the ready definition and approximate comparison of alternative high voltage transmission systems. Phases II and III. Application to electric systems within the contiguous United States. [800 and 1200 kV; 400, 600, and 800 kV dc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    Research on power delivery alternatives is reported. The first phase of this work was to develop a model of overhead transmission systems in the range of 362 to 1200 kV ac, and +-400 to +-800 kV dc. Such systems included transmission from generation to load and inter-connection of two large integrated systems, with and without the existence of an underlying lower voltage network in either case. This phase has been completed. The second and third phases involved application of the model to electric systems within selected regions of the US, and the entire US, respectively, dealing with real situations and including projected expansion to year 1987. The potential benefits and costs of using higher than existing transmission voltages were to be evaluated on this basis. Additionally, the most advantageous new voltage was to be determined taking into account direct and indirect benefits and costs. The results of the second and third phases are presented.

  19. Assessment of Lightning Shielding Performance of a 400 kV Double-Circuit Fully Composite Transmission Line Pylon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahangiri, Tohid; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    -quality insulation sections. Thus, the configuration of phase conductors on the cross-arm is in the form of diagonal and differs from other widely used configurations in overhead transmission lines i.e. horizontal, delta and vertical configurations. Unlike traditional steel lattice towers, the composite pylon does...... not provide access to ground potential due to its non-conductive materials. Therefore, the lightning shielding of pylon and conductors requires a ground potential access to shield wires by utilizing a ground cable inside the hollow cross-arm and pylon body. Efficient design of a lightning shielding system...

  20. Potential environmental effects of 765-kV transmission lines: views before the New York State Public Service Commission, Cases 26529 and 26559, 1976-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Walton, B.; Clark, K. M.; Holt, B. R.; Jones, D. C.; Kaplan, S. D.; Krebs, J. S.; Polson, P.; Shepherd, R. A.; Young, J. R.

    1979-11-01

    Testimony given before the New York Public Service Commission in two recent cases on the potential environmental effects of 765-kV overhead ac transmission lines is reviewed. The testimony focused on the potential effects of audible noise, on the potential biological effects of the electromagnetic fields, on the potential for electric shocks to people who touch vehicles parked under the proposed lines, on the potential effects of the electromagnetic fields on electronic cardiac pacemakers, and on potential effects of ozone produced by corona discharge from the lines. The testimony fully explored these questions; however, it did not resolve all of them. The testimony indicates potential impacts from the audible noise and from the electrostatic shocks that people can receive when they touch a large vehicle parked under the lines. The testimony also indicates that certain cardiac pacemaker and lead combinations may, under certain circumstances, undergo reversion to a fixed rate of pacing in the presence of the fields under the lines, but that little risk to cardiac patients results except possibly for those patients for whom competition between the heart's own rate and the pacemaker rate presents a health risk. The testimony fails to demonstrate biological hazards from the field; further research is necessary to understand better the effects of the fields on biological systems. The testimony indicates that ozone produced by the lines will not significantly affect the environment.

  1. B. C. Hydro proposed 287 kV transmission line Kitimat to Terrace: Preliminary environmental assessment of fish and wildlife values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelwood, W G

    1991-01-01

    The proposed two corridors for an additional 278 kV transmission line from Terrace to Kitimat, British Columbia were referenced for fisheries and wildlife sensitivity and impact. Route A parallels the existing powerline down the eastern edge of the Kitimat valley while Route B follows the western edge and is 12 km shorter. Fisheries values are paramount in the study area with populations of steelhead, pink, coho, chinook, chum and sockeye in both the Lakelse and Kitimat drainages. Recreational species are of strong secondary importance and support a viable tourist industry. Wildlife values are best represented by moose, bear, fur-bearers and waterfowl. Clearcut logging has depressed populations in the study area but regrowth of essential habitat and cover is allowing some species to increase in number. Trumpeter swans utilize the valley as a migration route while some remain as residents in warmer winters. The two proposed corridors were evaluated on a resource basis to determine the least impactive and sensitive route, with a general rating evolved with common criteria. The rating of Route B was significantly less sensitive than Route A, due to Route B being significantly shorter and drier. 2 figs.

  2. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  3. French 400 kV network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelissier, R

    1965-11-01

    A 400 kV transmission network has been constructed to carry hydroelectric power from the Alps and the Massif Central to Paris at peak hours and to carry power in the reverse direction in off-peak hours. A double circuit-ring at 400 kV encircling the Paris region is also nearing completion. Measures have to be taken to counter the very high short-circuit currents in such a network. A 730 kV network will eventually become necessary. The consequent multiplicity of transmission voltages will give rise to further problems. Collaboration with neighboring countries is envisaged. The problems of stability and synchronization posed by the new system are described and solutions suggested. The new circuit-breaking requirements are discussed, and details of tower design for 400 kV and 730 kV are given.

  4. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  5. Preventing HIV transmission in chinese internal migrants: A behavioral approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); X. Sun (Xinying); R. Cai (Rui); Y. Shi (Yuhui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a

  6. A limited 4 Å radial displacement of the S4-S5 linker is sufficient for internal gate closing in Kv channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Élise; Starek, Greg; McGuire, Hugo; Bernèche, Simon; Blunck, Rikard

    2012-11-16

    Voltage-gated ion channels are responsible for the generation of action potentials in our nervous system. Conformational rearrangements in their voltage sensor domains in response to changes of the membrane potential control pore opening and thus ion conduction. Crystal structures of the open channel in combination with a wealth of biophysical data and molecular dynamics simulations led to a consensus on the voltage sensor movement. However, the coupling between voltage sensor movement and pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, occurs at the cytosolic face of the channel, from where no structural information is available yet. In particular, the question how far the cytosolic pore gate has to close to prevent ion conduction remains controversial. In cells, spectroscopic methods are hindered because labeling of internal sites remains difficult, whereas liposomes or detergent solutions containing purified ion channels lack voltage control. Here, to overcome these problems, we controlled the state of the channel by varying the lipid environment. This way, we directly measured the position of the S4-S5 linker in both the open and the closed state of a prokaryotic Kv channel (KvAP) in a lipid environment using Lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer. We were able to reconstruct the movement of the covalent link between the voltage sensor and the pore domain and used this information as restraints for molecular dynamics simulations of the closed state structure. We found that a small decrease of the pore radius of about 3-4 Å is sufficient to prevent ion permeation through the pore.

  7. Electrical transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, D P

    1960-05-01

    After briefly tracing the history of electricity transmission, trends in high voltage transmission and experiments being conducted on 650 kV are discussed. 5000 miles of the U.K. grid are operated at 132 kV and 1000 at 275 kV, ultimately to provide a super grid at 380 kV. Problems are insulation, radio interference and the cost of underground lines (16 times that of overhead lines). Also considered are the economics of the grid as a means of transporting energy and as a means of spreading the peak load over the power stations in the most efficient manner. Finally, the question of amenities is discussed.

  8. Reducing the Risk of Damage to Power Transformers of 110 kV and Above Accompanying Internal Short Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L’vova, M. M. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of the Unified Power System” (Russian Federation); L’vov, S. Yu. [Presselektro LLC (Russian Federation); Komarov, V. B. [IPCE RAS (Russian Federation); Lyut’ko, E. O. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of the Unified Power System” (Russian Federation); Vdoviko, V. P. [EMA Ltd. (Russian Federation); Demchenko, V. V. [JSC “Boguchanskaya HPP” (Russian Federation); Belyaev, S. G. [PKF Konif Ltd. (Russian Federation); Savel’ev, V. A. [Ivanovo State Power University (Russian Federation); L’vov, M. Yu., E-mail: timashova@nte-power.ru; L’vov, Yu. N. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of the Unified Power System” (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Methods of increasing the operating reliability of power transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors in order to reduce the risk of damage, which accompany internal short circuits and equipment fires and explosions, are considered.

  9. Preventing HIV transmission in Chinese internal migrants: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.

  10. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  11. Transmission of Shock across International Stock Markets: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini TALWAR

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of spillover of volatility among international stock markets has increased manifold and it needs to be diagnosed comprehensively. In this paper, the authors have used 11 stock indices to identify influential markets and detect the direction of transmission of shock across markets in different time zones using Granger causality test, Johansen cointegration test and vector autoregression. The findings of VAR show that the forecast error at the 10-day horizon explained by their own innovation is highest for the Australian and Chinese markets followed by Japan, India, Brazil and Russia.Markets of Germany, UK, USA and Canada are influenced by the Australian market. In fact, the Australian market is seen to be the most influential market among the markets under the study. The impact of Chinese and Canadian markets is found to be the least. These results can be useful for optimal option valuation, effective portfolio allocation and performance benchmarking

  12. Does more international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, G.; Delarue, E.; Delvaux, B.; Meeus, L.; Bekaert, D.; Willems, Bert; Proost, S.; D'haeseleer, W.; Deketelaere, K.; Belmans, R.

    2009-01-01

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling

  13. 19 CFR 176.11 - Transmission of records to Court of International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Transmission of Records § 176.11 Transmission of records to Court of International Trade. Upon receipt of service of a summons in an action initiated in the Court of International Trade the following items shall...

  14. APPLICATION OF SSSC TO THE 330kV NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    2,3 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL ENGR., FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC EDE, ... Longitudinal power systems of Nigerian 330 kV transmission network have steady-state ..... C tr ller ” Unpublish Master Thesis Submitted to.

  15. Analysis on the Operation Strategy of the 220kV External Transmission Channel for the Nujiang Power Grid after the Installation of Series Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxin; Feng, Peilei; Jan, Lisheng; Dai, Xiaozhong; Cai, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Nujiang Prefecture vigorously develop hydropower, the grid structure in the northwest of Yunnan Province is not perfect, which leads to the research and construction of the power grid lags behind the development of the hydropower. In 2015, the company in view of the nu river hydropower dilemma decided to change outside the nu river to send out a passage with series compensation device in order to improve the transmission capacity, the company to the main problems related to the system plan, but not too much in the region distribution network and detailed study. Nujiang power grid has unique structure and properties of the nujiang power grid after respectively, a whole rack respectively into two parts, namely power delivery channels, load power supply, the whole grid occurred fundamental changes, the original strategy of power network is not applicable, especially noteworthy is the main failure after network of independent operation problem, how to avoid the local series, emergency problem is more urgent, very tolerance test area power grid, this paper aims at the analysis of existing data, simulation, provide a reference for respectively after the operation for the stable operation of the power grid.

  16. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  17. Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) : Part 2: cables for rated voltages from 6 kV (Um = 7,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV)

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) : Part 2: cables for rated voltages from 6 kV (Um = 7,2 kV) up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV)

  18. Electric transmission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Electric transmission technology has matured and can transmit bulk power more reliably and economically than the technology 10 years ago.In 1882, Marcel Depres transmitted 15 kW electric power at 2 kV, using a constant direct current; present transmission voltages have risen to ± 600 kV direct current (DC) and 765 kV alternating current (AC), and it is now possible to transmit bulk electric power at voltages as high as ± 1000 kV DC and 1500 kV AC. Affordable computer systems are now available to optimize transmission reliably. New materials have reduced the bulk of insulation for lines and equipment. New conducting materials and configurations have reduced losses in transmission. Advances in line structures and conductor motion, understanding of flashover characteristics of insulators and air-gaps and electrical performance of lines have resulted in more compact urban transmission lines. (author). 15 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  19. The Empirics of International Monetary Transmission: Identification and the Impossible Trinity

    OpenAIRE

    Bluedorn, John C.; Bowdler, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of monetary policy across borders is central to many open economy models. Research has tried to evaluate the “impossible trinity” through estimating international interest rate linkages under alternative exchange rate regimes using realized base country interest rates. Such interest rates include anticipated and endogenous elements, which need not propagate internationally. We compare international interest rate responses under pegged and non-pegged regimes to identified, una...

  20. International to domestic price transmission in fourteen developing countries during the 2007-08 food crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    -through in China and India, over close relationship between international and domestic prices in Brazil and South Africa, to substantial domestic price overshooting in Ethiopia and Nigeria. Much of this variation can be explained by price stabilization policies, public policy failure, incomplete market integration......This paper synthesizes the evidence on price transmission from international maize, rice and wheat markets to domestic markets in fourteen developing countries during the global food crisis in 2007-08. A great variation in the price transmission patterns is observed; from almost no price pass...

  1. Fiscal 1999 research result report on energy and environment technology demonstration research support project (International joint demonstration research project). Improvement of long-distant power transmission efficiency and reliability, and its environmental impact assessment; 1999 nendo chokyori soden hoshiki ni kansuru soden koritsu to soden shinraido no kojo oyobi kankyo eno eikyo hyoka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Japan-Russia international joint research was made on overhead ultrahigh-voltage DC power transmission lines for transmission loss reduction and reliability improvement, and an optimum international power supply cable system, considering energy saving and environment conservation. Using the European-Russian DC power transmission line of {+-}500kV and 4GW as a model, comparison was made between a model using Russian round strands and glass insulators and a model using Japanese low-loss wires and insulators. As for improvement of the reliability in cold districts, Russian design techniques for tower structure and ice loading were reasonable to counteract galloping oscillation and ice load. In evaluation and selection of optimum underground and marine cables, study was made on cable specifications using the Turkey-Russia power transmission route as a model. The environmental assessment result of these cables showed that XLPE cable under development is optimum. (NEDO)

  2. Decision and Order in the matter of an application by Superior Wind Prince Power Inc. for an Order or Orders pursuant to section 92 of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 granting leave to construct a 230 kV transmission line and associated facilities to connect a proposed 99 MW wind farm to the transmission system of Great Lakes Power Ltd. near Sault Ste Marie[In the matter of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998, S.O. 1998, c. 15, Schedule B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Betts, B.; Vlahos, P.

    2005-07-28

    Superior Wind Prince Power Inc. plans to construct and operate a 99 MW wind generation facility near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It has also filed an application with the Ontario Energy Board to construct transmission facilities to connect the wind farm to the transmission system of Great Lakes Power Ltd. This includes a substation with a 34.5/230 kV transformer, a high voltage breaker, and low voltage switchgear. It also includes an 11.2 km long, 230 kV transmission line and a switching station with a 230 kV breaker and related facilities. The entire project is scheduled for completion by March, 2006. The Board will proceed with the application by way of a written hearing. This document presents evidence of the applicant with reference to the request for proposals for 300 MW of Renewable Energy. The wind farm includes 66 wind turbine generators providing an output of 99 MW. Plans for a second phase would add 101 MW to the wind farm. Different high voltage and low voltage configurations have been examined on the basis of environmental and economic considerations and system reliability. The best configuration was a 34.5 kV underground collector system and a 230 kV above ground transmission line. Four alternative routes for the line were examined on the basis of environmental, technical and economic factors. This document also provided evidence of PUC Distribution Inc. and addressed issues regarding a system impact assessment, customer impact assessment, and environmental assessment. The Board questioned whether the project is needed, what impact it will have on transmission rates, and reliability of supply. It also examined if all land-use matters have been addressed. The Board approved the project subject to certain conditions regarding communications, monitoring and reporting requirements. 2 refs., 1 appendix.

  3. Knowledge and beliefs of international travellers about the transmission and prevention of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Allard, R; Lambert, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the perceived risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among international travellers, to measure their knowledge of the transmission and prevention of HIV infection abroad and to identify some of the determinants of this knowledge. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Travellers' immunization clinic providing mostly primary preventive care to international travellers. PARTICIPANTS: All clients aged 18 to 50 years seen at the clinic between Oct. 2 and Dec. 21, 1989, before...

  4. A study on the insulation coordination of 765 kV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Boo; Shim, Eung Bo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Lee, Yong Han; Youn, Jae Yeong; Hwang, Chi Woo; Jung, Dong Hak [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis of the power frequency temporary overvoltage. Analysis of switching surges - Fault imitation, closing and re closing, fault clearing. Analysis of lightning surges. Insulation design of 765 kV overhead transmission line. Insulation coordination of 765 kV gas insulated substation. Transient recovery voltage and high speed ground switch (author). 38 refs., 55 figs.

  5. Low voltage 80 KV to 125 KV electron processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppi, U.V.

    1999-01-01

    The classic electron beam technology made use of accelerating energies in the voltage range of 300 to 800 kV. The first EB processors - built for the curing of coatings - operated at 300 kV. The products to be treated were thicker than a simple layer of coating with thicknesses up to 100g and more. It was only in the beginning of the 1970's that industrial EB processors with accelerating voltages below 300 kV appeared on the market. Our company developed the first commercial electron accelerator without a beam scanner. The new EB machine featured a linear cathode, emitting a shower or 'curtain' of electrons over the full width of the product. These units were much smaller than anv previous EB processors and dedicated to the curing of coatings and other thin layers. ESI's first EB units operated with accelerating voltages between 150 and 200 kV. In 1993 ESI announced the introduction of a new generation of Electrocure. EB processors operating at 120 kV, and in 1998, at the RadTech North America '98 Conference in Chicago, the introduction of an 80 kV electron beam processor under the designation Microbeam LV

  6. The Joint International Conference of the XII International Conference on Mechanisms and Mechanical Transmissions (MTM) and the XXIII International Conference on Robotics (Robotics ’16)

    CERN Document Server

    Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Hüsing, Mathias; Maniu, Inocentiu; Gruescu, Corina

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Joint International Conference of the XII International Conference on Mechanisms and Mechanical Transmissions (MTM) and the XXIII International Conference on Robotics (Robotics ’16), that was held in Aachen, Germany, October 26th-27th, 2016. It contains applications of mechanisms and transmissions in several modern technical fields such as mechatronics, biomechanics, machines, micromachines, robotics and apparatus. In connection with these fields, the work combines the theoretical results with experimental testing. The book presents reviewed papers developed by researchers specialized in mechanisms analysis and synthesis, dynamics of mechanisms and machines, mechanical transmissions, biomechanics, precision mechanics, mechatronics, micromechanisms and microactuators, computational and experimental methods, CAD in mechanism and machine design, mechanical design of robot architecture, parallel robots, mobile robots, micro and nano robots, sensors and actuators in ro...

  7. International travel between global urban centres vulnerable to yellow fever transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Shannon E; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Hay, Simon I; Creatore, Maria I; Khan, Kamran

    2018-05-01

    To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world. We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable for viral transmission. Using a global ecological model of dengue virus transmission, we predicted the suitability of cities in non-endemic areas for yellow fever transmission. We obtained information on national entry requirements for yellow fever vaccination at travellers' destination cities. In 2016, 45.2 million international air travellers departed from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world. Of 11.7 million travellers with destinations in 472 cities where yellow fever was not endemic but which were suitable for virus transmission, 7.7 million (65.7%) were not required to provide proof of vaccination upon arrival. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Peru and the United States of America had the highest volumes of travellers arriving from yellow fever-endemic areas and the largest populations living in cities suitable for yellow fever transmission. Each year millions of travellers depart from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world for cities in non-endemic areas that appear suitable for viral transmission without having to provide proof of vaccination. Rapid global changes in human mobility and urbanization make it vital for countries to re-examine their vaccination policies and practices to prevent urban yellow fever epidemics.

  8. International benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators: A contrast between theory and practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking of electricity networks has a key role in sharing the benefits of efficiency improvements with consumers and ensuring regulated companies earn a fair return on their investments. This paper analyses and contrasts the theory and practice of international benchmarking of electricity transmission by regulators. We examine the literature relevant to electricity transmission benchmarking and discuss the results of a survey of 25 national electricity regulators. While new panel data techniques aimed at dealing with unobserved heterogeneity and the validity of the comparator group look intellectually promising, our survey suggests that they are in their infancy for regulatory purposes. In electricity transmission, relative to electricity distribution, choosing variables is particularly difficult, because of the large number of potential variables to choose from. Failure to apply benchmarking appropriately may negatively affect investors’ willingness to invest in the future. While few of our surveyed regulators acknowledge that regulatory risk is currently an issue in transmission benchmarking, many more concede it might be. In the meantime new regulatory approaches – such as those based on tendering, negotiated settlements, a wider range of outputs or longer term grid planning – are emerging and will necessarily involve a reduced role for benchmarking. -- Highlights: •We discuss how to benchmark electricity transmission. •We report survey results from 25 national energy regulators. •Electricity transmission benchmarking is more challenging than benchmarking distribution. •Many regulators concede benchmarking may raise capital costs. •Many regulators are considering new regulatory approaches

  9. Transmission of infectious diseases from internationally adopted children to their adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciauvaud, J; Rigal, E; Pascal, J; Nourrisson, C; Poirier, P; Poirier, V; Vidal, M; Mrozek, N; Laurichesse, H; Beytout, J; Labbe, A; Lesens, O

    2014-08-01

    Internationally adopted children may suffer from different pathologies, including infectious diseases contracted in the country of origin. We evaluated the frequency of infectious diseases that may disseminate from adoptees to adoptive families on their arrival in France. All children who attended the clinic for international adoption in Clermont-Ferrand from January 2009 through to December 2011 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Standardized medical records dedicated to international adoption were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, clinical diagnosis, and biological and radiological results. Data were completed by phone interviews with adoptive families after informed consent. One hundred and forty-two medical records were retrospectively reviewed and 86% of families agreed to be interviewed. One hundred and seventy-one potentially transmissible infections were diagnosed in 142 children, 12% (n = 20) of which were transmitted to adoptive families. Most of these infections were benign and transmission was restricted to the close family. Tinea was diagnosed in 44 adoptees and transmitted in 15 cases. Panton Valentine leukocidin producing methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was transmitted to an adoptive father who required hospitalization for bursitis. Transmission also occurred for CMV (n = 1), hepatitis A (n = 1), giardiasis (n = 1), scabies (n = 1), Moluscum (n = 2) and pediculosis (n = 2). Two cases of chronic hepatitis B and latent tuberculosis were diagnosed without subsequent transmission. In conclusion, infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children and should be detected shortly after arrival to avoid transmission. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. The importance of immunohistochemical analyses in evaluating the phenotype of Kv channel knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegola, Milena; Clark, Eliana; Trimmer, James S

    2012-06-01

    To gain insights into the phenotype of voltage-gated potassium (Kv)1.1 and Kv4.2 knockout mice, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of component principal or α subunits and auxiliary subunits of neuronal Kv channels in knockout mouse brains. Genetic ablation of the Kv1.1 α subunit did not result in compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of related ion channel subunits in hippocampal medial perforant path and mossy fiber nerve terminals, where high levels of Kv1.1 are normally expressed. Genetic ablation of the Kv4.2 α subunit did not result in altered neuronal cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. Although Kv4.2 knockout mice did not exhibit compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of the related Kv4.3 α subunit, we found dramatic decreases in the cellular and subcellular expression of specific Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) that reflected their degree of association and colocalization with Kv4.2 in wild-type mouse and rat brains. These studies highlight the insights that can be gained by performing detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Kv channel knockout mouse brains. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Internal transmission coefficient in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2016-01-01

    Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 – 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.

  12. Principles of functioning of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system in international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliakova Iana O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern international economic relations are characterised with reduction of rates of economic growth of the majority of developed economic systems, gradual oligopolisation of international markets, domination of private investors interests in political relations, growth of intensity and frequency of local, regional and international economic crises, which negatively influences the tendencies of formation of main directions of transmission and use of capital. Consideration of theoretical grounds of functioning of the monetary mechanism and content analysis of the international statistical information for a long period of time allow marking out certain principles of restoration of integrity of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system as basic ones. Introduction of the proposed principles into the mechanism of functioning of the international monetary system would allow increase of the rates of growth of production of the developed economic systems, strengthening of stability of functioning of the developing economies and decrease of interdependence of different participants of international economic relations, which would directly influence improvement of macro-economic indicators.

  13. Mechanosensitive gating of Kv channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Morris

    Full Text Available K-selective voltage-gated channels (Kv are multi-conformation bilayer-embedded proteins whose mechanosensitive (MS Popen(V implies that at least one conformational transition requires the restructuring of the channel-bilayer interface. Unlike Morris and colleagues, who attributed MS-Kv responses to a cooperative V-dependent closed-closed expansion↔compaction transition near the open state, Mackinnon and colleagues invoke expansion during a V-independent closed↔open transition. With increasing membrane tension, they suggest, the closed↔open equilibrium constant, L, can increase >100-fold, thereby taking steady-state Popen from 0→1; "exquisite sensitivity to small…mechanical perturbations", they state, makes a Kv "as much a mechanosensitive…as…a voltage-dependent channel". Devised to explain successive gK(V curves in excised patches where tension spontaneously increased until lysis, their L-based model falters in part because of an overlooked IK feature; with recovery from slow inactivation factored in, their g(V datasets are fully explained by the earlier model (a MS V-dependent closed-closed transition, invariant L≥4. An L-based MS-Kv predicts neither known Kv time courses nor the distinctive MS responses of Kv-ILT. It predicts Kv densities (hence gating charge per V-sensor several-fold different from established values. If opening depended on elevated tension (L-based model, standard gK(V operation would be compromised by animal cells' membrane flaccidity. A MS V-dependent transition is, by contrast, unproblematic on all counts. Since these issues bear directly on recent findings that mechanically-modulated Kv channels subtly tune pain-related excitability in peripheral mechanoreceptor neurons we undertook excitability modeling (evoked action potentials. Kvs with MS V-dependent closed-closed transitions produce nuanced mechanically-modulated excitability whereas an L-based MS-Kv yields extreme, possibly excessive

  14. Knowledge and beliefs of international travellers about the transmission and prevention of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R; Lambert, G

    1992-02-01

    To measure the perceived risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among international travellers, to measure their knowledge of the transmission and prevention of HIV infection abroad and to identify some of the determinants of this knowledge. Survey. Travellers' immunization clinic providing mostly primary preventive care to international travellers. All clients aged 18 to 50 years seen at the clinic between Oct. 2 and Dec. 21, 1989, before their departure. Sixteen statements measured knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV infection. Standardized scales measured health beliefs. The response rate was 81% (331/409). Compared with other diseases AIDS was perceived to be associated with a low risk except by those travelling to countries with a high prevalence of AIDS. Most of the clients were found to have a good knowledge of HIV transmission to travellers, although some myths remained popular and some real routes of transmission, especially blood, remained underrated. In all, 70% of the subjects believed in the efficacy of condoms when used with local people, as compared with 79% when used with other tourists; this difference was greatest among travellers who perceived AIDS as being particularly severe but difficult to prevent. The determinants of the knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention were a high level of education, a mother tongue other than French, unmarried status, a high prevalence of AIDS at the destination, the duration of the trip and a high perceived risk of HIV infection. Counselling should teach travellers (a) not to underestimate their risk of HIV infection during their trip, (b) to decrease the risk of requiring health care in developing countries and (c) to rely on their own prudent sexual behaviour rather than on their assessment of the level of risk posed by the environment.

  15. The transmission of fluctuant patterns of the forex burden based on international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Li, Huajiao

    2014-01-01

    For a country that imports crude oil, the forex burden is always fluctuant due to the fluctuation of international crude oil prices and exchange rates over time. The gap discovered between international crude oil prices and the crude oil price based on exchange rates may indicate the fluctuation of the forex burden. There exist different fluctuant patterns in the fluctuation process of the forex burden in different periods. Hence, we proposed an approach combining econometrics and complex network theory to explore the transmission mechanism of these fluctuant patterns. In this study, we defined the forex burden and the fluctuant patterns by normalization, sliding windows of data and econometric models. And then we set the fluctuant patterns as nodes and the transformation between patterns as edges; in this way, the transmission complex network is constructed. The results show that different major fluctuant patterns with different probabilities appear in different scales. The fluctuant patterns transferred into each other conveniently. And the transmission medium can help to identify the transitional periods in the process of the transmission. The contribution of this study to the energy policy decision-making is that the formulations of related policies under different period lengths require different reference standards. - Highlights: • Small “gap” between crude oil price and exchange rate can make great forex fluctuation. • We defined the fluctuant patterns of forex burden through data sliding windows. • We constructed the transmission network models of fluctuant patterns of forex burden. • The transitional periods can be identified by media capabilities of fluctuant patterns. • Energy policies making for different lengths of period should reference different scales standards

  16. The transmission of fluctuant patterns of the forex burden based on international crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiangyun [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); An, Haizhong [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Fang, Wei [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Huajiao [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); others, and

    2014-08-14

    For a country that imports crude oil, the forex burden is always fluctuant due to the fluctuation of international crude oil prices and exchange rates over time. The gap discovered between international crude oil prices and the crude oil price based on exchange rates may indicate the fluctuation of the forex burden. There exist different fluctuant patterns in the fluctuation process of the forex burden in different periods. Hence, we proposed an approach combining econometrics and complex network theory to explore the transmission mechanism of these fluctuant patterns. In this study, we defined the forex burden and the fluctuant patterns by normalization, sliding windows of data and econometric models. And then we set the fluctuant patterns as nodes and the transformation between patterns as edges; in this way, the transmission complex network is constructed. The results show that different major fluctuant patterns with different probabilities appear in different scales. The fluctuant patterns transferred into each other conveniently. And the transmission medium can help to identify the transitional periods in the process of the transmission. The contribution of this study to the energy policy decision-making is that the formulations of related policies under different period lengths require different reference standards. - Highlights: • Small “gap” between crude oil price and exchange rate can make great forex fluctuation. • We defined the fluctuant patterns of forex burden through data sliding windows. • We constructed the transmission network models of fluctuant patterns of forex burden. • The transitional periods can be identified by media capabilities of fluctuant patterns. • Energy policies making for different lengths of period should reference different scales standards.

  17. International funding for malaria control in relation to populations at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Snow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The international financing of malaria control has increased significantly in the last ten years in parallel with calls to halve the malaria burden by the year 2015. The allocation of funds to countries should reflect the size of the populations at risk of infection, disease, and death. To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007.The national distributions of populations at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission were projected to the year 2007 for each of 87 P. falciparum-endemic countries. Systematic online- and literature-based searches were conducted to audit the international funding commitments made for malaria control by major donors between 2002 and 2007. These figures were used to generate annual malaria funding allocation (in US dollars per capita population at risk of stable P. falciparum in 2007. Almost US$1 billion are distributed each year to the 1.4 billion people exposed to stable P. falciparum malaria risk. This is less than US$1 per person at risk per year. Forty percent of this total comes from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Substantial regional and national variations in disbursements exist. While the distribution of funds is found to be broadly appropriate, specific high population density countries receive disproportionately less support to scale up malaria control. Additionally, an inadequacy of current financial commitments by the international community was found: under-funding could be from 50% to 450%, depending on which global assessment of the cost required to scale up malaria control is adopted.Without further increases in funding and appropriate targeting of global malaria control investment it is unlikely that international goals to halve disease burdens by 2015 will be achieved. Moreover, the additional financing

  18. 735 kV circuit breakers for ehv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-01-01

    French manufacturers have been studying the design of high and extra high voltage circuit breakers for several years. The two techniques they used were the low volume oil and the air pressure technique. These have permitted the development of a type gear capable of solving problems all over the world as they arose following the development of electrical energy transmission at extra high voltage as well as high short circuit power. Today, the air pressure solution is used in new constructions such as the 735 kV transmission network in Canada.

  19. Effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. Flow is shown to provide a modest increase in TL that is uniform with frequency up to the critical frequency. The increase is about 2 dB at Mach number M = 0.5, and about 3.5 dB at M = 1. Above the critical frequency where TL is damping controlled, the increase can be slightly larger at certain frequencies. Curvature is found to stiffen the panel, thereby increasing the TL at low frequencies, but also to introduce a dip at the 'ring frequency' of a full cylinder having the same radius as the panel. Pressurization appears to produce a slight decrease in TL throughout the frequency range, and also slightly shifts the dips at the critical frequency and at the ring frequency.

  20. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances L Meredith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K+ channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K+ channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  1. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Kirk, Matthew E; Rennie, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K(+) channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K(+) channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  2. Co-movement measure of information transmission on international equity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq

    2017-03-01

    Recently, Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used EVT and various stochastic copulas to study the cross-country co-movements diversification and asset pricing allocation. Weiss (2013) observed that Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models outperform various copula models. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on multivariate models for capturing forward and backward return co-movement, spillover effects and volatility linkages. It reflects cross-country forward and backward co-movements more clearly among various coupled international stock markets relating to information transmission and price discovery for making investment decisions. Given the reality of fat-tail or skewed distribution of financial data, this paper proposes the use of VECM-DCC and VAR-DCC models which capture dynamic dependences between the Australian and other selected international financial stock markets. We observe that the return co-movement effects between Australian and Asian countries are bidirectional ((AUS ↔ Hong Kong), (AUS ↔ Japan)) with the exception of Taiwan (AUS → Taiwan). We also observe that the volatility spillover between the Australian and both the UK and the US markets are bidirectional with a larger volatility spillover from both toward the AUS market. Further, the UK market has a higher volatility spillover on the Australian market compared to the US market and the US market has a higher volatility spillover on the UK than that of the Australian market.

  3. Hvor fosser kvælstoffet hen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    Der har i Ingeniøren inden i et par måneder kunne læses adskillelige ivrige indlæg om de danske fjordes evne til at fjerne kvælstof. Kvælstof fosser ud af fjordene? lød en af de første overskrifter. Få uger efter blev det stik modsatte synspunkt fremført under overskriften Fjordene holder på kvæl...

  4. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and glucose signaling pathways attributed to the Kv1.3 ion channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Kovach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene-targeted deletion of the potassium channel Kv1.3 (Kv1.3-/- results in ‘Super-smeller’ mice with a sensory phenotype that includes an increased olfactory ability linked to changes in olfactory circuitry, increased abundance of olfactory cilia, and increased expression of odorant receptors and the G-protein, Golf. Kv1.3-/- mice also have a metabolic phenotype including lower body weight and decreased adiposity, increased total energy expenditure (TEE, increased locomotor activity, and resistance to both diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We explored two cellular aspects to elucidate the mechanism by which loss of Kv1.3 channel in the olfactory bulb (OB may enhance glucose utilization and metabolic rate. First, using in situ hybridization we find that Kv1.3 and the insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 is co-localized to the mitral cell layer of the OB. Disruption of Kv1.3 conduction via construction of a pore mutation (W386F Kv1.3 was sufficient to independently translocate GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in HEK 293 cells. Because olfactory sensory perception and the maintenance of action potential firing frequency by mitral cells of the OB is highly energy demanding and Kv1.3 is also expressed in mitochondria, we next explored the structure of this organelle in mitral cells. We challenged wildtype (WT and Kv1.3-/- male mice with a moderately high-fat diet (MHF, 31.8 % kcal fat for 4 months and then examined OB ultrastructure using transmission microscopy. In WT mice, mitochondria were significantly enlarged following diet-induced obesity (DIO and there were fewer mitochondria, likely due to mitophagy. Interestingly, mitochondria were significantly smaller in Kv1.3-/- mice compared with that of WT mice. Similar to their metabolic resistance to DIO, the Kv1.3-/- mice had unchanged mitochondria in terms of cross sectional area and abundance following a challenge with modified diet. We are very interested to understand how

  5. The electrically silent Kv6.4 subunit confers hyperpolarized gating charge movement in Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The voltage-gated K(+ (Kv channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form functional homotetrameric channels but co-assembles with Kv2.1 to form functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels. Compared to Kv2.1 homotetramers, Kv6.4 exerts a ~40 mV hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 channel inactivation, without a significant effect on activation gating. However, the underlying mechanism of this Kv6.4-induced modulation of Kv2.1 channel inactivation, and whether the Kv6.4 subunit participates in the voltage-dependent gating of heterotetrameric channels is not well understood. Here we report distinct gating charge movement of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels, compared to Kv2.1 homotetramers, as revealed by gating current recordings from mammalian cells expressing these channels. The gating charge movement of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels displayed an extra component around the physiological K(+ equilibrium potential, characterized by a second sigmoidal relationship of the voltage-dependence of gating charge movement. This distinct gating charge displacement reflects movement of the Kv6.4 voltage-sensing domain and has a voltage-dependency that matches the hyperpolarizing shift in Kv2.1/Kv6.4 channel inactivation. These results provide a mechanistic basis for the modulation of Kv2.1 channel inactivation gating kinetics by silent Kv6.4 subunits.

  6. Studies on the introduction of remote data transmission in international nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Richter, B.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.

    1999-08-01

    In two field tests, the interaction of components and equipment was tested, which had on the one hand been specifically developed for international safeguards and, on the other hand, were commercially available off the shelf. The former included, in particular, the DCM14 digital camera module developed in Germany for IAEA and Euratom, as well as the DCMDispatch software. The latter included, for example, PCs from well-known manufacturers as well as the Windows NT 4.0 server operating system from Microsoft and the public communication services of Deutsche Telekom AG. Particular attention was paid to the remote interrogation of video images since particularly great technical efforts are necessary due to the volume of data involved. The technical demands made on data management, storage and transmission as well as on authentication and encryption were therefore to be clarified and their feasibility demonstrated. Added to this was the requirement of the nuclear industry that the images should be transmitted with a time delay. (orig.) [de

  7. Related problems to new regional interconnections. Functioning analyses of the 500 kv Argentine system for exporting the first 1000 W to Brazil; Problemas relacionados com las nuevas interconexiones regionales. Estudios de funcionamiento del sistema argentino de 5 kV para la exportacion de los primeros 1000 MW a Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose Luis; Castro, Marcelo [Servicios de Energia Elactrica y Electromecanica S.R.L., Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: joseluisalonso@sieye.com.ar; marcelocastro@sieye.com.ar

    2001-07-01

    This work presents the analyses of static functioning (load flows) and demanded transitory stability by the Technical Procedure number 1(TP1) from CAMMESA, corresponding to the first international interconnection between Argentina and Brazil built by the CTM S.A. company. This new entailing, which started to operate in june 2000, links the Rincon de Santa Maria Transmission Station (TS) to a new TS built in Garibaldi city (Brazilian side) through a 500 kV transmission line with extension of 130 kilometers. In Garibaldi, a converter type back to back composed by two 550 kV modules was installed with 1100 MW of total nominal capacity. The Garibaldi TS is interconnected to the Ita TS, which belongs to the ELETROSUL company, through a line of 525 kV with extension of 386 kilometers. The investigations was accomplished according to the contingencies based on the agreement with CAMMESA and the dynamical model of the 50/60 Hz back to back converter (of last generation) called Capacitor Commutated Converter has been represented for all the situations.

  8. Design and testing of reactors for 735 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, W; Kraaij, D J

    1965-11-01

    The design and testing of five large, single phase shunt reactors rated either 110 or 55 MVAR, supplied for the 735 kV system of the Quebec Hydro Electric Commission which came into operation in the autumn of 1965 are described. As these reactors are permanently connected to the transmission lines, their losses must be considered as being continuously present and must be determined exactly. In addition to the use of a new bridge method, the losses were also measured calorimetrically for the purpose of comparison, the agreement between the two tests being remarkably good. The impulse tests with full wave and chopped wave are subsequently described.

  9. Development of Highly Selective Kv1.3-Blocking Peptides Based on the Sea Anemone Peptide ShK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Pennington

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ShK, from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, is a 35-residue disulfide-rich peptide that blocks the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 at ca. 10 pM and the related channel Kv1.1 at ca. 16 pM. We developed an analog of this peptide, ShK-186, which is currently in Phase 1b-2a clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. While ShK-186 displays a >100-fold improvement in selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1 compared with ShK, there is considerable interest in developing peptides with an even greater selectivity ratio. In this report, we describe several variants of ShK that incorporate p-phophono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus coupled with internal substitutions at Gln16 and Met21. In addition, we also explored the combinatorial effects of these internal substitutions with an alanine extension at the C-terminus. Their selectivity was determined by patch-clamp electrophysiology on Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 channels stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. The peptides with an alanine extension blocked Kv1.3 at low pM concentrations and exhibited up to 2250-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Analogs that incorporates p-phosphono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus blocked Kv1.3 with IC50s in the low pM range and did not affect Kv1.1 at concentrations up to 100 nM, displaying a selectivity enhancement of >10,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Other potentially important Kv channels such as Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 were only partially blocked at 100 nM concentrations of each of the ShK analogs.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic field of 33 and 275 kV influences on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from 33 and 275 kV high voltage transmission line on biochemical and antioxidant system changes in mustard leaf (Brassica chinensis) were investigated under field condition. Mustard leaves were exposed to EMF from power lines at distances of 0, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 21, ...

  11. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Letzkus, Johannes J.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2007-01-01

    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action

  12. International banking conglomerates and the transmission of lending shocks across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Reint; Radev, Deyan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how solvency and wholesale funding shocks to 84 OECD parent banks affect the lending of 375 foreign subsidiaries. We find that parent solvency shocks are more important than wholesale funding shocks for subsidiary lending. Furthermore, we find that parent undercapitalization does not affect the transmission of shocks, while wholesale shocks transmit to foreign subsidiaries of parents that rely primarily on wholesale funding. We also find that transmission is affected by the str...

  13. Corona performance of a compact 230-kV line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, V.L.; Blair, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Permitting requirements and the acquisition of new rights-of-way for transmission facilities has in recent years become increasingly difficult for most utilities, including Puget Sound Power and Light Company. In order to maintain a high degree of reliability of service while being responsive to public concerns regarding the siting of high voltage (HV) transmission facilities, Puget Power has found it necessary to more heavily rely upon the use of compact lines in franchise corridors. Compaction does, however, precipitant increased levels of audible noise (AN) and radio and TV interference (RI and TVI) due to corona on the conductors and insulator assemblies. Puget Power relies upon the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Corona and Field Effects computer program to calculate AN and RI for new lines. Since there was some question of the program's ability to accurately represent quiet 230-kV compact designs, a joint project was undertaken with BPA to verify the program's algorithms. Long-term measurements made on an operating Puget Power 230-kV compact line confirmed the accuracy of BPA's AN model; however, the RI measurements were much lower than predicted by the BPA computer and other programs. This paper also describes how the BPA computer program can be used to calculate the voltage needed to expose insulator assemblies to the correct electric field in single test setups in HV laboratories

  14. Decreased expression of Kv7 channels in Hirchsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon. We therefore designed this study to test the hypothesis that Kv7 channels are present in the normal human colon and are reduced in Hirschprung's disease (HSCR). HSCR tissue specimens were collected at the time of pull-through surgery (n=10), while normal control tissue specimens were obtained at the time of colostomy closure in patients with imperforate anus (n=10). Kv7.3-Kv7.5 immunohistochemistry was performed and visualized using confocal microscopy to assess their distribution. Western blot analysis was undertaken to determine Kv7.3-Kv7.5 protein quantification. Kv7.3 and Kv7.4-immunoreactivity was co-localized with neuron and ICC markers, while Kv7.5 was found to be expressed on both ICCs and SMCs. Western blot analysis revealed similar levels of Kv7.3 and Kv7.5 expression in the normal colon and HSCR colon, while Kv7.4 proteins were found to be markedly decreased in ganglionic specimens and decreased further in aganglionic specimens. A deficiency of Kv7.4 channels in the ganglionic and aganglionic bowel may place a role in colonic dysmotility in HSCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so, each...

