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Sample records for kumaun himalayan region

  1. Estimation and applicability of attenuation characteristics for source parameters and scaling relations in the Garhwal Kumaun Himalaya region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Paul, Ajay; Kumar, Arjun; Kumar, Parveen; Sundriyal, Y. P.

    2018-06-01

    Source parameters of the small to moderate earthquakes are significant for understanding the dynamic rupture process, the scaling relations of the earthquakes and for assessment of seismic hazard potential of a region. In this study, the source parameters were determined for 58 small to moderate size earthquakes (3.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 5.0) occurred during 2007-2015 in the Garhwal-Kumaun region. The estimated shear wave quality factor (Qβ(f)) values for each station at different frequencies have been applied to eliminate any bias in the determination of source parameters. The Qβ(f) values have been estimated by using coda wave normalization method in the frequency range 1.5-16 Hz. A frequency-dependent S wave quality factor relation is obtained as Qβ(f) = (152.9 ± 7) f(0.82±0.005) by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole study region. The spectral (low-frequency spectral level and corner frequency) and source (static stress drop, seismic moment, apparent stress and radiated energy) parameters are obtained assuming ω-2 source model. The displacement spectra are corrected for estimated frequency-dependent attenuation, site effect using spectral decay parameter "Kappa". The frequency resolution limit was resolved by quantifying the bias in corner frequencies, stress drop and radiated energy estimates due to finite-bandwidth effect. The data of the region shows shallow focused earthquakes with low stress drop. The estimation of Zúñiga parameter (ε) suggests the partial stress drop mechanism in the region. The observed low stress drop and apparent stress can be explained by partial stress drop and low effective stress model. Presence of subsurface fluid at seismogenic depth certainly manipulates the dynamics of the region. However, the limited event selection may strongly bias the scaling relation even after taking as much as possible precaution in considering effects of finite bandwidth, attenuation and site corrections

  2. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

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    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra

    2018-01-01

    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Enhancing Earth Observation Capacity in the Himalayan Region

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    Shrestha, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observations bear special significance in the Himalayan Region owing to the fact that routine data collections are often hampered by highly inaccessible terrain and harsh climatic conditions. The ongoing rapid environmental changes have further emphasized its relevance and use for informed decision-making. The International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), with a regional mandate is promoting the use of earth observations in line with the GEOSS societal benefit areas. ICIMOD has a proven track record to utilize earth observations notably in the areas of understanding glaciers and snow dynamics, disaster risk preparedness and emergency response, carbon estimation for community forestry user groups, land cover change assessment, agriculture monitoring and food security analysis among others. This paper presents the challenges and lessons learned as a part of capacity building of ICIMOD to utilize earth observations with the primary objectives to empower its member countries and foster regional cooperation. As a part of capacity building, ICIMOD continues to make its efforts to augment as a regional resource center on earth observation and geospatial applications for sustainable mountain development. Capacity building possesses multitude of challenges in the region: the complex geo-political reality with differentiated capacities of member states, poorer institutional and technical infrastructure; addressing the needs for multiple user and target groups; integration with different thematic disciplines; and high resources intensity and sustainability. A capacity building framework was developed based on detailed needs assessment with a regional approach and strategy to enhance capability of ICIMOD and its network of national partners. A specialized one-week training course and curriculum have been designed for different thematic areas to impart knowledge and skills that include development practitioners, professionals, researchers and

  4. Tree-ring footprints of drought variability in last ˜300 years over Kumaun Himalaya, India and its relationship with crop productivity

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    Yadav, Ram R.; Misra, Krishna G.; Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Kotlia, Bahadur S.; Misra, Sandhya

    2015-06-01

    We reconstructed Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a metric of drought, using tree-ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) prepared from two ecologically homogeneous settings in the Kumaun Himalaya, India. The reconstruction employing first principal component of the two site chronologies in linear regression model helped in extending 7-month SPI of May (SPI7-May) back to 1720 CE. The calibration model capturing 60% of variance in the observed SPI series (1902-1967) is the strongest so far from the Indian region. On achieving such a robust tree-ring calibration we are of the opinion that SPI should provide a better option to develop long-term drought records for the data scarce Himalayan region. The SPI reconstruction revealed high year-to-year variability with 1816 (SPI -1.92) and 1737 (SPI +2.33) the driest and the wettest years respectively. The five year mean of reconstructed SPI revealed multiyear droughts in 1920-1924, 1782-1786, 1812-1816, 1744-1748, 1964-1968 and pluvial phases in 1911-1915, 1723-1727, 1788-1792, 1758-1762 and 1733-1737. The SPI7-May was found to be significantly correlated with wheat-barley productivity data of Almora in Kumaun, close to our tree ring sites (r = 0.60, two-tailed p cedar trees are in active vegetation phase of seasonal growth in Almora region. We observed strong and significant correlation in SPI7-May and SPI7-April (r = 0.75, two-tailed p = 0.0001) underpinning that the tree-ring derived SPI7-May could also be taken as a proxy of wheat-barley production in Almora region. This observation also stands for the past as we noted that most of the droughts recorded in our reconstruction (SPI tree rings should serve as an important base line data to quantify the impact of droughts on forest as well as rabi crop productivity in hilly terrains of the Kumaun Himalaya in long-term perspective.