  16. The international transmission of monetary shocks in a dollarized economy: The case of USA and Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goux François Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an American monetary shock wields an influence, though limited, over the Lebanese output in accordance with the literature advances. However, as we are waiting for a stronger transmission of U.S. short-term rates to Lebanese short-term rates, we notice that this transmission is weak in the first year. The result can be explained by the presence of pricing-to-market. After the end of the first year, we find the traditional result where the increase in the American interest rate is transmitted integrally to the Lebanese interest rate. We recognize this phenomenon as the dollarization effect.

  17. Functional analysis of Kv1.2 and paddle chimera Kv channels in planar lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Summary Voltage-dependent K+ channels play key roles in shaping electrical signaling in both excitable as well as non-excitable cells. These channels open and close in response to the voltage changes across the cell membrane. Many studies have been carried out in order to understand the voltage sensing mechanism. Our laboratory recently determined the atomic structures of a mammalian voltage-dependent K+ channel Kv1.2 and a mutant of Kv1.2 named the ‘paddle-chimera’ channel, in which the voltage sensor paddle was transferred from Kv2.1 to Kv1.2. These two structures provide atomic descriptions of voltage-dependent channels with unprecedented clarity. Until now the functional integrity of these two channels biosynthesized in yeast cells have not been assessed. Here we report the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of Kv1.2 and the paddle chimera channels in planar lipid bilayers. We demonstrate that Pichia yeast produce ‘normally functioning’ mammalian voltage-dependent K+ channels with qualitatively similar features to the Shaker K+ channel in the absence of the N-terminal inactivation gate, and that the paddle chimera mutant channel functions as well as Kv1.2. We find, however, that in several respects the Kv1.2 channel exhibits functional properties that are distinct from Kv1.2 channels reported in the literature. PMID:18638484

  18. [The story of K.V. Tjellesen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This is the story about a Danish pharmaceutical wholesaler. The story begins in 1909 in some basement rooms located in Vester Boulevard 42 (which was later to become the Boulevard of H.C. Andersen) in Copenhagen. The founder of the company, pharmacist Knud Valdemar Tjellesen, lived in the very same building. In the beginning, the company mainly sold chemicals and produced and sold chemical-technical products. In 1930, K.V. Tjellesen became the proprietor of the pharmacy Sct. Johannes Apotek situated in Fredensgade 5, Nørrebro in Copenhagen. The company then moved into some offices that were located just behind the pharmacy. Already in 1918, K.V. Tjellesen traded pharmaceutical specialties, which were imported, to a certain extent, from Germany through a purchasing office in Hamburg. In 1938, the son of Knud Valdemar Tjellesen, pharmacist Paul Tjellesen, joined the wholesale company charged with the primary task of intensifying the sale of the company's international agency products. At the same time, the general partnership K.V. Tjellesen was founded. In the time leading up to the Second World War and during this time, business was of course complicated by currency and import restrictions, and it was very difficult to make deliveries to the pharmacies. In Copenhagen, the articles were delivered by 10-12 bicycle delivery boys. In the beginning, the wholesale company mainly catered for Copenhagen and Zealand, but due to the excellent performance of Paul Tjellesen, more and more customers emerged in the rest of the country. In 1954, the company moved to Niels Ebbesens Vej 29 in Frederiksberg given the need for larger facilities. In 1963, an increased space requirement, once again, forced the company to buy one of the neighbouring buildings on Niels Ebbesens Vej and H.C. Orsteds Vej. For many years after, H.C. Orsteds Vej 22 was the official address of the company. After more than 45 years in the company, Paul Tjellesen agreed with his son-in-law Peter Sch

  19. 735 kV air-blast circuit breakers for Hydro Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, I

    1966-01-01

    In 1962 the Quebec Hydro-Electric Commission started the development of aproject for utilizing water power in Manicouagan and Outardes, two rivers some 350 miles northeast of the city of Montreal on the left bank of the St. Lawrence estuary. The project involved the transmission of power at 735 kV ac from Manicouagan and Outardes to the heavy and growing load centers of Quebec and Montreal. The total amount of energy to be transmitted in the final stage is about 6,000 MW. The project involved the need of considerable quantities of apparatus for 735 kV, such as transformers, reactors, lightning arrestors, circuit-breakers, and disconnectors. Since the supply of the major part of the 735 kV circuit-breakers, altogether 14 three-pole units, was awarded to ASEA in Sweden, a short presentation of these airblast circuit-breakers is presented.

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  1. Analysis of transmission elasticity of international prices for sugar prices in Brazil: an application of the Structural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Antonio Margarido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine and analyze the spatial elasticity (or horizontal of price transmission between international sugar prices and the average price received by the Brazilian exporter of sugar, using the Structural Model. The data used are from January/2004 to November/2015. As a result, variations of 1% in the international sugar price are transmitted to the average price received by Brazilian sugar exporters with a magnitude of 0.3% on average, setting inelastic relationship between the two variables and, consequently, the non-occurrence of the law of one price. So, there are mechanisms in this market that are hindering the full functioning of the arbitration. This situation is not unusual, because the sugar is one of the most commercially protected product and suffer much interference.

  2. Notes from the Field: Measles Transmission in an International Airport at a Domestic Terminal Gate--April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Emily; Hickman, Cynthia; Engels, Kathryn; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2015-06-26

    On April 22, 2014, the Minnesota Department of Health notified CDC of a case of measles in a child aged 19 months who had documentation of receiving 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at age 12 months. The child's illness was clinically compatible with measles, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and immunoglobulin M serology at the Minnesota Department of Health Public Health Laboratory. The child was febrile and developed a rash on April 17 while on an international flight from India to the United States before taking a connecting flight from Chicago to Minneapolis. Persons with measles are infectious from 4 days before to 4 days after rash onset. Therefore, travelers were exposed on both the international and domestic flights. CDC's Division of Global Migration and Quarantine was contacted and provided information on potentially exposed persons to relevant health departments for follow-up. No documented transmission was reported as a result of the two flight exposures.

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  4. A Common Structural Component for β-Subunit Mediated Modulation of Slow Inactivation in Different KV Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strutz-Seebohm, Nathalie; Henrion, Ulrike; Schmitt, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Potassium channels are tetrameric proteins providing potassium selective passage through lipid embedded proteinaceous pores with highest fidelity. The selectivity results from binding to discrete potassium binding sites and stabilization of a hydrated potassium ion in a central...... internal cavity. The four potassium binding sites, generated by the conserved TTxGYGD signature sequence are formed by the backbone carbonyls of the amino acids TXGYG. Residues KV1.5-Val481, KV4.3-Leu368 and KV7.1- Ile 313 represent the amino acids in the X position of the respective channels. Methods...

  5. Change in CO2 emission and its transmissions between Korea and Japan using international input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hae-Chun; Chung, Hyun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyze CO 2 transmission between Japan and South Korea through international trade based on 1990 and 1995 international input-output data. It applied a residual-free structural decomposition method proposed by Chung and Rhee [Chung, H.S., Rhee, H.C., 2001. A residual-free decomposition of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions: a case of the Korean industries. Energy 26 (1), 15-30] to emission-related international input-output analysis for the first time in the decomposition studies. This paper is a case study regarding the manner and the extent to which CO 2 emissions are influenced by international trade between Japan (an Annex I country) and South Korea (a non-Annex I country), which is of particular interest for the carbon leakage issue. In this paper, we attempted to show which factors contributed to the changes in emission of the major greenhouse gas in South Korea and Japan. The changes in emission are analyzed in terms of emission intensity, input techniques, demand composition, and trade structures. According to our analysis, South Korea, a non-Annex I country, has more energy-intensive production structures than Japan, an Annex I country. South Korea's trade pattern with Japan reflects these production features, resulting in the Korea's comparative advantage in emission intensive products, though the degree has somewhat mitigated in 1995 compared to 1990. (author)

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  7. 250 kV aim for hvdc valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-06-01

    Development now being carried out by ASEA is aimed at increasing the normal operating voltage for a mercury arc valve to 250 kV dc. The maximum direct voltage per valve group, with one valve in each arm of the bridge, is 125 kV for equipment already in operation in New Zealand, Japan, and Konti Scan. Valves for 130 kV and 133 kV operation are under construction for the Vancouver and the Pacific Intertie 1 links.

  8. Functional properties of human neuronal Kv11 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsen, Karoline; Calloe, Kirstine; Grunnet, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Kv11 potassium channels are important for regulation of the membrane potential. Kv11.2 and Kv11.3 are primarily found in the nervous system, where they most likely are involved in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Two isoforms of human Kv11.2 have been published so far. Here, we present...... current characteristics of the isoforms presented in this work may contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability....

  9. The anticonvulsant retigabine suppresses neuronal Kv2-mediated currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stas, Jeroen I; Bocksteins, Elke; Jensen, Camilla S

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of neuronal M-currents, generated through KV7.2-KV7.5 channels, has gained much interest for its potential in developing treatments for hyperexcitability-related disorders such as epilepsy. Retigabine, a KV7 channel opener, has proven to be an effective anticonvulsant and has recently...

  10. The Transmission of U.S. Election Cycles to International Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R Foerster; John J Schmitz

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the international pervasiveness and importance of the previously uncovered four-year U.S. election cycle whereby U.S. stock returns are significantly lower, and negative, in year 2 following U.S. presidential election relative to years 1, 3 and 4. All eighteen countries examined over the 1957 to 1996 time period possess lower local currency stock market capital gains returns in year 2 (-0.66%) relative to the average capital gains of years 1, 3 and 4 (11.68%). These predom...

  11. Transmission electron microscopy of defects and internal fields in GaN structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, H

    2001-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the microstructure of GaN and InGaN/GaN and to examine electric fields around the defects, and across the quantum wells by electron holography. For this reason different types of GaN and InGaN/GaN samples have been prepared and studied. Conventional transmission electron microscopy has been used for structural study of two MBE grown GaN/GaAs samples, grown at room temperature and at 340 deg C. The structure of the samples were found to be hexagonal polycrystalline in an amorphous GaN matrix, and textured hexagonal polycrystalline material respectively. The experimental results indicate that the higher growth temperature results in a more crystalline material with a higher density of bigger grain sizes. Different types of undoped and Si doped GaN/Sapphire samples were studied, with respect to the defect structure in GaN films. GaN was found to be a highly defective material with a dislocation density of 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}. The majority of the dislocations are edge dislocations. It has been found that nanopipes are open core screw dislocations, and the population and size of the nanopipes is proportional to the Si doping concentration. Dislocation structures were found to depend on the Si doping level in the material, with higher Si doping giving a lower density of dislocations with a more random distribution. In addition some EELS, EDX and HRTEM have been performed on the nanopipes and dislocations in order to investigate Si segregation in the defects. In MBE grown GaN/In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N/GaN SQWs and MQWs, V shaped defects were found to be present in the InGaN regions, which locally reduced the width of the InGaN layers. (author)

  12. Transmission electron microscopy of defects and internal fields in GaN structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, H.

    2001-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the microstructure of GaN and InGaN/GaN and to examine electric fields around the defects, and across the quantum wells by electron holography. For this reason different types of GaN and InGaN/GaN samples have been prepared and studied. Conventional transmission electron microscopy has been used for structural study of two MBE grown GaN/GaAs samples, grown at room temperature and at 340 deg C. The structure of the samples were found to be hexagonal polycrystalline in an amorphous GaN matrix, and textured hexagonal polycrystalline material respectively. The experimental results indicate that the higher growth temperature results in a more crystalline material with a higher density of bigger grain sizes. Different types of undoped and Si doped GaN/Sapphire samples were studied, with respect to the defect structure in GaN films. GaN was found to be a highly defective material with a dislocation density of 10 9 /cm 2 . The majority of the dislocations are edge dislocations. It has been found that nanopipes are open core screw dislocations, and the population and size of the nanopipes is proportional to the Si doping concentration. Dislocation structures were found to depend on the Si doping level in the material, with higher Si doping giving a lower density of dislocations with a more random distribution. In addition some EELS, EDX and HRTEM have been performed on the nanopipes and dislocations in order to investigate Si segregation in the defects. In MBE grown GaN/In 0.1 Ga 0.9 N/GaN SQWs and MQWs, V shaped defects were found to be present in the InGaN regions, which locally reduced the width of the InGaN layers. (author)

  13. Basic evaluation of signal transmission in a real-time internal radiation dose measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohe, K.; Takura, T.; Sato, F.; Matsuki, H.; Yamada, S.; Sato, T.

    2009-01-01

    In radiation therapy, excessive exposure to radiation occurs because the dose actually delivered to the tumor is not known. As a result, a patient suffers from side effects. To solve this problem, a system is needed in which the delivered dose is measured inside the body and the dose data are transmitted from inside to outside of the body during radiation therapy. If such a system is realized, it will be possible to treat cancer safely and effectively. The proposed real-time internal radiation dose measurement system consists of an implantable dosimeter, a wireless communication system, and a wireless feeding system. In this study, a wireless communication system that uses magnetic fields was investigated. As a result, a communication distance of 200 mm was obtained. It was confirmed that radiation dose data could be transmitted outside the body when the communication distance is the required 200 mm. (author)

  14. Convergent transmission of RNAi guide-target mismatch information across Argonaute internal allosteric network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Thomas T; Osman, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA) is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand "seed region" have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the cumulative effects of

  15. Convergent transmission of RNAi guide-target mismatch information across Argonaute internal allosteric network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T Joseph

    Full Text Available In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand "seed region" have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the

  16. A polyether biotoxin binding site on the lipid-exposed face of the pore domain of Kv channels revealed by the marine toxin gambierol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopljar, Ivan; Labro, Alain J.; Cuypers, Eva; Johnson, Henry W. B.; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan; Snyders, Dirk J.

    2009-01-01

    Gambierol is a marine polycyclic ether toxin belonging to the group of ciguatera toxins. It does not activate voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) but inhibits Kv1 potassium channels by an unknown mechanism. While testing whether Kv2, Kv3, and Kv4 channels also serve as targets, we found that Kv3.1 was inhibited with an IC50 of 1.2 ± 0.2 nM, whereas Kv2 and Kv4 channels were insensitive to 1 μM gambierol. Onset of block was similar from either side of the membrane, and gambierol did not compete with internal cavity blockers. The inhibition did not require channel opening and could not be reversed by strong depolarization. Using chimeric Kv3.1–Kv2.1 constructs, the toxin sensitivity was traced to S6, in which T427 was identified as a key determinant. In Kv3.1 homology models, T427 and other molecular determinants (L348, F351) reside in a space between S5 and S6 outside the permeation pathway. In conclusion, we propose that gambierol acts as a gating modifier that binds to the lipid-exposed surface of the pore domain, thereby stabilizing the closed state. This site may be the topological equivalent of the neurotoxin site 5 of VGSCs. Further elucidation of this previously undescribed binding site may explain why most ciguatoxins activate VGSCs, whereas others inhibit voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels. This previously undescribed Kv neurotoxin site may have wide implications not only for our understanding of channel function at the molecular level but for future development of drugs to alleviate ciguatera poisoning or to modulate electrical excitability in general. PMID:19482941

  17. The effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss. [acoustic propagation through aircraft fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. These effects are incorporated into the classical equations for the TL of single panels, and the resulting double integral for field-incidence TL is numerically evaluated for a specific set of parameters.

  18. Step-by-step application methodology in practical KEPCO 22.9kV bus-bar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jae-young; Lee, Seung-yeol

    2010-01-01

    With the increase of power demand and the progress of power industry deregulation, the transmission and distribution systems will have more complicated problems by the influence of curtailing investment and the NIMBY phenomena in overall power systems. [1-2] It is expected that the route length per MW demand of South Korea will decrease gradually from 0.6[C-km/MW] to 0.53[C-km/MW] in 2010.[3] This comes up to a real serious problem from system planning and operation viewpoints. HTS technologies related to power system have properties to solve these complex transmission and distribution constraints, especially for metropolitan area, in the future. As the HTS technology has developed, the HTS cable technology can be the most effective alternative to solve the future expected power network constraints. This paper describes the application methodology of developing 22.9kV HTS cable by CAST for practical distribution system. 22.9kV HTS cable under development with step-by-step application methodology can substitute the existing and planning conventional 154kV cable.[4-5] If this scheme is applied, part of downtown 154kV substation of metropolitan city such as Seoul can be changed into 22.9kV switching station. Additionally, it can give huge economic, environmental benefits to all of the concerned authorities.

  19. The subfamily-specific interaction between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 subunits is determined by interactions between the N- and C-termini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The "silent" voltage-gated potassium (KvS channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form electrically functional homotetramers at the plasma membrane but assembles with Kv2.1 subunits, generating functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramers. The N-terminal T1 domain determines the subfamily-specific assembly of Kv1-4 subunits by preventing interactions between subunits that belong to different subfamilies. For Kv6.4, yeast-two-hybrid experiments showed an interaction of the Kv6.4 N-terminus with the Kv2.1 N-terminus, but unexpectedly also with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. We confirmed this interaction by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP using N-terminal Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 fragments. However, full-length Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 subunits do not form heterotetramers at the plasma membrane. Therefore, additional interactions between the Kv6.4 and Kv2.1 subunits should be important in the Kv2.1/Kv6.4 subfamily-specificity. Using FRET and co-IP approaches with N- and C-terminal fragments we observed that the Kv6.4 C-terminus physically interacts with the Kv2.1 N-terminus but not with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence CDD which is conserved between Kv2 and KvS subunits appeared to be a key determinant since charge reversals with arginine substitutions abolished the interaction between the N-terminus of Kv2.1 and the C-terminus of both Kv2.1 and Kv6.4. In addition, the Kv6.4(CKv3.1 chimera in which the C-terminus of Kv6.4 was replaced by the corresponding domain of Kv3.1, disrupted the assembly with Kv2.1. These results indicate that the subfamily-specific Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramerization is determined by interactions between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 that involve both the N- and C-termini in which the conserved N-terminal CDD sequence plays a key role.

  20. Effects of haloperidol on Kv4.3 potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2014-10-05

    Haloperidol is commonly used in clinical practice to treat acute and chronic psychosis, but it also has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. We investigated the effects of haloperidol on Kv4.3 currents stably expressed in CHO cells using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Haloperidol did not significantly inhibit the peak amplitude of Kv4.3, but accelerated the decay rate of inactivation of Kv4.3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, the effects of haloperidol on Kv4.3 were estimated from the integral of the Kv4.3 currents during the depolarization pulse. The Kv4.3 was decreased by haloperidol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.6 μM. Haloperidol accelerated the decay rate of Kv4.3 inactivation and activation kinetics in a concentration-dependent manner, thereby decreasing the time-to-peak. Haloperidol shifted the voltage dependence of the steady-state activation and inactivation of Kv4.3 in a hyperpolarizing direction. Haloperidol also caused an acceleration of the closed-state inactivation of Kv4.3. Haloperidol produced a use-dependent block of Kv4.3, which was accompanied by a slowing of recovery from the inactivation of Kv4.3. These results suggest that haloperidol blocks Kv4.3 by both interacting with the open state of Kv4.3 channels during depolarization and accelerating the closed-state inactivation at subthreshold membrane potentials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    of the transmission system must be re‐thought in order to accommodate the transmission needs for the future. New lines have to be constructed. Transmission lines are usually laid out as overhead lines, which are large structures, i.e. a 400 kV power pylon is 50 meters high. According to public opinion, such power...

  2. A Study of Electromagnetic Radiation of Corona Discharge Near 500-Kv Electric Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhov, A. V.; Okrainskaya, I. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Kufel'd, V. D.

    2004-01-01

    Data on the spectral composition and intensity of electromagnetic radiation of corona discharge are obtained in an experimental study performed on the outdoor switchgear of the Shagol 500-kV substation of the Chelyabinsk Enterprise of Trunk Transmission Grids and under a 500-kV Shagol - Kozyrevo overhead transmission line. The electromagnetic environment on the territory of the 500-kV outdoor switchgear is shown to be determined by narrow-band radiations (harmonics of the frequency of electric supply) and wide-band radiations due to corona discharges of high-voltage sources. This means that the personnel experience the action of a commercial-frequency electric field and electromagnetic radiation of a quite wide range, which is not allowed for by the existing guidelines. It is recommended to continue the study in cooperation with medical institutions in order to create guidelines that would allow for the joint action of commercial-frequency electric field and electromagnetic radiation and for the voltage in the line, the current load, the meteorological situation, and other factors

  3. 14C SIRI samples at CNA: Measurements at 200 kV and 1000 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI) exercise has taken place during late 2013 and 2014. 13 samples were distributed for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and 5 for radiometric laboratories, including one sample exclusively for radiometric laboratories. Being the first opportunity for our laboratory to participate actively in an intercomparison exercise, we have prepared and measured the samples in the two existing AMS dedicated facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA): SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis), a 1 MV multielemental AMS system from HVEE, and Micadas, a 200 kV radiocarbon dating system designed by ETH. Results are presented for the two systems, together with a description of both the sample preparation and measurement procedures.

  4. {sup 14}C SIRI samples at CNA: Measurements at 200 kV and 1000 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier, E-mail: fj.santos@csic.es; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia

    2015-10-15

    The Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI) exercise has taken place during late 2013 and 2014. 13 samples were distributed for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and 5 for radiometric laboratories, including one sample exclusively for radiometric laboratories. Being the first opportunity for our laboratory to participate actively in an intercomparison exercise, we have prepared and measured the samples in the two existing AMS dedicated facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA): SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis), a 1 MV multielemental AMS system from HVEE, and Micadas, a 200 kV radiocarbon dating system designed by ETH. Results are presented for the two systems, together with a description of both the sample preparation and measurement procedures.

  5. 14C SIRI samples at CNA: Measurements at 200 kV and 1000 kV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    The Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI) exercise has taken place during late 2013 and 2014. 13 samples were distributed for AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and 5 for radiometric laboratories, including one sample exclusively for radiometric laboratories. Being the first opportunity for our laboratory to participate actively in an intercomparison exercise, we have prepared and measured the samples in the two existing AMS dedicated facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA): SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis), a 1 MV multielemental AMS system from HVEE, and Micadas, a 200 kV radiocarbon dating system designed by ETH. Results are presented for the two systems, together with a description of both the sample preparation and measurement procedures.

  6. Kv7 channels can function without constitutive calmodulin tethering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Gómez-Posada

    Full Text Available M-channels are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of Kv7.2-7.5 subunits that serve as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Calmodulin binding is required for Kv7 channel function and mutations in Kv7.2 that disrupt calmodulin binding cause Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions (BFNC, a dominantly inherited human epilepsy. On the basis that Kv7.2 mutants deficient in calmodulin binding are not functional, calmodulin has been defined as an auxiliary subunit of Kv7 channels. However, we have identified a presumably phosphomimetic mutation S511D that permits calmodulin-independent function. Thus, our data reveal that constitutive tethering of calmodulin is not required for Kv7 channel function.

  7. Effect of electrocautery on endothelial integrity of the internal thoracic artery: ultrastructural analysis with transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, Burak; Yeniterzi, Mehmet; Onan, Ismihan Selen; Ersoy, Burak; Gonca, Suheyla; Gelenli, Elif; Solakoglu, Seyhun; Bakir, Ihsan

    2014-10-01

    The internal thoracic artery (ITA) is typically harvested from the chest wall by means of conventional electrocautery. We investigated the effects of electrocautery on endothelial-cell and vessel-wall morphology at the ultrastructural level during ITA harvesting. Internal thoracic artery specimens from 20 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated in 2 groups. The ITA grafts were sharply dissected with use of a scalpel and clips in the control group (n=10) and were harvested by means of electrocautery in the study group (n=10). Each sample was evaluated for intimal, elastic-tissue, muscular-layer, and adventitial changes. Free flow was measured intraoperatively. Light microscopic examinations were performed after hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural changes in the endothelial cells and vessel walls of each ITA. In the sharp-dissection group, the endothelial surfaces were lined with normal amounts of original endothelium, endothelial cells were distinctly attached to the basal lamina, cytoplasmic organelles were evident, and intercellular junctional complexes were intact. Conversely, in the electrocautery group, the morphologic integrity of endothelial cells was distorted, with some cell separations and splits, contracted cells, numerous large cytoplasmic vacuoles, and no visible cytoplasmic organelles. The subendothelial layer exhibited disintegration. Free ITA flow was higher in the sharp-dissection group (P=0.04). The integrity of endothelial cells can be better preserved when the ITA is mobilized by means of sharp dissection, rather than solely by electrocautery; we recommend a combined approach.

  8. A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 with 2009 pandemic H1N1 internal genes demonstrated increased replication and transmission in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), A/Iraq/775/06, and a reassortant virus comprised of the HA and NA from A/Iraq/775/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1, A/N...

  9. Kv1.1 knock-in ataxic mice exhibit spontaneous myokymic activity exacerbated by fatigue, ischemia and low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Orazio; Imbrici, Paola; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Valentino, Mario; Zammit, Christian; Mora, Marina; Gibertini, Sara; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Muscat, Richard; Pessia, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by myokymia and attacks of ataxic gait often precipitated by stress. Several genetic mutations have been identified in the Shaker-like K(+) channel Kv1.1 (KCNA1) of EA1 individuals, including V408A, which result in remarkable channel dysfunction. By inserting the heterozygous V408A, mutation in one Kv1.1 allele, a mouse model of EA1 has been generated (Kv1.1(V408A/+)). Here, we investigated the neuromuscular transmission of Kv1.1(V408A/+) ataxic mice and their susceptibility to physiologically relevant stressors. By using in vivo preparations of lateral gastrocnemius (LG) nerve-muscle from Kv1.1(+/+) and Kv1.1(V408A/+) mice, we show that the mutant animals exhibit spontaneous myokymic discharges consisting of repeated singlets, duplets or multiplets, despite motor nerve axotomy. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy from the motor nerve, ex vivo, revealed spontaneous Ca(2+) signals that occurred abnormally only in preparations dissected from Kv1.1(V408A/+) mice. Spontaneous bursting activity, as well as that evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation, was exacerbated by muscle fatigue, ischemia and low temperatures. These stressors also increased the amplitude of compound muscle action potential. Such abnormal neuromuscular transmission did not alter fiber type composition, neuromuscular junction and vascularization of LG muscle, analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Taken together these findings provide direct evidence that identifies the motor nerve as an important generator of myokymic activity, that dysfunction of Kv1.1 channels alters Ca(2+) homeostasis in motor axons, and also strongly suggest that muscle fatigue contributes more than PNS fatigue to exacerbate the myokymia/neuromyotonia phenotype. More broadly, this study points out that juxtaparanodal K(+) channels composed of Kv1.1 subunits exert an important role in dampening the excitability of motor nerve axons during

  10. Full Scale Test on a 100km, 150kV AC Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe Farria; Wiechowski, W.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2010-01-01

    phenomena is conducted. The cases analysed in this paper are: Zero-missing phenomenon, Ferranti effect, energisation transient, effect of the cable's connection in the busbar voltage and cable disconnection. For all the phenomena described in the paper measurement data are presented and it is verified......This paper presents some of the results obtained from the electrical measurements on a 99.7 km, 150 kV three-phase AC cable, connecting 215 MW offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2, located in Denmark west coast, to Denmark's 400 kV transmission network. The measurements were performed at nominal voltage...... if the obtained results are in accordance with the theory and also with simulations performed in PSCAD/EMTDC. With the exception of the cable disconnection, for all the remaining cases introduced in this paper the measurements confirmed the theoretical expectations. Depending on the cable disconnection sequence...

  11. Study and field verification of the effects of removing closing resistors from 500 kV circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, D.A.; Agrawal, B.L.; Farmer, R.G.; Demcko, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Closing resistors in EHV circuit breakers are frequently used to reduce switching transients on lines thus preventing flashovers during line energization. Maintenance and failures of such closing resistors can be costly and reduce transmission system reliability. For these reasons, APS conducted an investigation into the technical feasibility of operating its 500 kV without closing resistors. This paper describes study results of removing closing resistors from 500 kV breakers in a system which employs older technology silicon carbide type surge arresters. The paper also describes results of field tests of the expected flashover rates calculated in the study. These field tests involve repeatedly energizing a 258 mile 500 kV line using a breaker in which the closing resistors are disabled. Transient overvoltages captured during the tests are compared with predicted overvoltages. The study concludes that closing resistors may be removed from the subject system without unacceptable consequences

  12. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A; Moffatt, James D

    2009-01-01

    that K(v)7.x especially K(v)7.4 and K(v)7.5 are expressed in different regions of the murine gastrointestinal tract and blockers of K(v)7 channels augment inherent contractile activity. Drugs that selectively block K(v)7.4/7.5 might be promising therapeutics for the treatment of motility disorders...

  13. Nitrergic neuromuscular transmission in the mouse internal anal sphincter is accomplished by multiple pathways and postjunctional effector cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotherton, A. G.; Peri, L. E.; Sanders, K. M.; Ward, S. M.; Keef, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    The effector cells and second messengers participating in nitrergic neuromuscular transmission (NMT) were investigated in the mouse internal anal sphincter (IAS). Protein expression of guanylate cyclase (GCα, GCβ) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) were examined in cryostat sections with dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques in PDGFRα+ cells, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells (SMC). Gene expression levels were determined with quantitative PCR of dispersed cells from Pdgfrαegfp/+, KitcopGFP/+, and smMHCCre-egfp mice sorted with FACS. The relative gene and protein expression levels of GCα and GCβ were PDGFRα+ cells > ICC ≫ SMC. In contrast, cGKI gene expression sequence was SMC = ICC > PDGFRα+ cells whereas cGKI protein expression sequence was neurons > SMC ≫ ICC = PDGFRα+ cells. The functional role of cGKI was investigated in cGKI−/− mice. Relaxation with 8-bromo (8-Br)-cGMP was greatly reduced in cGKI−/− mice whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were partially reduced and forskolin responses were unchanged. A nitrergic relaxation occurred with nerve stimulation (NS, 5 Hz, 60 s) in cGKI+/+ and cGKI−/− mice although there was a small reduction in the cGKI−/− mouse. Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) abolished responses during the first 20–30 s of NS in both animals. The GC inhibitor ODQ greatly reduced or abolished SNP and nitrergic NS responses in both animals. These data confirm an essential role for GC in NO-induced relaxation in the IAS. However, the expression of GC and cGKI by all three cell types suggests that each may participate in coordinating muscular responses to NO. The persistence of nitrergic NMT in the cGKI−/− mouse suggests the presence of a significant GC-dependent, cGKI-independent pathway. PMID:25301187

  14. Analysis of the 35 KV substation secondary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Jianguo; Jiang, Chunlei; Ren, Shuang; Liu, Songbin

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes the status of the two system of some 35KV users' substation in Daqing oil field, the deficiencies of the two system of the existing 35KV substation are found out. And put forward the opinion of acceptance in the future work. I hope it can able to work in the future on the protection of professional help.

  15. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    . The comparison shows that results obtained used both types of the cores are the same, so it is concluded that both cores can be used for harmonic measurements. Low-inductance resistors are introduced in the secondary circuits, in series with the metering and protective relaying. On those resistors, the harmonic......Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... end only so the ground is not used as a return path. A way to reduce the capacitive coupling is to provide shielding. Harmonic currents are measured using the conventional inductive voltage transformers. Both protective and metering cores were compared if they could be used for harmonic measurements...

  16. Combined kV and MV imaging for real-time tracking of implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Mao Weihua; Xing, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of intrafraction organ motion, target localization uncertainty can greatly hamper the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, a real-time knowledge of the tumor position is required throughout the beam delivery process. The recent integration of onboard kV diagnostic imaging together with MV electronic portal imaging devices on linear accelerators can allow for real-time three-dimensional (3D) tumor position monitoring during a treatment delivery. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a near real-time 3D internal fiducial tracking system based on the combined use of kV and MV imaging. A commercially available radiotherapy system equipped with both kV and MV imaging systems was used in this work. A hardware video frame grabber was used to capture both kV and MV video streams simultaneously through independent video channels at 30 frames per second. The fiducial locations were extracted from the kV and MV images using a software tool. The geometric tracking capabilities of the system were evaluated using a pelvic phantom with embedded fiducials placed on a moveable stage. The maximum tracking speed of the kV/MV system is approximately 9 Hz, which is primarily limited by the frame rate of the MV imager. The geometric accuracy of the system is found to be on the order of less than 1 mm in all three spatial dimensions. The technique requires minimal hardware modification and is potentially useful for image-guided radiation therapy systems

  17. Transmission line fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    There were reports from Russia in the late 1960's and early 1970's that staff in new 500-kV and 750-kV substations were suffering from headaches and other symptoms broadly associated with fatigue. Whilst the Russian results were not confirmed by independent studies, they did serve to stimulate public concern. In 1979 published results of a study of childhood cancer in Denver, Colorado concentrated attention onto the magnetic rather than the electric field. Research programmes in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are briefly described. Although some studies suggest an association between exposure to 50/60 Hz fields and cancer, other studies do not. Having reviewed the evidence, the International Radiation Protection Association, the World Health Organisation, the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment and the U.K. National Radiological Protection Board all consider that the relation is not established. (author)

  18. Ingledow 500 kV substation : using mixed technology switchgear solutions for replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, C.; Glaubitz, P. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany); Messinger, T. [British Columbia Transmission Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The reliability of the 500 kV equipment at the Ingledow substation operated by BC Hydro Transmission System is of critical importance due to the energy interchange with the Bonneville Power Authority in the United States and the major role of the substation in serving the energy needs of British Columbia's densely populated Lower Mainland. Presently, the 500 kV switchyard includes 10 airblast circuit breakers and the associated current transformers which are all approaching their end of service-life. In response to environmental and safety concerns, the British Columbia Transmission Corporation adopted a policy whereby new oil-filled transformers are no longer acceptable, and the replacement of existing oil-filled transformers must be oil-free. The result is that the current transformers must be either bushing-type or sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) type. The replacement strategies for the substation equipment consider economical, environmental and seismic issues. They have just as strong an influence on the decision process as the technical, operational and reliability aspects for the particular case or switchgear replacement in the transmission system. The Ingledow case demonstrates the advantages of using mixed technology switchgear, with its compact design flowing from gas insulated switchgear (GIS) for replacement of equipment in an outdoor switchyard. The advantages of the MTS in this case offer the possibility of future reconfiguration to improve the system reliability within the existing switchyard space. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Back-to-Back Energization of a 60kV Cable Network - Inrush Currents Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth; Hansen, M. Lind

    2010-01-01

    On November 2008 the Danish government decided that all Danish transmission lines with a rated voltage equal to and below 150kV must be put underground, in order to reduce the visual pollution caused by Overhead Lines. This decision will lead to a massive use of underground cables in the Danish...... Network, and force a change in the approach used until now when planning, analyzing and operating electrical power systems. One problem that might arise is the energization of cables in parallel, as this operation may originate high inrush currents, which represent a risk to the circuit breakers connected...

  20. The influence of the 220 kv and 66 kv power electric systems and the subsystem of their servitude range in the 'chaco central' ecosystem in Paraguay; Relacion de tendido electrico de 220 kV y 66kV en el ecosistema del chaco central del Paraguay y el subsistema de su franja de servidumbre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta E, Hugo Cesar [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    According to the report from DOP/EL, in a medium period of time it has been registered nine disconnections of the 66 kv power transmission line located in the Chaco zone occurred in the nocturnal period. Those disconnections affected negatively the milky processes of Colinas Menonitas, deteriorating more than 20,000 liters of milk for each cut of the electric energy service. DMA/IM has accomplished a investigation job together with DOM/FO and has found the main reasons for those disconnections, so based on them it has recommended possible solutions related to the problem.

  1. Maintenance planning for transmission routes with medium voltage overlines - experience within the framework of two pilot projects; Trassenpflegeplanung fuer Mittel- und Hochspannungsfreileitungen - Erfahrungen von zwei Pilotprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiges, H. [Ingenieurbuero Geiges, Freiraum- und Landschaftsplanung, Laumersheim (Germany)

    1997-11-03

    On the basis of the `VDEW Orientation Aid for Maintenance Measures in Transmission Routes` two pilot projects were selected in a 110 kV and a 20 kV overhead transmission route. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf der Grundlage der `VDEW-Orientierungshilfe zu Pflegemassnahmen in Leitungstrassen` wurden Pilotprojekte in einer 110-kV- und in einer 20-kV-Freileitungstrasse im suedlichen Pfaelzerwald ausgewaehlt. (orig.)

  2. Development of a 400 kV 80 mA Cockcroft-Walton power supply and 12 kW isolation transformer systems for neutron generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, Z.; Ma, Z.; Yao, Z.

    2017-06-01

    A 400 kV 80 mA Cockcroft-Walton power supply driven by 2.5 kHz frequency, and 12 kW isolation transformer systems are developed for an intense DD/DT neutron generator. The design, construction, and testing of the high voltage (HV) power supply and isolation transformer systems are detailed reported. The structure of step-up transformers can make the potential distribution uniform, and auxiliary coils of the isolation transformers can improve the power transmission efficiency significantly. The testing results show that the HV power supply can reach 400 kV, and the isolation transformer systems can withstand 400 kV voltages and its power transmission efficiency is about 98.1%.

  3. Aberration-corrected STEM/TEM imaging at 15 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeo; Sawada, Hidetaka; Hosokawa, Fumio; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    The performance of aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV was evaluated in a low-voltage microscope equipped with a cold-field emission gun and a higher-order aberration corrector. Aberrations up to the fifth order were corrected by the aberration measurement and auto-correction system using the diffractogram tableau method in TEM and Ronchigram analysis in STEM. TEM observation of nanometer-sized particles demonstrated that aberrations up to an angle of 50 mrad were compensated. A TEM image of Si[110] exhibited lattice fringes with a spacing of 0.192 nm, and the power spectrum of the image showed spots corresponding to distances of 0.111 nm. An annular dark-field STEM image of Si[110] showed lattice fringes of (111) and (22¯0) planes corresponding to lattice distances of 0.314 nm and 0.192 nm, respectively. At an accelerating voltage of 15 kV, the developed low-voltage microscope achieved atomic-resolution imaging with a small chromatic aberration and a large uniform phase. - Highlights: • Aberration-corrected STEM/TEM imaging at 15 kV demonstrated lattice fringes of Si[110] single crystal with a spacing of 0.192 nm. • To achieve this performance at a lower accelerating voltage, uniform phase area over 50 mrad is mandatory in Ronchigram and Diffractogram tableau. • This means a higher-order aberration of six-fold astigmatism should be compensated. • In addition, decreasing the effect of chromatic aberration plays an important role for improving the performance of linear scattering component at 15 kV TEM

  4. β-Secretase BACE1 Promotes Surface Expression and Function of Kv3.4 at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Stephanie; Zheng, Fang; Kyncl, Michele C; Karch, Sandra; Voelkl, Kerstin; Zott, Benedikt; D'Avanzo, Carla; Lomoio, Selene; Tesco, Giuseppina; Kim, Doo Y; Alzheimer, Christian; Huth, Tobias

    2018-04-04

    The β-secretase β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through nonproteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K + channel 3.4 (Kv3.4) as a new and functionally relevant interaction partner of BACE1. Kv3.4 gives rise to A-type current with fast activating and inactivating kinetics and serves to repolarize the presynaptic action potential. We found that BACE1 and Kv3.4 are highly enriched and remarkably colocalized in hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs). In BACE1 -/- mice of either sex, Kv3.4 surface expression was significantly reduced in the hippocampus and, in synaptic fractions thereof, Kv3.4 was specifically diminished, whereas protein levels of other presynaptic K + channels such as K Ca 1.1 and K Ca 2.3 remained unchanged. The apparent loss of presynaptic Kv3.4 affected the strength of excitatory transmission at the MF-CA3 synapse in hippocampal slices of BACE1 -/- mice when probed with the Kv3 channel blocker BDS-I. The effect of BACE1 on Kv3.4 expression and function should be bidirectional, as predicted from a heterologous expression system, in which BACE1 cotransfection produced a concomitant upregulation of Kv3.4 surface level and current based on a physical interaction between the two proteins. Our data show that, by targeting Kv3.4 to presynaptic sites, BACE1 endows the terminal with a powerful means to regulate the strength of transmitter release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The β-secretase β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is infamous for its crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, but its physiological functions in the intact nervous system are only gradually

  5. [Multi-Target Recognition of Internal and External Defects of Potato by Semi-Transmission Hyperspectral Imaging and Manifold Learning Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-yu; Jin, Rui; Ku, Jing; Xu, Sen-miao; Xu, Meng-ling; Wu, Zhen-zhong; Kong, De-guo

    2015-04-01

    The present paper put forward a non-destructive detection method which combines semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging technology with manifold learning dimension reduction algorithm and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) to recognize internal and external defects in potatoes simultaneously. Three hundred fifteen potatoes were bought in farmers market as research object, and semi-transmission hyperspectral image acquisition system was constructed to acquire the hyperspectral images of normal external defects (bud and green rind) and internal defect (hollow heart) potatoes. In order to conform to the actual production, defect part is randomly put right, side and back to the acquisition probe when the hyperspectral images of external defects potatoes are acquired. The average spectrums (390-1,040 nm) were extracted from the region of interests for spectral preprocessing. Then three kinds of manifold learning algorithm were respectively utilized to reduce the dimension of spectrum data, including supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE), locally linear embedding (LLE) and isometric mapping (ISOMAP), the low-dimensional data gotten by manifold learning algorithms is used as model input, Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) and LSSVM were combined to develop the multi-target classification model. By comparing and analyzing results of the three models, we concluded that SLLE is the optimal manifold learning dimension reduction algorithm, and the SLLE-LSSVM model is determined to get the best recognition rate for recognizing internal and external defects potatoes. For test set data, the single recognition rate of normal, bud, green rind and hollow heart potato reached 96.83%, 86.96%, 86.96% and 95% respectively, and he hybrid recognition rate was 93.02%. The results indicate that combining the semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging technology with SLLE-LSSVM is a feasible qualitative analytical method which can simultaneously recognize the internal and

  6. On the use of programmable logical controllers (PLC) in the emergency control schemes for the 750 kV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberto Campos de; Oliveira, Mario Cesar Santos de [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The energy produced at the Itaipu Power Plant for the Brazilian Interconnected System is transmitted through two different transmission system: -HVDC system, with two bipoles of +- 600 kV, 6300 MW which connect the substation of Foz do Iguacu in the State of Parana, to substation of Ibiuna in the State of Sao Paulo, transmitting the energy generated in 50 Hz units. This system was entirely commissioned on september of 1987. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Use of TCSR with Split Windings for Shortening the Spar Cycle Time in 500 kV Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matinyan, A. M., E-mail: al-drm@mail.ru; Peshkov, M. V.; Karpov, V. N.; Alekseev, N. A. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of Unified Power System,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The arc-fault recharge phenomenon in single-phase automatic reclosure (SPAR) of a line is examined. Abrief description is given of the design of a 500 kV thyristor controlled shunt reactor (TCSR) with split valve-side windings. This type of TCSR is shown to effectively quench a single-phase arc fault in a power transmission line and shortens the SPAR cycle time.