  5. Measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rate from soil samples of Kumaun Hills, India

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    Semwal, Poonam; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, T. K.; Joshi, Manish; Pant, Preeti; Kandari, Tushar; Ramola, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The source terms, i.e., exhalation and emanation from soil and building materials are the primary contributors to the radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) concentration levels in the dwellings, while the ecological constraints like ventilation rate, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., are the influencing factors. The present study is focused on Almora District of Kumaun, located in Himalayan belt of Uttarakhand, India. For the measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates, 24 soil samples were collected from different locations. Gamma radiation level was measured at each of these locations. Chamber technique associated with Smart Rn Duo portable monitor was employed for the estimation of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates. Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) concentrations were also measured in soil samples using NaI(Tl) scintillation based gamma ray spectrometry. The mass exhalation rate for 222Rn was varying between 16 and 54 mBq/kg/h, while the 220Rn surface exhalation rate was in the range of 0.65-6.43 Bq/m2/s. Measured gamma dose rate for the same region varied from 0.10 to 0.31 µSv/h. Inter-correlation of exhalation rates and intra-correlation with background gamma levels were studied.

  6. CMIP5 based downscaled temperature over Western Himalayan region

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    Dutta, M.; Das, L.; Meher, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Limited numbers of reliable temperature data is available for assessing warming over the Western Himalayan Region (WHR) of India. India meteorological Department provided many stations having more than 30% missing values. Stations having values, were replaced using the Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 16 stations having continuous records during 1969-2009 were considered as the "reference stations" for assessing the trends in addition to evaluate the Coupled Model Intercomparison, phase 5 (CMIP5) Global Circulation Model(GCMs). Station data indicates higher and rapid (1.41oC) winter warming than the other seasons and least warming was observed in the post monsoon (0.31oC) season. Mean annual warming is 0.84 oC during 1969-2009 indicating the warming over the WHR is more than double the global warming (0.85oC during 1880-2012). The performance of 34 CMIP5 models was evaluated through three different approaches namely comparison of: i) mean seasonal cycle ii) temporal trends and iii) spatial correlation and a rank was assigned to each GCM. How the better performing GCMs able to reproduce the observed spatial details were verified the ERA-interim reanalysis data. Finally station level future downscaled winter temperature has constructed using Empirical Statistical Downscaling (ESD) technique where 2 meter air temperature (T2m) is considered as predictor and station temperature as predictant. Future range of downscaled temperature change for the stations Dheradun, Manali and Gulmarg are 1.3-6.1OC, 1.1-5.8OC and 0.5-5.8OC respectively at the end of 21st century.

  7. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

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    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  8. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Himalayan-Tibetan Region from Historical and Instrumental Earthquake Catalogs

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    Rahman, M. Moklesur; Bai, Ling; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Li, Guohui

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan region has a long history of devastating earthquakes with wide-spread casualties and socio-economic damages. Here, we conduct the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by incorporating the incomplete historical earthquake records along with the instrumental earthquake catalogs for the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Historical earthquake records back to more than 1000 years ago and an updated, homogenized and declustered instrumental earthquake catalog since 1906 are utilized. The essential seismicity parameters, namely, the mean seismicity rate γ, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, and the maximum expected magnitude M max are estimated using the maximum likelihood algorithm assuming the incompleteness of the catalog. To compute the hazard value, three seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) and two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined by means of a logic tree on accounting the epistemic uncertainties. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at 0.2 and 1.0 s are predicted for 2 and 10% probabilities of exceedance over 50 years assuming bedrock condition. The resulting PGA and SA maps show a significant spatio-temporal variation in the hazard values. In general, hazard value is found to be much higher than the previous studies for regions, where great earthquakes have actually occurred. The use of the historical and instrumental earthquake catalogs in combination of multiple seismogenic source models provides better seismic hazard constraints for the Himalayan-Tibetan region.

  9. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  10. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region

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    Bajaj, Ketan; Anbazhagan, P.

    2018-01-01

    Advancement in the seismic networks results in formulation of different functional forms for developing any new ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for a region. Till date, various guidelines and tools are available for selecting a suitable GMPE for any seismic study area. However, these methods are efficient in quantifying the GMPE but not for determining a proper functional form and capturing the epistemic uncertainty associated with selection of GMPE. In this study, the compatibility of the recent available functional forms for the active region is tested for distance and magnitude scaling. Analysis is carried out by determining the residuals using the recorded and the predicted spectral acceleration values at different periods. Mixed effect regressions are performed on the calculated residuals for determining the intra- and interevent residuals. Additionally, spatial correlation is used in mixed effect regression by changing its likelihood function. Distance scaling and magnitude scaling are respectively examined by studying the trends of intraevent residuals with distance and the trend of the event term with magnitude. Further, these trends are statistically studied for a respective functional form of a ground motion. Additionally, genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method are used respectively for calculating the hinge point and standard error for magnitude and distance scaling for a newly determined functional form. The whole procedure is applied and tested for the available strong motion data for the Himalayan region. The functional form used for testing are five Himalayan GMPEs, five GMPEs developed under NGA-West 2 project, two from Pan-European, and one from Japan region. It is observed that bilinear functional form with magnitude and distance hinged at 6.5 M w and 300 km respectively is suitable for the Himalayan region. Finally, a new regression coefficient for peak ground acceleration for a suitable functional form that governs the attenuation

  11. Effect of rainfall on cropping pattern in mid Himalayan region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of effect of rainfall during the last 20 years is needed to evaluate cropping pattern in the rain-fed region. In this study, trends in annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall of district of Himachal Pradesh in India over the past 20 years were examined. The annual rainfall varies from 863.3 to 1470.0 mm. During the ...

  12. Natural Hazards Education in the Himalayan Region of Ladakh, India

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    Gill, Joel; Tostevin, Rosalie

    2015-04-01

    Here we present a review of a geohazards education and engagement project in the Indian region of Ladakh. Located in the Indian Himalaya, Ladakh is home to historically-disadvantaged and endangered indigenous groups. It is also an area of extreme topography, climate and vulnerability, with a growing tourist industry. This combination of factors makes it an important region to improve geohazards understanding and observe the complex interactions between nature, society, and culture. This project: (i) delivered a geoscience education programme, in conjunction with a range of local and international partners, to multiple schools in the region; (ii) utilised interactive demonstrations to teach students about the key physical dynamics of landslides and earthquakes; and (iii) integrated aspects of physical and social science within the teaching, to give students a holistic understanding of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction. In total three programmes were delivered, to a range of different ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. This presentation will particularly highlight (i) the importance of delivering material in a culturally appropriate way, (ii) challenges regarding the sustainability of delivering high quality geoscience education projects, and (iii) ways in which geoscience education outreach can be mainstreamed into overseas research visits.

  13. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

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    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  14. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler Lidar and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) observations are utilized to show wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth (AOD) during daytime boundary layer evolution over the Himalayan region. Fourier analysis depicted 60–80 min periods dominant during afternoon hours, implying that observed modulations could be plausible reason for the AOD forenoon–afternoon asymmetry which was previously reported. Inclusion of wave amplitude in diurnal variation of aerosol radiative forcing estimates showed ~40% additional warming in the atmosphere relative to mean AOD. The present observations emphasize the importance of wave induced variations in AOD and radiation budget over the site.

  15. Impact of Regional Differences within State on the Factors Influencing Youth Entrepreneurship--A Case of Garhwal and Kumaun Regions of Uttarakhand

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    Sharma, Lalit

    2015-01-01

    Lee, Chang & Lim (2005) state that the impact of entrepreneurship education in each country is different because of each country's unique culture with regard to entrepreneurship. Going by the above argument, this research paper intends to make a formal enquiry on whether the above effect holds true for different regions within a particular…

  16. Estimating Regional Mass Balance of Himalayan Glaciers Using Hexagon Imagery: An Automated Approach

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    Maurer, J. M.; Rupper, S.

    2013-12-01

    Currently there is much uncertainty regarding the present and future state of Himalayan glaciers, which supply meltwater for river systems vital to more than 1.4 billion people living throughout Asia. Previous assessments of regional glacier mass balance in the Himalayas using various remote sensing and field-based methods give inconsistent results, and most assessments are over relatively short (e.g., single decade) timescales. This study aims to quantify multi-decadal changes in volume and extent of Himalayan glaciers through efficient use of the large database of declassified 1970-80s era Hexagon stereo imagery. Automation of the DEM extraction process provides an effective workflow for many images to be processed and glacier elevation changes quantified with minimal user input. The tedious procedure of manual ground control point selection necessary for block-bundle adjustment (as ephemeral data is not available for the declassified images) is automated using the Maximally Stable Extremal Regions algorithm, which matches image elements between raw Hexagon images and georeferenced Landsat 15 meter panchromatic images. Additional automated Hexagon DEM processing, co-registration, and bias correction allow for direct comparison with modern ASTER and SRTM elevation data, thus quantifying glacier elevation and area changes over several decades across largely inaccessible mountainous regions. As consistent methodology is used for all glaciers, results will likely reveal significant spatial and temporal patterns in regional ice mass balance. Ultimately, these findings could have important implications for future water resource management in light of environmental change.

  17. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

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    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  18. Plant diversity and conservation status of Himalayan Region Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir (Pakistan).

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    Khan, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Mir Ajab; Hussain, Mazhar; Mujtaba, Ghulam

    2014-09-01

    The plant diversity of Himalayan region has been reduced to greater extent due to environmental degradation and human exploitation. Anthropogenic disturbance was the major factor responsible for fragmentation of forest vegetation into small patches. Little research has been conducted in the Himalayan region of Poonch Valley of North eastern Pakistan with reference to plants biodiversity and its conservation. The present research was carried out to provide a checklist of vegetation for biodiversity conservation. A total of 430 vascular and 5 nonvascular plant species with 5 species of Bryophytes (5 families), 13 species of Pteridophytes (6 families), 4 species of Gymnosperms (1 family) and 413 species of angiosperms (95 families) were enumerated from the Poonch valley Azad Kashmir. The genera were classified into three categories according to the number of species. 25 plant communities with phytosociological parameters and diversity indices were reported. Present study revealed that there were 145 threatened, 30 endangered, 68 vulnerable and 47 rare species. It is recorded that extensive grazing, uprooting of plants and soil slope erosion intensify the environmental problems. Since there is maximum exploitation of vegetation, the valley showed a decline in plant diversity. The study was also indicated that the main threats to the biodiversity are expansion of settlement and army installations in the forest area of the valley. For sustainable use In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, controlled harvesting and afforestation may be the solution. Moreover, forest area should be declared prohibited for settlements and army installations.