  8. Solution of K-V envelope equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1995-04-01

    The envelope equations for a KV beam with space charge have been analyzed systematically by an e expansion followed by integrations. The focusing profile as a function of axial length is assumed to be symmetric but otherwise arbitrary. Given the bean current, emittance, and peak focusing field, we find the envelopes a(s) and b(s) and obtain , a max , σ, and σ 0 . Explicit results are presented for various truncations of the expansion. The zeroth order results correspond to those from the well-known smooth approximation; the same convenient format is retained for the higher order cases. The first order results, involving single correction terms, give 3--10 times better accuracy and are good to ∼1% at σ 0 = 70 degree. Third order gives a factor of 10--30 improvement over the smooth approximation and derived quantities accurate to ∼1% at σ 0 = 112 degree. The first order expressions are convenient design tools. They lend themselves to variable energy problems and have been applied to the design, construction, and testing of ESQ accelerators at LBL

  9. Why transmission is still the critical link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, V. [ESBI Alberta Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the important role that transmission plays in the competitive electric power industry in North America and around the world. In the past several years the transmission sector has experienced a lack of investment, congestion on transmission networks, merchant transmission development, and the creation of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). The transmission grid is central to the reliability of the entire electricity system. It also plays a vital role in promoting efficient markets in electricity. The author discusses the consequences of inadequate investment to this critical link within the power industry. He also discusses how much investment is needed, and the challenges and solutions to building an infrastructure. The integrated electric system and the electricity industry in Alberta is very different from those in the United Sates, but the issues facing the industry are the same. The challenge is the sharp increase in the number of system access requests by new generators combined with the difficulties in siting new transmission lines. There are 17,000 km of transmission lines in Alberta, at voltages ranging from 69 kV to 500 kV. There are also connections between neighbouring provinces. The transmission lines have a value of C$1.5 billion. Since there have been no major additions to the transmission grid since the mid-1980s, significant investments in the coming years will have a disproportionate impact on the cost of transmission. Two merchant transmission projects have been proposed. The first will enhance transfer of electricity between Alberta and Saskatchewan by 150 MW, and the second is proposed to be a 1,500 MW, 500 kV DC line from the Fort McMurray area to the Pacific Northwest. 5 figs.

  10. Wireless data transmission from inside electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José Ignacio; Barraza, Roberto; Echeverry, Julian Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different atmospheric conditions are considered.

  11. Underground cables as an alternative to overhead lines. A comparison of economic and technical aspects of voltages over 22 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trohjell, J.E.; Vognild, I.H.

    1994-07-11

    The report presents technical and economical aspects of underground cables compared to overhead lines in Norway in high voltage transmission systems above 22 kV. The economical comparison between the two options includes capital costs of installation (investment costs), maintenance costs and costs of electrical losses. The main technical issues discussed are reliability and flexibility. 35 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. TRUSSPOLE - Trussed Metallic Pole. Results of its application in 69 kV TL - simple circuit; Trusspole: poste metalico trelicado. Resultados da aplicacao em LT 69kV - circuito simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Ricardo Ralo Liberato da; Mello, Reynaldo Castriota de; Ferreira, Sirio Jose; Cadete, Marcia Augusta de Moura [MJMS - Mendes Junior Montagens e Servicos Ltda., Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Souza, Mauro Dias de [EGEL - Engenharia e Construcoes Ltda. (Brazil); Dantas, Roberto Pires [PLT - Projetos de Linhas de Transmissao Ltda. (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the origin, the development and the results of the TRUSSPOLE(Trussed Metallic Post) application in electric power transmission systems. It concerns a spatial trussed structure with a single metallic basis, similar to the concrete or wood pole, able to associate the technical and economical advantages of the trussed structures and the tubular or solid thick poles. The results obtained in the project, in load experiments of a study initial prototype and in the construction of a 69 kV Cs transmission line, with a 53.2 Km extension, using this type of structural solution, are shown 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Differential expression of the Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channel family in the rat nephron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; Salvador, Carolina; Diaz-Bello, Beatriz; Escobar, Laura I

    2014-10-01

    Several potassium (K(+)) channels contribute to maintaining the resting membrane potential of renal epithelial cells. Apart from buffering the cell membrane potential and cell volume, K(+) channels allow sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule (PT), K(+) recycling and K(+) reabsorption in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and K(+) secretion and K(+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting duct. Previously, we identified Kv.1.1, Kv1.3 and Kv1.6 channels in collecting ducts of the rat inner medulla. We also detected intracellular Kv1.3 channel in the acid secretory intercalated cells, which is trafficked to the apical membrane in response to dietary K(+) to function as a secretory K(+) channel. In this work we sought to characterize the expression of all members of the Kv1 family in the rat nephron. mRNA and protein expression were detected for all Kv1 channels. Immunoblots identified differential expression of each Kv1 in the cortex, outer and inner medulla. Immunofluorescence labeling detected Kv1.5 in Bowman´s capsule and endothelial cells and Kv1.7 in podocytes, endothelial cells and macula densa in glomeruli; Kv1.4, Kv1.5 and Kv1.7 in PT; Kv1.2, Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 in TAL; Kv1.1, Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 in DCT and CNT and Kv1.3 in DCT, and all the Kv1 family in the cortical and medullary collecting ducts. Recently, some hereditary renal syndromes have been attributed to mutations in K(+) channels. Our results expand the repertoire of K(+) channels that contribute to K(+) homeostasis to include the Kv1 family.

  14. Inactivation as a new regulatory mechanism for neuronal Kv7 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2007-01-01

    neuronal channels and are important for controlling excitability. Kv7.1 channels have been considered the only Kv7 channels to undergo inactivation upon depolarization. However, here we demonstrate that inactivation is also an intrinsic property of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels, which inactivate to a larger...

  15. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine

    2006-01-01

    The family of Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels consists of five members. Kv7.2 and 3 are the primary molecular correlates of the M-current, but also Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 display M-current characteristics. M-channel modulators include blockers (e.g., linopirdine) for cognition enhancement and openers (e.g...

  16. Development of 66 kV/6.9 kV 2 MV A prototype HTS power transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohno, T.; Tomioka, A.; Imaizumi, M.; Sanuki, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yasukawa, Y.; Ono, H.; Yagi, Y.; Iwadate, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed the technology of the producing a HTS magnet for the power transformer. Three subjects have been mainly studied, high voltage technologies, large current and low AC loss technologies and sub-cooling system technologies to establish the technology of 66 kV/6.9 kV 10 MV A class HTS power transformer. In order to verify the validity of elemental technologies, such as high voltage technologies, large current and low AC loss technologies and sub-cooling system technologies, single-phase 2 MV A class 66 kV/6.9 kV prototype HTS transformer was manufactured and tested. In the load loss (AC loss) measurement, it was obtained that the measured value of 633 W was almost corresponding to the calculated value of 576 W at the rated operation of 2 MV A. Moreover, the breakdown was not found all voltage withstand test. These test results indicate that elemental technologies were established for the development of 66 kV/6.9 kV 10 MV A class HTS power transformer

  17. Transmission policy in Alberta and Bill 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J.; Rosehart, W.; MacCormack, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans developed by the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) have determined that Alberta's electrical transmission system needs to be expanded. However, there are complex issues that must be considered in order to assess the nature and extent of the needed expansion. Various new amendments to the system were proposed in the Alberta government's Bill 50, including the construction of new transmission lines; the installation of a double circuit 500 kV alternating current line between Edmonton and the Gibbons-Redwater region; the construction of a new 240 kV substation in southeast Calgary; and the installation of 2 single circuit 500 kV alternating current lines between Edmonton and Fort McMurray. This study provided a review of the institutional framework instituted by the government's transmission policy and compared the costs and benefits of 2 large capacity high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission lines proposed for the Edmonton-Calgary corridor relative to the various other transmission system amendment suggestions. An evaluation of Alberta's proposed regulatory process under Bill 50 was also conducted. Results of the study indicated that the addition of the HVDC lines is an inefficient response to concerns over adequate supply and reliability. 72 refs., 18 tabs.

  18. Effect of Electrocautery on Endothelial Integrity of the Internal Thoracic Artery: Ultrastructural Analysis with Transmission Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Onan, Burak; Yeniterzi, Mehmet; Onan, Ismihan Selen; Ersoy, Burak; Gonca, Suheyla; Gelenli, Elif; Solakoglu, Seyhun; Bakir, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    The internal thoracic artery (ITA) is typically harvested from the chest wall by means of conventional electrocautery. We investigated the effects of electrocautery on endothelial-cell and vessel-wall morphology at the ultrastructural level during ITA harvesting.

  19. Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horse foals born in 2013 in the same pasture on a farm in Central Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolliver S. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research is a continuation of studies conducted periodically over 40 years on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in the same horse herd on pasture (Field 10 on a farm in Central Kentucky. It included 12 mixed light horse foals born in 2013 and euthanatized between July, 2013 and April, 2014 for collection of internal parasites. Parasites found: Gasterophilus intestinalis, Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, small strongyles (cyathostomes, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and Thelazia lacrymalis. Prevalence generally was related to age of the foals. Overall prevalence and number of specimens were lower than in earlier studies except for P. equorum. There were 15 species (much fewer than previously of small strongyles found and recorded by location in the large intestines. All stages of small strongyles encysted in the mucosa of the large intestine were recovered by artificial digestion and in significantly lower numbers in older foals

  20. Research on Condition Assessment Method of Transmission Tower Under the Action of Strong Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ren-mou; An, Li-qiang; Zhang, Rong-lun; Wu, Jiong; Liang, Ya-feng

    2018-03-01

    Transmission towers are often subjected to the external damage of severe weather like strong wind and so on, which may cause the collapse due to the yield and fracture of the tower material. Aiming this issue, an assessment method was proposed in this paper to assess the operation condition of transmission towers under strong wind. With a reasonable assess index system established firstly, then the internal force of the tower material was solved and its stability was determined through the mechanical analysis of the transmission tower finite element model. Meanwhile, the condition risk level of the tower was finally determined by considering the difference among the influences of other factors like corrosion and loose of members, slope on the transmission tower through the analytic hierarchy process. The assessment method was applied to assess the wind-induced collapse of towers in 110kV Bao Yi II line in Wenchang City, Hainan Province, of which the result proves the method can assess the condition of transmission tower under strong wind and of guiding significance for improving the windproof capability of transmission towers.

  1. UHV A.C. transmission: Technology and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauzillo, B.A.; Manzoni, G.; Nicolini, P.

    1992-04-01

    At the beginning of the 70's, UHV transmission was regarded as imminent in many countries in view of the expected concentration of generating units (possibly of the nuclear type and grouped together in a few large plants, each of several GW), and research projects were therefore launched in the U.S.A., Canada, Italy, Japan, USSR, etc. Nowadays, the expected introduction of UHV transmission seems remote due to the slowdown in electricity growth and to the tendency towards distributed generation. Nevertheless, there are exceptions: the 1,200 kV 2,400 km-long transmission system in operation in Siberia-Kazahkstan-Urals, and the 1,100 kV 200 km double-circuit line under construction in Japan (which will, however, be operated at 500 kV up to the end of the century). In addition, in Italy, the research programme of a 1000 kV project has now been completed and a 1,050 kV pilot plant is under construction in Tuscany, consisting of a short 1,050kV line and a 420/1,050 kV 1,200 MVA substation. The technology of UHV AC transmission has therefore been proved effective and may represent an available option for the power systems of the next century. From the power system planning point-of-view, UHV's favourable characteristics lie in the possibility of transmitting large amount of power, of the order of 5 GW per circuit, with lower costs, reduced losses, and less land occupation than in the case of EHV lines

  2. Major Refit for CERN's 400 kV Substation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 400 kV substation on the Prévessin site brings in the electricity that powers CERN's accelerators and the majority of the Laboratory's installations. It was originally built in the 1970s for the SPS, and is one of only five privately owned 400 kV sub-stations in France. Three of the others belong to the national railway company, SNCF, supplying the Paris-Marseilles TGV line, the other is at the Cadarache research centre near mouth of the Rhone. After nearly thirty years of service, CERN's substation has just undergone a complete overhaul. The new main 18 kV switchboard for the SPS pulsed network. The electricity supply for the original Prévessin substation was from the 400 kV EDF network, delivered through three 90 MW transformers at 18 kV to the SPS pulsed network, With the arrival of LEP, two 110 MW transformers were added to supply the new accelerator. Now, as CERN gears up for the LHC, additional pulsed power capacity is needed to supply the transfer lines carrying protons from...

  3. A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.; Andersson, G.

    2001-01-01

    Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

  4. 2D-3D registration for cranial radiation therapy using a 3D kV CBCT and a single limited field-of-view 2D kV radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munbodh, Reshma; Knisely, Jonathan Ps; Jaffray, David A; Moseley, Douglas J

    2018-05-01

    We present and evaluate a fully automated 2D-3D intensity-based registration framework using a single limited field-of-view (FOV) 2D kV radiograph and a 3D kV CBCT for 3D estimation of patient setup errors during brain radiotherapy. We evaluated two similarity measures, the Pearson correlation coefficient on image intensity values (ICC) and maximum likelihood measure with Gaussian noise (MLG), derived from the statistics of transmission images. Pose determination experiments were conducted on 2D kV radiographs in the anterior-posterior (AP) and left lateral (LL) views and 3D kV CBCTs of an anthropomorphic head phantom. In order to minimize radiation exposure and exclude nonrigid structures from the registration, limited FOV 2D kV radiographs were employed. A spatial frequency band useful for the 2D-3D registration was identified from the bone-to-no-bone spectral ratio (BNBSR) of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) computed from the 3D kV planning CT of the phantom. The images being registered were filtered accordingly prior to computation of the similarity measures. We evaluated the registration accuracy achievable with a single 2D kV radiograph and with the registration results from the AP and LL views combined. We also compared the performance of the 2D-3D registration solutions proposed to that of a commercial 3D-3D registration algorithm, which used the entire skull for the registration. The ground truth was determined from markers affixed to the phantom and visible in the CBCT images. The accuracy of the 2D-3D registration solutions, as quantified by the root mean squared value of the target registration error (TRE) calculated over a radius of 3 cm for all poses tested, was ICC AP : 0.56 mm, MLG AP : 0.74 mm, ICC LL : 0.57 mm, MLG LL : 0.54 mm, ICC (AP and LL combined): 0.19 mm, and MLG (AP and LL combined): 0.21 mm. The accuracy of the 3D-3D registration algorithm was 0.27 mm. There was no significant difference in mean TRE for the 2D-3D registration

  5. Skeletal muscle Kv7 (KCNQ) channels in myoblast differentiation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Sole, Laura; Martinez-Marmol, Ramon; Villalonga, Nuria; Felipe, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv) are involved in myocyte proliferation and differentiation by triggering changes in membrane potential and regulating cell volume. Since Kv7 channels may participate in these events, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle Kv7.1 and Kv7.5 were involved during proliferation and myogenesis. Here we report that, while myotube formation did not regulate Kv7 channels, Kv7.5 was up-regulated during cell cycle progression. Although, Kv7.1 mRNA also increased during the G 1 -phase, pharmacological evidence mainly involves Kv7.5 in myoblast growth. Our results indicate that the cell cycle-dependent expression of Kv7.5 is involved in skeletal muscle cell proliferation

  6. A Common Structural Component for β-Subunit Mediated Modulation of Slow Inactivation in Different KV Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Strutz-Seebohm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Potassium channels are tetrameric proteins providing potassium selective passage through lipid embedded proteinaceous pores with highest fidelity. The selectivity results from binding to discrete potassium binding sites and stabilization of a hydrated potassium ion in a central internal cavity. The four potassium binding sites, generated by the conserved TTxGYGD signature sequence are formed by the backbone carbonyls of the amino acids TXGYG. Residues KV1.5-Val481, KV4.3-Leu368 and KV7.1- Ile 313 represent the amino acids in the X position of the respective channels. Methods: Here, we study the impact of these residues on ion selectivity, permeation and inactivation kinetics as well as the modulation by β-subunits using site-specific mutagenesis, electrophysiological analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Results: We identify this position as key in modulation of slow inactivation by structurally dissimilar β-subunits in different KV channels. Conclusion: We propose a model in which structural changes accompanying activation and β-subunit modulation allosterically constrain the backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms via the side chain of the respective X-residue in the signature sequence to reduce conductance during slow inactivation.

  7. Compact 250-kV injector system for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Mueller, D.W.; Lederer, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    A 250-kV proton injector to be used in the development of a linac suitable for medical applications has been constructed. This injector utilizes a spherical Pierce geometry to produce a converging beam. A gas insulated accelerating column is cantilevered on a grounded vacuum system, with a separate high voltage equipment dome connected to a 300-kV Cockcroft-Walton power supply. The injector can be operated locally or remotely, with the remote control accomplished by a microprocessor system linked to a central control minicomputer. This injector has been designed as a low-cost compact system. The design details and the data obtained during initial operation are presented

  8. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  9. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  10. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The major issues examined in the comparison of the DIST and HNEC transmission concepts are: (1) type of transmission to be employed and an assessment of its technical feasibility, (2) availability of rights-of-way, (3) economics, (4) environmental impact, and (5) overall reliability of the transmission system. The type of transmission selected for bulk power transfer from an HNEC for the time period studied is overhead AC, 500 kV double or single circuit, a voltage currently used in the PNW system. This type of system can accommodate growth up to at least 23,000 MW of thermal capacity at an HNEC. Significant additional transmountain capacity needs would require 1100 kV transmission, which should be technologically proved by the end of the 1970s. (auth)

  11. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thon, S. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    AltaLink is Canada's first stand-alone power transmission company, serving all major centres in Alberta and 85 per cent of Alberta's population. It has more than $1 billion in assets, 11,500 km of transmission lines and 300 substations. It was noted that there has not been any significant investment in power transmission in Alberta for the past 20 years, partly because transmission assets have a very long lifespan. The new role of the power grid is to ensure reliability, safety, efficiency, market effectiveness and supply diversity. The benefits and costs of AltaLink's 500 kV North-South upgrade project were outlined. It was noted that a healthy transmission system is the basis for economic growth throughout the province and for the development of Alberta's resource base. The transmission policy in Alberta endorses that all consumers pay postage stamp tariffs. It also promotes a proactive plan for transmission projects, the time to maximum rate (TMR) in limited cases only, a congestion-free grid under normal conditions, the financial commitment of generators, specific time limits on permitting processes, and regional interconnections to benefit all customers. tabs., figs.

  12. 8th international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind farms. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Within the 8th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms at 14th to 15th October, 2009 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany), lectures and posters were presented to the following sessions: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) Grid integration studies and experience: Europe; (3) Connection of offshore wind farms; (4) Wind forecast; (5) High voltage direct current (HVDC); (6) German grid code issues; (7) Offshore grid connection; (8) Grid integration studies and experience: North America; (9) SUPWIND - Decision support tools for large scale integration of wind; (10) Windgrid - Wind on the grid: An integrated approach; (11) IEA Task 25; (12) Grid code issues; (13) Market Issues; (14) Offshore Grid; (15) Modelling; (16) Wind power and storage; (17) Power system balancing; (18) Wind turbine performance; (19) Modelling and offshore transformer.

  13. 9{sup th} international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 9th International Workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants at 18th to 19th October, 2010 in Quebec (Canada), lectures and poster papers were presented to the following themes: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) European grid integration studies; (3) Modeling; (4) Wind forecasting; (5) North American grid integration studies; (6) Voltage stability and control; (7) Grid codes and impact studies; (8) Canadian University research (WESNet); (9) Operation and dispatch; (9) Offshore wind power plants; (10) Frequency Control; (11) Methodologies to estimate wind power impacts on power systems, summaries from IEAWIND collaboration; (12) HVDC; (13) Grid codes and system impact studies; (14) Modeling and validation; (15) Regulations, markets and offshore wind energy; (16) Integration issues; (17) Wind turbine control system; (18) Energy management and IT solutions.

  14. Risk assessment of 170 kV GIS connected to combined cable/OHL network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Kessel, Jakob; Atlason, Vidir

    2009-01-01

    performance, compared to a system consisting solely of AIS connected through overhead lines. The main purpose is to investigate whether overvoltage protection is necessary at the GIS busbar. The analysis is conducted by implementing a simulation model in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulations are conducted for both SF......This paper concerns different investigations of lightning simulation of a combined 170 kV overhead line/cable connected GIS. This is interesting due to the increasing amount of underground cables and GIS in the Danish transmission system. This creates a different system with respect to lightning...... and BFO. Overvoltages are evaluated for varying front times of the lightning surge, different soil resistivities at the surge arrester grounding in the overhead line/cable transition point and a varying length of the connection cable between the transformer and the GIS busbar with a SA implemented...

  15. Towers of the new 380 kV high-voltage overhead line across the Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, F; Sperl, H D; Wagemann, F

    1979-11-01

    As part of the European power transmission line between North Sweden and Southern Italy, a 380 kV rotary-current overhead line crosses the Elbe river south of Hamburg. To achieve the overhead clearance of 80 m required for navigation and the maximum line sag of 85 m, two steel trelliswork towers were constructed about 1200 m apart, each of them 227 m high. The 12 phases (cables) of the line are suspended each on three horizontal beams at a horizontal distance of 16 m. Exceptional loads far beyond the standards set in VDE 0210/5.69 have been assumed for the layout. In the case of the wind loads the frequent gales had to be considered; for ice loads, class I of the IEC/TC 11 Draft on Ice loading on Overhead Lines . Amsterdam 1977, was assumed. Some further loads are described as well as the tender procedure, supply and assembly of the towers.

  16. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing, Lei

    2008-08-01

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm/s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024 x 768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal or

  17. Kingsnorth-London dc transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-11

    The hvdc transmission link between one of the 500 MW generators at Kingsnorth Power Station and two receiving stations in London will use a three-wire dc cable system rated to carry 1200 A at +- 266 kV. This 51-mile system will be the first dc link in the world to be used as an integral part of a complex interconnected ac network.

  18. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPS) and Puget Sound Power ampersand Light (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including within the city of Bellingham starting in 1995. The upgrades of the interconnected 230,000 volt (230-kV) and 115-kV systems are needed to increase the reliability of the local transmission system and to increase the import capacity on a nearby US-Canada 500-kV intertie by about 850 megawatts (MW). The increase in north-south transfer capability would be shared by BPA and Puget Power (about 425 MW each). Other actions would include replacement of an existing BPA 230-kV single-circuit, wood-pole H-frame transmission line with a lattice-steel double-circuit line; an existing Puget Power 115-kV single wood-pole transmission line rebuild, two short 115-kV Puget Power lines added at BPA's Bellingham Substation; and improvements made at existing BPA and Puget Power substations

  19. KCNE4 is an inhibitory subunit to Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hannne B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2003-01-01

    is detected in the heart and in five different parts of the brain. Having the broad distribution of Kv1 channels in mind, the demonstrated inhibitory property of KCNE4-subunits could locally and/or transiently have a dramatic influence on cellular excitability and on setting resting membrane potentials....

  20. Rugi Daya Dan Energi Akibat Korona Pada Saluran Udara Tegangan Ekstra Tinggi (SUTET 500 Kv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Haddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of extra high voltage in electrical power transmission system causing corona. A visual corona phenomenon shown by the appearance of visible light radiation, hissing noise, ozone formation and power losses. The impact of corona affect the environment surrounding the overhead line transmission and power losses in the line. This research discusses power and energy losses due to corona by using quantitative method. Calculations performed by calculating relative air density values, disruptive critical voltages, power losses and corona energy. The research object was taken by extra high voltage  overhead line transmission 500kV Tanjung Jati B Power Plant to Ungaran Substation.The result show that corona power losses are 0.41-0.44 kW/mil (0.25-0.27kw/km per phase, with total 1.25-1.30kW/mil (0.78-0.81k/w/km. corona power losses 107.57-112.08 kW along of line. Average of corona energy losses obtained 2642.67 kWh. The percentage of corona power losses to electrical power supplied is between 0.005% to 0.011%.

  1. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  2. Implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates for internal quality control of light transmission aggregometry: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüller, F; Rosskopf, K; Mangge, H; Mahla, E; von Lewinski, D; Weiss, E C; Riegler, A; Enko, D

    2017-12-01

    Essentials In platelet function testing, standardized internal controls (IQC) are not commercially provided. Platelet function testing was performed daily on aliquoted pooled platelet concentrates. Pooled platelet concentrates showed stability for control purposes from Monday to Friday. Pooled platelet concentrates provide the necessary steadiness to serve as IQC material. Background Standardized commercially available control material for internal quality control (IQC) of light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is still lacking. Moreover, the availability of normal blood donors to provide fresh platelets is difficult in small laboratories, where 'volunteers' may be in short supply. Objectives To evaluate the implementation of buffy-coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) for IQC material for LTA. Methods We used buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs from the blood bank as IQC material for LTA. On each weekend one PC was prepared (> 200 mL) and aliquoted from the original storage bag on a daily basis in four baby bags (40-50 mL), which were delivered from Monday to Friday to our laboratory. The IQC measurements of at least 85 work-weeks (from Monday to Friday) were evaluated with this new IQC material. LTA was performed on a four-channel Chronolog 700 Aggregometer (Chronolog Corporation, Havertown, PA, USA) (agonists: collagen, adenosine diphosphate [ADP], arachidonic acid [AA] and thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 [TRAP-6]). Results The medians of platelet aggregation from IQC measurements with collagen, ADP and AA from Monday to Friday were 68.0-59.5, 3.0-2.0 and 51.0-50.0%, respectively, and the mean of platelet aggregation with TRAP-6 was 71.2-66.4%. Conclusions Buffy-coat-derived pooled PCs serve as a reliable and robust IQC material for LTA measurements and would be beneficial for the whole laboratory procedure and employees' safety. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. A comparison of magnetic fields inside and outside high-voltage urban 110-kV power substations with the exposure recommendations of the Ukrainian regulatory authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, Oleksandr; Shevchenko, Sergey; Korpinen, Leena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out theoretical investigations of power frequency magnetic fields (MFs), produced inside and outside the domain of urban 110-kV power substations and to establish a correspondence between the levels of the fields and the specified population limits as defined by Ukrainian regulations. The fields produced by high-voltage substations were studied based on the application of the numerical finite element methodology. The investigations have shown that magnetic flux density values calculated inside and outside the considered 110-kV power substations do not reach the exposure limits specified by the Ukrainian regulations (1750 μT) and by international guidelines (ICNIRP 2010). Inside the domain of the substation, the maximum value of MFs was found under the 10-kV bus-bars and it equalled 420 μT. (authors)

  4. 35-kV GaAs subnanosecond photoconductive switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Photoconductive switches are one of the few devices that allow the generation of high-voltage electrical pulses with subnanosecond rise time. The authors are exploring high-voltage, fast-pulse generation using GaAs photoconductive switches. They have been able to generate 35-kV pulses with rise times as short as 135 ps using 5-mm gap switches and have achieved electric field hold-off of greater than 100 kV/cm. They have also been able to generate an approximately 500-ps FWHM on/off electrical pulse with an amplitude of approximately 3 kV using neutron-irradiated GaAs having short carrier life times. This paper describes the experimental results and discusses fabrication of switches and the diagnostics used to measure these fast signals. They also describe the experience with the nonlinear lock-on and avalanche modes of operation observed in GaAs.

  5. 35-kV GaAs subnanosecond photoconductive switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, Michael D.; Druce, Robert L.

    1990-12-01

    High-voltage, fast-pulse generation using GaAs photoconductive switches is investigated. It is possible to to generate 35-kV pulses with risetimes as short as 135 ps using 5-mm gap switches, and electric field hold-off of greater than 100 kV/cm is achieved. An approximately 500-ps FWHM on/off electrical pulse is generated with an amplitude of approximately 3 kV using neutron-irradiated GaAs having short carrier lifetimes. Experimental results are described, and fabrication of switches and the diagnostics used to measure these fast signals are discussed. Experience with the nonlinear lock-on and avalanche modes of operation observed in GaAs is also described.

  6. CIAE 600 kV ns pulse neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guanren; Guan Xialing; Chen Hongtao

    2001-01-01

    The overall composition of CIAE 600 kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator (CPNG) are introduced, and its characteristic, main technological performance and application were also given. CPNG consists of high voltage power supply with highest output voltage 600 kV, direct current 15 mA, stability and ripple ≤0.1%, 2214 mm x 1604 mm x 1504 mm stainless steel high voltage electrode, built in head equipment uniform field accelerating tube, ns pulsed installation, turbomolecular vacuum pump system and drift pipes at 0 degree and 45 degree. Its characteristics are: (1) high current beam; (2) high current beam ns pulsed installation made use of low energy for chopper and high energy for buncher; (3) compactly laid out and simple in structure

  7. CEBAF 200 kV Inverted Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grames, J.M.; Adderley, P.A.; Clark, J.; Hansknecht, J.; Poelker, M.; Stutzman, M.L.; Suleiman, R.; Surles-Law, K.E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Two DC high voltage GaAs photoguns have been built at Jefferson Lab based on a compact inverted insulator design. One photogun provides the polarized electron beam at CEBAF and operates at 130 kV bias voltage. The other gun is used for high average current lifetime studies at a dedicated test facility and has been operated at bias voltage up to 225 kV. The advantages of higher DC voltage for CEBAF include reduced space-charge emittance growth and the potential for prolonged photocathode lifetime. However, a consequence of operating at higher voltages is the increased likelihood of field emission or breakdown, both of which are unacceptable. Highlights of the R and D studies leading toward a production 200keV GaAs photogun for CEBAF will be presented.

  8. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  9. Bladder contractility is modulated by Kv7 channels in pig detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Bille, Michala; Parameswaran Theepakaran, Neeraja

    2013-01-01

    Kv7 channels are involved in smooth muscle relaxation, and accordingly we believe that they constitute potential targets for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. We have therefore used myography to examine the function of Kv7 channels in detrusor, i.e. pig bladder, with a view...... relaxation, suggesting that Kv7.2 and/or Kv7.4 channels constitute the subtypes that are relevant to bladder contractility. The effects of retigabine and ML213 were attenuated by pre-incubation with 10µM XE991 (Kv7.1-7.5 channel blocker) (P...

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS OF INTRACELLULAR IONS TO Kv CHANNEL VOLTAGE SENSOR DYNAMICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel eGoodchild

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sensing domains of Kv channels control ionic conductance through coupling of the movement of charged residues in the S4 segment to conformational changes at the cytoplasmic region of the pore domain, that allow K+ ions to flow. Conformational transitions within the voltage sensing domain caused by changes in the applied voltage across the membrane field are coupled to the conducting pore region and the gating of ionic conductance. However, several other factors not directly linked to the voltage dependent movement of charged residues within the voltage sensor impact the dynamics of the voltage sensor, such as inactivation, ionic conductance, intracellular ion identity and block of the channel by intracellular ligands. The effect of intracellular ions on voltage sensor dynamics is of importance in the interpretation of gating current measurements and the physiology of pore/voltage sensor coupling. There is a significant amount of variability in the reported kinetics of voltage sensor deactivation kinetics of Kv channels attributed to different mechanisms such as open state stabilization, immobilization and relaxation processes of the voltage sensor. Here we separate these factors and focus on the causal role that intracellular ions can play in allosterically modulating the dynamics of Kv voltage sensor deactivation kinetics. These considerations are of critical importance in understanding the molecular determinants of the complete channel gating cycle from activation to deactivation.

  11. Neuroglial Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Vidar; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    as a signaling substance recently shown to act on specific lactate receptors in the brain. Complementing neurotransmission at a synapse, neuroglial transmission often implies diffusion of the transmitter over a longer distance and concurs with the concept of volume transmission. Transmission from glia modulates...... synaptic neurotransmission based on energetic and other local conditions in a volume of tissue surrounding the individual synapse. Neuroglial transmission appears to contribute significantly to brain functions such as memory, as well as to prevalent neuropathologies....

  12. Grounding modelling for transient overvoltage simulation in electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno O, German; Valencia V, Jaime A; Villada, Fernando

    1992-01-01

    Grounding plays an important role in transmission line outages and consequently on electric energy transmission quality indexes. Fundamentals of an accurate modelling for transient behaviour analysis, particularly for the response of transmission lines to lightning, are presented. Also, a method to take into account the electromagnetic propagation guided by the grounding electrodes and finally to assess the grounding impedance in order to simulate the transmission line behaviour under lightning is presented. Analysis of impedance behaviour for diverse configurations and simulation results of over voltages on a real 220 kV line are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the method and of the computational program developed

  13. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  14. 75 FR 56051 - Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ..., USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Rural.../water/ees/eis.htm , or at the Minnesota Public Utilities Web site at http://energyfacilities.puc.state..., MN 56484; Bovey Public Library, Village Hall, 402 2nd Street, Bovey, MN 55709- 0130; and Coleraine...

  15. improving the transient stability of Nigerian 330kV transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The overloaded lines which could excite instability in the network are identified. ... stability of the network is analysed by determining the critical clearing time of the acute generators when a ...... economic analysis of stand-alone hybrid energy.

  16. Annular dark field electron microscope images with better than 2 A resolution at 100 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, D.H.; Kirkland, E.J.; Silcox, J.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images in the annular dark field (ADF) imaging mode approaching the theoretical point-to-point resolution limit are presented. The ADF images were obtained from a high T c superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin-film specimen at 100 kV. The 1.9 A resolution lattice image, which is the smallest lattice spacing in the specimen, corresponds to the minimum resolvable spatial frequency with 5% contrast in the contrast transfer function for annular dark field, and is smaller than the resolution limit given by the Rayleigh criterion. This demonstrates that STEM ADF imaging can have a resolution approximately 40% better than that of the bright field conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) imaging at Scherzer condition

  17. Functional interactions at the interface between voltage-sensing and pore domains in the Shaker K(v) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Llavina, Gilberto J; Chang, Tsg-Hui; Swartz, Kenton J

    2006-11-22

    Voltage-activated potassium (K(v)) channels contain a central pore domain that is partially surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains. Recent X-ray structures suggest that the two domains lack extensive protein-protein contacts within presumed transmembrane regions, but whether this is the case for functional channels embedded in lipid membranes remains to be tested. We investigated domain interactions in the Shaker K(v) channel by systematically mutating the pore domain and assessing tolerance by examining channel maturation, S4 gating charge movement, and channel opening. When mapped onto the X-ray structure of the K(v)1.2 channel the large number of permissive mutations support the notion of relatively independent domains, consistent with crystallographic studies. Inspection of the maps also identifies portions of the interface where residues are sensitive to mutation, an external cluster where mutations hinder voltage sensor activation, and an internal cluster where domain interactions between S4 and S5 helices from adjacent subunits appear crucial for the concerted opening transition.

  18. Design of a 30 m long 1 kA 10 kV YBCO cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostila, L [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lehtonen, J [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Masti, M [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lallouet, N [Nexas France, rue Mozart 4-10, 92587 Clichy (France); Saugrain, J-M [Nexas France, rue Mozart 4-10, 92587 Clichy (France); Allais, A [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Schippl, K [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, F [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Balog, G [Nexans Norway, PO Box 6450, Etterstad, N-0605, Oslo, Norway (Norway); Marot, G [Air Liquide DTA, 2 rue de Clemenciere BP15, 38360 Sassenage (France); Ravex, A [Air Liquide DTA, 2 rue de Clemenciere BP15, 38360 Sassenage (France); Usoskin, A [European High Temperature Superconductors Gmbh and Co. KG, Windausweg 2, 37037 Goettingen (Germany); Goemoery, F [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Klincok, B [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Souc, J [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Freyhardt, H C [Institute of Materialphysic, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper a 30 m long one-phase coaxial YBCO cable with 1 kA transport current and 10 kV operating voltage was designed for the Super3C project to check the feasibility of YBCO tapes for low-loss cables. The final design incorporates cryogenic, mechanical and electromagnetic aspects. The electromagnetic losses during normal operation must be minimized. The cryogenic design must also take into account the generation of heat during short circuit conditions. Mechanical restrictions set the minimum gaps between the coated conductor tapes and the minimum lay angles in order to make the cabling feasible and to enable handling of the cable. The design of the electric insulation should be according to the international standard as far as applicable. The final design has to take into account all of the above restrictions.

  19. Design of a 30 m long 1 kA 10 kV YBCO cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostila, L; Lehtonen, J; Masti, M; Lallouet, N; Saugrain, J-M; Allais, A; Schippl, K; Schmidt, F; Balog, G; Marot, G; Ravex, A; Usoskin, A; Goemoery, F; Klincok, B; Souc, J; Freyhardt, H C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a 30 m long one-phase coaxial YBCO cable with 1 kA transport current and 10 kV operating voltage was designed for the Super3C project to check the feasibility of YBCO tapes for low-loss cables. The final design incorporates cryogenic, mechanical and electromagnetic aspects. The electromagnetic losses during normal operation must be minimized. The cryogenic design must also take into account the generation of heat during short circuit conditions. Mechanical restrictions set the minimum gaps between the coated conductor tapes and the minimum lay angles in order to make the cabling feasible and to enable handling of the cable. The design of the electric insulation should be according to the international standard as far as applicable. The final design has to take into account all of the above restrictions

  20. Mitral cells of the olfactory bulb perform metabolic sensing and are disrupted by obesity at the level of the Kv1.3 ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Ann Fadool

    Full Text Available Sixty-five percent of Americans are over-weight. While the neuroendocrine controls of energy homeostasis are well known, how sensory systems respond to and are impacted by obesity is scantily understood. The main accepted function of the olfactory system is to provide an internal depiction of our external chemical environment, starting from the detection of chemosensory cues. We hypothesized that the system additionally functions to encode internal chemistry via the detection of chemicals that are important indicators of metabolic state. We here uncovered that the olfactory bulb (OB subserves as an internal sensor of metabolism via insulin-induced modulation of the potassium channel Kv1.3. Using an adult slice preparation of the olfactory bulb, we found that evoked neural activity in Kv1.3-expressing mitral cells is enhanced following acute insulin application. Insulin mediated changes in mitral cell excitability are predominantly due to the modulation of Kv1.3 channels as evidenced by the lack of effect in slices from Kv1.3-null mice. Moreover, a selective Kv1.3 peptide blocker (ShK186 inhibits more than 80% of the outward current in parallel voltage-clamp studies, whereby insulin significantly decreases the peak current magnitude without altering the kinetics of inactivation or deactivation. Mice that were chronically administered insulin using intranasal delivery approaches exhibited either an elevation in basal firing frequency or fired a single cluster of action potentials. Following chronic administration of the hormone, mitral cells were inhibited by application of acute insulin rather than excited. Mice made obese through a diet of ∼32% fat exhibited prominent changes in mitral cell action potential shape and clustering behavior, whereby the subsequent response to acute insulin stimulation was either attenuated or completely absent. Our results implicate an inappropriate neural function of olfactory sensors following exposure to

  1. The transient outward current in mice lacking the potassium channel gene Kv1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Barry; Wang, Dao W; Hill, Joseph A; Bennett, Paul B

    1998-01-01

    The transient outward current (Ito) plays a prominent role in the repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential. Several K+ channel genes, including Kv1.4, are expressed in the heart, produce rapidly inactivating currents when heterologously expressed, and may be the molecular basis of Ito.We engineered mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the K+ channel gene Kv1.4 and compared Ito in wild-type (Kv1.4+/+), heterozygous (Kv1.4+/-) and homozygous ‘knockout’ (Kv1.4−/−) mice. Kv1.4 RNA was truncated in Kv1.4−/− mice and protein expression was absent.Adult myocytes isolated from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice had large rapidly inactivating outward currents. The peak current densities at 60 mV (normalized by cellular capacitance, in pA pF−1; means ± s.e.m.) were 53.8 ± 5.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 and 44.4 ± 2.8 in cells from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice, respectively (P mice.The voltage dependence and time course of inactivation were not changed by targeted disruption of Kv1.4. The mean best-fitting V½ (membrane potential at 50 % inactivation) values for myocytes from Kv1.4 +/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice were -53.5 ± 3.7, -51.1 ± 2.6 and -54.2 ± 2.4 mV, respectively. The slope factors (k) were -10.1 ± 1.4, -8.8 ± 1.4 and -9.5 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. The fast time constants for development of inactivation at -30 mV were 27.8 ± 2.2, 26.2 ± 5.1 and 19.6 ± 2.1 ms in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes, respectively. At +30 mV, they were 35.5 ± 2.6, 30.0 ± 2.1 and 28.7 ± 1.6 ms, respectively. The time constants for the rapid phase of recovery from inactivation at -80 mV were 32.5 ± 8.2, 23.3 ± 1.8 and 39.0 ± 3.7 ms, respectively.Nearly the entire inactivating component as well as more than 60 % of the steady-state outward current was eliminated by 1 mm 4-aminopyridine in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes.Western blot analysis of heart membrane extracts showed no significant

  2. Implementation of Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Voltage Stability Analysis in 150 kV Sub System Grati – Paiton East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningtyas, A. B.; Hidayat, M. N.; Ronilaya, F.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the data from State Electric Company on 15 January 2013, the undistributed power in the 150 kV sub system Grati-Paiton Region IV, that consist of 26 bus 150 kV and 2 bus generation 500 kV system, was recorded 3.286,00 MW. At the same time, the frequency of the system was down to 49 Hz. This lead to a deficit generation and unstable voltage condition in the system. Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) method is used in this research to analyze the voltage stability of the buses. For buses with unstable voltage condition, reactive power will be injected through capacitor installation. The site where the capacitor will be installed is determined using the Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) method while the size of the capacitor is determined using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The PSO method has been applied in some researches, such as to determine optimal placement and sizing in radial distribution network as well as in transmission network.. In this research, the PSO method is used to find the Qloss of an interconnection transmission system, which in turn, the value of the Qloss is used to determine the capacitance of the capacitor needed by the system.

  3. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  4. Transmission of power at high voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, F J

    1963-01-01

    High voltage transmission is considered to be concerned with circuits and systems operating at or above 132 kV. While the general examination is concerned with ac transmission, dc systems are also included. The choice of voltage for a system will usually involve hazardous assessments of the future requirements of industry, commerce and a changing population. Experience suggests that, if the estimated economic difference between two voltages is not significant, there is good reason to choose the higher voltage, as this will make the better provision for unexpected future expansion. Two principal functions served by transmission circuits in a supply system are: (a) the transportation of energy in bulk from the generator to the reception point in the distribution system; and (b) the interconnection and integration of the generating plant and associated loads. These functions are considered and various types of system are discussed in terms of practicability, viability, quality and continuity of supply. Future developments requiring transmission voltages up to 750 kV will raise many problems which are in the main empirical. Examples are given of the type of problem envisaged and it is suggested that these can only be partially solved by theory and model operation.

  5. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.L. [International Transmission Co., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The International Transmission Company (ITC) is an independent power transmission company that owns, operates and maintains the high voltage transmission system in southeastern Michigan. The company's current focus is on investing in the transmission infrastructure to improve reliability, relieve congestion, improve access to generation and reduce energy costs for consumers. There is a need for investment in power transmission. Trends indicate that power transactions are on the rise while transmission investment is lagging because pricing protocols are inadequate and there is no regional tariff mechanism to allocate the benefits of new investment. The presentation reviewed the applicability of FTRs to transmission owners and the pitfalls of participant funding pricing. It also outlined the regional benefit allocation mechanism (RBAM) with an illustrative example. It was concluded that existing pricing policies must be improved to address the growing need for transmission investment. RBAM is needed to help investors recover costs from project beneficiaries. figs.

  6. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  7. Validities of three multislice algorithms for quantitative low-energy transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, W.Q.; Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    Three different types of multislice algorithms, namely the conventional multislice (CMS) algorithm, the propagator-corrected multislice (PCMS) algorithm and the fully-corrected multislice (FCMS) algorithm, have been evaluated in comparison with respect to the accelerating voltages in transmission electron microscopy. Detailed numerical calculations have been performed to test their validities. The results show that the three algorithms are equivalent for accelerating voltage above 100 kV. However, below 100 kV, the CMS algorithm will introduce significant errors, not only for higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections but also for zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) reflections. The differences between the PCMS and FCMS algorithms are negligible and mainly appear in HOLZ reflections. Nonetheless, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the PCMS algorithm will also yield results deviating from the FCMS results. The present study demonstrates that the propagation of the electron wave from one slice to the next slice is actually cross-correlated with the crystal potential in a complex manner, such that when the accelerating voltage is lowered to 10 kV, the accuracy of the algorithms is dependent of the scattering power of the specimen. - Highlights: • Three multislice algorithms for low-energy transmission electron microscopy are evaluated. • The propagator-corrected algorithm is a good alternative for voltages down to 20 kV. • Below 20 kV, a fully-corrected algorithm has to be employed for quantitative simulations.

  8. Validities of three multislice algorithms for quantitative low-energy transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, W.Q.; Chen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Three different types of multislice algorithms, namely the conventional multislice (CMS) algorithm, the propagator-corrected multislice (PCMS) algorithm and the fully-corrected multislice (FCMS) algorithm, have been evaluated in comparison with respect to the accelerating voltages in transmission electron microscopy. Detailed numerical calculations have been performed to test their validities. The results show that the three algorithms are equivalent for accelerating voltage above 100 kV. However, below 100 kV, the CMS algorithm will introduce significant errors, not only for higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections but also for zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) reflections. The differences between the PCMS and FCMS algorithms are negligible and mainly appear in HOLZ reflections. Nonetheless, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the PCMS algorithm will also yield results deviating from the FCMS results. The present study demonstrates that the propagation of the electron wave from one slice to the next slice is actually cross-correlated with the crystal potential in a complex manner, such that when the accelerating voltage is lowered to 10 kV, the accuracy of the algorithms is dependent of the scattering power of the specimen. - Highlights: • Three multislice algorithms for low-energy transmission electron microscopy are evaluated. • The propagator-corrected algorithm is a good alternative for voltages down to 20 kV. • Below 20 kV, a fully-corrected algorithm has to be employed for quantitative simulations

  9. The C-terminal HRET sequence of Kv1.3 regulates gating rather than targeting of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Orsolya; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Balajthy, András; Somodi, Sándor; Panyi, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Péter

    2018-04-12

    Kv1.3 channels are expressed in several cell types including immune cells, such as T lymphocytes. The targeting of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane is essential for T cell clonal expansion and assumed to be guided by the C-terminus of the channel. Using two point mutants of Kv1.3 with remarkably different features compared to the wild-type Kv1.3 (A413V and H399K having fast inactivation kinetics and tetraethylammonium-insensitivity, respectively) we showed that both Kv1.3 channel variants target to the membrane when the C-terminus was truncated right after the conserved HRET sequence and produce currents identical to those with a full-length C-terminus. The truncation before the HRET sequence (NOHRET channels) resulted in reduced membrane-targeting but non-functional phenotypes. NOHRET channels did not display gating currents, and coexpression with wild-type Kv1.3 did not rescue the NOHRET-A413V phenotype, no heteromeric current was observed. Interestingly, mutants of wild-type Kv1.3 lacking HRET(E) (deletion) or substituted with five alanines for the HRET(E) motif expressed current indistinguishable from the wild-type. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of Kv1.3 immediately proximal to the S6 helix is required for the activation gating and conduction, whereas the presence of the distal region of the C-terminus is not exclusively required for trafficking of Kv1.3 to the plasma membrane.

  10. A continuous acceleration tube of ions under 200 KV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongodin, G.

    1954-01-01

    The realization of an Van de Graaff accelerator required, for the preliminary studies, the construction of a small proton accelerator, functioning at 200 kV in order to resolve some parasitic effects inherent to the accelerators tubes. The aim of this report is to describe the different organs of the accelerator tube, to explain the operating system and to encode their characteristics. The report first presents the ion source and the beam buncher permitting to inject in the accelerator tube particles of about 9 kV and very batched in a thin beam of circular section. Then the study explain the tube characteristics considered like optic system. A method to obtain precise calculation of particle trajectories is exposed. Aberrations of the system were discussed and balance of the currents on all electrodes inside the tube for different regimes of working were provided. The influence of the residual pressure in the tube were explained. The report finally ends on a part of the fundamental problem of the straining occurring inside the tubes accelerators under high tension. (M.B.) [fr

  11. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  12. Contribution of kv7.4/kv7.5 heteromers to intrinsic and calcitonin gene-related Peptide-induced cerebral reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Jepps, Thomas A; Carr, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter is regulated by inherent myogenic activity and the effect of potent vasodilators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Previous studies showed that MCAs express KCNQ1, 4, and 5 potassium channel genes, and the expression products (Kv7 channels) part......) participate in the myogenic control of MCA diameter. The present study investigated the contribution of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 isoforms to myogenic and CGRP regulation of MCA diameter and determined whether they were affected in hypertensive animals....

  13. High power thyristors with 5 kV blocking voltage. Volume 1: Development of high-voltage-thyristors (4.5 kV) with good dynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, K.; Patalong, H.; Platzoeder, K.

    1979-01-01

    Using neutron irradiated silicon with considerably lower spread in resistivity as compared to conventionally doped silicon it was possible to produce power thyristors with breakdown voltages between 3.5 kV and 5.5 kV. The thyristor pellets have a diameter of 50 mm. Maximum average on-state currents of 600 to 800 A can be reached with these elements. The dynamic properties of the thryistors could be improved to allow standard applications up to maximum repetitive voltages of 4.5 kV.

  14. Some problems relating to the transmission of electrical power at very high voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A

    1965-01-01

    Some of the technical and economic factors which influence the choice of a transmission system, particularly a very high voltage one, are discussed. The stability of transmission overvoltages at mains frequency and their control by means of compensating reactances is described. Overvoltages due to circuit-breaker operation and those of atmospheric origin, and appropriate protective devices, the behaviour of equipment at 750 kV, and problems of testing are included. Finally, the 735 kV network now being installed to carry 5300 MW of hydroelectric power 650 km from the Manicouagan River to Quebec and Montreal is described.

  15. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  16. The pan-Kv7 (KCNQ) Channel Opener Retigabine Inhibits Striatal Excitability by Direct Action on Striatal Neurons In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Weikop, Pia; Mikkelsen, Maria D

    2017-01-01

    Central Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are voltage-dependent potassium channels composed of different combinations of four Kv7 subunits, being differently expressed in the brain. Notably, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission is strongly suppressed by systemic administration of the pan-Kv7 channel opener ...... by acute systemic haloperidol administration in the rat. The relative mRNA levels of Kv7 subunits in the rat striatum were found to be Kv7.2 = Kv7.3 = Kv7.5 > >Kv7.4. These data suggest that intrastriatal Kv7 channels play a direct role in regulating striatal excitability in vivo....

  17. Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily V; Simon, Christian M; Pagiazitis, John G; Chalif, Joshua I; Vukojicic, Aleksandra; Drobac, Estelle; Wang, Xiaojian; Mentis, George Z

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2.1 at the surface of motor neurons. Chronically increasing neuronal activity pharmacologically in vivo led to a normalization of Kv2.1 expression and an improvement in motor function. Our results demonstrate a key role of excitatory synaptic drive in shaping the function of motor neurons during development and the contribution of its disruption to a neurodegenerative disease.

  18. 400 kV injector compact ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.; Catana, D.; Macovei, M.; Ivanov, E.

    1997-01-01

    Obtaining multiple ionised ions is a fundamental problem for some applications and research. Multiple ionised ions can be produced from electronic bombardment, when n·τ≥5·10 9 cm -3 · s, where n is the density of electrons (in cm -3 ) and τ is the time of interaction between electrons and ions . The relative speed of electrons and ions determines the equilibrium between the stripping process of the atom's electrons and their capture. An ion source with high ionisation efficiency and large output current is the ECR source (Electron Cyclotron Resonance). Using an ECR source with permanent magnets as ion source for the injector will lead to following advantages: - the possibility to obtain multiple ionised particles; - an increase of ion beam intensities; - the expanding of accelerator activities; - a longer working time, due to magnetron lifetime. The ECR ion source is robust, compact and capable of high intensities of extracted ion current. The large functional domain for the residual gas pressure allows the production of multiple charged ions. The source can be easily integrated in the TRILAC's injection structure. We realised a compact microwave ion source which has an axial magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet of Co-Sm. 1200 G magnetic field is greater than the 875 G magnetic field corresponding to the electron-cyclotron frequency of 2.45 GHz. The microwave generator is a magnetron (2.45 GHz and 200 W in continuos wave). The microwave is fed through a coaxial connector on the top of flange. The test was made on He gas at a pressure between 8· 10 -4 and 5·10 -2 torr. The ion beam current was measured vs. extracted potential from 3 kV to 10 kV and has a dependence according to U 3/2 law. A maximal ion current of 300 μA at 10 kV extraction potential was measured. Dimension of ECR ion source, including Einzel lens are φ=12 cm and h=16 cm. (authors)

  19. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  20. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  1. The short-circuit test results of 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, A.; Otonari, T.; Ogata, T.; Iwakuma, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Iijima, Y.; Saito, T.; Gosho, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class single-phase YBCO model transformer with the YBCO tape with copper tape was manufactured for short-circuit current test. Short-circuit test was performed and the short-circuit current of primary winding was 346 A which was about six times larger than the rated current. The I-V characteristics of the winding did not change before and after the test. The transformer withstood short-circuit current. We are planning to turn the result into a consideration of a 66 kV/6.9 kV-20 MVA-class three-phase superconducting transformer. We are developing an elemental technology for 66 kV/6.9 kV 20 MVA-class power transformer with YBCO conductors. The protection of short-circuit technology is one of the elemental technologies for HTS transformer. Since short-circuit current is much higher than critical current of YBCO tape, there is a possibility that superconducting characteristics may be damaged during short-circuit period. We made a conductor to compose the YBCO tape with copper tape. We manufactured 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer using this conductor and performed short-circuit current test. The short-circuit current of primary winding was 346 A which was about six times larger than the rated current. The I-V characteristics of the winding did not change before and after the test. We may consider this conductor withstands short-circuit current.

  2. Break-down stage in a 20 kV coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugeas, J.; Massa, M.; VonPamel, O.

    1984-01-01

    The electrical break-down of hydrogen in a coaxial electrode system (similar to Mather-type Plasma Focus) was studied for a wide range of pressures. A squirrel's cage outer electrode (cathode) of 50 mm of diameter was used to allow lateral views of the discharge, with an inner electrode (anode) of 17 mm of diameter and a pyrex sleeve of 25 mm length as insulator located at the breech of the gun. A low inductance plane plate transmission line was discharged (20 kV) through a spark gap switch over the system, with a typical peak current of 22 kA, reached after 80 ns from onset of the discharge. The fine structure of the luminous current sheath was studied by frontal and lateral open shutter photographs and by monitoring the current distribution along and across the electrodes gap. The authors tests determine the relative importance of the resistivity related to particle collision effects (αiota) and of the inductive resistivity (α L-center dot) during the break-down stage (iota=length of break-down path, L=inductance)

  3. Design optimization of the 100 kV HV bushing for ITER-DNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Rajesh, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Srusti, B. [DesignTech Systems Ltd, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500034 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M.J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A.K. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2011-10-15

    The 100 kV bushing of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector is a cylindrical feedthrough which forms the interface between the gas insulated transmission line and the torus primary vacuum and provides all necessary services to the beam source. All conventions for safety, voltage holding requirement, vacuum compatibility and the choice of materials have been addressed in the design. Finite Element Analyses (FEAs) for the electrostatic and the structural configuration is carried out to validate the design of the High Voltage Bushing (HVB). Several iterations and optimizations of the stress shields are carried out to meet electrostatic criteria, especially at the triple point (the ceramic, metal and vacuum joint), which is critical for good voltage holding. Structural analyses is carried out to assess the stress distribution in the fiber reinforced plastic insulator, the alumina insulator and the integrated HVB for different load cases like operational orientation (horizontal), normal operation and accidental case. Design is further validated for seismic conditions for Seismic Loading-2 (SL-2).

  4. Design optimization of the 100 kV HV bushing for ITER-DNB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Sejal; Rajesh, S.; Srusti, B.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M.J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 100 kV bushing of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector is a cylindrical feedthrough which forms the interface between the gas insulated transmission line and the torus primary vacuum and provides all necessary services to the beam source. All conventions for safety, voltage holding requirement, vacuum compatibility and the choice of materials have been addressed in the design. Finite Element Analyses (FEAs) for the electrostatic and the structural configuration is carried out to validate the design of the High Voltage Bushing (HVB). Several iterations and optimizations of the stress shields are carried out to meet electrostatic criteria, especially at the triple point (the ceramic, metal and vacuum joint), which is critical for good voltage holding. Structural analyses is carried out to assess the stress distribution in the fiber reinforced plastic insulator, the alumina insulator and the integrated HVB for different load cases like operational orientation (horizontal), normal operation and accidental case. Design is further validated for seismic conditions for Seismic Loading-2 (SL-2).

  5. Power Transmission from Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1999-01-01

    The major part of the coming wind farms in Denmark will be placed offshore. If the location is near a grid with a high short circuit level the power can be transmitted as AC.If the wind farm is far away from the grid and the grid perhaps has a low short circuit level, the best solution...... for transmitting the power can be by DC. At the moment it is possible to build self-commutating DC/AC-inverters up to about 150 kV. This paper will show a concept to a solution for a wind farm and a transmission system based on synchronous generators or a powerformer® with a rated voltage of 50 kV. The AC power...... will be rectified and boosted to a fixed DC voltage (e.g. 100 kV). The speed of the generator will be variable, depending of the wind but also controlled with the duty-cycle of the booster. In that way all wind turbines can be connected to the same DC bus and the cable to the inverter station connected to the AC...

  6. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  7. 100 kV reliable accurately-synchronized spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosamykin, V.S.; Gerasimov, A.I.; Zenkov, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    100 kV three-electrode spark gap filled with 40% SF 6 +60% N 2 mixture under the pressure of ∼ 1 MPa, which has spread Δt ≤ ± 5 ns of operating time delay in the range of 10 4 triggerings and commutation energy of 2.5 kJ, providing electric strength is 100%, is described; at 10 kJ Δt is less than ± 10 ns for 10 3 triggerings. Parallel connection of 16 groups, each consisting of 5 spark gaps with series connection, electric strength being 100%, in the pulse charging unit of Arkadiev-Marx generator being in operation for several years manifested their high efficiency; mutual group spread is ≤ ± 15 ns

  8. Do kV really make everything look grey? A comparative study of 600 kV computed tomography systems; Macht kV wirklich grau? Eine Vergleichsstudie zu 600 kV Computertomografiesystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumm, Michael; Sauerwein, Christoph; Haemmerle, Volker; Knupe, Gunnar [RayScan Technologies GmbH, Meersburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the automotive industry there is a manufacture of cast aluminium parts of considerable thickness. Growing importance is being attached to methods of nondestructive testing and full metrological characterisation of these parts. A major contribution to this end has been made by the latest generation of CT systems, whose 600 kV X-ray tubes and line detectors make for excellent image quality. The purpose of the present study was to make an objective assessment of the performance of these CT systems by examining the advantages and drawbacks of each. This included comparisons of various parameters such as tube voltage and exposure time as well as different tube and detector technologies and CT measurement methods.

  9. MFTF 230 kV pulsed power substation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory includes a Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS) consisting of 24 power-supply sets. The System will operate in long pulses (initially .5 seconds and eventually 30 seconds) at high power (200 MW), which will necessitate a large source of ac power. To meet this requirement, a new 230-kV substation is also being built at LLL. The constraints of cost, equipment protection, short operating lifetime (10 years), and reliability dictated a unique substation design. Its unusual features include provisions for fast fault detection and tripping, a capability for limiting ground fault current, low impedance, and economical design

  10. Faraday Rotator 5 kV Capacitor Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Faraday rotator 5 kV capacitor bank is a pulsed output power supply used to energize Faraday rotators for optical isolation in the ''LLL kJ Glass Laser System.'' Each supply contains either one, two or three parallel 240 μF storage capacitors depending on the size of the isolator used. Generally, the ''A*''(216 μH) isolator is energized with one capacitor, the ''A''(116 μH) isolator uses two capacitors and the ''B''(87 μH) isolator requires three capacitors. All models of isolators have been tested with four capacitors under maximum voltage and 25 feet of RG-217 cable with no hazardous effects. Except for the number of capacitors in each unit, the supplies are otherwise physically identical

  11. Integration of wind power in Germany's transmission grid by using HVDC links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserrab, Andreas; Fleckenstein, Marco; Balzer, Gerd [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Power and Energy

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the challenges for the integration of wind power in Germany's transmission grid. Several options for the expansion of transmission grids are discussed. The consideration focuses on HVDC technologies, which are used for further analyses. The basis of the analysis is the transmission grid of a German transmission system operator, which is implemented in a simulation tool. The model consists of the 110-kV-, 220-kV- and the 380-kV-system. In different scenarios the integration of wind power is analysed by applying HVDC links to connect the northern part of the grid with the load centres in the South. The results of load flow calculations are discussed focusing on transmission line loading and voltage stability. The paper concludes with future prospects of HVDC applications in Germany. (orig.)

  12. Application of distantiometric protections to 500 kV lines with AL 100% series compensation; Aplicacion de protecciones distanciometricas a lineas de 500 kV con compensacion serie AL 100%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudio, Juan Carlos; Pesce, Jose Juan O.; Faure, Carlos Hugo [TRANSENER S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The TRANSENER S.A. viewing the rising of the transmission capacity of the Northeastern Argentine Generators, assumed the installation costs of compensation by series capacitors. In the middle of the year 2000 was put into service a series capacitor bank on the extremity Recreo of the 500 kV to the Malvinas Argentina of the TRANSENER S.A.. The reactance compensation of the line in about 100% was responsible by the necessity of replacing the existent analogic electronic protection by new numerical distantiometric protections on the El Bracho and Malvinas Argentinas transformer station. This paper presents the imposed conditions for the selected line protection, the prior studies posterior the mentioned selection for validating the application, and the difficulties necessary to the task performing as well.

  13. Optimization of 200 kV electrostatic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nazmabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimizations on 200 kV electrostatic accelerator have been done in order to increasing ion current on target, improving vacuum condition and reduction in x-rays emission, increasing stability of high voltage power supply and reaching much greater achievable voltage value. The accelerator tube has most important effect on beam tracing in the electrostatic accelerators. So precautions most be considered in designing and constructing of this part. In order to finding permissible tolerances in construction and assembling of 200 kV electrostatic accelerator column, first the effects of angle deviation of a part from accelerator axis on beam track in the accelerator tube was simulated with Simion 7.0 computer program. We found that in order to prevent beam lost, the tolerances of balancing and co-centering of each part should be smaller than 0.1 mm. Each part of accelerator tube constructed by tolerances lower than 0.05 mm. Ultrasonic cleaning method used in pre-assembling process of parts. Because of its excellences, in the new tube we used borosilicate glass instead of high density alumina as insulators between the metallic electrodes. After three days of working vacuum pumps the system reached to 8.0×10-7 and after months to 5.0×10-7 ultimate pressure values. Measurements showed that by these considerations the maximum of reachable ion current on target was 1.1 mA which increased 50% compared to old machine, while x-ray emission intensity was increased by 25%. Optimizations of high voltage power supply are now under studies and tests

  14. The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv1.3, is expressed in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Shaker-type voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, is believed to be restricted in distribution to lymphocytes and neurons. In lymphocytes, this channel has gained intense attention since it has been proven that inhibition of Kv1.3 channels compromise T lymphocyte activation. To investigate...

  15. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K(+) current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells....

  16. harmonic load modeling: a case study of 33 kv abuja steel mill feeder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    techniques are adopted. This paper studied the harmonic orders of the 33 kV Abuja Steel Feeder modeled as a ... (ETAP) software package was deployed to perform Discrete Fast Transform (DFT) while the input ... and documented in research and development articles ... network with 33kV Abuja Steel feeder as case study.

  17. Pharmacological dissection of K(v)7.1 channels in systemic and pulmonary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Davis, Alison J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature.......The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature....

  18. Development of a 300-kV Marx generator and its application to drive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ... anode gap of 7·5 mm, an REB having beam voltage 160 kV and duration 150 ns ... lowest stage has a triggered SG which is closed by a 6 kV pulse obtained with the ...

  19. Kv10.1 potassium channel: from the brain to the tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-Ordoñez, V; Pardo, L A

    2017-10-01

    The KCNH1 gene encodes the Kv10.1 (Eag1) ion channel, a member of the EAG (ether-à-go-go) family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Recent studies have demonstrated that KCHN1 mutations are implicated in Temple-Baraitser and Zimmermann-Laband syndromes and other forms of developmental deficits that all present with mental retardation and epilepsy, suggesting that Kv10.1 might be important for cognitive development in humans. Although the Kv10.1 channel is mainly expressed in the mammalian brain, its ectopic expression occurs in 70% of human cancers. Cancer cells and tumors expressing Kv10.1 acquire selective advantages that favor cancer progression through molecular mechanisms that involve several cellular pathways, indicating that protein-protein interactions may be important for Kv10.1 influence in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Several studies on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of Kv10.1 expression have shown interesting mechanistic insights about Kv10.1 role in oncogenesis, increasing the importance of identifying the cellular factors that regulate Kv10.1 expression in tumors.

  20. KCNE3 is an inhibitory subunit of the Kv4.3 potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Kv4.3 potassium channel is a fast activating and inactivating K+ channel widely distributed in mammalian tissues. Kv4.3 is the major component of various physiologically important currents ranging from A-type currents in the CNS to the transient outward potassium conductance in the ...

  1. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  2. From pan-reactive KV7 channel opener to subtype selective opener/inhibitor by addition of a methyl group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Marie Blom

    Full Text Available The voltage-gated potassium channels of the KV7 family (KV7.1-5 play important roles in controlling neuronal excitability and are therefore attractive targets for treatment of CNS disorders linked to hyperexcitability. One of the main challenges in developing KV7 channel active drugs has been to identify compounds capable of discriminating between the neuronally expressed subtypes (KV7.2-5, aiding the identification of the subunit composition of KV7 currents in various tissues, and possessing better therapeutic potential for particular indications. By taking advantage of the structure-activity relationship of acrylamide KV7 channel openers and the effects of these compounds on mutant KV7 channels, we have designed and synthesized a novel KV7 channel modulator with a unique profile. The compound, named SMB-1, is an inhibitor of KV7.2 and an activator of KV7.4. SMB-1 inhibits KV7.2 by reducing the current amplitude and increasing the time constant for the slow component of the activation kinetics. The activation of KV7.4 is seen as an increase in the current amplitude and a slowing of the deactivation kinetics. Experiments studying mutant channels with a compromised binding site for the KV7.2-5 opener retigabine indicate that SMB-1 binds within the same pocket as retigabine for both inhibition of KV7.2 and activation of KV7.4. SMB-1 may serve as a valuable tool for KV7 channel research and may be used as a template for further design of better subtype selective KV7 channel modulators. A compound with this profile could hold novel therapeutic potential such as the treatment of both positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  3. Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speca, David J.; Ogata, Genki; Mandikian, Danielle; Bishop, Hannah I.; Wiler, Steve W.; Eum, Kenneth; Wenzel, H. Jürgen; Doisy, Emily T.; Matt, Lucas; Campi, Katharine L.; Golub, Mari S.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Hell, Johannes W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Sack, Jon T.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.; Trimmer, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1−/−) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1−/− mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1−/− mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1−/− mice appears unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1−/− animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1−/− mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1−/− mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral – CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1−/− mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1−/− mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1−/− mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function. PMID:24494598

  4. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  5. Study on Tower Models for EHV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning outage accident is one of the main factors that threat seriously the safe and reliable operation of power system. So it is very important to establish reasonable transmission tower model and evaluate the impulse response characteristic of lightning wave traveling on the transmission tower properly for determining reliable lightning protection performance. With the help of Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP, six 500kV tower models are built. Aiming at one line to one transformer operating mode of 500kV substation, the intruding wave overvoltage under different tower models is calculated. The effect of tower model on intruding overvoltage has been studied. The results show that different tower models can result in great differences to the calculation results. Hence, reasonable selection of the tower model in the calculation of back- strike intruding wave is very important.

  6. North Central Transmission Line: Guidelines for the environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines that Manitoba Hydro must follow in the preparation of the environmental impact statement on the proposed North Central Transmission Line (TCTL) project are presented. The project consists of a 138 kV transmission line, two 25 kV distribution lines, and related ancillary structures and facilities. The review process must be sensitive to cultural and community needs and must involve those most directly affected, and should be grounded in the impacted northern communities. The review should include a project background, the proposal, a description of the existing natural and socio-economic environment, and must address employment, education and training, impacts on renewable resource harvesting, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts, legal/jurisdictional issues, infrastructure, mitigation and compensation, and environmental monitoring and follow-up. 1 fig., 20 tabs

  7. Fundamental role for the KCNE4 ancillary subunit in Kv7.4 regulation of arterial tone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas A; Carr, Georgina; Lundegaard, Pia R

    2015-01-01

    tone by Kv7 channels. In HEK cells expressing Kv7.4, co-expression of KCNE4 increased the membrane expression of Kv7.4 and significantly altered Kv7.4 current properties. Quantitative PCR analysis of different rat arteries found that the KCNE4 isoform predominated and proximity ligation experiments...... leads to reduced Kv7.4 membrane abundance, a depolarized membrane potential and an augmented response to vasoconstrictors. KCNE4 is a key regulator of the function and expression of Kv7.4 in vascular smooth muscle. ABSTRACT: The KCNE ancillary subunits (KCNE1-5) significantly alter the expression...... to reduced Kv7.4 membrane abundance, a depolarized membrane potential and an augmented response to vasoconstrictors. The present study is the first to demonstrate an integral role of KCNE4 in regulating the function and expression of Kv7.4 in vascular smooth muscle....

  8. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Ritter, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A-type voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na+ channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  9. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols

  10. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, V; Zhang, J [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols.

  11. SU-G-206-03: CTDI Per KV at Phantom Center and Periphery: Comparison Between Major CT Manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Senan, R [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Demirkaya, O [King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to: 1) compare scanners output by measuring normalized CTDIw (mGy/100mAs) in different CT makes and models and at different kV’s, and 2) quantify the relationship between kV and CTDI and compare this relationship between the different manufacturers. Methods: Study included forty scanners of major CT manufacturers and of various models. Exposure was measured at center and 12 o’clock holes of head and body CTDI phantoms, at all available kV’s, and with the largest or second largest available collimation in each scanner. Average measured CTDI’s from each CT manufacturer were also plotted against kV and the fitting equation: CTDIw (normalized) = a.kVb was calculated. The power (b) value may be considered as an indicator of spectral filtration, which affects the degree of beam hardening. Also, HVLs were measured at several scanners. Results: Results showed GE scanners, on average, had higher normalized CTDIw than those of Siemens and Philips, in both phantom sizes and at all kV’s. ANOVA statistic indicated the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Comparison between Philips and Siemens, however, was not statistically significant. Curve fitting showed b values ranged from 2.4 to 2.9 (for Head periphery and center, respectively); and was about 2.8 for Body phantom periphery, and 3.2 at the center of Body phantom. Fitting equations (kV vs. CTDI) will be presented and discussed. GE’s CTDIw vs. HVL showed very strong correlation (r > 0.99). Conclusion: Partial characterization of scanners output was performed which may be helpful in dose estimation to internal organs. The relatively higher output from GE scanners may be attributed to lower filtration. Work is still in progress to obtain CTDI values from other scanners as well as to measure their HVLs.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Propagation Characteristics of PD Radiated UHF Signal in Actual 252 kV GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For partial discharge (PD diagnostics in gas insulated switchgears (GISs based on the ultra-high-frequency (UHF method, it is essential to study the attenuation characteristics of UHF signals so as to improve the application of the UHF technique. Currently, the performance of UHF has not been adequately considered in most experimental research, while the constructive conclusions about the installation and position of UHF sensors are relatively rare. In this research, by using a previously-designed broadband sensor, the output signal is detected and analyzed experimentally in a 252 kV GIS with L-shaped structure and disconnecting switch. Since the relative position of the sensor and the defect is usually fixed by prior research, three circumferential angle positions of the defect in cross section are performed. The results are studied by time, statistics and frequency analyses. This identifies that the discontinuity conductor of DS will lead to a rise of both the peak to peak value (Vpp and the transmission rate of the UHF signal. Then, the frequency analysis indicates that the reason for the distinction of signal amplitude and transmission rate is that the mode components of the PD signal are distinctively affected by the special structure of GIS. Finally, the optimal circumferential angle position of the UHF Sensor is given based on the comparison of transmission rates.

  13. Functional and Molecular Evidence for Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Human Detrusor from Patients with and without Bladder Outflow Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid; Nordling, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expressi...... between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.......The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression...... (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM) and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM), reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM) had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS...

  14. Thyristors for dc transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-05-06

    As a first stage towards determining the feasibility of applying thyristors to hvdc converter terminals, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation has built a converter laboratory capable of testing thyristors under conditions similar to those which would have to be met in a 200 kV dc system. The equipment has been designed to test a 5 kV 600 A group of thyrisotrs, elevated 200 kV above earth. This rating has been chosen so that there would be a sufficient number of thyristors in series to enable the gating and voltage division characteristics to be investigated and at the same time the group could be operated at a potential equivalent to a complete 200 kV dc bridge.

  15. KCNE1 constrains the voltage sensor of Kv7.1 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liora Shamgar

    Full Text Available Kv7 potassium channels whose mutations cause cardiovascular and neurological disorders are members of the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+ channels, comprising a central pore enclosed by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs and sharing a homologous S4 sensor sequence. The Kv7.1 pore-forming subunit can interact with various KCNE auxiliary subunits to form K(+ channels with very different gating behaviors. In an attempt to characterize the nature of the promiscuous gating of Kv7.1 channels, we performed a tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis of the S4 sensor and analyzed the mutation-induced perturbations in gating free energy. Perturbing the gating energetics of Kv7.1 bias most of the mutant channels towards the closed state, while fewer mutations stabilize the open state or the inactivated state. In the absence of auxiliary subunits, mutations of specific S4 residues mimic the gating phenotypes produced by co-assembly of Kv7.1 with either KCNE1 or KCNE3. Many S4 perturbations compromise the ability of KCNE1 to properly regulate Kv7.1 channel gating. The tryptophan-induced packing perturbations and cysteine engineering studies in S4 suggest that KCNE1 lodges at the inter-VSD S4-S1 interface between two adjacent subunits, a strategic location to exert its striking action on Kv7.1 gating functions.

  16. Market Report : The high-voltage transmission market in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    In order to meet the accession requirements for membership to the European Union, Poland is currently restructuring its energy sector, and the initiative to privatise the electric power industry to full competition by 2005 is on course. This report describes the opportunities for foreign investors and suppliers of electrical equipment and services, particularly at this time when power demand is growing, the power grid infrastructure is ageing and obsolete components must be replaced. The total installed capacity in Poland is about 33,000 megawatts. This includes all installations of power plants and combined heat and power plants. An investment of $23 billion is anticipated by 2010 in order to modernize the electricity power industry and to meet the growing energy demand. Polski Siece Elektroenergetyczne, S.A. (PSE) is the state-owned company which controls Poland's high-voltage transmission grid. It operates a 220 kilovolt and 40 kV grid and holds the monopoly on acquiring and transmitting electricity in the country. Poland maintains grid interconnections with several other European countries and is looking to expand its network. Opportunities for Canadian suppliers lie in the areas of high-voltage power transmission equipment and services. Other opportunities lie in commercial prospects in sales of equipment and services. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics describes distribution channels, market-entry considerations, import regulations, and export credit risks. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs.

  17. The secret life of ion channels: Kv1.3 potassium channels and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, M Teresa; Cidad, Pilar; López-López, José R

    2018-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels are involved in the switch to proliferation of normally quiescent cells, being implicated in the control of cell cycle in many different cell types and in many different ways. They modulate membrane potential controlling K + fluxes, sense changes in potential, and interact with many signaling molecules through their intracellular domains. From a mechanistic point of view, we can describe the role of Kv1.3 channels in proliferation with at least three different models. In the "membrane potential model," membrane hyperpolarization resulting from Kv1.3 activation provides the driving force for Ca 2+ influx required to activate Ca 2+ -dependent transcription. This model explains most of the data obtained from several cells from the immune system. In the "voltage sensor model," Kv1.3 channels serve mainly as sensors that transduce electrical signals into biochemical cascades, independently of their effect on membrane potential. Kv1.3-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) could fit this model. Finally, in the "channelosome balance model," the master switch determining proliferation may be related to the control of the Kv1.3 to Kv1.5 ratio, as described in glial cells and also in VSMCs. Since the three mechanisms cannot function independently, these models are obviously not exclusive. Nevertheless, they could be exploited differentially in different cells and tissues. This large functional flexibility of Kv1.3 channels surely gives a new perspective on their functions beyond their elementary role as ion channels, although a conclusive picture of the mechanisms involved in Kv1.3 signaling to proliferation is yet to be reached.

  18. X irradiation of human epidermis in vitro. 2. Comparison of single 44 kV and 200 kV X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollina, U; Fueller, J; Burger, B; Hipler, C

    1989-01-01

    On the example of the reduction of epidermal adhesion of FITC wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) the direct membrane effect of a single X irradiation (44 kV and 220 kV) was analyzed in vitro. Human normal skin and psoriasis centres were compared. Normal skin showed no alteration of microscopically visible FITC-WGA adhesion on epidermal cells over the whole dose range. Foci of psoriasis responded to doses of /ge/ 5 Gy (44 and 220 kV) with a drastic reduction of epidermal lectin binding to lower and medium cell layers. Maximum efficacy was with 5 Gy (44 kV) or 10 Gy (220 kV). A dose elevation up to 20 Gy did not result in an increase of efficacy. Topographically the radiosensitive FITC-WGA adhesion could chiefly be seen in the dermal ridges. The findings support the impression of an increased radiosensitivity of the lesional psoriatic epidermis compared with normal skin. This is connected with an abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. (author).

  19. Development and use of 60 kV, and 150 kV floating deck modulators for high voltage protection of multi-megawatt ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.; Schilling, G.

    1977-01-01

    Extraction currents of 60 A at 40 kV have been produced by utilizing a 60 kV floating deck modulator interfaced to a high voltage power supply. The modulator is operated in a series mode to repetitively pulse power to the ion beam accelerator. Current monitoring and other protective circuits provide interrupt commands to the series switch tube when faults occur. The constant current characteristics of the water cooled tetrode and the rapid response of the protective circuits effectively limit the fault energy to the ion source. Three of the 60 kV decks have been modified and stacked in a series configuration to supply 150 kV, 50 A pulses. This system supplies power for development of higher-energy multi-grid sources. In this system attention has been focused on forced voltage sharing of the three decks and on protective circuits for fault conditions. All control signal processing and conditioning is performed at ground level. Fiber optic links are used to interface with the high potential associated with the floating decks. A shunt modulator incorporated with this system provides regulation of the voltage to the ion source gradient grid. Future modulator development includes a system to deliver 100 A at 80 kV

  20. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  1. Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV.

  2. Accurate Iterative Analysis of the K-V Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Oscar A

    2005-01-01

    Previous solutions of the K-V equations have either yielded poor accuracy or have been complex and difficult to follow. We describe a new approach, simple in concept, easy to use, with accuracy substantially improved over previous treatments. The results are given in the same form as the smooth approximation but include a few correction terms obtained from the field gradient integrated along the axis of a quadrupole cell. The input quantities–quadrupole field, beam current, and emittance–yield the average beam radius, the maximum envelope excursion, and the depressed and undepressed tunes. For all values of the input parameters, the results are much closer to the exact values from simulations than are results from the smooth approximation. For example, with the parameters adjusted for an exact phase advance of 83.4 degrees and 50% tune depression, both tunes are in error by less than 0.5%–over 22 times better than the smooth approximation. The error in maximum radius is 0.04%, impro...

  3. Novel Kv7.1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate interaction sites uncovered by charge neutralization scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckey, Karina; Wrobel, Eva; Strutz-Seebohm, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Kv7.1 to Kv7.5 α-subunits belong to the family of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv). Assembled with the β-subunit KCNE1, Kv7.1 conducts the slowly activating potassium current IKs, which is one of the major currents underlying repolarization of the cardiac action potential. A known regulator...... of corresponding long QT syndrome mutants suggested impaired PIP2 regulation as the cause for channel dysfunction. To clarify the underlying structural mechanism of PIP2 binding, molecular dynamics simulations of Kv7.1/KCNE1 complexes containing two PIP2 molecules in each subunit at specific sites were performed...

  4. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  5. 800 kW transmission line research at Leatherhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-29

    The experimental transmission line was installed at Leatherhead to enable the Central Electricity Research Laboratories to study the insulators, fittings, and conductors likely to be needed for ac power transmission at voltages up to the equivalent of 800 kV three-phase. Continuous recording will be made of corona power loss and radio and television interference. For this purpose C.E.R.L. has developed a statistical radio-interference recorder. The instrumentation also includes an automatic corona-loss bridge and data logger.

  6. Performance Analysis of a Voltage Source Converter (VSC based HVDC Transmission System under Faulted Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri RABIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltage Source Converter (VSC based HVDC transmission technology hasbeen selected as the basis for several recent projects due to its controllability,compact modular design, ease of system interface, and low environmentalimpact. This paper investigates the dynamic performance of a 200MW,±100kV VSC-HVDC transmission system under some faulted conditionsusing MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results confirm the satisfactoryperformance of the proposed system under active and reactive powervariations and fault conditions.

  7. Protein kinase A stimulates Kv7.1 surface expression by regulating Nedd4-2-dependent endocytic trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Hefting, Louise Leth; Steffensen, Annette Buur

    2015-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv7.1 plays critical physiological roles in both heart and epithelial tissues. In heart, Kv7.1 and the accessory subunit KCNE1 forms the IKs current, which is enhanced by PKA mediated phosphorylation. The observed current increase requires both phosphorylation of Kv7.......1 and the presence of KCNE1. However, PKA also stimulates Kv7.1 currents in epithelial tissues, such as colon, where the channel does not co-assemble with KCNE1. Here, we demonstrate that PKA activity significantly impacts the subcellular localization of Kv7.1 in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells. While PKA inhibition...... reduced the fraction of channels at the cell surface, PKA activation increased it. We show that PKA inhibition lead to intracellular accumulation of Kv7.1 in late endosomes/lysosomes. By mass spectroscopy we identified eight phosphorylated residues on Kv7.1, however, none appeared to play a role...