  19. Vertical profile of aerosols in the Himalayan region using an ultralight aircraft platform

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    Singh, A.; Mahata, K.; Rupakheti, M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Junkermann, W.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-gangetic plain (IGP) and Himalayan foothills have large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in aerosols characteristics. Regional meteorology around 850-500 mb plays an important role in the transformation and transportation of aerosols from west Asia to IGP, into Himalayan foothill, as well to high-altitude region of the Himalayas. In order to quantify the vertical and horizontal variation of aerosol properties in the Himalayan , an airborne campaign was carried out in the Pokhara Valley/Nepal (83°50'-84°10' E, 25°7'-28°15' N, 815 masl ) in two phases: test flights during May 2016 and an intensive airborne sampling flight in December-January 2017. This paper provides an overview of airborne measurement campaign from the first phase of measurements in May 2016. A two-seater microlight aircraft (IKARUS C 42) was used as the aerial platform. This was deemed the feasible option in Nepal for an aerial campaign; technical specification of the aircraft include an approximately 6 hrs of flying time, short-take off run, > 100 kgs of payload, suitable for spiral upward and downward profiling. The instrument package consist of GRIMM 1.108 for particle size distribution from 0.3 to 20 um at 6 seconds time resolution, and TSI CPC 3375 for total ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration at 1 s. The package also includes a Magee Scientific Aethalometer (AE42) for aerosol absorption at seven different wavelengths. Meteorological parameters include temperature and dew point at a sampling rate of 1 Hz or higher. The paper provides a snapshot of observed vertical profile (from 800 to 4500masl) of aerosols size, number and black carbon over one of populated mountain valley in Nepal during the pre-monsoon season. During the airborne measurement, local fires- mostly agriculture burn were observed, however no large scale forest fire was captured. Sharp morning and afternoon gradients were observed in the vertical profile for aerosol number and size, mostly dominated by 2000 masl

  20. Assessment of permafrost distribution maps in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region using rock glaciers mapped in Google Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, M.O.; Baral, P.; Gruber, S.; Shahi, S.; Shrestha, T.; Stumm, D.; Wester, P.

    2015-01-01

    The extent and distribution of permafrost in the mountainous parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region are largely unknown. A long tradition of permafrost research, predominantly on rather gentle relief, exists only on the Tibetan Plateau. Two permafrost maps are available digitally that

  1. Outbreak of scrub typhus in the North East Himalayan region-Sikkim: An emerging threat

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    S Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that is known to be endemic in the South East Asian countries and the Western Pacific region. We here report an outbreak in the tiny Himalayan state of Sikkim. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin were evaluated. They were screened by Weil-Felix test and the rapid immunochromatographic method. Samples that were positive by either Weil-Felix agglutination test or by rapid immunochromatography were confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total 204 samples were screened. Sixty-three patients were confirmed positive among which 42 were male and 21 were female. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics will help prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

  2. Land use/cover changes, extreme events and ecohydrological responses in the Himalayan region

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    Singh, R. B.

    1998-10-01

    Land use describes human activities on the earth, and forms a major element of the terrestrial ecosystem modified by humans in the Himalayan region, where developmental activities are increasing rapidly to support the tourism infrastructure. The unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation. Land use and agricultural practices have undergone drastic changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the application of various newly developed techniques in agrosciences. An analysis of the land use as it has occurred over the last 70 years suggests that it and property rights in the Upper Beas Basin are complex and dynamic. For example, people are giving importance to orchards because of their high profitability. Thus, some agricultural land has been encroached on by orchards. In addition, wastelands are now being used by people for orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building. Since the Upper Beas River Basin is mountainous, it is fragile and prone to processes like soil erosion, slope instability, landslides and floods. Risks from natural hazards are increasing. However, the state of ecohydrological responses highlight that human-induced ecological changes can be largely proved at the microwatershed level. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. There is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities (deforestation) in the mountains and hazards in the plains such as floods. Owing to a lack of basic research, there is little effective information which cannot be used for long-term effective monitoring of ecological and hydrological responses to global change. Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs).

  3. A Three-Year Experience of Medical Thoracoscopy at A Tertiary Care Center of Himalayan Region

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    Rakhee Sodhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing and treating pleural diseases. Despite its proven role in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, it is infrequently used, which could be because of cost of equipment and lack of training. We analyzed our initial 3 years record of thoracoscopy at Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care center in Himalayan region of north India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was to analyze our experience of medical thoracoscopy which was started in Jan 2011 at our center. All patients who underwent thoracoscopy during the period between Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 were included in the study. Thoracoscopy was performed for diagnosis of undiagnosed pleural effusions. Clinical, radiological, cytological & histopathological data of the patients were collected prospectively and analysed. Results: The diagnostic yield for a pleuroscopic pleural biopsy in our study was 87.23% (41/47. Malignancy was diagnosed histopathologically in 70.2% (33/47 patients (both primary & metastatic pleural carcinoma and tuberculosis in 10.6% (5/47. There was no mortality related to procedure. Only three patients had minor complications like subcutaneous emphysema which was mild and resolved by second post-procedure day. Pain at intercostal drain site was observed in some patients. Conclusion: Thoracoscopy is an easy outpatient procedure and an excellent diagnostic tool for pleural effusion of uncertain etiology. It has low complication rate even in settings where the procedure is just started. It should be included in the armamentarium of tools for management of pleural effusion.