  8. Major Refit for CERN's 400 kV Substation (Part of the new control and protection system for the 18 kV side)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The 400 kV substation on the Prévessin site brings in the electricity that powers CERN's accelerators and the majority of the Laboratory's installations. It was originally built in the 1970s for the SPS, and is one of only five privately owned 400 kV sub-stations in France. Three of the others belong to the national railway company, SNCF, supplying the Paris-Marseilles TGV line, the other is at the Cadarache research centre near mouth of the Rhone. After nearly thirty years of service, CERN's substation has just undergone a complete overhaul.

  9. A 600-kV double-pulser for the PHERMEX electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.L.; Kang, M.; Melton, J.G.; Seitz, G.J.; Trujillo, L.T.

    1997-09-01

    The PHERMEX (Pulsed High Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) Radiographic Facility is a 50-MHz, 3-Cavity, RF-Linac driven by a pulsed, thermionic electron-gun Injector. The PHERMEX is used to take flash radiographs using x-rays at a single time in an explosively driven event. To investigate the time evolution of these events requires two things: (1) a multiple-pulser to drive the electron-gun Injector and (2) a large-format, gamma-ray, camera system to record a scintillator at the different times. The authors report the recent success of developing a reliable double-pulser that consists of two Marx generators that independently charge two PFLs that are switched out at about 1.4 MV. The PFLs are connected in series by large diaphragm switches that are independently laser triggered by two quadrupled-YAG lasers. Recent tests of the system into a dummy load, produced two high quality 600 kV pulses separated by 1.0 {micro}s. Each pulse has a FWHM of 90 ns, a 50 ns flat-top {+-} 3%, and a risetime of 25 ns and a falltime of 35 ns. The interpulse time is variable up to about 275 {micro}s; the first switch is kept closed by a keep alive inductor. The system has produced a 50 shot sequence of two pulses with a 1-sigma jitter < 1 ns. The system has been modeled using TOSCA-3D, FLUX-2D, and a transmission line model run with the circuits code Micro-CAP.

  10. A 600-kV double-pulser for the PHERMEX electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Kang, M.; Melton, J.G.; Seitz, G.J.; Trujillo, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    The PHERMEX (Pulsed High Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) Radiographic Facility is a 50-MHz, 3-Cavity, RF-Linac driven by a pulsed, thermionic electron-gun Injector. The PHERMEX is used to take flash radiographs using x-rays at a single time in an explosively driven event. To investigate the time evolution of these events requires two things: (1) a multiple-pulser to drive the electron-gun Injector and (2) a large-format, gamma-ray, camera system to record a scintillator at the different times. The authors report the recent success of developing a reliable double-pulser that consists of two Marx generators that independently charge two PFLs that are switched out at about 1.4 MV. The PFLs are connected in series by large diaphragm switches that are independently laser triggered by two quadrupled-YAG lasers. Recent tests of the system into a dummy load, produced two high quality 600 kV pulses separated by 1.0 micros. Each pulse has a FWHM of 90 ns, a 50 ns flat-top ± 3%, and a risetime of 25 ns and a falltime of 35 ns. The interpulse time is variable up to about 275 micros; the first switch is kept closed by a keep alive inductor. The system has produced a 50 shot sequence of two pulses with a 1-sigma jitter < 1 ns. The system has been modeled using TOSCA-3D, FLUX-2D, and a transmission line model run with the circuits code Micro-CAP

  11. Regulation of Kv1.4 potassium channels by PKC and AMPK kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Saljic, Arnela

    2018-01-01

    around the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In the present study we examined whether Kv1.4, constituting the cardiac Ito,s current, is subject to similar regulation. In the epithelial Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line, which constitutes a highly reproducible model system for addressing membrane...... targeting, we find, by confocal microscopy, that Kv1.4 cell surface expression is downregulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, manipulating the activities of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and serum and glucocorticoid......-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) were without effect on channel localization. The PKC and AMPK-mediated downregulation of Kv1.4 membrane surface localization was confirmed by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where pharmacological activation of PKC and AMPK reduced Kv1.4 current levels. We further...

  12. Downregulation of Kv7.4 channel activity in primary and secondary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Chadha, Preet S; Davis, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of...... structurally different activators of Kv7.2 through Kv7.5 channels (BMS-204352, S-1, and retigabine) on blood vessels from normotensive and hypertensive animals.......Voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channels encoded by KCNQ genes (Kv7 channels) have been identified in various rodent and human blood vessels as key regulators of vascular tone; however, nothing is known about the functional impact of these channels in vascular disease. We ascertained the effect of 3...

  13. Kv7.1 surface expression is regulated by epithelial cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2011-01-01

    The potassium channel K(V)7.1 is expressed in the heart where it contributes to the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. In addition, K(V)7.1 is expressed in epithelial tissues where it plays a role in salt and water transport. Mutations in the kcnq1 gene can lead to long QT syndrome...... and deafness, and several mutations have been described as trafficking mutations. To learn more about the basic mechanisms that regulate K(V)7.1 surface expression, we have investigated the trafficking of K(V)7.1 during the polarization process of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) using...... is regulated by signaling mechanisms involved in epithelial cell polarization in particular signaling cascades involving protein kinase C and PI3K....

  14. A comparison of kV and MV imaging in head and neck image guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, B. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North St, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: beth.devereux@roq.net.au; Frantzis, J.; Sisson, T.; Jones, M.; Martin, J.; Middleton, M. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North St, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To compare and assess kV and MV imaging modalities and their role in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer patients. Method: Twelve patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the head and neck were analysed in this study. Six patients undertook MV daily online intervention and a further six patients undertook kV daily online intervention. Pre-intervention field placement data were collected from three separate observers' image match analysis for each patient. The radiotherapy collective involved in the daily online image match analysis formed the fourth observer in the study. The primary end point was to establish the difference in inter- and intra-observer variance between kV and MV imaging modalities. Results: The range of the standard deviations of systematic set-up error for MV imaging calculated was 1.47-2.33 mm (MV) and 1.61-1.64 mm (kV) for the right-left (RL), 2.10-2.17 mm (MV) and 1.53-1.84 mm (kV) for the cranio-caudal (CC) and 1.43-1.63 mm (MV) and 1.02-1.11 mm (kV) for the anterior-posterior (AP). The mean inter-observer variance was 0.21 mm (MV) and 0.41 mm (kV) for the RL, 0.53 mm (MV) and 0.55 mm (kV) for the CC and 0.23 mm (MV) and 0.16 mm (kV) for the AP direction. Intra-observer mean variance was in the order of 0.60 mm (MV) and 0.16 mm (kV) for the RL, 1.41 mm (MV) and 0.05 mm (kV) for the CC and 1.41 mm (MV) and 0.08 mm (kV) for the AP. Discussion: The data in this study suggest both inter- and intra-observer consistency across kV and MV imaging modalities were comparable. However, it is felt that the improved clarity and quality of kV imaging allows all observers to analyse images in a consistent manner, identifying and acting on potential field placement moves. Conclusion: The introduction of kV imaging has maintained the high levels of inter- and intra-observer consistency achieved with MV imaging. This in turn further enables positive verification outcomes and supports the implementation of potential

  15. The development of a 200 kV monochromated field emission electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Masaki, E-mail: mmukai@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Kim, Judy S. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Omoto, Kazuya; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kimura, Atsushi; Ikeda, Akihiro; Zhou, Jun; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Young, Neil P.; Warner, Jamie H.; Nellist, Peter D.; Kirkland, Angus I. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    We report the development of a monochromator for an intermediate-voltage aberration-corrected electron microscope suitable for operation in both STEM and TEM imaging modes. The monochromator consists of two Wien filters with a variable energy selecting slit located between them and is located prior to the accelerator. The second filter cancels the energy dispersion produced by the first filter and after energy selection forms a round monochromated, achromatic probe at the specimen plane. The ultimate achievable energy resolution has been measured as 36 meV at 200 kV and 26 meV at 80 kV. High-resolution Annular Dark Field STEM images recorded using a monochromated probe resolve Si–Si spacings of 135.8 pm using energy spreads of 218 meV at 200 kV and 217 meV at 80 kV respectively. In TEM mode an improvement in non-linear spatial resolution to 64 pm due to the reduction in the effects of partial temporal coherence has been demonstrated using broad beam illumination with an energy spread of 134 meV at 200 kV. - Highlights: • Monochromator for 200 kV aberration corrected TEM and STEM was developed. • Monochromator produces monochromated and achromatic probe at specimen plane. • Ultimate energy resolution was measured to be 36 meV at 200 kV and 26 meV at 80 kV. • Atomic resolution STEM images were recorded using monochromated electron probe. • Improvements of TEM resolution were confirmed using monochromated illumination.

  16. Effects of the small molecule HERG activator NS1643 on Kv11.3 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Bilet

    Full Text Available NS1643 is one of the small molecule HERG (Kv11.1 channel activators and has also been found to increase erg2 (Kv11.2 currents. We now investigated whether NS1643 is also able to act as an activator of Kv11.3 (erg3 channels expressed in CHO cells. Activation of rat Kv11.3 current occurred in a dose-dependent manner and maximal current increasing effects were obtained with 10 µM NS1643. At this concentration, steady-state outward current increased by about 80% and the current increase was associated with a significant shift in the voltage dependence of activation to more negative potentials by about 15 mV. In addition, activation kinetics were accelerated, whereas deactivation was slowed. There was no significant effect on the kinetics of inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The strong current-activating agonistic effect of NS1643 did not result from a shift in the voltage dependence of Kv11.3 channel inactivation and was independent from external Na(+ or Ca(2+. At the higher concentration of 20 µM, NS1643 induced clearly less current increase. The left shift in the voltage dependence of activation reversed and the voltage sensitivity of activation dramatically decreased along with a slowing of Kv11.3 channel activation. These data show that, in comparison to other Kv11 family members, NS1643 exerts distinct effects on Kv11.3 channels with especially pronounced partial antagonistic effects at higher concentration.

  17. The development of a 200 kV monochromated field emission electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masaki; Kim, Judy S.; Omoto, Kazuya; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kimura, Atsushi; Ikeda, Akihiro; Zhou, Jun; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu; Young, Neil P.; Warner, Jamie H.; Nellist, Peter D.; Kirkland, Angus I.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a monochromator for an intermediate-voltage aberration-corrected electron microscope suitable for operation in both STEM and TEM imaging modes. The monochromator consists of two Wien filters with a variable energy selecting slit located between them and is located prior to the accelerator. The second filter cancels the energy dispersion produced by the first filter and after energy selection forms a round monochromated, achromatic probe at the specimen plane. The ultimate achievable energy resolution has been measured as 36 meV at 200 kV and 26 meV at 80 kV. High-resolution Annular Dark Field STEM images recorded using a monochromated probe resolve Si–Si spacings of 135.8 pm using energy spreads of 218 meV at 200 kV and 217 meV at 80 kV respectively. In TEM mode an improvement in non-linear spatial resolution to 64 pm due to the reduction in the effects of partial temporal coherence has been demonstrated using broad beam illumination with an energy spread of 134 meV at 200 kV. - Highlights: • Monochromator for 200 kV aberration corrected TEM and STEM was developed. • Monochromator produces monochromated and achromatic probe at specimen plane. • Ultimate energy resolution was measured to be 36 meV at 200 kV and 26 meV at 80 kV. • Atomic resolution STEM images were recorded using monochromated electron probe. • Improvements of TEM resolution were confirmed using monochromated illumination

  18. 40-kV, 25-ms neutral-beam power supply for TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications are described to upgrade the neutral-beam power supply for the TMX from 40 kV, 10 ms to 40 kV, 25 ms. The redesign of the accel and suppressor power supplies to achieve separation of the high-voltage and control sections, operation of the arc pulse lines in series, operation of the arc pulse lines in a noisy environment with SCR trigger and crowbar, and modifications to the electrolytic storage banks are discussed

  19. Analisa Penggunaan Recloser untuk Pengaman Arus Lebih pada Jaringan Distribusi 20 Kv Gardu Induk Garuda Sakti

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Ario; Firdaus, Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    PT.PLN: 20 kV network substations Garuda Sakti, frequently interference, one of interferences is the short-circuit current. To install equipment to include Recloser. This paper discuss the analysisof the use Recloser on distribution network 20 kV, this paper also be simulated using the software ETAP 12.6 which will feature some of the parameters for comparison of calculations and data thatalready exists in PLN, with two parameters, short circuit and coordination Recloser with overcurrent rela...

  20. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ''environmental impact statement'' is not required

  1. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eSun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  2. Final configuration with assembly assessment of the 100 kV high voltage bushing for the Indian test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Dheeraj Kumar; Shah, Sejal; Venkata Nagaraju, M.; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Chakraborty, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Test Facility (INTF) of Neutral Beam (NB) system is an Indian voluntary effort for the full characterization of the diagnostic neutral beam which is the part of ITER's neutral beam system. The design activities of INTF NB system are completed. The INTF High Voltage Bushing (HVB), which is one of the component of NB system, is designed to connect all the required feedlines, e.g. electrical busbars, RF co-axial lines, diagnostic lines and hydraulic and gas feed lines, carried by the transmission line from the HV deck to the Beam Source of NB system. It forms the primary vacuum boundary and provides 100 kV isolation for INTF beam operation. The entire feedlines pass through a metallic plate of HVB called Dished Head (DH) where all the feedlines converge. The overall diameter of DH is 847 mm which is governed by the diameter of the Porcelain insulator which is meant for 100 kV isolation. The effective diameter where all the feedlines converge at the dished head is ∼ 600 mm which is quite a challenge to accommodate 26 feedlines each of average diameter 60 mm. Electrical feedlines require Vacuum-Electrical feedthroughs for voltage isolation whereas water and gas lines are considered to be directly welded with the DH except one water line which requires 12 kV voltage isolation with respect to DH. For RF lines, different scheme is considered which includes separate Electrical Feedthrough and Vacuum Barrier. To provide connection to electrical cables of heaters and thermocouples, 4 numbers of multipin vacuum compatible electrical feedthroughs are provided which can accommodate ∼250 cables. Due to space constraints, Vacuum-Electrical Feedthroughs are considered to be welded with the DH and therefore they shall be of metal-ceramic-metal configuration to allow welding. To avoid undue loading on the ceramic part, the feedlines are supported additionally at DH using vacuum compatible and electrically insulating material. One more important aspect of the INTF

  3. System impact assessment report 115 kV interconnection between Cornwall system and Hydro One : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Cornwall Electric (CE) is the local distribution company that serves the City of Cornwall, Ontario. The utility can be supplied from either Hydro Quebec, New York ISO or the IESO. CE has proposed to connect Rosemount, McConnell and Courtaulds substations to the IESO-controlled grid in order to obtain access to the competitively priced electricity in Ontario. The load connected to the 2 substations peaks in winter at about 100 MW. The 2 substations will be connected in stages. Only 40 MW of load from the Rosemount substation will be connected initially, followed by up to 100 MW from the McConnell and Courtaulds substation at a later date. The connection will be made through a circuit that taps into the St. Lawrence transmission station in Ontario. A new circuit will also be built and strung on existing towers. This document described the requirements for under-frequency load shedding; voltage reduction facilities; power factor; on-line monitoring; and system protections. According to data provided by Hydro One, the circuit is adequately rated to accommodate connection of the load from the Rosemount and McConnell and Courtaulds substations with no thermal overloading concerns. Winter load conditions were also considered. However, the IESO noted a potential reliability concern in the event that the Cardinal Power generating station is out of service and only one of the transformers connecting St. Lawrence 230 kV bus to St. Lawrence 115 kV bus is in service. However, the power transfers rated at 250 MVA are within the continuous rating of one transformer. It was concluded that the connection of the new load does not have an impact on the short circuit current at the St. Lawrence transmission station. The continuous thermal rating of the circuit is considered to be adequate for the proposed 100 MW of load transfer and the rating of the new line is sufficient to supply the total load at McConnell and Courtaulds. The ratings of the new disconnect switches meet market

  4. Fault and load flows analysis of electricity transmission and distribution system in Casanare (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Galeano, Juan Carlos; Cabra-Sarmiento, Wilson Javier; Ortiz-Portilla, Jhony Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article describes a simulation of the electrical local distribution and regional transmission system of Enerca S.A. E.S.P. at 34.5 kV and 115 kV, identifying the most critical circuits and substations. The company is located in one of the major petroleum production areas in Colombia, and because of a massive growth in this sector, the electrical company expanded its networks in a radial way. This expansion was improvised and poorly planned due to the accelerated need to meet the...

  5. Retigabine, a Kv7.2/Kv7.3-Channel Opener, Attenuates Drug-Induced Seizures in Knock-In Mice Harboring Kcnq2 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Yukiko; Tomonoh, Yuko; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Zhang, Bo; Uchida, Taku; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The hetero-tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.2/Kv7.3, which is encoded by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, plays an important role in limiting network excitability in the neonatal brain. Kv7.2/Kv7.3 dysfunction resulting from KCNQ2 mutations predominantly causes self-limited or benign epilepsy in neonates, but also causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy. Retigabine (RTG), a Kv7.2/ Kv7.3-channel opener, seems to be a rational antiepileptic drug for epilepsies caused by KCNQ2 mutations. We therefore evaluated the effects of RTG on seizures in two strains of knock-in mice harboring different Kcnq2 mutations, in comparison to the effects of phenobarbital (PB), which is the first-line antiepileptic drug for seizures in neonates. The subjects were heterozygous knock-in mice (Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+) bearing the Y284C or A306T Kcnq2 mutation, respectively, and their wild-type (WT) littermates, at 63-100 days of age. Seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA, 12mg/kg) were recorded using a video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring system. Effects of RTG on KA-induced seizures of both strains of knock-in mice were assessed using seizure scores from a modified Racine's scale and compared with those of PB. The number and total duration of spike bursts on EEG and behaviors monitored by video recording were also used to evaluate the effects of RTG and PB. Both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice showed significantly more KA-induced seizures than WT mice. RTG significantly attenuated KA-induced seizure activities in both Kcnq2Y284C/+ and Kcnq2A306T/+ mice, and more markedly than PB. This is the first reported evidence of RTG ameliorating KA-induced seizures in knock-in mice bearing mutations of Kcnq2, with more marked effects than those observed with PB. RTG or other Kv7.2-channel openers may be considered as first-line antiepileptic treatments for epilepsies resulting from KCNQ2 mutations.

  6. Design and test of-80 kV snubber core assemblies for MFTF sustaining-neutral-beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, S.R.; Mayhall, D.J.; Wilson, J.H.; De Vore, K.R.; Ross, R.I.; Sears, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Core snubbers, located near the neutral beam source ends of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS) source cables, protect the neutral beam source extractor grid wires from overheating and sputtering during internal sparkdowns. The snubbers work by producing an induced counter-emf which limits the fault current and by absorbing the capacitive energy stored on the 80 kV source cables and power supplies. A computer program STACAL was used in snubber magnetic design to choose appropriate tape wound cores to provide 400 Ω resistance and 25 J energy absorption. The cores are mounted horizontally in a dielectric structure. The central source cable bundle passes through the snubber and terminates on three copper buses. Multilam receptacles on the buses connect to the source module jumper cables. Corona rings and shields limit electric field stresses to allow close clearances between snubbers

  7. T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ping Fung-Leung

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1.3 blockers was partial and stimulation strength dependent, with reduced inhibitory efficacy on T cells under strengthened anti-CD3/CD28 stimulations. T cell responses to allergens including house dust mites and ragweed were partially reduced by Kv1.3 blockers. The effect of Kv1.3 inhibition was dependent on T cell subsets, with stronger effects on CCR7- effector memory compared to CCR7+ central memory CD4 T cells. Calcium entry studies also revealed a population of CD4 T cells resistant to Kv1.3 blockade. Activation of CD4 T cells was accompanied with an increase in Kv1.3 currents but Kv1.3 transcripts were found to be reduced, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism in the regulation of Kv1.3 activities. In summary, Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cell activation in a manner that is highly dependent on the T cell identity and stimulation strength, These findings suggest that Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cells in a unique, conditional manner, further refining our understanding of the therapeutic potential of Kv1.3 blockers.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of diclofenac in leukocytes through the targeting of Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Núria; David, Miren; Bielańska, Joanna; González, Teresa; Parra, David; Soler, Concepció; Comes, Núria; Valenzuela, Carmen; Felipe, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    Kv1.3 plays a crucial role in the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. While Kv1.3 is responsible for the voltage-dependent potassium current in T-cells, in macrophages this K(+) current is generated by the association of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5. Patients with autoimmune diseases show a high number of effector memory T cells that are characterized by a high expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.3 antagonists ameliorate autoimmune disorders in vivo. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in patients who suffer from painful autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we show that diclofenac impairs immune response via a mechanism that involves Kv1.3. While diclofenac inhibited Kv1.3 expression in activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, Kv1.5 remained unaffected. Diclofenac also decreased iNOS levels in Raw 264.7 cells, impairing their activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced macrophage migration and IL-2 production in stimulated Jurkat T-cells were also blocked by pharmacological doses of diclofenac. These effects were mimicked by Margatoxin, a specific Kv1.3 inhibitor, and Charybdotoxin, which blocks both Kv1.3 and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)3.1). Because Kv1.3 is a very good target for autoimmune therapies, the effects of diclofenac on Kv1.3 are of high pharmacological relevance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  10. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott

    2009-01-01

    Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts) into impedances less than 10 (Omega), from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K.W. Struve, W.A. Stygar, L.K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007), p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6 (Omega), 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10 -4 . The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the design goals related to high reliability and low jitter. While

  11. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  12. Parent-child relationship quality and family transmission of parent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms following fathers' exposure to combat trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers' and mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents' positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members' emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and nondeployed mothers and their 4- to 13-year-old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child's symptoms. Parents' observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multimethod approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers' and mothers' PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, were observed. Fathers' and mothers' positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's internalizing symptoms. Fathers' and mothers' coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's externalizing symptoms. Each family member's capacity for emotion regulation was associated with his or her adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described.

  13. Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Family Transmission of Parent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Child Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Following Fathers’ Combat-Trauma Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R.; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R.; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers’ and mothers’ post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents’ positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members’ emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and non-deployed mothers and their 4 to 13 year old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools, or ADAPT) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child’s symptoms. Parents’ observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multi-method approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers’ and mothers’ PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms were observed. Fathers’ and mothers’ positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s internalizing symptoms. Fathers’ and mothers’ coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s externalizing symptoms. Each family members’ capacity for emotion regulation was associated with their adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described. PMID:27739388

  14. Quality control of a kV cone beam computed tomography imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguet, M.; Bodez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents the introduction of a quality assurance program for the On-Board Imager (O.B.I., Varian) kV cone beam computed tomography (kV C.B.C.T.) system, together with the results of 1 year monthly testing. Materials and methods: Firstly the geometric precision and stability of the equipment and of the associated software were evaluated using the Marker phantom. The coincidence of the accelerator isocenter and the imager isocenter was verified as well as the accuracy of the registration of kV cone beam computed tomography (kV C.B.C.T.) with reference CT images. Then, the kV C.B.C.T. image quality was evaluated using the Catphan 504 phantom and ArtiScan software (Aquilab) for both full-fan (F.F.) and half-fan (H.F.) imaging modes. Results: The kV C.B.C.T. isocenter and image registration with correction of the table position were found to be within a tolerance of 2.0 mm. Concerning the kV C.B.C.T. image quality, image noise and uniformity, the Hounsfield units (HU) stability and linearity, geometric distortion and high contrast resolution were all found to be within the manufacturer's recommendations for both F.F. and H.F. modes. However, the low contrast resolution for the HF mode did not meet the manufacturer's specifications. Conclusion: The quality assurance tests introduced have defined the initial system characteristics and their evolution during a period of 1 year, demonstrating the stability of the O.B.I.. (authors)

  15. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, W.

    1993-01-01

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  16. Trafficking of Kv2.1 Channels to the Axon Initial Segment by a Novel Nonconventional Secretory Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Stampe; Watanabe, Shoji; Stas, Jeroen Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    the localization of Kv2.1 in these two different membrane compartments in cultured rat hippocampal neurons of mixed sex. Our data uncover a unique ability of Kv2.1 channels to use two molecularly distinct trafficking pathways to accomplish this. Somatodendritic Kv2.1 channels are targeted by the conventional...... secretory pathway, whereas axonal Kv2.1 channels are targeted by a nonconventional trafficking pathway independent of the Golgi apparatus. We further identified a new AIS trafficking motif in the C-terminus of Kv2.1, and show that putative phosphorylation sites in this region are critical for the restricted.......SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study uncovered a novel mechanism that targets the Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel to two distinct trafficking pathways and two distinct subcellular destinations: the somatodendritic plasma membrane and that of the axon initial segment. We also identified a distinct motif, including...

  17. Overvoltages transferred from a network of 220 kV to 15.65 kV level of the step-up transformer in HPP 'Bajina Bašta'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelja Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research in lightning surge waves and switching overvoltages transferred from a network of 220 kV to the 15.65 kV level of the step-up transformer in HPP 'Bajina Bašta'. Analysis of survey results lead to conclusion that transferred overvoltages can endanger 15.65 kV transformer windings and stator winding insulation. It was therefore suggested for the protection of the 15.65 kV isolation to install metal oxide surge arresters at a suitable place between the power generator bus bars and earthing.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Transient Fault Response at Lillgrund Wind Farm when Subjected to Faults in the Connecting 130 kV Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anders; Isabegovic, Emir

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate what type of faults in the connecting grid should be dimensioning for future wind farms. An investigation of over and under voltages at the main transformer and the turbines inside Lillgrund wind farm was the main goal. The results will be used in the planning stage of future wind farms when performing insulation coordination and determining the protection settings. A model of the Lillgrund wind farm and a part of the connecting 130 kV grid were built in PSCAD/EMTDC. The farm consists of 48 Siemens SWT-2.3-93 2.3 MW wind turbines with full power converters. The turbines were modeled as controllable current sources providing a constant active power output up to the current limit of 1.4 pu. The transmission lines and cables were modeled as frequency dependent (phase) models. The load flows and bus voltages were verified towards a PSS/E model and the transient response was verified towards measuring data from two faults, a line to line fault in the vicinity of Barsebaeck (BBK) and a single line-to-ground fault close to Bunkeflo (BFO) substation. For the simulation, three phase to ground, single line to ground and line to line faults were applied at different locations in the connecting grid and the phase to ground voltages at different buses in the connecting grid and at turbines were studied. These faults were applied for different configurations of the farm. For single line to ground faults, the highest over voltage on a turbine was 1.22 pu (32.87 kV) due to clearing of a fault at BFO (the PCC). For line to line faults, the highest over voltage on a turbine was 1.59 pu (42.83 kV) at the beginning of a fault at KGE one bus away from BFO. Both these cases were when all radials were connected and the turbines ran at full power. The highest over voltage observed at Lillgrund was 1.65 pu (44.45 kV). This over voltage was caused by a three phase to ground fault applied at KGE and occurred at the beginning of the fault and when

  19. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  20. Feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment; Sabaku chiiki wo riyoshita taiyoko hatsuden chokyori yuso gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A workshop was held at Tokyo in March, 1997 on the research and development and feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic (PV) power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment. Two speakers from the USA, one from Italy, and two from China were invited, and four speakers in Japan presented papers. A total of 48 persons participated. In the technical sessions, `World energy demand and PV system potential` by Prof. Kurokawa, `Long distance transmission of PV power` by Mr. A. Invenizzi, `Case studies of large scale PV systems distributed throughout desert areas of the world` by Mr. Hirasawa, `Linking renewable energy resources around the world` by Mr. P. Meisen, `Properties of large scale PV plant in the USA` by Mr. J. Benner, `Future prospect of PV electrification in China` by Mr. Kong Li, `Application of large-scale PV systems in deserts in China` by Mr. Isomura, and `Effects of large-scale PV power plant in a climatic desert areas` by Prof. Ihara were presented. 38 refs., 62 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. Clofazimine inhibits human Kv1.3 potassium channel by perturbing calcium oscillation in T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao R Ren

    Full Text Available The Kv1.3 potassium channel plays an essential role in effector memory T cells and has been implicated in several important autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and type 1 diabetes. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of Kv1.3 channel have been reported, some of which were found to be effective in various animal models of autoimmune diseases. We report herein the identification of clofazimine, a known anti-mycobacterial drug, as a novel inhibitor of human Kv1.3. Clofazimine was initially identified as an inhibitor of intracellular T cell receptor-mediated signaling leading to the transcriptional activation of human interleukin-2 gene in T cells from a screen of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library. A systematic mechanistic deconvolution revealed that clofazimine selectively blocked the Kv1.3 channel activity, perturbing the oscillation frequency of the calcium-release activated calcium channel, which in turn led to the inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. These effects of clofazimine provide the first line of experimental evidence in support of a causal relationship between Kv1.3 and calcium oscillation in human T cells. Furthermore, clofazimine was found to be effective in blocking human T cell-mediated skin graft rejection in an animal model in vivo. Together, these results suggest that clofazimine is a promising immunomodulatory drug candidate for treating a variety of autoimmune disorders.

  2. Identification of a functional interaction between Kv4.3 channels and c-Src tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro; Saito, Tomoaki; Del Corsso, Cris; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are key determinants of cardiac and neuronal excitability. A substantial body of evidence has accumulated in support of a role for Src family tyrosine kinases in the regulation of Kv channels. In this study, we examined the possibility that c-Src tyrosine kinase participates in the modulation of the transient voltage-dependent K(+) channel Kv4.3. Supporting a mechanistic link between Kv4.3 and c-Src, confocal microscopy analysis of HEK293 cells stably transfected with Kv4.3 showed high degree of co-localization of the two proteins at the plasma membrane. Our results further demonstrate an association between Kv4.3 and c-Src by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays, this interaction being mediated by the SH2 and SH3 domains of c-Src. Furthermore, we show that Kv4.3 is tyrosine phosphorylated under basal conditions. The functional relevance of the observed interaction between Kv4.3 and c-Src was established in patch-clamp experiments, where application of the Src inhibitor PP2 caused a decrease in Kv4.3 peak current amplitude, but not the inactive structural analogue PP3. Conversely, intracellular application of recombinant c-Src kinase or the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bpV(phen) increased Kv4.3 peak current amplitude. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that c-Src-induced Kv4.3 channel activation involves their association in a macromolecular complex and suggest a role for c-Src-Kv4.3 pathway in regulating cardiac and neuronal excitability.

  3. 77 FR 514 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the North Steens 230 Kilovolt Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... subsidiary of Columbia Energy Partners, LLC, filed right-of-way (ROW) applications for ROWs with the BLM and... transmission system near Diamond Junction, Oregon. The ROD approves the BLM-preferred Alternative, now the... Project substation, south of Diamond, Oregon and connect to Harney Electric Cooperative's existing 115-kV...

  4. Monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechberger, W.; Kothleitner, G.; Hofer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has developed into an established technique for chemical and structural analysis of thin specimens in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope (S)TEM. The energy resolution in EELS is largely limited by the stability of the high voltage supply, by the resolution of the spectrometer and by the energy spread of the source. To overcome this limitation a Wien filter monochromator was recently introduced with commercially available STEMs, offering the advantage to better resolve EELS fine structures, which contain valuable bonding information. The method of atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging within an STEM, utilizing a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector can perfectly complement the excellent energy resolution, since EELS spectra can be collected simultaneously. In combination with a monochromator microscope not only high spatial resolution images can be recorded but also high energy resolution EELS spectra are attainable. In this work we investigated the STEM performance of a 200 kV monochromated Tecnai F20 with a high resolution Gatan Imaging Filter (HR-GIF). (author)

  5. Blockade of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 inhibits immune responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, G C; Blake, J T; Talento, A; Nguyen, M; Lin, S; Sirotina, A; Shah, K; Mulvany, K; Hora, D; Cunningham, P; Wunderler, D L; McManus, O B; Slaughter, R; Bugianesi, R; Felix, J; Garcia, M; Williamson, J; Kaczorowski, G; Sigal, N H; Springer, M S; Feeney, W

    1997-06-01

    The voltage activated K+ channel (Kv1.3) has recently been identified as the molecule that sets the resting membrane potential of peripheral human T lymphoid cells. In vitro studies indicate that blockage of Kv1.3 inhibits T cell activation, suggesting that Kv1.3 may be a target for immunosuppression. However, despite the in vitro evidence, there has been no in vivo demonstration that blockade of Kv1.3 will attenuate an immune response. The difficulty is due to species differences, as the channel does not set the membrane potential in rodent peripheral T cells. In this study, we show that the channel is present on peripheral T cells of miniswine. Using the peptidyl Kv1.3 inhibitor, margatoxin, we demonstrate that Kv1.3 also regulates the resting membrane potential, and that blockade of Kv1.3 inhibits, in vivo, both a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and an Ab response to an allogeneic challenge. In addition, prolonged Kv1.3 blockade causes reduced thymic cellularity and inhibits the thymic development of T cell subsets. These results provide in vivo evidence that Kv1.3 is a novel target for immunomodulation.

  6. The Seismic Analysis of 800kV Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) for the Dangjin Thermal Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, I.H.; Song, W.P.; Kweon, K.Y. [Hyosung Corporation (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    800kV GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) which was first developed in korea at Dec. 1998 and is going to be installed in the dangjin thermal plant. We checked the stability of 800kV GIS under seismic load. pro-ENGINEER and PATRAN were used for modeling exactly 800kV GIS geometry. The 800kV GIS was modeled as shell elements for the enclosures and beam elements for the conductors and the support insulators. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  8. 600 kV modulator design for the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.; de Lamare, J.; Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1992-07-01

    Preliminary design for the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) requires a pulse power source to produce a 600 kV, 600 A, 1.4 μs, 0.1% flat top pulse with rise and fall times of approximately 100 ns to power an X-Band klystron with a microperveance of 1.25 at ∼ 100 MW peak RF power. The design goals for the modulator, including those previously listed, are peak modulator pulse power of 340 MW operating at 120 Hz. A three-stage darlington pulse-forming network, which produces a >100 kV, 1.4 μs pulse, is coupled to the klystron load through a 6:1 pulse transformer. Careful consideration of the transformer leakage inductance, klystron capacitance, system layout, and component choice is necessary to produce the very fast rise and fall times at 600 kV operating continuously at 120 Hz

  9. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects

  10. Rearrangement of potassium ions and Kv1.1/Kv1.2 potassium channels in regenerating axons following end-to-end neurorrhaphy: ionic images from TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Hung-Ming; Wu, Tsung-Huan; Chen, Li-You; Yang, Yin-Shuo; Tseng, To-Jung; Liao, Wen-Chieh

    2017-10-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 that cluster at juxtaparanodal (JXP) regions are essential in the regulation of nerve excitability and play a critical role in axonal conduction. When demyelination occurs, Kv1.1/Kv1.2 activity increases, suppressing the membrane potential nearly to the equilibrium potential of K + , which results in an axonal conduction blockade. The recovery of K + -dependent communication signals and proper clustering of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels at JXP regions may directly reflect nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. However, little is known about potassium channel expression and its relationship with the dynamic potassium ion distribution at the node of Ranvier during the regenerative process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI). In the present study, end-to-end neurorrhaphy (EEN) was performed using an in vivo model of PNI. The distribution of K + at regenerating axons following EEN was detected by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The specific localization and expression of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels were examined by confocal microscopy and western blotting. Our data showed that the re-establishment of K + distribution and intensity was correlated with the functional recovery of compound muscle action potential morphology in EEN rats. Furthermore, the re-clustering of Kv1.1/1.2 channels 1 and 3 months after EEN at the nodal region of the regenerating nerve corresponded to changes in the K + distribution. This study provided direct evidence of K + distribution in regenerating axons for the first time. We proposed that the Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels re-clustered at the JXP regions of regenerating axons are essential for modulating the proper patterns of K + distribution in axons for maintaining membrane potential stability after EEN.

  11. In vitro measurement of CT density and estimation of stenosis related to coronary soft plaque at 100 kV and 120 kV on ECG-triggered scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Jun, E-mail: horiguch@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Fujioka, Chikako, E-mail: fujioka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Kiguchi, Masao, E-mail: kiguchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hideya, E-mail: hideyayama@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Shen, Yun, E-mail: Yuna.Shen@ge.com [CT Lab of Great China, GE Healthcare, L12 and L15, Office Tower, Langham Place, 8 Argyle Street, Mongkok Kowloon (Hong Kong); Kihara, Yasuki, E-mail: ykihara@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi-cho, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare 100 kV and 120 kV prospective electrocardiograph (ECG)-triggered axial coronary 64-detector CT angiography (64-MDCTA) in soft plaque diagnosis. Materials and methods: Coronary artery models (n = 5) with artificial soft plaques (-32 HU to 53 HU at 120 kV) with three stenosis levels (25%, 50% and 75%) on a cardiac phantom (mimicking slim patient's environment) were scanned in heart rates of 55, 60 and 65 beats per minute (bpm). Four kinds of intracoronary enhancement (205 HU, 241 HU, 280 HU and 314 HU) were simulated. The soft plaque density and the measurement error of stenosis (in percentage), evaluated by two independent observers, were compared between 100 kV and 120 kV. The radiation dose was estimated. Results: Interobserver correlation of the measurement was excellent (density; r = 0.95 and stenosis measure; r = 0.97). Neither the density of soft plaque nor the measurement error of stenosis was different between 100 kV and 120 kV (p = 0.22 and 0.08). The estimated radiation doses were 2.0 mSv and 3.3 mSv (in 14 cm coverage) on 100 kV and 120 kV prospective ECG-triggered axial scans, respectively. Conclusion: The 100 kV prospective ECG-triggered coronary MDCTA has comparable performance to 120 kV coronary CTA in terms of soft plaque densitometry and measurement of stenosis, with a reduced effective dose of 2 mSv.

  12. Improvement the Capacity of Cockcroft-Walton High Voltage Source from 300 kV/20 mA to 500 kV/20 mA for Accelerating Voltage of Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Djasiman

    2002-01-01

    The improvement capacity of Cockcroft-Walton high voltage source from 300 kV/20 mA to 500 kV/mA has been carrying out. To improve the capacity of high voltage source was done by means of increasing the stage number of voltage multiplier from 11 to 18 and its output voltage measuring resistance. Each stage of voltage multiplier consists of 2 capacitors and 2 circuits of high voltage diode. This voltage multiplier is constructed using main components of high voltage capacitor and high voltage diode each of 0.22 μF/50 kV and UF 5408 respectively. To avoid stray discharge and corona it was provided with high voltage electrode and corona ring. The test result indicated that the output voltage obtained from 16 stages was 350 kV according to operating condition of 25 MΩ resistive load and first stage voltage of 28.5 kV with oscillator frequency of 24 Hz. That condition requires anode voltage and current of 5.5 kV and 2.5 A respectively. The no load test for 16 stages indicates 400 kV of output voltage and 28.5 kV first stage voltage. Efficiency of high voltage source was 48 % at 6.75 kW of output power. The expected test of 500 kV with 18 stages of voltage multiplier can not be carried out because of some restrictive of loading system. From the test result can be predicted that the output voltage of 500 kV with 18 stages of voltage multiplier requires 31.2 kV of first stage voltage. Then the expected high voltage source of Cockcroft-Walton is capable as accelerating voltage source for Electron Beam Machine with energy of 500 kV. (author)

  13. The 100 kV Faraday cage (High Voltage Deck) for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Marco; Grando, Luca; Pesce, Alberto; Recchia, Mauro; Toigo, Vanni; Gutierrez, Daniel; Simon, Muriel; Faoro, Giovanni; Guion, Andrea; Maggiora, Edoardo; Pedron, Diego; Roman, Anita; Decamps, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 100 keV experiment is under construction to optimize ITER NBI Ion Source. • The Ion Source Power Supplies are hosted inside a wide −100 kVdc Faraday cage (HVD). • The paper reports on the design solutions of the HVD. • Electrostatic and electromagnetic analyses are presented. • Procurement activities status is reported. - Abstract: In order to optimize the design and operation of the Ion Source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI), a dedicated 100 keV Ion Source, identified as Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma (SPIDER), is under construction in the Neutral Beam Test Facility, at the Consorzio RFX premises, in Padua, Italy. The Ion Source, polarized at −112 kVdc voltage, will produce negative ions (Deuterium D"− or Hydrogen H"−) which, extracted from the Plasma Grid with an extraction voltage up to 12 keV, are accelerated up to 100 keV by the 100 kVdc Power Supply (100 kV PS). The required Ion Source and the Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) system and the associated diagnostics are hosted inside a High Voltage Deck (HVD), a −100 kVdc air-insulated Faraday cage. These power supplies and various diagnostics and control equipment are connected to the Ion Source by means of a High Voltage Transmission Line (TL). The HVD (procurement started mid 2013; delivery on site in the second half of 2014) will consist of a wide structure (13 m (L) × 11 m (W) × 5 m (H)), designed to support the weight of the ISEPS components, mounted on supporting insulators and clad with a conductive metal sheet in order to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI). The paper reports on the design solutions of the HVD focusing on insulation, mechanical, thermal and EMI issues. The details of the main HVD interfaces with the TL and with insulating transformer are also described. Finite Element (FE) analyses have been performed, on the one hand, to verify the configuration from the electrostatic point of view and

  14. The 100 kV Faraday cage (High Voltage Deck) for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldrin, Marco, E-mail: marco.boldrin@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Grando, Luca; Pesce, Alberto; Recchia, Mauro; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Gutierrez, Daniel; Simon, Muriel [Fusion for Energy, c/o Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Faoro, Giovanni; Guion, Andrea; Maggiora, Edoardo; Pedron, Diego [COELME – Costruzioni Elettromeccaniche S.p.A., via G. Galilei no. 1/2, 30036 S. Maria di Sala, Venezia (Italy); Roman, Anita [Studio di Ingegneria RS s.r.l., Viale dell’Arcella 1, 35153 Padova (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A 100 keV experiment is under construction to optimize ITER NBI Ion Source. • The Ion Source Power Supplies are hosted inside a wide −100 kVdc Faraday cage (HVD). • The paper reports on the design solutions of the HVD. • Electrostatic and electromagnetic analyses are presented. • Procurement activities status is reported. - Abstract: In order to optimize the design and operation of the Ion Source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI), a dedicated 100 keV Ion Source, identified as Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma (SPIDER), is under construction in the Neutral Beam Test Facility, at the Consorzio RFX premises, in Padua, Italy. The Ion Source, polarized at −112 kVdc voltage, will produce negative ions (Deuterium D{sup −} or Hydrogen H{sup −}) which, extracted from the Plasma Grid with an extraction voltage up to 12 keV, are accelerated up to 100 keV by the 100 kVdc Power Supply (100 kV PS). The required Ion Source and the Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) system and the associated diagnostics are hosted inside a High Voltage Deck (HVD), a −100 kVdc air-insulated Faraday cage. These power supplies and various diagnostics and control equipment are connected to the Ion Source by means of a High Voltage Transmission Line (TL). The HVD (procurement started mid 2013; delivery on site in the second half of 2014) will consist of a wide structure (13 m (L) × 11 m (W) × 5 m (H)), designed to support the weight of the ISEPS components, mounted on supporting insulators and clad with a conductive metal sheet in order to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI). The paper reports on the design solutions of the HVD focusing on insulation, mechanical, thermal and EMI issues. The details of the main HVD interfaces with the TL and with insulating transformer are also described. Finite Element (FE) analyses have been performed, on the one hand, to verify the configuration from the electrostatic point of

  15. Evaluation of variation of voltage (kV) absorbed dose in chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Bruna G.A.; Mourao, Arnaldo P.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most important diagnostic techniques images today. The increasing utilization of CT implies a significant increase of population exposure to ionizing radiation. Optimization of practice aims to reduce doses to patients because the image quality is directly related to the diagnosis. You can decrease the amount of dose to the patient, and maintain the quality of the image. There are several parameters that can be manipulated in a CT scan and these parameters can be used to reduce the energy deposited in the patient. Based on this, we analyzed the variation of dose deposited in the lungs, breasts and thyroid, by varying the supply voltage of the tube. Scans of the thorax were performed following the protocol of routine chest with constant and variable current for the same applied voltage. Moreover, a female phantom was used and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100), model bat, were used to record the specific organ doses. Scans were performed on a GE CT scanner, model 64 Discovery channels. Higher doses were recorded for the voltage of 120 kV with 200 mAs in the lungs (22.46 mGy) and thyroid (32.22 mGy). For scans with automatic mAs, variable between 100 and 440, this same tension contributed to the higher doses. The best examination in terms of the dose that was used with automatic 80 kV mAs, whose lungs and thyroid received lower dose. For the best breast exam was 100 kV. Since the increase in the 80 kV to 100 kV no impact so much the dose deposited in the lungs, it can be concluded that lowering the applied voltage to 100 kV resulted in a reduction in the dose absorbed by the patient. These results can contribute to optimizing scans of the chest computed tomography

  16. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  17. Use of FACTS for enhanced flexibility and efficiency in power transmission and distribution grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunbaum, Rolf; Wahlberg, Conny; Sannino, Ambra

    2010-09-15

    The paper shows how the use of FACTS increases flexibility in power transmission and distribution, improving capacity of transmission corridors to integrate renewable power production. Examples included are 69 kV directly connected SVCs for grid stabilization in conjunction with a high degree of wind power penetration; series compensation to evacuate power from the largest wind power installation in USA; SVC to increase the reliability and reduce congestion over a heavily loaded power corridor; thyristor controlled series compensation to increase the dynamic stability and power transmission capability of a power inter-connector. Finally, some applications of Dynamic energy storage are highlighted.