  4. HIMALA: climate impacts on glaciers, snow, and hydrology in the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Racoviteanu, Adina

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world's population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  5. HIMALA: Climate Impacts on Glaciers, Snow, and Hydrology in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; hide

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world s population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  6. Landslide Hazard Assessment near Kedarnath Temple in Himalayan region considering cloudburst tragedy in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, T. A.; Singh, T. N., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The world famous Shri Kedarnath Temple in Uttarakhand state of India is located in the western extremity of the young and dynamically active Central Himalaya. As Indian plate is moving towards Eurasian plate which has steep slopes, highly variable altitudes and uncertain climatic conditions. Due to high seismic activity Himalayan rock mass is highly fractured, shattered and inherently weakness pose threat for landslide. On 16th and 17th June 2013, was witness an extreme climatic events of century in the history of the region, the high intensity rainfall, (> 400mm) caused number of landslide which have adverse economic and societal impacts, including the potential for heavy loss of human and widespread devastation of natural resources, infrastructures. The study region is at high altitude around 3583 meters, which is affected from impact of glacial melt due to climate change and future increase in rainfall subjected to high level uncertainty of landslides. Aerial and field survey has been done of the region and most vulnerable landslide locations of hill slope and road cut slope are studied for future prospect of safety. SLIDE 6.0, PHASE27 (numerical software) for slope stability, geomechanical profile of rock and kinematics analysis to know the type of failures. Rock quality tunneling index (Q), Geological strength (GSI), Slope mass Rating (SMR) and factor of safety were determined to know the slope instability. Our finding provides an important aspect for future safety as provide the information for landslide warning system and engineering countermeasures.

  7. Land use impact on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bordoloi, L J; Kumar, Manoj; Hazarika, S; Parmar, Brajendra

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of soil quality is required to determine the sustainability of land uses in terms of environmental quality and plant productivity. Our objective was to identify the most appropriate soil quality indicators and to evaluate the impact of six most prevalent land use types (natural forestland, cultivated lowland, cultivated upland terrace, shifting cultivation, plantation land, and grassland) on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India. We collected 120 soil samples (20 cm depth) and analyzed them for 29 physical, chemical, and biological soil attributes. For selection of soil quality indicators, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the measured attributes, which provided four principal components (PC) with eigenvalues >1 and explaining at least 5% of the variance in dataset. The four PCs together explained 92.6% of the total variance. Based on rotated factor loadings of soil attributes, selected indicators were: soil organic carbon (SOC) from PC-1, exchangeable Al from PC-2, silt content from PC-3, and available P and Mn from PC-4. Indicators were transformed into scores (linear scoring method) and soil quality index (SQI) was determined, on a scale of 0-1, using the weighting factors obtained from PCA. SQI rating was the highest for the least-disturbed sites, i.e., natural forestland (0.93) and grassland (0.87), and the lowest for the most intensively cultivated site, i.e., cultivated upland terrace (0.44). Ratings for the other land uses were shifting cultivation (0.60) > cultivated low land (0.57) > plantation land (0.54). Overall contribution (in percent) of the indicators in determination of SQI was in the order: SOC (58%) > exch. Al (17.1%) > available P (8.9%) > available Mn (8.2%) > silt content (7.8%). Results of this study suggest SOC and exch. Al as the two most powerful indicators of soil quality in study area. Thus, organic C and soil acidity management holds the key to improve soil

  8. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. This research project will serve to help poor and vulnerable women, men, and children learn to adapt to and manage climate change in Asia's Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Why the Himalayan region is important. The region, stretching from central Afghanistan to northern ...

  9. Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov., isolated from goats of the Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergser, Joachim; Wieser, Monika; Täubel, Martin; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon A; Rosengarten, Renate; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    Four coagulase-negative, novobiocin-resistant cocci, designated CW1(T), PM34, MM3 and RW78, were isolated from the respiratory tract of goats kept in the Himalayan region. The four isolates were assigned to a single species on the basis of almost identical biochemical and physiological traits, protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE and identical genomic fingerprints generated after enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Strain CW1(T) showed highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus ATCC 49330(T), Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305(T), S. cohnii subsp. cohnii ATCC 29974(T), Staphylococcus arlettae ATCC 43957(T), Staphylococcus gallinarum ATCC 35539(T), Staphylococcus succinus ATCC 700337(T) and Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 29971(T) (99.0, 98.8, 98.8, 98.4, 98.2, 98.1 and 98.1 %, respectively), indicating its classification within the genus Staphylococcus. The polar lipid composition, fatty acid profiles, quinone systems and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid were in agreement with the characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related Staphylococcus species suggested that strain CW1(T) represents an as-yet unrecognized species. Based on these results, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus is described, Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov. The type strain is CW1(T) (=DSM 15150(T)=CCM 7045(T)) and the most dissimilar strain is PM34 (=DSM 15151=CCM 7046).

  10. Thermal modeling and parametric studies of a greenhouse fish pond in the Central Himalayan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Bikash; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the thermal modeling and its validation of greenhouse fish pond systems. Numerical computations have been performed for a typical day in the month of June, 2005, for the climatic condition of Champawat in the Central Himalayan Region. The energy balance equations have been written considering the effects of conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation and ventilation. The governing equations are numerically solved with Matlab 7.0 software to predict the water temperature. A parametric study has also been performed to find the effects of various parameters, namely the number of air changes per hour, the transmissivity (τ) and the isothermal mass and height of the greenhouse. It is observed that there is no significant effect in the parametric studies on water temperature due to the larger isothermal mass. The model has been validated with experimental data. On an average, the even span passive greenhouse fish pond can increase the inside temperature 4.14 deg. C higher than the temperature of an outdoor pond. Statistical analysis shows that the predicted and experimental values of water temperature exhibited fair agreement with a coefficient of correlation r = 0.90 and root mean square percent deviation e = 1.67%