  18. Switching Overvoltages in 60 kV reactor compensated cable grid due to resonance after disconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Baldursson, Haukur; Oumarou, Abdoul M.

    2008-01-01

    power could be directly connected to long cables. Switching both cable and reactor together will cause resonance to occur between the cable capacitance and the inductance of the cable during last end disconnection. Similar type of resonance condition is known to have caused switching overvoltages...... on the 400kV grid in Denmark. Therefore it is considered necessary to analyze further whether connecting a reactor directly to 60kV cable can cause switching overvoltages. A model in PSCAD was used to analyze which parameters can cause overvoltage. The switching resonance overvoltage was found to be caused...

  19. Performance of a 100-kV, 78-kJ electric-gun system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.; Dittbenner, G.; Mikkelsen, K.; Weingart, R.; Froeschner, K.; Lee, R.

    1981-01-01

    A new electric gun system was constructed for use in high-pressure EOS studies. The system is powered by a 100 kV, 15.6 μF capacitor bank. At 100 kV charging voltage the system inductance is 23 nH. This system has driven 0.3 mm-thick Kapton projectiles to > 20 km/s and 0.3 mm Kapton/30 μm Ta projectiles to approx. 10 km/s. Projectile velocity is modeled phenomenlogically by an electrical Gurney model

  20. Short-Circuit Degradation of 10-kV 10-A SiC MOSFET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit behavior of power devices is highly relevant for converter design and fault protection. In this work, the degradation during short-circuit of a 10 kV 10 A 4H-SiC MOSFET is investigated at 6 kV DC-link voltage. The study aims to present the behavior of the device during short-circuit...... transients as it sustains increasing short-circuit pulses during its life-time. As the short-circuit pulse length increases, degradation of the device can be observed in periodically performed characterizations. The initial degradation seems to be associated with the channel region, and continuous stressing...

  1. Trafficking and intracellular regulation of Kv7.1 potassium channels in the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nathalie Hélix

    identified. About 100 of these mutations are located in the N- or the C-terminal parts of the channel. The aim of the present work was to gain a better understanding of the Kv7.1 channel protein function. In the first study we identified a Kv7.1 missense mutation in a German family with Long QT Syndrome......The electrical activity of the heart, measured by application of surface body electrodes and recorded as an electrocardiogram, is the result of a finely tuned balance of ion movement (K+, Na+, Ca2+). The ionic currents collectively constitute the cardiac action potential created in the cell...

  2. Technical and economic feasibility of superconducting power transmission: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.B.; Mulligan, G.A.; Beck, J.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The long-range plans of the Long Island Lighting Company include the installation of 4600 MW of generation capacity at nuclear sites on eastern Long Island by the 1990's. A single site, Shoreham, was chosen for this study which would require transmission facilities to the Ruland Road substation, 43 miles away. Conventional 345 kV overhead and underground circuits are planned for this service. For the case study three superconducting cable schemes have been investigated which reflect various technical options. The superconducting cables have been designed to meet acceptable normal and contingency load flow conditions and to withstand maximum short circuit faults. A cost analysis has been made of the complete installation, providing a valuable comparison of the estimated cost of this new technology with conventional methods. The most favorable cost comparison is a two-circuit 345 kV superconducting system, which appears to be about one-half the cost of an all underground 345 kV high pressure oil-filled cable system. No reactive compensation will be required for the superconducting system, whereas extensive compensation is required for HPOF cables over the same distance. The cost estimate for the two-circuit superconducting system is about twice that of 345 kV overhead transmission, which would consist of two double circuits and one single circuit, assuming right-of-way could be obtained. (U.S.)

  3. Evaluation of the probability of arrester failure in a high-voltage transmission line using a Q learning artificial neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekonomou, L; Karampelas, P; Vita, V; Chatzarakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    One of the most popular methods of protecting high voltage transmission lines against lightning strikes and internal overvoltages is the use of arresters. The installation of arresters in high voltage transmission lines can prevent or even reduce the lines' failure rate. Several studies based on simulation tools have been presented in order to estimate the critical currents that exceed the arresters' rated energy stress and to specify the arresters' installation interval. In this work artificial intelligence, and more specifically a Q-learning artificial neural network (ANN) model, is addressed for evaluating the arresters' failure probability. The aims of the paper are to describe in detail the developed Q-learning ANN model and to compare the results obtained by its application in operating 150 kV Greek transmission lines with those produced using a simulation tool. The satisfactory and accurate results of the proposed ANN model can make it a valuable tool for designers of electrical power systems seeking more effective lightning protection, reducing operational costs and better continuity of service

  4. Evaluation of the probability of arrester failure in a high-voltage transmission line using a Q learning artificial neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekonomou, L.; Karampelas, P.; Vita, V.; Chatzarakis, G. E.

    2011-04-01

    One of the most popular methods of protecting high voltage transmission lines against lightning strikes and internal overvoltages is the use of arresters. The installation of arresters in high voltage transmission lines can prevent or even reduce the lines' failure rate. Several studies based on simulation tools have been presented in order to estimate the critical currents that exceed the arresters' rated energy stress and to specify the arresters' installation interval. In this work artificial intelligence, and more specifically a Q-learning artificial neural network (ANN) model, is addressed for evaluating the arresters' failure probability. The aims of the paper are to describe in detail the developed Q-learning ANN model and to compare the results obtained by its application in operating 150 kV Greek transmission lines with those produced using a simulation tool. The satisfactory and accurate results of the proposed ANN model can make it a valuable tool for designers of electrical power systems seeking more effective lightning protection, reducing operational costs and better continuity of service.

  5. A truncated Kv1.1 protein in the brain of the megencephaly mouse: expression and interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Århem Peter

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The megencephaly mouse, mceph/mceph, is epileptic and displays a dramatically increased brain volume and neuronal count. The responsible mutation was recently revealed to be an eleven base pair deletion, leading to a frame shift, in the gene encoding the potassium channel Kv1.1. The predicted MCEPH protein is truncated at amino acid 230 out of 495. Truncated proteins are usually not expressed since nonsense mRNAs are most often degraded. However, high Kv1.1 mRNA levels in mceph/mceph brain indicated that it escaped this control mechanism. Therefore, we hypothesized that the truncated Kv1.1 would be expressed and dysregulate other Kv1 subunits in the mceph/mceph mice. Results We found that the MCEPH protein is expressed in the brain of mceph/mceph mice. MCEPH was found to lack mature (Golgi glycosylation, but to be core glycosylated and trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Interactions between MCEPH and other Kv1 subunits were studied in cell culture, Xenopus oocytes and the brain. MCEPH can form tetramers with Kv1.1 in cell culture and has a dominant negative effect on Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 currents in oocytes. However, it does not retain Kv1.2 in the ER of neurons. Conclusion The megencephaly mice express a truncated Kv1.1 in the brain, and constitute a unique tool to study Kv1.1 trafficking relevant for understanding epilepsy, ataxia and pathologic brain overgrowth.

  6. Generation of low KV x-ray portal images with mega-voltage electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, J.; Ebert, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The increasing complexity of radiation therapy plans and reduced target margins, have made accurate localization of patients at treatment a crucial quality assurance issue. Mega-voltage portal images, the standard for treatment localization, are inherently low in contrast because x-ray attenuation at these energies is similar for most body tissues. Thus anatomical features are difficult to distinguish and match to features on a reference diagnostic image. This project investigates the possibly of using x-rays created by an external target placed in the path of a clinical mega-voltage electron beam. This target is optimised to produce a higher proportion of useful imaging x-rays in the range of 50-200kV. It is thought that a high efficiency Varian aSi500 amorphous silicon EPID will be sufficient to compensate for the very low efficiency of x-ray production. The project was undertaken with concurrent theoretical and experimental components. The former involved Monte Carlo models of low Z target design while in the later, experimental data was gathered to validate the model and explore the practical issues associated with electron mode image acquisition. A 6 MeV electron beam model for a Varian Clinac 21EX was developed with EGS4/BEAMnrc User Code and compared to measured beam data. Phase space data scored at the secondary collimator then became the input for simulations of a target placed in the accessory tray. Target materials were predominately low atomic number (Z) because a) production of high energy x-rays is minimized and, b) fewer low energy x-rays produced will be absorbed within the target. Photon and electron energy spectrums of the modified beam were evaluated for a range of target geometries. Ultimately, several materials were used in combination to optimise an x-ray yield for energies <200kV while removing electrons and very low energy x-rays, that contribute to patient dose but not to image formation. Low energy images of a PIPs EPID QA

  7. Chronic electroconvulsive stimulation but not chronic restraint stress modulates mRNA expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels Kv7.2 and Kv11.1 in the rat piriform cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjæresen, Marie-Louise; Hageman, Ida; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which stress and electroconvulsive therapy exert opposite effects on the course of major depression are not known. Potential candidates might include the voltage-dependent potassium channels. Potassium channels play an important role in maintaining the resting membrane potential...... and controlling neuronal excitability. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the effects of one or several electroconvulsive stimulations and chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days) on the expression of voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv7.2, Kv11.1, and Kv11.3 mRNA in the rat brain using in situ...... hybridization. Repeated, but not acute, electroconvulsive stimulation increased Kv7.2 and Kv11.1 mRNA levels in the piriform cortex. In contrast, restraint stress had no significant effect on mRNA expression of Kv7.2, Kv11.1, or Kv11.3 in any of the brain regions examined. Thus, it appears that the investigated...

  8. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Concept design of the high voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-03-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations -- such as the Channel Tunnel -- demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  10. Concept design of the high-voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations-such as the Channel Tunnel-demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  11. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions

  12. The Transmission Line for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Marco; De Lorenzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Toigo, Vanni; Bonicelli, Tullio; Simon, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    The 100 keV Ion Source Test facility - Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma (SPIDER) - is aimed to test the full scale prototype of the Ion Source for the ITER 1 MeV Neutral Beam Injector (NBI). The SPIDER facility requires the construction of a High Voltage Deck (HVD) and of a High Voltage Transmission Line (TL) respectively to host the Ion Source Power Supplies system polarized at 100 kV and to carry the power and signal conductors to the beam accelerator. In already existing NBI systems with beam energy above 100 keV, the TL is realized with the SF 6 Gas Insulated Line technology. In the SPIDER TL case, the presence of a large inner conductor (half meter diameter), would make the pressurized TL a complex and costly component; therefore a free air insulated solution has been proposed. The paper focuses on the design of this TL, which has to host inside the complex high potential (100 kV) inner electrode a number of power and measuring conductors and has to minimize the Electro Magnetic Interferences (EMI) produced by the frequent grids breakdowns. Finite Element (FE) analyses have been performed to verify the configuration from the electrostatic point of view, to evaluate EMI screening effectiveness and to assess the impact of the relatively high thermal dissipation of power conductors located inside the high potential electrode. Moreover, an experimental test campaign has been carried out on a TL mockup to validate the TL electrostatic configuration under DC voltage. Finally, the paper reports on the status of procurement activities for the Transmission Line.

  13. 76 FR 19744 - Final Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... area currently designated as Primitive Zone in the Monument Management Plan, and (b) changing the... information--may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your protest to withhold your...

  14. 75 FR 32357 - Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... prior to the close of the comment period and should clearly articulate the reviewer's concerns and... during the scoping of the proposed action and the comment period. The decision maker will take into... near Cascade Creek homes/Lava Lake Trailhead area, Greek Creek homes and the Deer Creek Trailhead areas...

  15. 75 FR 3486 - Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement, Delaware Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... violations, starting in 2012 and beyond, that the proposed project is designed to alleviate. The Federal... Comment (PEPC) website at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/dewa/ . Dates and Meeting Notices: The public... public an opportunity to review the proposal and project information. All public meetings will be...

  16. The acrylamide (S)-2 as a positive and negative modulator of Kv7 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Sigrid Marie; Schmitt, Nicole; Jensen, Henrik Sindal

    2009-01-01

    Kv7.2-5, is now in clinical trial phase III for the treatment of partial onset seizures. One of the main obstacles in developing Kv7 channel active drugs has been to identify compounds that can discriminate between the neuronal subtypes, a feature that could help diminish side effects and increase...

  17. The schizophrenia-associated Kv11.1-3.1 isoform results in reduced current accumulation during repetitive brief depolarizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Heide

    Full Text Available Recent genome wide association studies identified a brain and primate specific isoform of a voltage-gated potassium channel, referred to as Kv11.1-3.1, which is significantly associated with schizophrenia. The 3.1 isoform replaces the first 102 amino acids of the most abundant isoform (referred to as Kv11.1-1A with six unique amino acids. Here we show that the Kv11.1-3.1 isoform has faster rates of channel deactivation but a slowing of the rates of inactivation compared to the Kv11.1-1A isoform. The Kv11.1-3.1 isoform also has a significant depolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation. The consequence of the altered gating kinetics is that there is lower current accumulation for Kv11.1-3.1 expressing cells during repetitive action potential firing compared to Kv11.1-1A expressing cells, which in turn will result in longer lasting trains of action potentials. Increased expression of Kv11.1-3.1 channels in the brain of schizophrenia patients might therefore contribute to disorganized neuronal firing.

  18. Physiological role of Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocyte cell investigated quantitatively by kinetic modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Hou

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 channel is a delayed rectifier channel abundant in human T lymphocytes. Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders lead to the over-expression of Kv1.3 in T cells. To quantitatively study the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of Kv1.3 in T cells, it is necessary to have a precise kinetic model of Kv1.3. In this study, we firstly established a kinetic model capable to precisely replicate all the kinetic features for Kv1.3 channels, and then constructed a T-cell model composed of ion channels including Ca2+-release activated calcium (CRAC channel, intermediate K+ (IK channel, TASK channel and Kv1.3 channel for quantitatively simulating the changes in membrane potentials and local Ca2+ signaling messengers during activation of T cells. Based on the experimental data from current-clamp recordings, we successfully demonstrated that Kv1.3 dominated the membrane potential of T cells to manipulate the Ca2+ influx via CRAC channel. Our results revealed that the deficient expression of Kv1.3 channel would cause the less Ca2+ signal, leading to the less efficiency in secretion. This was the first successful attempt to simulate membrane potential in non-excitable cells, which laid a solid basis for quantitatively studying the regulatory mechanism and physiological role of channels in non-excitable cells.

  19. Parameter design and performance simulation of a 10 kV voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y.J.; Song, M.; Shi, J.; Ren, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •For a practical 10 kV system, the 10 kV active SFCL’s basic parameters are designed. •Under different fault conditions, the 10 kV active SFCL’s performances are simulated. •The designed 10 kV active SFCL’s engineering feasibility is discussed preliminarily. -- Abstract: Since the introduction of superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) into electrical distribution system may be a good choice with economy and practicability, the parameter design and current-limiting characteristics of a 10 kV voltage compensation type active SFCL are studied in this paper. Firstly, the SFCL’s circuit structure and operation principle are presented. Then, taking a practical 10 kV distribution system as its application object, the SFCL’s basic parameters are designed to meet the system requirements. Further, using MATLAB, the detailed current-limiting performances of the 10 kV active SFCL are simulated under different fault conditions. The simulation results show that the active SFCL can deal well with the faults, and the parameter design’s suitability can be testified. At the end, in view of the engineering feasibility of the 10 kV active SFCL, some preliminary discussions are carried out

  20. Silencing of Kv4.1 potassium channels inhibits cell proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Choi, Changsun; Hong, Seong-Geun; Yarishkin, Oleg V.; Bae, Young Min; Kim, Jae Gon; O'Grady, Scott M.; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channel activity has been shown to facilitate cell proliferation in cancer cells. In the present study, the role of Kv4.1 channels in immortal and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells was investigated. Kv4.1 protein expression was positively correlated with tumorigenicity. Moreover, transfection with siRNAs targeting Kv4.1 mRNA suppressed proliferation of tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Experiments using mRNA isolated from human breast cancer tissues revealed that the level of Kv4.1 mRNA expression varied depending on the stage of the tumor. Kv4.1 protein expression increased during stages T2 and T3 compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrated that Kv4.1 plays a role in proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, elevated Kv4.1 expression may be useful as a diagnostic marker for staging mammary tumors and selective blockers of Kv4.1 may serve to suppress tumor cell proliferation.

  1. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  2. Gear shift strategies for automotive transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    The development history of automotive engineering has shown the essential role of transmissions in road vehicles primarily powered by internal combustion engines. The engine with its physical constraints on the torque and speed requires a transmission to have its power converted to the drive power

  3. Kv2 Ion Channels Determine the Expression and Localization of the Associated AMIGO-1 Cell Adhesion Molecule in Adult Brain Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah I. Bishop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated K+ (Kv channels play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability. Kv channels comprise four principal α subunits, and transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic auxiliary subunits that modify diverse aspects of channel function. AMIGO-1, which mediates homophilic cell adhesion underlying neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during development, has recently been shown to be an auxiliary subunit of adult brain Kv2.1-containing Kv channels. We show that AMIGO-1 is extensively colocalized with both Kv2.1 and its paralog Kv2.2 in brain neurons across diverse mammals, and that in adult brain, there is no apparent population of AMIGO-1 outside of that colocalized with these Kv2 α subunits. AMIGO-1 is coclustered with Kv2 α subunits at specific plasma membrane (PM sites associated with hypolemmal subsurface cisternae at neuronal ER:PM junctions. This distinct PM clustering of AMIGO-1 is not observed in brain neurons of mice lacking Kv2 α subunit expression. Moreover, in heterologous cells, coexpression of either Kv2.1 or Kv2.2 is sufficient to drive clustering of the otherwise uniformly expressed AMIGO-1. Kv2 α subunit coexpression also increases biosynthetic intracellular trafficking and PM expression of AMIGO-1 in heterologous cells, and analyses of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 knockout mice show selective loss of AMIGO-1 expression and localization in neurons lacking the respective Kv2 α subunit. Together, these data suggest that in mammalian brain neurons, AMIGO-1 is exclusively associated with Kv2 α subunits, and that Kv2 α subunits are obligatory in determining the correct pattern of AMIGO-1 expression, PM trafficking and clustering.

  4. miR-1 is increased in pulmonary hypertension and downregulates Kv1.5 channels in rat pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondejar-Parreño, Gema; Callejo, María; Barreira, Bianca; Morales-Cano, Daniel; Esquivel-Ruiz, Sergio; Moreno, Laura; Cogolludo, Angel; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2018-05-02

    ■The expression of miR-1 is increased in lungs from the Hyp/Su5416 PAH rat model. ■PASMC from this animal model are more depolarised and show decreased expression and activity of Kv1.5. ■miR-1 directly targets Kv1.5 channels, reduces Kv1.5 activity and induces membrane depolarization. ■Antagomir-1 prevents Kv1.5 channel downregulation and the depolarization induced by hypoxia/Su5416 exposition. Impairment of voltage-dependent potassium channel (Kv) plays a central role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-UTR region of specific mRNAs. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of miR-1 on Kv channel function in pulmonary arteries (PA). Kv channel activity was studied in PA from healthy animals transfected with miR-1 or scrambled-miR. Kv currents were studied using the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp technique. The characterization of the Kv1.5 currents was performed with the selective inhibitor DPO-1. miR-1 expression was increased and Kv1.5 channels were decreased in lungs from a rat model of PAH induced by hypoxia and Su5416. miR-1 transfection increased cell capacitance, reduced Kv1.5 currents and induced membrane depolarization in isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Luciferase reporter assay indicated that KCNA5, which encodes Kv1.5 channels, is a direct target gene of miR-1. Incubation of PA with Su5416 and hypoxia (3% O 2 ) increased miR-1 and induced a decline in Kv1.5 currents, which was prevented by antagomiR-1. In conclusion, these data indicate that miR-1 induces PASMC hypertrophy and reduces the activity and expression of Kv channels, suggesting a pathophysiological role in PAH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Expression and Pharmacological Evidence for a Functional Role of Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Guinea Pig Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are emerging as essential regulators of smooth muscle excitability and contractility. However, their physiological role in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the molecular expression and function of Kv7 channel subtypes in guinea pig DSM by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and isometric tension recordings. In whole DSM tissue, mRNAs for all Kv7 channel subtypes were detected in a rank order: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.3~Kv7.5Kv7.4. In contrast, freshly-isolated DSM cells showed mRNA expression of: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.5Kv7.3~Kv7.4. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy analyses of DSM, conducted by using co-labeling of Kv7 channel subtype-specific antibodies and α-smooth muscle actin, detected protein expression for all Kv7 channel subtypes, except for the Kv7.4, in DSM cells. L-364373 (R-L3), a Kv7.1 channel activator, and retigabine, a Kv7.2-7.5 channel activator, inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions and the 10-Hz electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of DSM isolated strips. Linopiridine and XE991, two pan-Kv7 (effective at Kv7.1-Kv7.5 subtypes) channel inhibitors, had opposite effects increasing DSM spontaneous phasic and 10 Hz EFS-induced contractions. EFS-induced DSM contractions generated by a wide range of stimulation frequencies were decreased by L-364373 (10 µM) or retigabine (10 µM), and increased by XE991 (10 µM). Retigabine (10 µM) induced hyperpolarization and inhibited spontaneous action potentials in freshly-isolated DSM cells. In summary, Kv7 channel subtypes are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in guinea pig DSM cells. Their pharmacological modulation can control DSM contractility and excitability; therefore, Kv7 channel subtypes provide potential novel therapeutic targets for urinary bladder dysfunction. PMID:24073284

  6. A charge-pump 60kV modulator for the ISOLDE target extraction voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Fowler, A; Gaudillet, H; Gharsa, T; Schipper, J

    2015-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN provides radioactive ion beams to a number of experimental stations. These ions are produced by a metal target, floating at 60 kV, which is impacted by a 1.4 GeV high intensity proton beam. The ions are then accelerated by a grounded extraction electrode to 60 keV, before transport to the experimental area. During proton beam impact extremely high ionisation of the volume around the target gives rise to significant leakage current which results in loss of charge on the effective target capacitance of approximately 6 nF. If short life-time isotopes are to be studied, the 60 kV must be re-established within a maximum of 10 ms. Recharging the target capacitance to 60 kV and to the required stability of better than 10-4 precludes a direct charging system and an alternative method of re-establishing the 60 kV is used. The present system [1], in operation since 1991, employs a resonant circuit which is triggered 35 µs prior to beam impact. This circuit transfers the charge on the effec...

  7. Workers exposure to electric fields in 400 kV substations and overhead line works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elovaara, J.; Kuisti, H.; Korpinen, L.

    2010-01-01

    The maximum exposing electric field strength magnitude in the highly inhomogeneous 400 kV electric field under work conditions can reach the value of several tens of kV/m. In spite of this the average current density is, in Finland, always lower than 10 mA/m 2 . Furthermore, the total body currents or contact currents are in 400 kV works clearly less than the limit value proposed by the EU's draft for Directive. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that from the limit value point of view it is not necessary to take further actions to reduce the exposure of the workers when they are working in 400 kV substations and on 400 kV overhead lines. However, because the transient peak values of the contact current can be painful and disturb work, it is advisable to develop a safe and reliable method to connect the worker and the work object in the common ground (equipotential bonding). (authors)

  8. Modellering og måling af metan-emission fra kvæg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, I; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Nielsen, N I

    2011-01-01

    Udvikling af og kendskab til de metoder, der bruges til måling af kvægs metan-emission udgør en vigtig del af forskningen indenfor området. I dette indlæg præsenteres de mest anvendte metoder til måling og estimation af kvægs metan-emission, herunder modeller, in vitro inkubation, kammer-metoder,......-metoder, SF6-metoden og CO2-metoden. De enkelte metoder beskrives og fordele, ulemper og anvendelsesområder sammenlignes. Dette er vigtig baggrundsinformation for forståelse og fortolkning af øvrige forskningsresultater og for at kunne planlægge fremtidige projekter.......Udvikling af og kendskab til de metoder, der bruges til måling af kvægs metan-emission udgør en vigtig del af forskningen indenfor området. I dette indlæg præsenteres de mest anvendte metoder til måling og estimation af kvægs metan-emission, herunder modeller, in vitro inkubation, kammer...

  9. A capacitive level shifter for high voltage (2.5kV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    with focus on low power consumption as well as low capacitive load between the floating half-bridge node and ground (output capacitance). The operation of the level-shifter is tested and verified by measurements on a prototype half-bridge gate driver. Results conclude stabile operation at 2.44kV, 50k...

  10. Differential expression of KvLQT1 and its regulator IsK in mouse epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demolombe, S.; Franco, D.; de Boer, P.; Kuperschmidt, S.; Roden, D.; Pereon, Y.; Jarry, A.; Moorman, A. F.; Escande, D.

    2001-01-01

    KCNQ1 is the human gene responsible in most cases for the long QT syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by anomalies in cardiac repolarization leading to arrhythmias and sudden death. KCNQ1 encodes a pore-forming K+ channel subunit termed KvLQT1 which, in association with its regulatory

  11. A neutral grounding metallic resistor failure in a 35 kV network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ninoslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observations and measurements of the impedance of the metal resistor for grounding neutral of the 35 kV network, before and after damaging event. The proposed measures are to be taken in order to eliminate a failure in this particular case, as well as the prevention of similar events.

  12. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  13. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  14. Udbredelse af den baktielle zoonose i danske kvægbesætninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Tankmælksprøver fra 742 mælkeleverende kvægejendomme blev analyseret for antistoffer mod Coxiella burnetii i en ELISA. 57% af ejendommene havde positive prøver i den serologiske test. Prøverne var diagnostiske indsendelser til DTU Veterinærinstituttet og udgjorde derfor ikke en repræsentativ...

  15. Independent and cooperative motions of the Kv1.2 channel: voltage sensing and gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheskel, Adva; Haliloglu, Turkan; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2010-05-19

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, such as Kv1.2, are involved in the generation and propagation of action potentials. The Kv channel is a homotetramer, and each monomer is composed of a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and a pore domain (PD). We analyzed the fluctuations of a model structure of Kv1.2 using elastic network models. The analysis suggested a network of coupled fluctuations of eight rigid structural units and seven hinges that may control the transition between the active and inactive states of the channel. For the most part, the network is composed of amino acids that are known to affect channel activity. The results suggested allosteric interactions and cooperativity between the subunits in the coupling between the motion of the VSD and the selectivity filter of the PD, in accordance with recent empirical data. There are no direct contacts between the VSDs of the four subunits, and the contacts between these and the PDs are loose, suggesting that the VSDs are capable of functioning independently. Indeed, they manifest many inherent fluctuations that are decoupled from the rest of the structure. In general, the analysis suggests that the two domains contribute to the channel function both individually and cooperatively. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modification of 300kV RF Ion Source for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    The specifications of the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator are shown as below. High voltage power supply is electron transformer rectifier (ELV) type which was developed in Nuclear Physics Institute (Novosibirsk) for industrial electron accelerators. And accelerator column consists of alumina and metal electrode rings were 0.5m-long brazed structure which can be installed horizontally. In case of ion source for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator, it is chosen a thonemann type rf ion source and 300-kV test-stand was made up to confirm the stable operating conditions. High voltage power supply is fabricated by domestic company, and its operation has been confirming at KOMAC site. Equally, the ion source of 300-kV test-stand should be modified to install into the high voltage power supply. In this paper, modification of ion source of 300-kV test-stand for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator is presented and its processes are considered. 300-kV RF ion source and power supply are testing for the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator and trying for combination between them. The 1-MV electrostatic accelerator will be fabricated with domestic companies and tested in the beam application research building at KOMAC

  17. Modification of 300kV RF Ion Source for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specifications of the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator are shown as below. High voltage power supply is electron transformer rectifier (ELV) type which was developed in Nuclear Physics Institute (Novosibirsk) for industrial electron accelerators. And accelerator column consists of alumina and metal electrode rings were 0.5m-long brazed structure which can be installed horizontally. In case of ion source for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator, it is chosen a thonemann type rf ion source and 300-kV test-stand was made up to confirm the stable operating conditions. High voltage power supply is fabricated by domestic company, and its operation has been confirming at KOMAC site. Equally, the ion source of 300-kV test-stand should be modified to install into the high voltage power supply. In this paper, modification of ion source of 300-kV test-stand for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator is presented and its processes are considered. 300-kV RF ion source and power supply are testing for the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator and trying for combination between them. The 1-MV electrostatic accelerator will be fabricated with domestic companies and tested in the beam application research building at KOMAC.

  18. Beam Extraction for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at the 300 kV Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. A beam extraction experiment for the test stand was performed, and the beam current was measured using a faraday cup in the chamber. A beam extraction results for the RF ion source will be presented. Beam extraction from the RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. Thus far NI Labview, PLC and faraday cup have been used to measure the beam current. The OPC server is useful for monitoring the PLC values. The average beam current of (a), (b) and (c) shown in figure 2 are 110.241µA, 105.8597µA and 103.5278µA respectively.

  19. The 150 kV cp microfocus X-ray unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of microfocus X-ray technique is defined. Advantages on other methods, principle of operation and the material comprising an intense electron source imaged on an X-ray target by means of a double magnetic lense system, are described. Resolution value at 150 kV is the imaging of a 0.1 mm

  20. A fast 30 kV 5 kHz repetition rate resonant capacitor charger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Huiskamp, T.; van Heesch, E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel circuit topology of a fast 30 kV resonant capacitor charger is presented in this paper. The charger is designed for high repetition rate spark gap based pulsed power modulators. A spark gap can fire spontaneously (pre-firing) during charging of a capacitor bank due to poor dielectric

  1. Characterisation of 10 kV 10 A SiC MOSFET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize and evaluate the static and dynamic performances of 10 kV 10 A 4H-SIC MOSFETs at high temperatures. The results show good electrical performances of the SiC MOSFETs for high temperature operations. The double-pulse test results showed interesting...

  2. 10kV SiC MOSFET split output power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Li, Helong; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The poor body diode performance of the first generation of 10kV SiC MOSFETs and the parasitic turn-on phenomenon limit the performance of SiC based converters. Both these problems can potentially be mitigated using a split output topology. In this paper we present a comparison between a classical...

  3. harmonic load modeling: a case study of 33 kv abuja steel mill feeder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    An in-depth study of the harmonic orders inherent in a power system network is required ... This paper studied the harmonic orders of the 33 kV Abuja Steel Feeder .... models for various industrial and household electrical ..... Malaysia, 2013.

  4. Reliability assessment of Port Harcourt 33/11kv Distribution System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This makes reliability studies an important task besides all the other analyses required for assessing the system performance. The paper presents an analytical approach in the reliability assessment of the Port Harcourt 33/11kV power distribution system. The assessment was performed with the 2009 power outage data ...

  5. K významnému jubileu Květy Sgallové

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrahim, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), s. 608-616 ISSN 0009-0468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : Sgallová, Květa * Czech literature * 19th century Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  6. Pivoting between calmodulin lobes triggered by calcium in the Kv7.2/calmodulin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Alessandro; Alberdi, Araitz; Gomis-Perez, Carolina; Fernández-Orth, Juncal; Bernardo-Seisdedos, Ganeko; Malo, Covadonga; Millet, Oscar; Areso, Pilar; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage gated M-channel, which strongly influences neuronal excitability. Calmodulin (CaM) binds to two intracellular C-terminal segments of Kv7.2 channels, helices A and B, and it is required for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CaM controls channel trafficking are currently unknown. Here we used two complementary approaches to explore the molecular events underlying the association between CaM and Kv7.2 and their regulation by Ca(2+). First, we performed a fluorometric assay using dansylated calmodulin (D-CaM) to characterize the interaction of its individual lobes to the Kv7.2 CaM binding site (Q2AB). Second, we explored the association of Q2AB with CaM by NMR spectroscopy, using (15)N-labeled CaM as a reporter. The combined data highlight the interdependency of the N- and C-lobes of CaM in the interaction with Q2AB, suggesting that when CaM binds Ca(2+) the binding interface pivots between the N-lobe whose interactions are dominated by helix B and the C-lobe where the predominant interaction is with helix A. In addition, Ca(2+) makes CaM binding to Q2AB more difficult and, reciprocally, the channel weakens the association of CaM with Ca(2+).

  7. Pivoting between calmodulin lobes triggered by calcium in the Kv7.2/calmodulin complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alaimo

    Full Text Available Kv7.2 (KCNQ2 is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage gated M-channel, which strongly influences neuronal excitability. Calmodulin (CaM binds to two intracellular C-terminal segments of Kv7.2 channels, helices A and B, and it is required for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CaM controls channel trafficking are currently unknown. Here we used two complementary approaches to explore the molecular events underlying the association between CaM and Kv7.2 and their regulation by Ca(2+. First, we performed a fluorometric assay using dansylated calmodulin (D-CaM to characterize the interaction of its individual lobes to the Kv7.2 CaM binding site (Q2AB. Second, we explored the association of Q2AB with CaM by NMR spectroscopy, using (15N-labeled CaM as a reporter. The combined data highlight the interdependency of the N- and C-lobes of CaM in the interaction with Q2AB, suggesting that when CaM binds Ca(2+ the binding interface pivots between the N-lobe whose interactions are dominated by helix B and the C-lobe where the predominant interaction is with helix A. In addition, Ca(2+ makes CaM binding to Q2AB more difficult and, reciprocally, the channel weakens the association of CaM with Ca(2+.

  8. Electronics system for the 150 kV negative ion test stand at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The 150 kV test stand at BNL is being used to investigate the extraction, acceleration and transport problems associated with the development of intense negative ion beams. The power supplies associated with these functions as well as the control and monitoring electronics are described

  9. Structural basis for KV7.1/KCNEx interactions in the IKs channel complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Tseng, Gea-Ny; Schmitt, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The cardiac I(Ks) current is involved in action potential repolarization, where its primary function is to limit action potential prolongation during sympathetic stimulation. The I(Ks) channel is mainly composed of K(V)7.1 ion channels associated with KCNE1 auxiliary subunits. The availability of...

  10. Using ice melting and ice rolling technologies to remove ice from sub-transmission and transmission lines at Manitoba Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Development of an of an Ice Storm Management program by Manitoba Hydro to reduce ice storm damage to its 8 kV feeders to 115 kV transmission lines, is discussed. The program consists of the de-icing of overhead lines, either by ice melting, or ice rolling. Ice melting involves the placement of a three-phase short at a calculated point. The term ice rolling denotes a process of mechanically stripping the ice from conductors. The most recent major ice storm experienced by Manitoba Hydro was in the winter of 1997/1998. During the period from February 6 to February 17, 1998, a total of 83 'ice melt' procedures were performed to melt the ice from 2,628 km of overhead line (7,883 km of conductor), in addition to 'ice rolling'. This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's 25-years' experience with ice melting and it also describes the advantages and disadvantages of both ice melting and ice rolling. Although not a panacea to combat the effects of ice storms, ice melting was found to be the most effective way of removing ice from overhead transmission and sub-transmission lines. Ice rolling was also found to be effective. Other tools that have been found to be useful by various utilities in combating ice storm damage include improved structure and line design, system design that provide more redundancies and emergency sources, and standby generators at critical load points

  11. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  12. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  13. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC DISPATCH AND OPTIMAL POWER FLOW METHODS FOR 22-BUS 380-kV POWER SYSTEM IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURBAN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the economic dispatch and optimal power flow (OPF methods for the purpose of supplying the load demand with minimum cost is used for 22-bus 380-kV power system in Turkey which consists of 8 thermal plants operated by EUAS (Electricity Generation Co. Inc.and the results found are analyzed comparatively. The results of analysis are given in tables and figures. The analysis made is implemented by the software using MATLAB®. Furthermore, the software can be used for different power systems by using the graphical user interface (GUI. All data used in this study is taken from TEIAS (Transmission System Operator of Turkey and EUAS.

  14. Pharmacological Targeting Of Neuronal Kv7.2/3 Channels: A Focus On Chemotypes And Receptor Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Francesco; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Ambrosino, Paolo; Manocchio, Laura; Medoro, Alessandro; Mosca, Ilaria; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2017-10-12

    The Kv7 (KCNQ) subfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels consists of 5 members (Kv7.1-5) each showing a characteristic tissue distribution and physiological roles. Given their functional heterogeneity, Kv7 channels represent important pharmacological targets for development of new drugs for neuronal, cardiac and metabolic diseases. In the present manuscript, we focus on describing the pharmacological relevance and the potential therapeutic applications of drugs acting on neuronally-expressed Kv7.2/3 channels, placing particular emphasis on the different modulator chemotypes, and highlighting their pharmacodynamic and, whenever possible, pharmacokinetic peculiarities. The present work is based on an in-depth search of the currently available scientific literature, and on our own experience and knowledge in the field of neuronal Kv7 channel pharmacology. Space limitations impeded to describe the full pharmacological potential of Kv7 channels; thus, we have chosen to focus on neuronal channels composed of Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits, and to mainly concentrate on their involvement in epilepsy. An astonishing heterogeneity in the molecular scaffolds exploitable to develop Kv7.2/3 modulators is evident, with important structural/functional peculiarities of distinct compound classes. In the present work we have attempted to show the current status and growing potential of the Kv7 pharmacology field. We anticipate a bright future for the field, and we express our hopes that the efforts herein reviewed will result in an improved treatment of hyperexcitability (or any other) diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Radiation dose reduction sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction and automatic tube voltage modulation(CARE kV) in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Joo; Chung, Yong Eun; Lee, Young Han; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and automated kV modulation (CARE kV) in reducing radiation dose without increasing image noise for abdominal CT examination. This retrospective study included 77 patients who received CT imaging with an application of CARE kV with or without SAFIRE and who had comparable previous CT images obtained without CARE kV or SAFIRE, using the standard dose (i.e., reference mAs of 240) on an identical CT scanner and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) within 1 year. Patients were divided into two groups: group A (33 patients, CT scanned with CARE kV); and group B (44 patients, scanned after reducing the reference mAs from 240 to 170 and applying both CARE kV and SAFIRE). CT number, image noise for four organs and radiation dose were compared among the two groups. Image noise increased after CARE kV application (p < 0.001) and significantly decreased as SAFIRE strength increased (p < 0.001). Image noise with reduced-mAs scan (170 mAs) in group B became similar to that of standard-dose FBP images after applying CARE kV and SAFIRE strengths of 3 or 4 when measured in the aorta, liver or muscle (p ≥ 0.108). Effective doses decreased by 19.4% and 41.3% for groups A and B, respectively (all, p < 0.001) after application of CARE kV with or without SAFIRE. Combining CARE kV, reduction of mAs from 240 to 170 mAs and noise reduction by applying SAFIRE strength 3 or 4 reduced the radiation dose by 41.3% without increasing image noise compared with the standard-dose FBP images.