  11. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  12. Improvement of downscaled rainfall and temperature across generations over the Western Himalayan region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, L.; Dutta, M.; Akhter, J.; Meher, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    It is a challenging task to create station level (local scale) climate change information over the mountainous locations of Western Himalayan Region (WHR) in India because of limited data availability and poor data quality. In the present study, missing values of station data were handled through Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 22 numbers of rain gauge and 16 number of temperature station data having continuous record during 1901­2005 and 1969­2009 period respectively were considered as reference stations for developing downscaled rainfall and temperature time series from five commonly available GCMs in the IPCC's different generation assessment reports namely 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th hereafter known as SAR, TAR, AR4 and AR5 respectively. Downscaled models were developed using the combined data from the ERA-interim reanalysis and GCMs historical runs (in spite of forcing were not identical in different generation) as predictor and station level rainfall and temperature as predictands. Station level downscaled rainfall and temperature time series were constructed for five GCMs available in each generation. Regional averaged downscaled time series comprising of all stations was prepared for each model and generation and the downscaled results were compared with observed time series. Finally an Overall Model Improvement Index (OMII) was developed using the downscaling results, which was used to investigate the model improvement across generations as well as the improvement of downscaling results obtained from the Empirical Statistical Downscaling (ESD) methods. In case of temperature, models have improved from SAR to AR5 over the study area. In all most all the GCMs TAR is showing worst performance over the WHR by considering the different statistical indices used in this study. In case of precipitation, no model has shown gradual improvement from SAR to AR5 both for interpolated and downscaled values.

  13. Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus in Pregnancy in Sub-Himalayan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Thakur, Surinder; Bhawani, Rajesh; Kanga, Anil; Ranjan, Asha

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is rare in pregnancy, but it has now become an important cause of febrile illness in pregnancy in sub-Himalayan region of India. Only a few case reports have been published so far, and they show adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. No consensus has been reached till now regarding treatment. All the pregnant patients irrespective of period of gestation admitted with febrile illness with positive IgM ELISA for scrub typhus with or without eschar were included. The clinical profile was observed using a detailed history of symptoms, travel, recreation, agricultural activities, treatment record prior to admission, and a detailed examination, and the treatment outcome was noted. Fever workup including cultures, CXR, CSF analysis, serology for scrub was done. IgM scrub typhus was done by kit method manufactured by InBios Intertational, Inc. We observed in total 14 pregnant patients out of which eight were in the the second trimester and six were in the third trimester. The clinical features of the disease observed for pregnant females were the same as for nonpregnant females. There was no difference in the severity of scrub typhus between pregnant and nonpregnant women. No mortality was found in these patients. On follow-up, they had normal peripartum and postpartum periods. All were treated with azithromycin 500 mg once a day for 5 days. Although rare, scrub typhus should be considered in differential diagnosis of fever in pregnant patients especially in scrub season. Azithromycin should be the drug of choice in pregnancy as it has no adverse effect on fetus and pregnancy outcome.

  14. Forest fires in Himalayan region during 2016 - Aerosol load and smoke plume heights detection by multi sensor observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Dumka, U. C.

    2017-12-01

    The forest fires are common events over the Central Himalayan region during the pre-monsoon season (March - June) of every year. Forest fire plays a crucial role in governing the vegetation structure, ecosystem, climate change as well as in atmospheric chemistry. In regional and global scales, the combustion of forest and grassland vegetation releases large volumes of smoke, aerosols, and other chemically active species that significantly influence Earth's radiative budget and atmospheric chemistry, impacting air quality and risks to human health. During the year 2016, massive forest fires have been recorded over the Central Himalayan region of Uttarakhand which continues for several weeks. To study this event we used the multi-satellite observations of aerosols and pollutants during pre-fire, fire and post-fire period over the central Himalayan region. The data used in this study are active fire count and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aerosol index and gases pollutants from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), along with vertical profiles of aerosols and smoke plume height information from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). The result shows that the mean fire counts were maximum in April. The daily average AOD value shows an increasing trend during the fire events. The mean value of AOD before the massive fire (25 April), during the fire (30 April) and post fire (5 May) periods are 0.3, 1.2 and 0.6 respectively. We find an increasing trend of total columnar NO2 over the Uttarakhand region during the massive fire event. Space-born Lidar (CALIPSO) retrievals show the extent of smoke plume heights beyond the planetary boundary layer up to 6 km during the peak burning day (April 30). The HYSPLIT air mass forward trajectory shows the long-range transportation of smoke plumes. The results of the present study provide valuable information for addressing smoke plume and

  15. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  16. Conceptual model development for landscape management in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region: an approach for sustainable socio-ecological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nautiyal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting a conceptual model for landscape management in the Himalayan region of India, using quantitative/mathematical approach. Keeping in view the requirement, (based on fifteen years empirical field work in the Himalayan region and as well as literature survey the MODAM (Multiple Objectives Decision Support Tools for Landscape Management model along with linear programming approach was adopted with a view to presenting additional methodological perspectives on interdisciplinary landscape research. The work has stemmed out from the original research contribution, which tries to integrate interdisciplinary research planning with landscape management related research in the Himalayan region. This biodiversity hotspot has relatively high complexity in terms of sustainable socioeconomic development vis a vis conservation and management of the resources. The concepts and insights presented in this article will provide the basis for a discussion, on decisionmaking issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to sustainable socioecological development within complex environments.