  16. Recent progress of the improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jian-De; Liu, Jin-Liang; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Cheng-Wei; Luo, Ling

    2008-03-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube driven by a 550 kV, 57 kA, 50 ns electron beam. It has allowed us to generate 2.4 GW pulse of 22 ns duration. The recent progress of the improved MILO is presented in this paper. First, a field shaper cathode is introduced into the improved MILO to avoid the cathode flares in the triple point region. The experimental results show that the cathode flares are avoided, so the lifetime of the velvet cathode is longer than that of the taper cathode. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot reproducibility is better than that of the taper cathode. Second, In order to prolong the pulse duration and increase the radiated microwave power, a self-built 600 kV, 10 Omega, 80 ns pulser: SPARK-03 is employed to drive the improved MILO. Simulation and experimental investigation are performed. In simulation, when the improved MILO is driven by a 600 kV, 57 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with output power of 4.15 GW, frequency of 1.76 GHz, and relevant power conversion efficiency of 12.0%. In experiments, when the diode voltage is 550 kV and current is 54 kA, the measured results are that the radiated microwave power is above 3.1 GW, the pulse duration is above 40 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.755 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 10.4%.

  17. KV4.3 N-terminal deletion mutant Δ2–39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovind, Laura J; Skerritt, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Gating transitions in the KV4.3 N-terminal deletion mutant Δ2–39 were characterized in the absence and presence of KChIP2b. We particularly focused on gating characteristics of macroscopic (open state) versus closed state inactivation (CSI) and recovery. In the absence of KChIP2b Δ2–39 did not significantly alter the steady-state activation “a4” relationship or general CSI characteristics, but it did slow the kinetics of deactivation, macroscopic inactivation and macroscopic recovery. Recovery kinetics (for both WT KV4.3 and Δ2–39) were complicated and displayed sigmoidicity, a process which was enhanced by Δ2–39. Deletion of the proximal N-terminal domain therefore appeared to specifically slow mechanisms involved in regulating gating transitions occurring after the channel open state(s) had been reached. In the presence of KChIP2b Δ2–39 recovery kinetics (from both macroscopic and CSI) were accelerated, with an apparent reduction in initial sigmoidicity. Hyperpolarizing shifts in both “a4” and isochronal inactivation “i” were also produced. KChIP2b-mediated remodeling of KV4.3 gating transitions was therefore not obligatorily dependent upon an intact N-terminus. To account for these effects we propose that KChIP2 regulatory domains exist in KV4.3 α subunit regions outside of the proximal N-terminal. In addition to regulating macroscopic inactivation, we also propose that the KV4.3 N-terminus may act as a novel regulator of deactivation-recovery coupling. PMID:21057209

  18. Constitutional and somatic methylation status of DMRH19 and KvDMR in Wilms tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila C.A. Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent epigenetic alterations in Wilms tumor (WT occur at WT2, assigned to 11p15. WT2 consists of two domains: telomeric domain 1 (DMRH19 that contains the IGF2 gene and an imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19 and centromeric domain 2 (KvDMR that contains the genes KCNQ1, KCNQ1OT1 and CDKN1C. In this work, we used pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA to compare the methylation patterns of DMRH19/KvDMR in blood and tumor samples from 40 WT patients. Normal constitutional KvDMR methylation indicated that most of the epigenetic alterations in WT occur at DMRH19. Constitutional DMRH19 hypermethylation (HM DMRH19 was observed in two patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA showed HM DMRH19 in 28/34 tumor samples: 16/34 with isolated HM DMRH19 and 12/34 with concomitant HM DMRH19 and KvDMR hypomethylation, indicating paternal uniparental disomy. With the exception of one blood sample, the MS-MLPA and pyrosequencing findings were concordant. Diffuse or focal anaplasia was present in five tumor samples and was associated with isolated somatic HM DMRH19 in four of them. Constitutional 11p15 methylation abnormalities were present in 5% of the samples and somatic abnormalities in the majority of tumors. Combined analysis of DMRH19/KvDMR by pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA is beneficial for characterizing epigenetic anomalies in WT, and MS-MLPA is useful and reliable for estimation of DNA methylation in a clinical setting.

  19. Improvement of the 400 kV linac electron source of AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, F.B.; Beuzekom, M.G. van; Dobbe, N.J.; Es, J.T. van; Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Kruijer, A.H.; Luigjes, G.; Sluijk, T.G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The installation of the 900 MeV Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher is nearly completed and its commissioning will start Spring 1992. The existing linac MEA will inject electrons in the AmPS ring. The linacs peak current will be increased from 20 to 80 mA. This requires modification of the 400 kV low emittance gun which now will deliver a peak current of maximum 400 mA instead of 100 mA at a pulse width of 2.1 μsec. The fourfold increase of the peakcurrent is obtained by doubling both the gun perveance (new gun part) and the pulsed extractor voltage. After chopping and pre-bunching more than 80 mA will be available for acceleration in MEA. To obtain optimum beam quality over this increased current range the hot deck electronics, operating at -400 kV, has been exchanged by a state of the art fast high voltage FET switching supply. The increased space charge forces in the beam require stronger electro-static focusing in the first electrostatic gap to define the beam diameter at the gun exit. This is accomplished with a 25 kV controlled power supply. A build in microprocessor, coupled to the local computer by optical fibers, is used to monitor and control the gun parameters. The 5kV gun extractor voltage pulse shape can be monitored by means of an analog fibre transducer with build in calibration. Finally, in order to improve the energy stability of the accelerated electrons a serial electron-tube stabilizer was added to the 400 kV DC power supply. A supply stability of 2. 10 -5 has been achieved. (author). 4 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Touch and step potential analysis at 23.9kV to 4.16kV & 13.8kV to 4.16kV distribution substations with pad-mounted transformers, floating grounds, and other exposed ungrounded metal bodies using WinIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David G.

    An electrical substation is composed of various subsystems that allow for the effective and safe operation of the power grid. One of the subsystems integrating a conventional substation is defined as the ground grid system. This system allows for the effective operation of the power grid and all the electrical equipment connected to it by providing a ground potential reference, commonly known as the system ground. In addition, the ground grid system provides safety to the workers and the public transiting inside or living nearby a substation by reducing the step and touch potential (or voltage) levels present during a system fault. In today's utility industry practices there is an increasing trend for using pad-mounted electrical equipment for substation applications in an effort to construct new or upgrade existing electrical facilities inside limited property spaces. This thesis work presents an analysis for the effects of touch and step voltages at existing distribution substations where 23.9kV to 4.16kV & 13.8kV to 4.16kV pad-mounted transformers and other pad-mounted switchgear was installed to replace the traditional station class equipment. Moreover, this study will expose modeling techniques employed to define and determine the effects of floating grounds and other exposed metal bodies inside or surrounding these substations using WinIGS; this is in an effort to determine any risks of electric shock associated with this type of installations. The results presented in this work are intended to verify the requirements for the ground grid analysis and design for 4.16kV distribution substations with pad-mounted equipment in order to prevent dangerous step and touch voltage levels appearing at these sites during system faults; and ultimately prevent exposing individuals to the risk of an electric shock.

  1. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H(-) ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Pillar, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

    2014-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30-40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ∼55 mA of H(-) beam current (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H(-) yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented.

  2. Kv4 channels underlie the subthreshold-operating A-type K+-current in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawath R Na Phuket

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglion (DRG contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling.  Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K+ channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K+ current (IA has remained hypothetical.  Kv4 channels may underlie the IA in DRG neurons.  We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (whole-tissue and single-cell RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the IA in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7-8 day-old rats.  Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM IA.  Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this IA occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent.  Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs.  Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons (~30 mm exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker.  In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent.  Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2.  Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to IA in DRG neurons.  Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.

  3. Application of commercial MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the therapeutic x-ray range from 80 kV to 250 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehringfeld, Christian; Schmid, Susanne; Poljanc, Karin; Kirisits, Christian; Aiginger, Hannes; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, linearity, fading, reproducibility, etc) of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the kV x-ray range. The experience of MOSFET in vivo dosimetry in a pre-clinical study using the Alderson phantom and in clinical practice is also reported. All measurements were performed with a Gulmay D3300 kV unit and TN-502RDI MOSFET detectors. For the determination of correction factors different solid phantoms and a calibrated Farmer-type chamber were used. The MOSFET signal was linear with applied dose in the range from 0.2 to 2 Gy for all energies. Due to fading it is recommended to read the MOSFET signal during the first 15 min after irradiation. For long time intervals between irradiation and readout the fading can vary largely with the detector. The temperature dependence of the detector signal was small (0.3% deg. C -1 ) in the temperature range between 22 and 40 deg. C. The variation of the measuring signal with beam incidence amounts to ±5% and should be considered in clinical applications. Finally, for entrance dose measurements energy-dependent calibration factors, correction factors for field size and irradiated cable length were applied. The overall accuracy, for all measurements, was dominated by reproducibility as a function of applied dose. During the pre-clinical in vivo study, the agreement between MOSFET and TLD measurements was well within 3%. The results of MOSFET measurements, to determine the dosimetric characteristics as well as clinical applications, showed that MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry in the kV range. However, some energy-dependent dosimetry effects need to be considered and corrected for. Due to reproducibility effects at low dose levels accurate in vivo measurements are only possible if the applied dose is equal to or larger than 2 Gy

  4. Application of commercial MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the therapeutic x-ray range from 80 kV to 250 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehringfeld, Christian; Schmid, Susanne; Poljanc, Karin; Kirisits, Christian; Aiginger, Hannes; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, linearity, fading, reproducibility, etc) of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the kV x-ray range. The experience of MOSFET in vivo dosimetry in a pre-clinical study using the Alderson phantom and in clinical practice is also reported. All measurements were performed with a Gulmay D3300 kV unit and TN-502RDI MOSFET detectors. For the determination of correction factors different solid phantoms and a calibrated Farmer-type chamber were used. The MOSFET signal was linear with applied dose in the range from 0.2 to 2 Gy for all energies. Due to fading it is recommended to read the MOSFET signal during the first 15 min after irradiation. For long time intervals between irradiation and readout the fading can vary largely with the detector. The temperature dependence of the detector signal was small (0.3% degrees C(-1)) in the temperature range between 22 and 40 degrees C. The variation of the measuring signal with beam incidence amounts to +/-5% and should be considered in clinical applications. Finally, for entrance dose measurements energy-dependent calibration factors, correction factors for field size and irradiated cable length were applied. The overall accuracy, for all measurements, was dominated by reproducibility as a function of applied dose. During the pre-clinical in vivo study, the agreement between MOSFET and TLD measurements was well within 3%. The results of MOSFET measurements, to determine the dosimetric characteristics as well as clinical applications, showed that MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry in the kV range. However, some energy-dependent dosimetry effects need to be considered and corrected for. Due to reproducibility effects at low dose levels accurate in vivo measurements are only possible if the applied dose is equal to or larger than 2 Gy.

  5. A continuous acceleration tube of ions under 200 KV; Un tube d'acceleration continue d'ions sous 200 KV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongodin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    The realization of an Van de Graaff accelerator required, for the preliminary studies, the construction of a small proton accelerator, functioning at 200 kV in order to resolve some parasitic effects inherent to the accelerators tubes. The aim of this report is to describe the different organs of the accelerator tube, to explain the operating system and to encode their characteristics. The report first presents the ion source and the beam buncher permitting to inject in the accelerator tube particles of about 9 kV and very batched in a thin beam of circular section. Then the study explain the tube characteristics considered like optic system. A method to obtain precise calculation of particle trajectories is exposed. Aberrations of the system were discussed and balance of the currents on all electrodes inside the tube for different regimes of working were provided. The influence of the residual pressure in the tube were explained. The report finally ends on a part of the fundamental problem of the straining occurring inside the tubes accelerators under high tension. (M.B.) [French] La realisation d n accelerateur du type Van de Graaff a necessite, entre autres etudes preliminaires, la construction d'un petit accelerateur de protons, fonctionnant sous 200 kV afin d'eclaircir certains effets parasites propres aux tubes accelerateurs. L'objet de ce rapport est de decrire les differents organes du tube accelerateur, d'en expliquer le fonctionnement et de chiffrer leurs caracteristiques. Le memoire presente d'abord la source d'ions et le canon permettant d'injecter dans le tube accelerateur des particules de 9 kV environ et bien groupees dans un faisceau fin de section circulaire. Puis il passe a l'etude du tube considere comme systeme optique. Une methode utilisee pour le calcul precis des trajectoires des particules y est exposee. Il aborde le probleme des aberrations de ce systeme et fournit par la suite le bilan des courants sur toutes les electrodes a l

  6. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Puget Sound Power ampersand Light Company propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. The upgrades of the interconnected 230-kV and 115-kV systems are needed to increase the import capacity on a nearby U.S.-Canada 500-kV intertie by about 850 megawatts (MW). BPA and Puget Power would share the increase in north-south transfer capability. An existing BPA 230-kV single-circuit, wood-pole H-frame transmission line would be upgraded to a 230-kV lattice-steel double-circuit line. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993. New 1994 studies showed that other improvements to Puget Power's system, and the addition of local generation has lessened local reliability problems. Also in 1994, BPA reevaluated all existing projects with this goal in mind. BPA and Puget determined that benefits would still result from this project, and that additional transfer capacity and improved system integrity warrant the expenditures. Given the changes in need, BPA decided to issue a Supplemental DEIS, and provide a second public review-and-comment period. The proposed action is designated Option 1. Impacts would be low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas would be low to moderate; there would be little increase in magnetic fields, noise levels would approximate existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be low. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed Sections in wetlands would be covered by Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic impacts would be low to moderate. No cultural resources listed on the National Register of Historic Places would be affected

  7. The Effect of Phase-to-earth Faults on the Operating Conditions of a Separated 110 kV Grid Normally Operated with Effectively Earthed Neutral, and Temporarily Supplied from a Compensated 110 kV Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Rojewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the interoperability of the German compensated 110 kV grid and the Polish effectively earthed 110 kV grid. It is assumed that an area of one grid, separated from its power system, will be temporarily supplied from the other grid in its normal regime. Reference is made to the risks associated with phase-to-earth faults in grids so interconnected. Particular attention is paid to the working conditions of surge arresters and voltage transformers in the Polish 110 kV grid deprived of its neutral earthing when supplied from the German grid.

  8. MicroRNA-Mediated Downregulation of the Potassium Channel Kv4.2 Contributes to Seizure Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are bursts of excessive synchronized neuronal activity, suggesting that mechanisms controlling brain excitability are compromised. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4.2, a major mediator of hyperpolarizing A-type currents in the brain, is a crucial regulator of neuronal excitability. Kv4.2 expression levels are reduced following seizures and in epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that Kv4.2 mRNA is recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex shortly after status epilepticus in mice and after kainic acid treatment of hippocampal neurons, coincident with reduction of Kv4.2 protein. We show that the microRNA miR-324-5p inhibits Kv4.2 protein expression and that antagonizing miR-324-5p is neuroprotective and seizure suppressive. MiR-324-5p inhibition also blocks kainic-acid-induced reduction of Kv4.2 protein in vitro and in vivo and delays kainic-acid-induced seizure onset in wild-type but not in Kcnd2 knockout mice. These results reveal an important role for miR-324-5p-mediated silencing of Kv4.2 in seizure onset.

  9. Probabilitas Tegangan Sentuh Dan Tegangan Langkah Di Lokasi Rencana Gardu Induk 500 kV Antosari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Semakin berkembangnya pertindustrian di Indonesia, maka kebutuhan daya listrik yang dibutuhkan semakin meningkat. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan daya listrik tersebut pada tahun 2016, PT PLN (Persero merencanakan pembangunan GITET 500 kV Antosari. Pembangunan GITET 500 kV Antosari merupakan tindak lanjut dari rencana PT PLN (Persero yang akan menambah pasokan energi listrik ke Bali melalui sistem interkoneksi Jawa – Bali menggunakan jaringan transmisi SUTET 500 kV, dimulai dari GITET 500 kV Paiton dan akan sampai di GITET 500 kV Antosari. Untuk mengamankan gardu induk dari ancaman sambaran petir, salah satu cara yang digunakan adalah dengan mengamankan sistem perntanahan dilokasi gardu induk. Maka dipilih sistem pentanahan grid di lokasi rencana pembangunan Gardu Induk 500 kV Antosari. Penelitian dilakukan untuk menganalisis perbandingan ukuran luas pentanahan dengan kedalaman batang konduktor terhadap tahanan pentanahan grid, tegangan sentuh, tegangan langkah dan probabilitas timbulnya tegangan sentuh dan tegangan langkah. Data tahanan tanah yang didapatkan dari pengukuran secara langsung digunakan untuk mengetahui  nilai tahanan jenis tanah kemudian digunakan untuk menghitung tahanan pentanahan grid, tegangan sentuh, tegangan langkah dan probabilitas tegangan sentuh dan tegangan langkah. Perhitungan tahanan pentanahan grid menggunakan persamaan IEEE, Standard 80-2000 sedangkan untuk perhitungan tegangan sentuh dan tegangan langkah menggunakan IEEE, Standard 665-1995. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian di lokasi gardu induk untuk kondisi tanah basah dengan luas grid 3 m x 3 m dan kedalaman 5 m didapatkan nilai tahanan pentanahan grid 0,49 ohm dan nilai tegangan langkah 125 volt dengan probabilitas 0,72%. Sedangkan untuk kondisi tanah kering dengan luas grid 3 m x 3m dan kedalaman 5 didapatkan nilai tahanan pentanahan grid 1,11 ohm dan nilai tegangan langkah 281 volt dengan probabilitas 0,72%. Dari hasil analisis juga menunjukan dengan luas grid 3 m x 3

  10. Expression and function of Kv1.1 potassium channels in human atria from patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscock, Edward; Voigt, Niels; McCauley, Mark D; Sun, Qiang; Li, Na; Chiang, David Y; Zhou, Xiao-Bo; Molina, Cristina E; Thomas, Dierk; Schmidt, Constanze; Skapura, Darlene G; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated Kv1.1 channels encoded by the Kcna1 gene are traditionally regarded as being neural-specific with no known expression or intrinsic functional role in the heart. However, recent studies in mice reveal low-level Kv1.1 expression in heart and cardiac abnormalities associated with Kv1.1-deficiency suggesting that the channel may have a previously unrecognized cardiac role. Therefore, this study tests the hypothesis that Kv1.1 channels are associated with arrhythmogenesis and contribute to intrinsic cardiac function. In intra-atrial burst pacing experiments, Kcna1-null mice exhibited increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF). The atria of Kcna1-null mice showed minimal Kv1 family ion channel remodeling and fibrosis as measured by qRT-PCR and Masson's trichrome histology, respectively. Using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting, KCNA1 mRNA and protein were detected in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes and human atria for the first time. Patients with chronic AF (cAF) showed no changes in KCNA1 mRNA levels relative to controls; however, they exhibited increases in atrial Kv1.1 protein levels, not seen in paroxysmal AF patients. Patch-clamp recordings of isolated human atrial myocytes revealed significant dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K)-sensitive outward current components that were significantly increased in cAF patients, reflecting a contribution by Kv1.1 channels. The concomitant increases in Kv1.1 protein and DTX-K-sensitive currents in atria of cAF patients suggest that the channel contributes to the pathological mechanisms of persistent AF. These findings provide evidence of an intrinsic cardiac role of Kv1.1 channels and indicate that they may contribute to atrial repolarization and AF susceptibility.

  11. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P

    2014-03-05

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential.

  12. Transmission and distribution electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Colin

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application.Thoroughly updated and revised to include latest developmentsLearn from and Author with extensive experience in managing international projectsFind out the reasoning and implicatons behind the different specifications and methods

  13. Portable and wireless IV-curve tracer for >5 kV organic photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Valverde, Rafael; Chaouki-Almagro, Samir; Corazza, Michael

    2016-01-01

    voltage applications, the design is based on low cost components, battery-based isolated supply and wireless communication. A prototype has been implemented and field tested for characterization of different organic photovoltaic modules (OPV) made according to the infinity concept with a large number......The practical design of a wirelessly controlled portable IV-curve tracer based on a capacitive load is described. The design is optimized for the measurement of solar cell modules presenting a high open circuit voltage of up to 6 kV and a low short circuit current below 100 mA. The portable IV......-tracer allows for on-site/in-situ characterization of large modules under real operating conditions and enables fast detection of potential failure of anomalies in electrical behavior. Currently available electronic loads only handle voltages up to around 1 kV. To overcome cost and safety issues related to high...

  14. Design for a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    A pulse generator consisting of a coaxial cable and a high voltage modulator, incorporating two stacks of Field-Effect Transistor (FET) switches operating in ''push-pull'' mode, has been designed and built. The modulator generates a continuous, unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The rise and fall times of the pulses are less than 39 ns. The two stacks each utilize 14 FETS, which are individually rated at 1 kV. The design incorporates a low-loss coaxial cable on which pulses are stored. Extensive PSpice simulations have been carried out to evaluate various design options. Subsequent measurements on the prototype pulse generator confirm the PSpice predictions. This system is applicable for the kicker system at TRIUMF

  15. JAERI 200 kV electron gun with an NEA-GaAs photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Tomohiro; Minehara, Eisuke J.; Hajima, Ryoichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Sawamura, Masaru; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The photocathode DC-gun with high average current, low beam emittance and long operational lifetime is considered to be indispensable for ERL-FEL. We have started the development program of a 200 keV electron gun with the NEA-GaAs photocathode for the first time in JAERI. In order to long an NEA surface lifetime, the JAERI 200 kV electron gun system consists of a 200 kV DC-gun chamber on extreme high vacuum condition and an NEA activation chamber with load-lock system. We report the goal of photocathode DC-gun R and D and the schedule of a developmental program. (author)

  16. 80 kV electrostatic wire septum for AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A. van der; Bijleveld, J.H.M.; Rookhuizen, H.B.; Bruinsma, P.J.T.; Heine, E.; Lassing, P.; Prins, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) ring aims at a 100% duty cycle operation by means of slow extraction of injected electron beam pulses of 2.1 μs. In the extraction process of the AmPS, the extracted beam is intercepted from the circulating beam by the 1 m long electrostatic wire septum. For a bending angle of 4.4 mrad the maximum anode voltage is 80 kV. Care has been given to the electric field distribution at the entrance and exit of the septum and to the insulators, required to support the anode. Prototype tests have been successful up to an anode voltage of 120 kV. (R.P.) 9 refs.; 5 figs

  17. Recovery and updating of power transmission lines. The experience made by ELETROSUL; Recapacitacao e repotenciacao de linhas de transmissao. A experiencia da ELETROSUL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Jose Carlos de Saboia [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: jcsaboia@eletrosul.gov.br

    2001-07-01

    This document presents a procedures synthesis for analysis and verification of power transmission line adjustments, aiming their recovery or power updating, it also shows the executed procedures during the stages of preliminary design, final design and construction of the modernized transmission lines by ELETROSUL for the 138, 230 and 500 Kv tensions. The concepts on which the evaluation criteria of the structural components for the transmission lines(metallic supports, foundations in metallic grills and reinforced concrete) have been based are presented, as well as the main aspects of the used methodologies for that. It also makes a comparative analysis related to the used processes for structural analyses of the metallic support in trelliswork (computational process which uses the finite element and graphical methods), as well as the foundations of these supports (structural verifications and others). Also are reported the researches and jobs which involved the power updating of the three 138 and 230 kv transmission lines of ELETROSUL.

  18. Design and development of a high-power, 500 kV pulsed line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, A.

    A study was made of very high voltage (500 kV) pulse production for 50 ns at half height. A coaxial line was coupled to a Marx generator for obtaining the pulses on an impedance-adapted electron diode. The maximum power obtained was 6.4 x 10 10 W with a current front in the diode of about 30 ns (80 ns pulse length at half height)

  19. Preliminary design of a 100 Hz, 350 kV short pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwein, G.J.; Buttram, M.T.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes a 350 kV pulser designed to generate 100 ns square pulses with 300 joules total energy at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 per second. This design incorporates a transformer charged helical coaxial pulse forming line. The considerations leading to this design are presented together with results from prototype experiments. The pulser which is presently in the construction and testing phase is described in detail. The pulser will be used for electron beam acceleration

  20. Regulation System for the 18 kV/90 Mvar Compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Burdet, G

    2001-01-01

    Two 18 kV/90 Mvar static compensators are involved to stabilise the voltage, filter the harmonics and compensate the reactive power generated by the power converters used to supply the SPS accelerator magnets. The in-house hardware and software used by the regulation systems, difficult to maintain and upgrade, shall be renovated. Industrial solution based on PLC will be implemented. This paper describes the future system and its integration to the Electrical Network Supervisor.

  1. Optimizing monoscopic kV fluoro acquisition for prostate intrafraction motion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Justus; Wu Qiuwen

    2009-01-01

    Monoscopic kV imaging during radiotherapy has been recently implemented for prostate intrafraction motion evaluation. However, the accuracy of 3D localization techniques from monoscopic imaging of prostate and the effect of acquisition parameters on the 3D accuracy have not been studied in detail, with imaging dose remaining a concern. In this paper, we investigate methods to optimize the kV acquisition parameters and imaging protocol to achieve improved 3D localization and 2D image registration accuracy for minimal imaging dose. Prostate motion during radiotherapy was simulated using existing cine-MRI measurements, and was used to investigate the accuracy of various 3D localization techniques and the effect of the kV acquisition protocol. We also investigated the relationship between mAs and the accuracy of the 2D image registration for localization of fiducial markers and we measured imaging dose for a 30 cm diameter phantom to evaluate the necessary dose to achieve acceptable image registration accuracy. Simulations showed that the error in assuming the shortest path to localize the prostate in 3D using monoscopic imaging during a typical IMRT fraction will be less than ∼1.5 mm for 95% of localizations, and will also depend on prostate motion distribution, treatment duration and image acquisition and treatment protocol. Most uncertainty cannot be reduced from higher imaging frequency or acquiring during gantry rotation between beams. Measured maximum surface dose to the cylindrical phantom from monoscopic kV intrafraction acquisitions varied between 0.4 and 5.5 mGy, depending on the acquisition protocol, and was lower than the required dose for CBCT (21.1 mGy). Imaging dose can be lowered by ∼15-40% when mAs is optimized with acquisition angle. Images acquired during MV beam delivery require increased mAs to obtain the same level of registration accuracy, with mAs/registration increasing roughly linearly with field size and dose rate.

  2. Protection system for 11kV network using arc noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdi, M.K.; Memon, A.S.; Shaikh, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive research work is being done on protecting devices for 11KV network using arc noise and fault noise frequencies in relay to operate a circuit breaker; The relay works on the principle of detecting fault and extracting voltage signal output from the noise frequencies across filter. The voltage development without amplification, is enough to operate the circuit breaker. Sensitivity of the circuit breaker. In this paper design, operation and application of the relay are described. (author)

  3. Diagnostics system for the 67 MJ, 50 kV pulsed power capacitor bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galakhov, I V; Gasheev, A S; Gruzin, I A; Gudov, S N; Murugov, V M; Osin, V A; Pankratov, V I; Pegoev, I N [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The diagnostics system is designed for charging and discharging to the load of the large 67 MJ and 50 kV capacitor bank for the iodine laser pulse power of ISKRA-5 facility. Discharging diagnostics of the capacitor bank uses a technique to measure a sequence of times between representative discharge events for 665 discharge circuits of the bank. Benefits of the measurement techniques are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  4. Studi Keamanan dan Keandalan Suplai Sistem Kelistrikan Bali Sesuai Rencana Operasi SUTET 500 kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawa Adiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kondisi eksisting kelistrikan Bali hingga tahun 2013 disuplai oleh tiga pembangkit tenaga listrik dan sebuah sistem interkoneksi Jamali dengan keseluruhan daya suplai sebesar 676 MW. Berdasarkan peramalan beban sistem Bali 2013-2030 diperoleh rata-rata pertumbuhan beban 6,61%. Berdasarkan hal tersebut PT PLN (Persero merencanakan penambahan pasokan daya listrik ke pulau Bali dengan penambahan kabel laut, suplai melalui SUTET 500 kV interkoneksi Jawa-Bali, serta pembangunan PLTU Celukan Bawang 980 MW. Dengan beroperasinya unit-unit tersebut diperlukan analisis keamanan suplai sistem kelistrikan Bali, dengan dua skenario. Skenario 1 yaitu sistem Bali hanya menerima pasokan dari PLTU Celukan Bawang pada tahun 2016 sebesar 380 MW. Skenario 2, PLTU Celukan Bawang beroperasi sebesar 380 MW tahun 2016, kemudian pada tahun 2020 dan 2022 menambah daya masing-masing 300 MW. Selain analisis keamanan suplai dilakukan juga analisis keandalan dengan beroperasinya SUTET 500 kV di Bali. Analisis keandalan SUTET 500 kV menggunakan tiga skenario. Skenario 1 SUTET beroperasi dari Paiton sampai di GITET Gilimanuk, Skenario 2 SUTET beroperasi dari PAITON sampai di GITET New Kapal, dan Skenario 3 SUTET beroperasi dari Paiton sampai di GITET Kapal. Dari hasil analisis keamanan suplai diperoleh skenario 1, pada tahun 2022 beban puncak mencapai 1304,10 MW dan pada kondisi N-1 mengalami krisis daya listrik -48,3 MW. Skenario 2, pada tahun 2028 dengan beban puncak 1862,60 MW dan pada kondisi N-1 mengalami krisis daya listrik -6,8 MW. Sedangkan analisis keandalan beroperasinya SUTET 500 kV di Bali diperoleh: Skenario 1 nilai SAIFI = 2,0 kali/km/tahun dan nilai SAIDI = ±10 menit/tahun, Skenario 2 nilai SAIFI = 3,1 kali/km/tahun dan nilai SAIDI = ±15 menit/tahun, Skenario 3 nilai SAIFI = 3,3 kali/km/tahun dan nilai SAIDI = ±17 menit/tahun.

  5. Diagnostics system for the 67 MJ, 50 kV pulsed power capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galakhov, I.V.; Gasheev, A.S.; Gruzin, I.A.; Gudov, S.N.; Murugov, V.M.; Osin, V.A.; Pankratov, V.I.; Pegoev, I.N.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostics system is designed for charging and discharging to the load of the large 67 MJ and 50 kV capacitor bank for the iodine laser pulse power of ISKRA-5 facility. Discharging diagnostics of the capacitor bank uses a technique to measure a sequence of times between representative discharge events for 665 discharge circuits of the bank. Benefits of the measurement techniques are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs

  6. Clicked bis-PEG-peptide conjugates for studying calmodulin-Kv7.2 channel binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonache, M Angeles; Alaimo, Alessandro; Malo, Covadonga; Millet, Oscar; Villarroel, Alvaro; González-Muñiz, Rosario

    2014-11-28

    The recombinant Kv7.2 calmodulin (CaM) binding site (Q2AB CaMBD) shows a high tendency to aggregate, thus complicating biochemical and structural studies. To facilitate these studies we have conceived bis-PEG-peptide CaMBD-mimetics linking helices A and B in single, easy to handle molecules. Short PEG chains were selected as spacers between the two peptide molecules, and a Cu(i)-catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC) protocol was used to assemble the final bis-PEG-peptide conjugate, by the convenient functionalization of PEG arms with azide and alkyne groups. The resulting conjugates, with a certain helical character in TFE solutions (CD), showed nanomolar affinity in a fluorescence CaM binding in vitro assay, higher than just the sum of the precursor PEG-peptide affinities, thus validating our design. The approach to these first described examples of Kv7.2 CaMBD-mimetics could pave the way to chimeric conjugates merging helices A and B from different Kv7 subunits.

  7. Measurements on a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    A prototype pulser, which incorporates thirty-two 1 kV Field-Effect Transistor (FET) modules, has been built and tested at TRIUMF. The pulser has been developed for application in a scheme for pulsed extraction from the TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron. Deflection of the beam will be provided by an electric field between a set of 1 in long deflector plates. The pulser generates a continuous, unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of approximately 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The pulses have 38 ns rise and fall times and are stored on a low-loss coaxial cable which interconnects the pulse generator and the deflector plates. The circuit performance was evaluated with the aid of PSpice in the design stage and confirmed by measurements on the prototype. Temperature measurements have been performed on 1 kV FET modules under DC conditions and compared with temperatures under operating conditions to ensure that switching losses are acceptable. Results of various measurements are presented and compared with simulations

  8. Measurements on a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    A prototype pulser, which incorporates thirty-two 1 kV Field-Effect Transistor (FET) modules, has been built and tested at TRIUMF. The pulser has been developed for application in a scheme for pulsed extraction from the TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron. Deflection of the beam will be provided by an electric field between a set of 1 m long deflector plates. The pulser generates a continuous unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of approximately 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The pulses have 38 ns rise and fall times and are stored on a low-loss coaxial cable which interconnects the pulse generator and the deflector plates. The circuit performance was evaluated with the aid of PSpice in the design stage and confirmed by measurements on the prototype. Temperature measurements have been performed on 1 kV FET modules under DC conditions and compared with temperatures under operating conditions to ensure that switching losses are acceptable. Results of various measurements are presented and compared with simulations. (author)

  9. KV7 Channels Regulate Firing during Synaptic Integration in GABAergic Striatal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Pérez-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projection neurons (SPNs process motor and cognitive information. Their activity is affected by Parkinson’s disease, in which dopamine concentration is decreased and acetylcholine concentration is increased. Acetylcholine activates muscarinic receptors in SPNs. Its main source is the cholinergic interneuron that responds with a briefer latency than SPNs during a cortical command. Therefore, an important question is whether muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors and their signaling cascades are fast enough to intervene during synaptic responses to regulate synaptic integration and firing. One of the most known voltage dependent channels regulated by muscarinic receptors is the KV7/KCNQ channel. It is not known whether these channels regulate the integration of suprathreshold corticostriatal responses. Here, we study the impact of cholinergic muscarinic modulation on the synaptic response of SPNs by regulating KV7 channels. We found that KV7 channels regulate corticostriatal synaptic integration and that this modulation occurs in the dendritic/spines compartment. In contrast, it is negligible in the somatic compartment. This modulation occurs on sub- and suprathreshold responses and lasts during the whole duration of the responses, hundreds of milliseconds, greatly altering SPNs firing properties. This modulation affected the behavior of the striatal microcircuit.

  10. Improvement of the 400 kV linac electron source of AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, F.B.; Beuzekom, M.G. van; Dobbe, N.J.; Es, J.T. van; Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Kruijer, A.H.; Luigjes, G.; Sluijk, T.G.B.

    1992-01-01

    An existing linac (MEA) injects electrons into the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) ring. The linac's peak current increases from 20 to 80 mA. This requires the modification of the 400 kV low emittance gun. The fourfold increase of the peak current is obtained by doubling both the gun perveance (new gun part) and the pulsed extractor voltage. To obtain optimum beam quality over this increased current range, the hot deck electronics has been exchanged by a fast high voltage FET switching supply. A built-in microprocessor, coupled to the local computer by optical fibers, is used to monitor and control the gun parameters. The 5 kV gun extractor voltage pulse shape can be monitored by means of an analog fibre transducer with build in calibration. Finally, in order to improve the energy stability of the accelerated electrons, a serial electron-tube stabilizer was added to the 400 kV DC power supply. (K.A.) 4 refs.; 6 figs

  11. A 120kV IGBT modulator for driving a Pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, Lawrence M.; Brown, Richard W.; Carlson, Randolph L.; Ferguson, Patrick; Haynes, William B.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Russell, Steven J.; Sigler, Floyd E.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Wheat, Robert M. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An IGBT modulator has been developed to drive a 120 kV, 23 A Pierce electron gun. The modulator is capable of producing pulses up to 10 μs in width at repetition rates up to 10Hz with no active reset. The pulse rise time on the electron gun will be approximately 2 μs and the remaining 8 μs of flattop is tuned to have a ripple of less than 1 percent rms. The modulator technology was developed from a previous 50 kV prototype. The modulator consists of six boards, each with one EUPEC IGBT that drives a single common step-up transformer wound on METGLAS 2605SC cores. The six transformer cores share a common bi-filar output secondary winding. The modulator uses a fiber optic trigger system and has a high voltage cable output with an epoxy receptacle on the oil end and a ceramic receptacle on the vacuum end. The 120 kV electron gun was manufactured by MDS Co. and will be used to generate sheet electron beams from the standard pencil beam produced by the Pierce electron gun.

  12. Implication of novel thiazolo-thiophene derivative (MCD-KV-10) for management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dhiraj; Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Thakur, Sandeep Kumar; Pandya, Amit N; Venkatesh, P; Vasu, Kamala K; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is multifaceted disease where many targets contribute towards its development and progression. Among these, adenosine receptor subtypes play a major role. MCD-KV-10, a novel thiazolo-thiophene was designed and evaluated pre-clinically for its implication in management of asthma. This compound showed good affinity and selectivity towards A(2A)/A3 adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes. Furthermore, MCD-KV-10 was evaluated for in vitro lipoxygenase inhibition activity; in vivo mast cell stabilization potential and in vivo anti-asthmatic activity was done in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation model in guinea pigs. The compound showed good (>57%) inhibition of lipoxygenase enzyme and also effectively protected mast cell degranulation (>63%). The compound showed good anti-asthmatic activity as inferred from the in vivo studies. These results indicate that MCD-KV-10 has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Though, we have identified a potential candidate for management of asthma, further mechanistic studies are needed.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-62) - Rocky Reach - Maple Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Mark A. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-04-16

    Vegetation Management along the Rocky Reach – Maple Valley No. 1 Transmission Line ROW from structure 98/2 to structure 110/1. The transmission line is a 500 kV line. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation along access roads and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. BPA plans to conduct vegetation management along existing access road and around structure landings for the purpose of maintaining access to structures site. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards.

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-146-Custer-Ingledow No. 1 & 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-04-29

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Custer-Ingledow No.1&2 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 1/4 to 9/6. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. Also, access road clearing will be conducted.

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-124 (Echo Lake-Maple Valley #1 [Mile 9-16], Adno 8258)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-18

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Echo Lake – Maple Valley #1 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 9/2 to 16/5. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation within the Right-of-Ways along access roads and around towers that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. See Section 1.4 of the attached checklists for a complete description of the proposed action.

  16. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-125 (Echo Lake-Maple Valley #1 [Mile 1-9], Adno 8258)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-18

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Echo Lake – Maple Valley #1 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 1/1 to 9/2. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation within the Right-of-Ways along access roads and around towers that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. See Section 1.4 of the attached checklists for a complete description of the proposed action.

  17. 250 kV 6 mA compact Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhan-Wen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Zhen; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Miao, Tian-You; Su, Tong-Ling [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jun-Run; Yao, Ze-En, E-mail: zeyao@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Engineering Research Center for Neutron Application, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A compact power supply system for a compact neutron generator has been developed. A 4-stage symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit is adopted to produce 250 kV direct current high-voltage. A 2-stage 280 kV isolation transformer system is used to drive the ion source power supply. For a compact structure, safety, and reliability during the operation, the Cockcroft-Walton circuit and the isolation transformer system are enclosed in an epoxy vessel containing the transformer oil whose size is about ∅350 mm × 766 mm. Test results indicate that the maximum output voltage of the power supply is 282 kV, and the stability of the output voltage is better than 0.63% when the high voltage power supply is operated at 250 kV, 6.9 mA with the input voltage varying ±10%.

  18. Space power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, Shizuma [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1989-10-05

    There being a conception to utilize solar energy by use of a space power station (SPS), a method to bring that universal grace to mankind is wireless energy transmission. The wireless energy transmission is regarded to be microwave transmission or laser beam transmission. The microwave transmission is to transmit 2.45GHz band microwave from the SPS to a receiving station on the ground to meet power demand on earth. The microwave, as small in attenuation in atmosphere and resistant against rain and cloud, is made candidate and, however, problematic in influence on organism, necessary large area of receiving antenna and many other points to be studied. While the laser transmission, as more convergent of beam than the microwave transmission, is advantageous with enabling the receiving area to be small and, however, disadvantageous with being not resistant against dust, rain and cloud, if used for the energy transmission between the space and earth. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Transmission on Balance 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Every year he Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO) TenneT issues the title publication 'Transmission on Balance'. This report provides information about the main technical operating results in the past year.

  20. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  1. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  2. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  3. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  4. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  5. Atlas transmission line/transition design and fabrication status

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Ricketts, R L; Valdez, G A

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. Design has been completed for this new generation pulsed-power machine consisting of an azimuthal array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission line consists of a cable header, load protection switch, and tri-plate assembly interfacing to the center transition section. The cable header interface to the Marx module provides a mechanism to remove the Marx module for maintenance without removing other components of the transmission line. The load protection switch provides a mechanism for protecting the load during charging of the Marx in the event of a pre-fire condition. The aluminum tri-plate is a low-inductance transmission line that carries radial current flow from the Marx energy storage system at the machine periphery toward the load. All transmission line components are oil insulated except the...

  6. The global transmission network of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Joel O; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Hepler, N Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression.