  17. Estimation of regional mass anomalies from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, S. K.; Rajawat, A. S.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    Time-variable gravity changes are caused by a combination of postglacial rebound, redistribution of water and snow/ice on land and as well as in the ocean. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, launched in 2002, provides monthly average of the spherical harmonic co-efficient. These spherical harmonic co-efficient describe earth's gravity field with a resolution of few hundred kilometers. Time-variability of gravity field represents the change in mass over regional level with accuracies in cm in terms of Water Equivalent Height (WEH). The WEH reflects the changes in the integrated vertically store water including snow cover, surface water, ground water and soil moisture at regional scale. GRACE data are also sensitive towards interior strain variation, surface uplift and surface subsidence cover over a large area. GRACE data was extracted over the three major Indian River basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, in the Himalayas which are perennial source of fresh water throughout the year in Northern Indian Plain. Time series analysis of the GRACE data was carried out from 2003-2012 over the study area. Trends and amplitudes of the regional mass anomalies in the region were estimated using level 3 GRACE data product with a spatial resolution at 10 by 10 grid provided by Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas at Austin. Indus basin has shown a subtle decreasing trend from 2003-2012 however it was observed to be statistically insignificant at 95 % confidence level. Ganga and Brahmaputra basins have shown a clear decreasing trend in WEH which was also observed to be statistically significant. The trend analysis over Ganga and Brahamputra basins have shown an average annual change of -1.28 cm and -1.06 cm in terms of WEH whereas Indus basin has shown a slight annual change of -0.07 cm. This analysis will be helpful to understand the loss of mass in terms of WEH over Indian Himalayas and will be crucial for hydrological and

  18. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Shradda; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV), Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s-1) dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September). Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m-3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2-3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of pollutants from the IGP to the

  19. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene reactivation of the Main Boundary Thrust: Evidence from the seismites in southeastern Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anurag; Srivastava, Deepak C.; Shah, Jyoti

    2013-05-01

    Tectonic history of the Himalaya is punctuated by successive development of the faults that run along the boundaries between different lithotectonic terrains. The Main Boundary Fault, defining the southern limit of the Lesser Himalayan terrain, is tectonically most active. A review of published literature reveals that the nature and age of reactivation events on the Main Boundary Fault is one of the poorly understood aspects of the Himalayan orogen. By systematic outcrop mapping of the seismites, this study identifies a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene reactivation on the Main Boundary Thrust in southeast Kumaun Himalaya. Relatively friable and cohesionless Neogene sedimentary sequences host abundant soft-sediment deformation structures in the vicinity of the Main Boundary Thrust. Among a large variety of structures, deformed cross-beds, liquefaction pockets, slump folds, convolute laminations, sand dykes, mushroom structures, fluid escape structures, flame and load structures and synsedimentary faults are common. The morphological attributes, the structural association and the distribution pattern of the soft-sediment deformation structures with respect to the Main Boundary Fault strongly suggest their development by seismically triggered liquefaction and fluidization. Available magnetostratigraphic age data imply that the seismites were developed during a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene slip on the Main Boundary Thrust. The hypocenter of the main seismic event may lie on the Main Boundary Thrust or to the north of the study area on an unknown fault or the Basal Detachment Thrust.

  20. Use of Satellite and In Situ Reflectance Data for Lake Water Color Characterization in the Everest Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Matta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing techniques to the study of water color in Himalayan glacial lakes as a proxy of suspended solid load. In situ measurements gathered in 5 lakes in October 2014 during satellite data acquisition enabled the characterization of water reflectance and clarity and supported image processing. Field data analysis led to a distinction between 3 water colors and a consequent lake water color classification on a regional scale from Landsat-8 data previously corrected for atmospheric and adjacency effects. Several morphometric parameters (lake size and shape, distance between lake and glacier were also computed for the lakes thus classified. The results showed spatial and temporal variations in lake water color, suggestive of relationships between glacier shrinkage and the presence of brighter and more turbid water. A finer-scale analysis of the spatial variability of water reflectance on Chola Lake (based on GeoEye-1 data captured on 18 October 2014 showed the contribution of water component absorption from the inflow. Overall, the findings support further research to monitor Himalayan lakes using both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 (with its improved resolutions.

  1. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhungel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo–Gangetic plains (IGP from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC, ozone (O3, and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV, Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s−1 dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September. Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m−3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2–3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of

  2. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  3. Contrasting predictability of summer monsoon rainfall ISOs over the northeastern and western Himalayan region: an application of Hurst exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandipan

    2017-09-01

    Due to heterogeneous nonlinear forcing of complex geomorphological features, predictability of monsoon rainfall 10-90-day intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) over the complex terrain of northeastern and western Himalayan region (NEH and WH) remained poorly quantified. Using 72 and 61 number of station observations of monsoon rainfall ISOs of NEH and WH, respectively, this study attempts to investigate variation in the regional scale predictability of monsoon rainfall ISOs with respect to changing geomorphological features and monsoon rainfall characteristics. In view of the bimodal nonlinear dynamical structure of monsoon rainfall ISO, the fractal dynamical Hurst exponent-based predictability indices are estimated as an indicator of predictability for station observations of NEH and WH, and relationships with elevations, slopes, aspects, and average numbers of occurrences of long (short) spell of active (break) phases are investigated. Results show 10-90-day ISOs are anti-persistent throughout the IHR, although, predictability of 10-90-day ISOs is higher over the NEH region than WH. Predictabilities of ISOs are found to decrease with increasing elevation and slope for both NEH and WH regions. Predictabilities of ISOs over both regions are also found to increase linearly as the number of occurrences of monsoon rainfall ISO phases (active/break) increases.