  7. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. Macedonian transmission grid capability and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumoski, K.; Achkoska, E.; Paunoski, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of the transmission grid is to guarantee evacuation of electricity from production facilities and, at the same time, supply the electricity to all customers, in a secure, reliable and qualitative manner. During the last years, transmission grid goes through the period of fast and important development, as a result of implementation of renewable and new technologies and creation of internal European electricity market. Due to these reasons, capacity of the existing grid needs to be upgraded either with optimization of existing infrastructure or constructing the new transmission projects. Among the various solutions for strengthening the grid, the one with the minimal investment expenses for construction is selected. While planning the national transmission grid, MEPSO planners apply multi-scenarios analyses, in order to handle all uncertainties, particularly in the forecasts on loads, production and exchange of electricity, location and size of the new power plants, hydrological conditions, integration of renewable sources and the evolution of the electricity market. Visions for development of European transmission grid are also considered. Special attention in the development plan is paid to modelling of power systems in the region of South-Eastern Europe and covering a wider area of the regional transmission grid with simulations of various market transactions. Macedonian transmission grid is developed to satisfy all requirements for electricity production/supply and transits, irrespective which scenario will be realized on long-term basis. Transmission development plan gives the road map for grid evolution from short-term and mid-term period towards long-term horizons (15-20 years ahead). While creating long-term visions, a big challenge in front of transmission planners is implementation of NPP. The paper gives overview of the planning process of Macedonian transmission grid,comprising: definition of scenarios,planning methodology and assessment of

  9. Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

    1998-12-01

    Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

  10. Optical triggering of 4H-SiC thyristors (18 kV class) to high currents in purely inductive load circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, S L; Levinshtein, M E; Saxena, T; Shur, M S; Cheng, L; Palmour, J W; Agarwal, A

    2014-01-01

    Optical switch-on of a very high voltage (18 kV class) 4H-SiC thyristor with an amplification step (pilot thyristor) to the current I max  = 1225 A is demonstrated using a purely inductive load and a calibrated air transformer. Increasing the inductance of the transformer primary winding slows down the turn on process. However, the inductance has little effect during the initial stage of the switch-on process when the voltage drop on the thyristor and its internal resistance is high. The results show that a further switch-on current increase can be only achieved by introducing additional amplification steps in the pilot thyristor. (paper)

  11. Serum Starvation-Induced Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv7.5 Expression and Its Regulation by Sp1 in Canine Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hyung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KCNQ gene family, whose members encode Kv7 channels, belongs to the voltage-gated potassium (Kv channel group. The roles of this gene family have been widely investigated in nerve and muscle cells. In the present study, we investigated several characteristics of Kv7.5, which is strongly expressed in the canine osteosarcoma cell line, CCL-183. Serum starvation upregulated Kv7.5 expression, and the Kv7 channel opener, flupirtine, attenuated cell proliferation by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase. We also showed that Kv7.5 knockdown helps CCL-183 cells to proliferate. In an effort to find an endogenous regulator of Kv7.5, we used mithramycin A to reduce the level of the transcription factor Sp1, and it strongly inhibited the induction of Kv7.5 in CCL-183 cells. These results suggest that the activation of Kv7.5 by flupirtine may exert an anti-proliferative effect in canine osteosarcoma. Therefore, Kv7.5 is a possible molecular target for canine osteosarcoma therapy.

  12. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:23099443

  14. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  15. MATL : Canada's first merchant power transmission interconnection : experiences and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.

    2006-01-01

    The current status of the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. (MATL) merchant transmission project was outlined with reference to the business concept, the advantages of the project and market opportunities. Some of the challenges facing the project were discussed along with lessons learned and accomplishments thus far. MATL is preparing to construct a privately funded transmission line between Lethbridge, Alberta and Great Falls, Montana. The project represents the first direct power transmission inter-connection between Montana and Alberta. The 346 km, 230 kV AC transmission line with phase shifting transformer and 300 MW transfer capacity will be a synchronous interconnection and will improve the reliability of the entire electric systems in both Montana and Alberta. The benefits of the interconnected power system include increased reliability and stability of the existing power grids; better import/export capabilities; more competition and options in the marketplace; greater flexibility in scheduling generator maintenance; and, optimal allocation of generation resources. tabs., figs

  16. Reduction of the visual impact of overhead transmission line systems through utilisation of line surge arresters as lightning protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    with the Technical University of Denmark, on how to lessen the visual impact of 400 kV overhead line transmission systems. In this paper omission of shield wires combined with installation of a suitable number of line surge arresters is investigated as a possible alternative to transmission lines equipped...... with shielding wires thereby reducing tower height, allowing more compact designs of towers thus minimizing the visual environment impact of the lines. Omission of shield wires in the system and instead utilizing a larger number of surge arresters in the (upper) phases of an overhead line without reduction...... will be investigated by transient simulations on a 400 kV line with either shield wires or line surge arresters. These simulations will also be used to estimate number and location of the line surge arresters in the line to ensure a satisfactory performance of the line when omitting shield wires in the tower top...

  17. Remodeling of Kv1.5 channel in right atria from Han Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xian-hong; Li, Miao-ling; Liu, Rui; Fan, Xin-rong; Mao, Liang; Fan, Xue-hui; Yang, Yan; Zeng, Xiao-rong

    2015-04-28

    The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in rheumatic heart diseases (RHD) is very high and increases with age. Occurrence and maintenance of AF are very complicated process accompanied by many different mechanisms. Ion-channel remodeling, including the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.5, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of AF. However, the changes of Kv1.5 channel expression in Han Chinese patients with RHD and AF remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Kv1.5 channels of the right atria may be altered with RHD, age, and sex to contribute to AF. Right atrial appendages were obtained from 20 patients with normal cardiac functions who had undergone surgery, and 26 patients with AF. Subjects were picked from 4 groups: adult and aged patients in normal sinus rhythm (SR) and AF. Patients were divided into non-RHD and RHD groups or men and women groups in normal SR and AF, respectively. The expression of Kv1.5 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured using Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, respectively. Compared with the SR group, the expression of Kv1.5 protein decreased significantly in the AF group. However, neither Kv1.5 protein nor KCNA5 mRNA had significant differences in adult and aged groups, non-RHD and RHD group, and men and women group of AF. The expression of Kv1.5 channel protein changes with AF but not with age, RHD, and sex in AF.

  18. Dosimetry in phantom of newborn head for computerized tomography signs with voltages of 80, 100 and 120 KV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.A.P.; Mourão, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Computed Tomography is the radiodiagnostic method that most contributes to the dose deposition in population. Therefore, the dose reductions used in these tests are very important, especially for pediatric patients who have a life expectancy greater than the rest of the population. This study purpose to compare the doses generated from newborns (NB) with different voltages in a 64-channel multichannel CT equipment of the GE brand. One head phantom in a cylindrical shape made in PMMA were used to newborn patient dimensions. 100 mA.s of charge of the X-ray tube were standardized, alternating the voltages between 80, 100, 120 kV in the axial acquisition. The absorbed dose measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber positioned within the five apertures in the phantom. The phantom was developed with the cephalic percentile of male NB of 14 and female of 28 days, respectively. The doses obtained in the head phantom of NB were compared with the voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kV. The volumetric dose index, C VOL , generated in the 120 kV protocol was 25.10 mGy, for 100 kV of 19,06 mGy and not for 80 kV 15,81 mGy. The results allow to evaluate that for the generation of images with 120 kV, the dose was 37.0% higher when compared to the voltage of 80 kV. The study shows that the increase in tension in the tomography protocols also makes it possible to increase the dose for the NB patient. (author)

  19. Dosimetry in phantom of newborn head for computerized tomography signs with voltages of 80, 100 and 120 KV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.A.P.; Mourão, A.P., E-mail: giovanni.paiva@pbh.gov.br, E-mail: apratabhz@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Computed Tomography is the radiodiagnostic method that most contributes to the dose deposition in population. Therefore, the dose reductions used in these tests are very important, especially for pediatric patients who have a life expectancy greater than the rest of the population. This study purpose to compare the doses generated from newborns (NB) with different voltages in a 64-channel multichannel CT equipment of the GE brand. One head phantom in a cylindrical shape made in PMMA were used to newborn patient dimensions. 100 mA.s of charge of the X-ray tube were standardized, alternating the voltages between 80, 100, 120 kV in the axial acquisition. The absorbed dose measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber positioned within the five apertures in the phantom. The phantom was developed with the cephalic percentile of male NB of 14 and female of 28 days, respectively. The doses obtained in the head phantom of NB were compared with the voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kV. The volumetric dose index, C{sub VOL}, generated in the 120 kV protocol was 25.10 mGy, for 100 kV of 19,06 mGy and not for 80 kV 15,81 mGy. The results allow to evaluate that for the generation of images with 120 kV, the dose was 37.0% higher when compared to the voltage of 80 kV. The study shows that the increase in tension in the tomography protocols also makes it possible to increase the dose for the NB patient. (author)

  20. SU-E-T-163: Thin-Film Organic Photocell (OPV) Properties in MV and KV Beams for Dosimetry Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S K; Hesser, J; Zhang, H; Gowrisanker, S; Yakushevich, S; Shulhevich, Y; Abkai, C; Wack, L; Zygmanski, P

    2012-06-01

    To characterize dosimetric properties of low-cost thin film organic-based photovoltaic (OPV) cells to kV and MV x-ray beams for their usage as large area dosimeter for QA and patient safety monitoring device. A series of thin film OPV cells of various areas and thicknesses were irradiated with MV beams to evaluate the stability and reproducibility of their response, linearity and sensitivity to absorbed dose. The OPV response to x-rays of various linac energies were also characterized. Furthermore the practical (clinical) sensitivity of the cells was determined using IMRT sweeping gap test generated with various gap sizes. To evaluate their potential usage in the development of low cost kV imaging device, the OPV cells were irradiated with kV beam (60-120 kVp) from a fluoroscopy unit. Photocell response to the absorbed dose was characterized as a function of the organic thin film thickness and size, beam energy and exposure for kV beams as well. In addition, photocell response was determined with and without thin plastic scintillator. Response of the OPV cells to the absorbed dose from kV and MV beams are stable and reproducible. The photocell response was linearly proportional to the size and about slightly decreasing with the thickness of the organic thin film, which agrees with the general performance of the photocells in visible light. The photocell response increases as a linear function of absorbed dose and x-ray energy. The sweeping gap tests performed showed that OPV cells have sufficient practical sensitivity to measured MV x-ray delivery with gap size as small as 1 mm. With proper calibration, the OPV cells could be used for online radiation dose measurement for quality assurance and patient safety purposes. Their response to kV beam show promising potential in development of low cost kV radiation detection devices. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. FPGA based control system for -100 kV, 25 A Crowbarless DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Tripathi, A.; Badapanda, M.K.; Lad, M.

    2015-01-01

    FPGA based digital control system has been developed for -100 kV, 25 A solid state modular crowbarless DC klystron bias power supply of 1 MW, 352.2 MHz RF test stand. The control system has capability to operate this power supply either in CW or pulse mode. Central controller, PSM controller and graphical user interface are key parts of this control system. Central controller monitors the status of various subsystems of this power supply like 11 kV step start unit, four numbers of main transformers each having 44 numbers of secondary windings and 176 numbers of switch power modules for deciding the number of power modules to be put ON and their duty cycles depending on the set output voltage and current. PSM controller sends appropriate control signal to the switch power modules through fibre optic lines and communicates it to the central controller. Linux based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to set the operating parameters along with their trip limits and displays the information of critical parameters of this power supply on a local touch screen panel. Provision for remote control and supervision is also provided through a separate PC connected to the main control system via Ethernet. The control system has capability to trip the power supply within 5 μsec in case any parameter exceeds its set limit. Suitable data logging feature is incorporated for offline fault analysis. The control system architecture along with its software protection interlocks are presented in this paper. The performance of the control system has been verified during operation of -100 kV, 25 A DC power supply with 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier. (author)

  2. Development of 10 kV 4H-SiC JBS diode with FGR termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Runhua; Tao Yonghong; Cao Pengfei; Wang Ling; Li Rui; Chen Gang; Bai Song; Li Yun; Zhao Zhifei

    2014-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and electrical characteristics of the 4H-SiC JBS diode with a breakdown voltage higher than 10 kV are presented. 60 floating guard rings have been used in the fabrication. Numerical simulations have been performed to select the doping level and thickness of the drift layer and the effectiveness of the edge termination technique. The n-type epilayer is 100 μm in thickness with a doping of 6 × 10 14 cm −3 . The on-state voltage was 2.7 V at J F = 13 A/cm 2 . (semiconductor devices)

  3. On low-resistance neutral earthing mode in 20 kV overhead and cable networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of justification and selection of the required single-phase short-circuit current values in cable and overhead networks of 20 kV with low-resistance neutral earthing are considered. It is shown that the desired values of the short-circuit current can be determined on the basis of harmonization of conflicting influencing factors: reliability of the relay protection and automation devices and required resistances of the earthing devices of electrical installations, including personnel safety. In this case, the main influencing factor is the electrical network structure and parameters

  4. Operating characteristics and modeling of the LLNL 100-kV electric gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.; Barnes, G.; Chau, H.H.; Lee, R.S.; Lee, C.; Speer, R.; Weingart, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the electric gun, the explosion of an electrically heated metal foil and the accompanying magnetic forces drive a thin flyer plate up a short barrel. Flyer velocities of up to 18 km/s make the gun useful for hypervelocity impact studies. The authors briefly review the technological evolution of the exploding-metal circuit elements that power the gun, describe the 100-kV electric gun designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in some detail, and present the general principles of electric gun operation. They compare the experimental performance of the LLNL gun with a simple model and with predictions of a magnetohydrodynamics code

  5. Calculation of the electron trajectory for 200 kV self-shielded electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuiqing

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate the electron trajectory of 200 kV self-shielded electron accelerator, the electric field is calculated with a TRAJ program. In this program, following electron track mash points one by one, the electron beam trajectories are calculated. Knowing the effect of grid voltage on electron optics and gaining grid voltage focusing effect in the various energy grades, the authors have gained scientific basis for adjusting grid voltage, and also accumulated a wealth of experience for designing self-shielded electron accelerator or electron curtain in future

  6. PLTS Transformerless Tegangan 20 kV menggunakan Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGGARA BRAJAMUSTHI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Aplikasi dari inverter multilevel pada sistem Pusat Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS dapat menghilangkan kebutuhan terhadap transformator, sehingga dapat mengurangi biaya investasi, mengurangi kompleksitas instalasi dan menghilangkan rugi-rugi daya transformator. Pada penelitian ini, sebuah inverter dengan topologi Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter dirancang agar mampu mengubah tegangan rendah DC dari beberapa Photovoltaic (PV array menjadi tegangan fasa-fasa 20 kV AC. Perancangan menghasilkan sebuah inverter 3 fasa 27-level dimana setiap level masing-masing memiliki PV array, DC-DC boost converter, H-bridge inverter, dan keluaran 3 fasa terhubung dengan filter LCL. Setiap komponen dari inverter dan sistem tersebut kemudian dimodelkan pada MATLAB Simulink untuk mensimulasikan kinerja dari setiap komponen dan sistem pada Standard Test Condition (STC dari modul PV. Pada keadaan STC, daya 3 fasa maksimum yang dapat dihasilkan adalah 1,716 MW atau 68,54% dari daya DC maksimum sebesar 2,5 MWp. Sistem dapat menghasilkan tegangan fasa-fasa keluaran sebesar 20 kV dengan Total Harmonic Distortion (THD di bawah 5%. Kata kunci: Pusat Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS, photovoltaic, Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter ABSTRACT The application of Multilevel Inverter in a Photovoltaic Solar Power Plant system could eliminate the needs of step-up transformer, which will reduce the system investment cost, simplify the system installation and also eliminate power losses of the transformer. In this paper, an inverter design was proposed with Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter topology that is capable of converting low voltage DC power from several PV arrays into 20 kV AC power. The design resulted a 3 phase 27-level inverter where each level in the inverter has its own photovoltaic array, DC-DC boost converter, H-bridge inverter, and the 3 phase output is connected to LCL filter. Each component of the Inverter and the system were then modelled in MATLAB

  7. WE-G-18A-02: Calibration-Free Combined KV/MV Short Scan CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M; Loo, B; Bazalova, M; Fahrig, R [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Star-Lack, J [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To combine orthogonal kilo-voltage (kV) and Mega-voltage (MV) projection data for short scan cone-beam CT to reduce imaging time on current radiation treatment systems, using a calibration-free gain correction method. Methods: Combining two orthogonal projection data sets for kV and MV imaging hardware can reduce the scan angle to as small as 110° (90°+fan) such that the total scan time is ∼18 seconds, or within a breath hold. To obtain an accurate reconstruction, the MV projection data is first linearly corrected using linear regression using the redundant data from the start and end of the sinogram, and then the combined data is reconstructed using the FDK method. To correct for the different changes of attenuation coefficients in kV/MV between soft tissue and bone, the forward projection of the segmented bone and soft tissue from the first reconstruction in the redundant region are added to the linear regression model. The MV data is corrected again using the additional information from the segmented image, and combined with kV for a second FDK reconstruction. We simulated polychromatic 120 kVp (conventional a-Si EPID with CsI) and 2.5 MVp (prototype high-DQE MV detector) projection data with Poisson noise using the XCAT phantom. The gain correction and combined kV/MV short scan reconstructions were tested with head and thorax cases, and simple contrast-to-noise ratio measurements were made in a low-contrast pattern in the head. Results: The FDK reconstruction using the proposed gain correction method can effectively reduce artifacts caused by the differences of attenuation coefficients in the kV/MV data. The CNRs of the short scans for kV, MV, and kV/MV are 5.0, 2.6 and 3.4 respectively. The proposed gain correction method also works with truncated projections. Conclusion: A novel gain correction and reconstruction method was developed to generate short scan CBCT from orthogonal kV/MV projections. This work is supported by NIH Grant 5R01CA138426-05.

  8. SU-F-J-16: Planar KV Imaging Dose Reduction Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershkevitsh, E; Zolotuhhin, D [North Estonia Medical Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: IGRT has become an indispensable tool in modern radiotherapy with kV imaging used in many departments due to superior image quality and lower dose when compared to MV imaging. Many departments use manufacturer supplied protocols for imaging which are not always optimised between image quality and radiation dose (ALARA). Methods: Whole body phantom PBU-50 (Kyoto Kagaku ltd., Japan) for imaging in radiology has been imaged on Varian iX accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, USA) with OBI 1.5 system. Manufacturer’s default protocols were adapted by modifying kV and mAs values when imaging different anatomical regions of the phantom (head, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, extremities). Images with different settings were independently reviewed by two persons and their suitability for IGRT set-up correction protocols were evaluated. The suitable images with the lowest mAs were then selected. The entrance surface dose (ESD) for manufacturer’s default protocols and modified protocols were measured with RTI Black Piranha (RTI Group, Sweden) and compared. Image quality was also measured with kVQC phantom (Standard Imaging, USA) for different protocols. The modified protocols have been applied for clinical work. Results: For most cases optimized protocols reduced the ESD on average by a factor of 3(range 0.9–8.5). Further reduction in ESD has been observed by applying bow-tie filter designed for CBCT. The largest reduction in dose (12.2 times) was observed for Thorax lateral protocol. The dose was slightly increased (by 10%) for large pelvis AP protocol. Conclusion: Manufacturer’s default IGRT protocols could be optimised to reduce the ESD to the patient without losing the necessary image quality for patient set-up correction. For patient set-up with planar kV imaging the bony anatomy is mostly used and optimization should focus on this aspect. Therefore, the current approach with anthropomorphic phantom is more advantageous in optimization over standard kV quality

  9. A 350 KV nanosecond pulse voltage generator with adjustable pulsed-width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, M.; Chen, Y.Q.; Zeng, L.G.; Han, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a 350 kV nanosecond pulse voltage generator (NPVG). The voltage pulsed-width can be adjusted from 30 to 160 ns. The generator consists of: Marx generator, pulsed forming line (PFL), main switch and matched impedance. The output voltage of Marx generator is over than nU c (n- the stage number of Marx generator, U c -the charging voltage of capacitor). When the pulse forming line is terminated with an impedance that is over than the characteristic impedance of PFL, the higher voltage pulse was provided for the load

  10. Scale model test on a novel 400 kV double-circuit composite pylon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    This paper investigates lightning shielding performance of a novel 400 kV double-circuit composite pylon, with the method of scale model test. Lightning strikes to overhead lines were simulated by long-gap discharges between a high voltage electrode with an impulse voltage and equivalent conductors...... around the pylon is discussed. Combined test results and striking distance equation in electro-geometric model, the approximate maximum lightning current that can lead to shielding failure is calculated. Test results verify that the unusual negative shielding angle of - 60° in the composite pylon meets...... requirement and the shielding wires provide acceptable protection from lightning strikes....

  11. Development of a high current 250 kV photocathode dc gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Ryoji; Sawamura, Masaru; Hajima, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a high current photocathode dc gun at JAEA for the next generation light sources such as an energy recovery linac and high-repetition rate X-ray free electron laser. The gun is equipped with a multialkali photocathode preparation system. Quantum efficiency of 0.37% at 532 nm was obtained for a Cs_3Sb photocathode. The gun was high voltage conditioned up to 230 kV with a cathode electrode. Beam generation test from the multialkali photocathode will be performed by the end of FY2015. (author)

  12. Off-resonance transformer charging for 250-kV water Blumlein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.; Reginato, L.

    1978-01-01

    An off-resonance transformer for charging a 250-kV Blumlein system provides a viable alternative to other charging schemes by permitting the use of conventional thyratrons. Such a transformer must have reliability, a reasonable voltage step-up, and a non-reversing primary current. The analysis, design, and performance data for such a transformer are presented. The strong interrelationship between transformer design and Blumlein requirements necessitates that Blumlein description and design criterion be briefly presented prior to transformer design such that transformer load requirements be defined

  13. Pharmacological activation of Kv11.1 in transgenic long QT-1 rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Bahrke, Sophia; Wu, Kezhong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing pore mutants of K(V)7.1 display a long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1) phenotype. Recently, NS1643 has been described to increase I(Kr).We hypothesized that NS1643 would shorten the action potential duration (APD(90)) in LQT1 rabbits. Transgenic LQT1 rabbits were compared...... with littermate control (LMC) rabbits. In vivo electrocardiogram studies in sedated animals were performed at baseline and during 45 minutes of intravenous infusion of NS1643 or vehicle in a crossover design. Ex vivo monophasic action potentials were recorded from Langendorff-perfused hearts at baseline...

  14. A 150 kV Isolation Transformer for a Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechthummarong, C.; Pratumtip, P.; Thongleurm, C.; Vichaimongkol, P.; Charoennugul, R.; Vilaithong, T.

    1998-01-01

    The work aims at the design and construction of a 150 kV isolation transformer for a neutron generator. The transformer windings are designed to use cylindrical layers with circular enamel copper wires. The insulation of the dry type transformer uses the epoxy resin for encapsulated winding. This insulation is non-flammable under temperature 350 degree celsius and the breakdown voltage is 10-18 kV/mm. This insulation is suitable for insulating high voltage. The design of provides the temperature rise of winding not exceeding 65 degree celsius for protection of the cracking of epoxy resin due to the expansion of winding

  15. Outlook for use of 10 kV voltage in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshchenko, N.I.; Nabokov, E.P.; Razumnyy, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    Based on technical-economic studies of the models of the plans for electricity supply, the economic expediency is shown of comprehensive implementation of measures for transition of high-voltage equipment of the mines to voltage of 10 kV with simultaneous improvement in the permissible power of short circuiting to 150 MV X A. Technical problems were examined which are associated with creation of explosion-safe electrical equipment, corresponding to the new technical requirements for the system of electricity supply of the coal mine.

  16. Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power

  17. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line generator of high voltage pulses modulated at 4 GHz frequency with 1000 Hz pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmasculov, M R; Sharypov, K A; Shunailov, S A; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Pedos, M S; Rukin, S N

    2017-01-01

    Results of testing of a generator based on a solid-state drive and the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with external bias are presented. Stable rf-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels in 1 s packets with 1000 Hz repetition frequencies. Pulse amplitude reaches -175 kV, at a modulation depth of rf-oscillations to 50 % and the effective frequency ∼4 GHz. (paper)

  18. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  19. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  20. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keil, Andreas [microDimensions GmbH, Munich 81379 (Germany); Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Zhu, Lei [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Methods: Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. Results: The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10–15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%–10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. Conclusions: The authors have shown that it

  1. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meng; Keil, Andreas; Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Methods: Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. Results: The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10–15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%–10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. Conclusions: The authors have shown that it

  2. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Keil, Andreas; Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10-15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%-10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. The authors have shown that it is possible to improve the image quality of

  3. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. 30 kV/10 mA solid state anode modulator for gyrotron plasma heating: design issues and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasel, D.; Lucia, C.; Ganuza, D.; Doyharzabal, I.

    2001-01-01

    Three 30 kV/10 mA solid state pulsed modulators have been delivered to the CRPP in Lausanne, by the company JEMA. Each modulator supplies the anode grid of a triode type gyrotron, used for heating purpose at the third harmonic in the TCV Tokamak. The main parameters of the final design are: the use of solid state technology, a floating output referred to the -80 kV of the gyrotron cathode potential, an output voltage range of -5 to 30 kV, 1 kHz square and sinusoidal modulation, fast switching off to -5 kV (10 μs) and pulsed operation (duty cycle of 1%). After studying and testing a solution based on regulated Mosfet transistors in series, a more stable alternative has been adopted. The final topology consists of a rectifier fed from an insulated 230 V input, a chopper, two inverter steps (for +30 and -5 kV) supplying two diode rectifiers bridges through HV transformers with two switches which commute the load to the positive or negative voltage, connected in series. This article presents the most significant aspects of the design, with special emphasis on the control principle. The final results will be presented in the context of normal operation, supplying a triode gyrotron

  5. Comparison of the quality of the chest film between digital radiography and conventional high kV radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Cen Renli; Chen Ling; He Jianxun; Lin Hanfei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality and usefulness of direct digital radiography system in roentgenogram of chest in clinical practice. Methods: 1000 cases of chest roentgenograms with digital radiography and high kV conventional radiography were selected for analysis by 3 senior radiologists. Results: 1. With digital radiography system, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 50.6%, grade B in 38.5%, grade C in 10.9%, and no waste film. 2. With conventional high kV radiography, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 41.1%, grade B in 44.1%, grade C in 13.3%, and waste film in 1.5%. The direct digital radiography was statistically superior to the conventional high kV radiography. 3. The fine structure of the lungs could be revealed in 100.0% of chest roentgenogram with direct digital radiograph system, which was significantly higher than that acquired with the conventional high KV radiography (78.6%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Direct digital radiography could provide the chest film with better quality than that with the conventional high kV radiography. The direct digital radiography system is easy to operate, fast in capturing imaging and could provide post-processing techniques, which will facilitate the accurate diagnosis of chest radiography

  6. Localization and function of the Kv3.1b subunit in the rat medulla oblongata: focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Mark L; Atkinson, Lucy; Milligan, Carol J; Morris, Neil P; Lewis, David I; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.1 confers fast firing characteristics to neurones. Kv3.1b subunit immunoreactivity (Kv3.1b-IR) was widespread throughout the medulla oblongata, with labelled neurones in the gracile, cuneate and spinal trigeminal nuclei. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), Kv3.1b-IR neurones were predominantly located close to the tractus solitarius (TS) and could be GABAergic or glutamatergic. Ultrastructurally, Kv3.1b-IR was detected in NTS terminals, some of which were vagal afferents. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings from neurones near the TS revealed electrophysiological characteristics consistent with the presence of Kv3.1b subunits: short duration action potentials (4.2 ± 1.4 ms) and high firing frequencies (68.9 ± 5.3 Hz), both sensitive to application of TEA (0.5 mm) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 30 μm). Intracellular dialysis of an anti-Kv3.1b antibody mimicked and occluded the effects of TEA and 4-AP in NTS and dorsal column nuclei neurones, but not in dorsal vagal nucleus or cerebellar Purkinje cells (which express other Kv3 subunits, but not Kv3.1b). Voltage-clamp recordings from outside-out patches from NTS neurones revealed an outward K+ current with the basic characteristics of that carried by Kv3 channels. In NTS neurones, electrical stimulation of the TS evoked EPSPs and IPSPs, and TEA and 4-AP increased the average amplitude and decreased the paired pulse ratio, consistent with a presynaptic site of action. Synaptic inputs evoked by stimulation of a region lacking Kv3.1b-IR neurones were not affected, correlating the presence of Kv3.1b in the TS with the pharmacological effects. PMID:15528247

  7. Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line project, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to replace the existing 36-mile Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line which has reached the end of its useful service life. Presently, the overall condition of this existing section of the 47-year-old line is poor. Frequent repairs have been required because of the absence of overhead ground wires. The continued maintenance of the line will become more expensive and customer interruptions will persist because of the damage due to lightning. The expense of replacing shell rotted poles, and the concern for the safety of the maintenance personnel because of hazards caused by severe shell rot are also of primary importance. The operational and maintenance problems coupled with power system simulation studies, demonstrate the need for improvements to the Wolf Point area to serve area loads. Western's Wolf Point Substation is an important point of interconnection for the power output from the Fort Peck Dam to area loads as far away as Williston, North Dakota. The proposed transmission line replacement would assure that there will continue to be reliable transmission capacity available to serve area electrical loads, as well as provide a reliable second high-voltage transmission path from the Fort Peck generation to back-up a loss of the Fort Peck-Wolf Point 115-kV Line No. 1

  8. Sensor Placement For Structural Monitoring of Transmission Line Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eRaphael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are usually analyzed using linear elastic idealized truss models. Due to the assumptions used in the analysis, there are discrepancies between the actual results obtained from full scale prototype testing and the analytical results. Therefore, design engineers are interested in assessing the actual stress levels in transmission line towers. Since it is costly to place sensors on every member of a tower structure, the best locations for sensors need to be carefully selected. This study evaluates a methodology for sensor placement in transmission line towers. The objective is to find optimal locations for sensors such that the real behavior of the structure can be explained from measurements. The methodology is based on the concepts of entropy and model falsification. Sensor locations are selected based on maximum entropy such that there is maximum separation between model instances that represent different possible combinations of parameter values which have uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of an intuitive method in which sensor locations are selected where the forces are maximum. A typical 220 kV transmission tower is taken as case study in this paper. It is shown that the intuitive method results in much higher number of non-separable models compared to the optimal sensor placement algorithm. Thus the intuitive method results in poor identification of the system.

  9. An operational 150 kV microfocus rod anode X-ray system for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontijn, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes an operational state of the art 150 kV microfocus rod anode X-ray system having ultra-high radiographic resolution capabilities. A cocal spot size of 0.050 mm is provided. Heretofore unattainable long rod anode lengths coupled with very small diameters are now possible using mini-magnetic lens technology. Over-all rod anode diameters as small as 9 mm with useful lengths of 1 m or more are possible, permitting panoramic inspections where previously only lower resolution radioisotope radiographic techniques were possible. Radiographic sensitivity of better than 1% has been reported with film-focal-distances on the order of 8 mm through 3 mm of steel. The system has been successfully applied to steam generator and heat exchanger tube-to-tubesheet weldments in both Europe and the USA. Other application areas include marine and aircraft jet engine inspection and numerous other applications where high reliability requirements indicate the use of a ultra-sensitive radiographic technique as is routinely demonstrated with the 150 kV Microfocus Rod Anode X-ray System. (orig.) [de

  10. 100 kV solid-state switch for fusion heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, B.; Bertrand, E.; Brugnetti, R.; Chatroux, D.; Kazarian, F.; Milly, R.; Prou, M.; Rigole, H.

    2005-01-01

    Power switching in RF heating systems is a delicate function as it is often linked to high power tube protection. In most RF systems, the end stage power tube is fed by a high voltage power supply (HVPS), which connection to the tube has to be interrupted in case of arc suspicion. The amount of energy that is allowable to be dissipated in the arc is in the range of 10-50 J, to limit the degradations observed on the tube structures. The protection function is usually performed by a crowbar. Furthermore, the HVPS is often shared by several power tubes, and the loss of all the power from the group of tubes is to be avoided to minimize the perturbation on the plasma experiment. A description of a 40 kV thyristor based crowbar and a 100 kV, 25 A MOSFET switch is given, as well as the contours of the existing components for high power switching applications. By combining small components, such as thyristors or MOSFET, in matrix, highly compact and reliable units have been built and implemented in Tore Supra RF systems

  11. Trailing (L5) Neptune Trojans: 2004 KV18 and 2008 LC18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Pu; Zhou Liyong; Li Jian

    2012-01-01

    The population of Neptune Trojans is believed to be bigger than that of Jupiter Trojans and that of asteroids in the main belt, although only eight members of this distant asteroid swarm have been observed up to now. Six leading Neptune Trojans around the Lagrange point L 4 discovered earlier have been studied in detail, but two trailing ones found recently around the L 5 point, 2004 KV18 and 2008 LC18, have not yet been investigated. We report our investigations on the dynamical behaviors of these two new Neptune Trojans. Our calculations show that the asteroid 2004 KV18 is a temporary Neptune Trojan. Most probably, it was captured into the trailing Trojan cloud no earlier than 2.03 × 10 5 yr ago, and it will not maintain this position later than 1.65 × 10 5 yr in the future. Based on the statistics from our orbital simulations, we argue that this object is more like a scattered Kuiper belt object. By contrast, the orbit of 2008 LC18 is much more stable. Among the clone orbits spreading within the orbital uncertainties, a considerable portion of clones may survive on the L 5 tadpole orbits for 4 Gyr. The strong dependence of the stability on the semimajor axis and resonant angle suggests that further observations are badly required to constrain the orbit in the stable region. We also discuss the implications of the existence and dynamics of these two trailing Trojans over the history of the solar system.

  12. Engineering of beam direct conversion for a 120-kV, 1-MW ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Doggett, J.N.; Hamilton, G.W.; Kinney, J.D.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Practical systems for beam direct conversion are required to recover the energy from ion beams at high efficiency and at very high beam power densities in the environment of a high-power, neutral-injection system. Such an experiment is now in progress using a 120-kV beam with a maximum total current of 20 A. After neutralization, the H + component to be recovered will have a power of approximately 1MW. A system testing these concepts has been designed and tested at 15 kV, 2 kW in preparation for the full-power tests. The engineering problems involved in the full-power tests affect electron suppression, gas pumping, voltage holding, diagnostics, and measurement conditions. Planning for future experiments at higher power includes the use of cryopumping and electron suppression by a magnetic field rather than by an electrostatic field. Beam direct conversion for large fusion experiments and reactors will save millions of dollars in the cost of power supplies and electricity and will dispose of the charged beam under conditions that may mot be possible by other techniques

  13. Minimal exposure technique in the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, J.R.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Smith, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation damage due to the incident electron beam imposes a fundamental limitation on the information obtainable by electron microscopy about organic materials; it is desirable therefore that exposure of the specimen to the electron beam should be restricted to the actual period during which the image is being recorded. A description is given of methods employed in the observation of the organic aromatic hydrocarbons quaterrylene, ovalene and coronene with the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope (HREM). In particular, the condenser-objective mode of operation of this microscope lends itself to the use of an area-defining aperture below the second condenser lens conjugate with the specimen. Furthermore, operation at the higher accelerating voltage of this instrument could be anticipated to reduce the rate of damage, depending on the dominant beam-specimen interaction, whilst the increased width of the first broad band of the contrast transfer function of this microscope at the optimum defocus may overcome the reported resolution limitation of current 100kV microscopes for the observation of related materials. (author)

  14. Taurine activates delayed rectifier KV channels via a metabotropic pathway in retinal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Simon; Liu, Yufei; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude of functional roles, the precise mechanism underlying taurine's actions has not yet been identified. In this study we report findings that indicate a novel role for taurine in the regulation of voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium (KV) channels in retinal neurons by means of a metabotropic receptor pathway. The metabotropic taurine response was insensitive to the Cl− channel blockers, picrotoxin and strychnine, but it was inhibited by a specific serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL11939. Moreover, we found that taurine enhanced KV channels via intracellular protein kinase C-mediated pathways. When 5-HT2A receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, taurine and AL34662, a non-specific 5-HT2 receptor activator, produced a similar regulation of KIR channels. In sum, this study provides new evidence that taurine activates a serotonin system, apparently via 5-HT2A receptors and related intracellular pathways. PMID:23045337

  15. Engineering of beam direct conversion for a 120-kV, 1-MW ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Doggett, J.N.; Hamilton, G.W.; Kinney, J.D.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Practical systems for beam direct conversion are required to recover the energy from ion beams at high efficiency and at very high beam power densities in the environment of a high-power, neutral-injection system. Such an experiment is now in progress using a 120-kV beam with a maximum total current of 20 A. After neutralization, the H + component to be recovered will have a power of approximately 1 MW. A system testing these concepts has been designed and tested at 15 kV, 2 kW in preparation for the full-power tests. The engineering problems involved in the full-power tests affect electron suppression, gas pumping, voltage holding, diagnostics, and measurement conditions. Planning for future experiments at higher power includes the use of cryopumping and electron suppression by a magnetic field rather than by an electrostatic field. Beam direct conversion for large fusion experiments and reactors will save millions of dollars in the cost of power supplies and electricity and will dispose of the charged beam under conditions that may not be possible by other techniques

  16. Image quality at low tube voltage (70 kV) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction for computed tomography in infants with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Keita; Shimohira, Masashi; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ohashi, Kazuya; Asano, Miki; Yamaguchi, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Lower tube voltage has advantages for CT angiography, such as improved contrast To evaluate the image quality of low-voltage (70 kV) CT for congenital heart disease and the ability of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction to improve image quality. Forty-six children with congenital heart disease (median age: 109 days) were examined using dual-source CT. Scans were performed at 80 kV and 70 kV in 21 and 25 children, respectively. A nonionic iodinated contrast medium (300 mg I/ml) was used for the 80-kV protocol. The contrast medium was diluted to 75% (225 mgI/mL) with saline for the 70-kV protocol. Image noise was measured in the two protocols for each group by extracting the standard deviations of a region of interest placed on the descending aorta. We then determined whether sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction reduced the image noise at 70 kV. There was more noise at 70 kV than at 80 kV (29 ± 12 vs 20 ± 4.8; P < 0.01). Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction with grade 4 strength settings improved the noise (20 ± 5.9; P < 0.01) for the 70-kV group. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction improved the image quality of CT in congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  17. Image quality at low tube voltage (70 kV) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction for computed tomography in infants with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Keita; Shimohira, Masashi; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuya [Nagoya City University Hospital, Division of Central Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Asano, Miki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Nagoya (Japan); Yamaguchi, Sachiko [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Lower tube voltage has advantages for CT angiography, such as improved contrast To evaluate the image quality of low-voltage (70 kV) CT for congenital heart disease and the ability of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction to improve image quality. Forty-six children with congenital heart disease (median age: 109 days) were examined using dual-source CT. Scans were performed at 80 kV and 70 kV in 21 and 25 children, respectively. A nonionic iodinated contrast medium (300 mg I/ml) was used for the 80-kV protocol. The contrast medium was diluted to 75% (225 mgI/mL) with saline for the 70-kV protocol. Image noise was measured in the two protocols for each group by extracting the standard deviations of a region of interest placed on the descending aorta. We then determined whether sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction reduced the image noise at 70 kV. There was more noise at 70 kV than at 80 kV (29 ± 12 vs 20 ± 4.8; P < 0.01). Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction with grade 4 strength settings improved the noise (20 ± 5.9; P < 0.01) for the 70-kV group. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction improved the image quality of CT in congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of the Magnetic Fields from High-Voltage (230 kV Substations in Tehran and Assessment of Their Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Sharifi Fard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent industrial developments in human societies have caused rapid advancements in technologies of production and distribution of electricity, which in turn result in enhancement of power networks and utilization of high voltages. These networks and the high voltages in transfer lines cause the exposure to electric and magnetic fields. In this study, the situation regarding the magnetic fields from high-voltage (230 kV substations in Tehran was investigated. Material and Methods: In this study, 8 high-voltage (230 kV substations were selected (Shous, Shahid Firouzi, Ozgol, Kan, Tehranpars, Azadegan, Ghorkhane and Besat substations. The premises of each substation was divided into some stations and measurements were done in each one. Measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 Standard in a way that the device, specifically its probe, was kept at a height of 1 meter above the ground surface. Then, we tried to examine the probable effects of exposure to magnetic fields through the Essex questionnaire, with Cronbach coefficient of 94%, completed by the employees of the substations. These questionnaires were completed by substation operators as an exposed group (36 persons and the employees of the office section of the Tehran regional electric company as a witness group (32 persons. Results: The measured density in none of the stations exceeded the standard limits of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. With regard to the questionnaire results about mental and neurological, cardiac and respiratory, and gastrointestinal and auditory disorders, we observed significant differences between witness and exposed groups, however, regarding skin allergies, there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Among all control rooms, the highest measured magnetic field was 6.9 mG in the Ozgol Substation Control Room and the lowest was 2 mG in the post of Shahid Firouzi. The control room of Ozgol

  19. Electrostatic induction under the Tanashi test transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitani, Y; Yokata, S

    1964-06-01

    Experimental results are given on the electrostatic voltage induced in small and medium-sized motorcars under the Tanashi 800 kV Test Transmission Line, which is of horizontal arrangement, 200 m span, four bundle conductors and average height of 13.52 m. The induced voltage was measured between 1600 and 3000 V under the line voltage of 520 kV. The voltage and current were measured with four kinds of model motorcars in air and water, and results of the measurements are compared with those of actual measurements with good agreements. The values of capacity and leakage resistance, whose parallel circuit was considered to represent an equivalent circuit of the motorcar, were measured with a Maxwell-Wien bridge at frequencies between 30 and 1000 c/s. It was found that the values at 60 c/s were measured to be approximately six or seven times higher than its values at 1000 c/s, and that new tires have higher conductivities than the old ones, reducing the electrostatic induction voltage by a large amount.

  20. Dimensional verification and location of the reactive static compensator in 220 kV; Verificacion del dimensionamiento y ubicacion del compensador estatico de reactivos en 220 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Krekeler, Ubaldo [Administracion Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE), Asuncion (Paraguay)]. E-mail: ufernandez@ieee.org; Cardozo Sanchez, Freddy [Mirant Americas (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a determination verification of the compensation range and the location of reactive static compensator (RSC) in 220 kV. The verification is accomplished by analyses of the RSC effects in relation to the losses, loading and system voltage stability. The needed compensation range is investigated in full details, whereas that the required conversion level is directly related to this range. It is concluded that the RSC installation, foreseen for 2002, might be postponed for 2005/10 still without reinforcements in 500 kV. The Limpio substation seems to be the more suitable location in relation to the most analysed cases.