  4. Language Policy and Language Ideology: Ecological Perspectives on Language and Education in the Himalayan Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Ethnographic research in the Kumaun region of North India highlights different perspectives on this multilingual context and on national-level policies. Language policies that explicitly or implicitly minoritize certain linguistic varieties influence local discourses about language and education but are also interpreted through the lens of local…

  5. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with different land use systems of Arunachal Pradesh of Eastern Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, A; Nath, P C; Shukla, A K

    2015-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the main component of soil microbial population in most agroecosystems. They forms a close association with more than 80% of the plant species making immobilized mineral nutrients available to the plants in order to sustain normal growth and reproduction. In this study the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi has been examined in seven land use ecosystems of Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalayan region. A total of 24 species of AM fungi belonging to 4 genera viz., Glomus, Scutellospora, Aculospora and Gigaspora were isolated from the soil samples collected from different land use systems. Glomus was the dominant genera and Glomus occulatum was the most abundant species in all the seven land use systems. Total spore number was highly variable among all the land use systems. Species richness was recorded highest in natural forest that maintains a faster nutrient cycle with the highest diversity index. The Jhum fallow land and tea garden has the least number of AM fungal species due to high disturbance of fire and application of fungicides and inorganic fertilizer. Further the plant species composition, particularly the ground vegetation coverage and disturbance level affects the distribution of the AM fungal species. In our study it has been shown that AMF diversity is significantly affected by the land use practices practiced by the people. Hence, the AM fungi isolated from different land use system may be useful in improving the agriculture practices particularly the plantation crops in the region.

  6. Genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region based on nucleotide sequences of the Waxy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul I; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-12-29

    Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.

  7. Capturing forest dependency in the central Himalayan region: Variations between Oak (Quercus spp.) and Pine (Pinus spp.) dominated forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anusheema; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Sachdeva, Kamna

    2018-05-01

    Our study explores the nexus between forests and local communities through participatory assessments and household surveys in the central Himalayan region. Forest dependency was compared among villages surrounded by oak-dominated forests (n = 8) and pine-dominated forests (n = 9). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate variations in the degree of dependency based on proximity to nearest forest type. Households near oak-dominated forests were more dependent on forests (83.8%) compared to households near pine-dominated forests (69.1%). Forest dependency is mainly subsistence-oriented for meeting basic household requirements. Livestock population, cultivated land per household, and non-usage of alternative fuels are the major explanatory drivers of forest dependency. Our findings can help decision and policy makers to establish nested governance mechanisms encouraging prioritized site-specific conservation options among forest-adjacent households. Additionally, income diversification with respect to alternate livelihood sources, institutional reforms, and infrastructure facilities can reduce forest dependency, thereby, allowing sustainable forest management.

  8. Landslide hazard assessment along a mountain highway in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) using remote sensing and computational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhouri P.; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-10-01

    Landslide hazard assessments using computational models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and frequency ratio (FR), were carried out covering one of the important mountain highways in the Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Landslide influencing factors were either calculated or extracted from spatial databases including recent remote sensing data of LANDSAT TM, CARTOSAT digital elevation model (DEM) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for rainfall data. ANN was implemented using the multi-layered feed forward architecture with different input, output and hidden layers. This model based on back propagation algorithm derived weights for all possible parameters of landslides and causative factors considered. The training sites for landslide prone and non-prone areas were identified and verified through details gathered from remote sensing and other sources. Frequency Ratio (FR) models are based on observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide related factor. FR model implementation proved useful for assessing the spatial relationships between landslide locations and factors contributing to its occurrence. Above computational models generated respective susceptibility maps of landslide hazard for the study area. This further allowed the simulation of landslide hazard maps on a medium scale using GIS platform and remote sensing data. Upon validation and accuracy checks, it was observed that both models produced good results with FR having some edge over ANN based mapping. Such statistical and functional models led to better understanding of relationships between the landslides and preparatory factors as well as ensuring lesser levels of subjectivity compared to qualitative approaches.

  9. Assessment of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change and Forest Fragmentation in the Garhwal Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Batar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Garhwal Himalaya has experienced extensive deforestation and forest fragmentation, but data and documentation detailing this transformation of the Himalaya are limited. The aim of this study is to analyse the observed changes in land cover and forest fragmentation that occurred between 1976 and 2014 in the Garhwal Himalayan region in India. Three images from Landsat 2 Multispectral Scanner System (MSS, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM, and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI were used to extract the land cover maps. A cross-tabulation detection method in the geographic information system (GIS module was used to detect land cover changes during the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014. The landscape fragmentation tool LFT v2.0 was used to construct a forest fragmentation map and analyse the forest fragmentation pattern and change during the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014. The overall annual rate of change in the forest cover was observed to be 0.22% and 0.27% in the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014, respectively. The forest fragmentation analysis shows that a large core forest has decreased throughout the study period. The total area of forest patches also increased from 1976 to 2014, which are completely degraded forests. The results indicate that anthropogenic activities are the main causes of the loss of forest cover and forest fragmentation, but that natural factors also contributed. An increase in the area of scrub and barren land also contributed to the accumulation of wasteland or non-forest land in this region. Determining the trend and the rate of land cover conversion is necessary for development planners to establish a rational land use policy.

  10. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. This paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic Gujjars, Tharu and Bhoxa of Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. To record herbal preparations used by the studied indigenous communities in treatment of jaundice and discuss hepatoprotective properties of the recorded plants. The traditional knowledge of the studied indigenous communities on herbal preparations used for treating jaundice was collected through structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The interviews were conducted with 91 traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. More than 250 research papers reporting ethnomedicinal information on the hepatoprotective plants used by various communities from different parts of India were extensively reviewed. A total of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families and 38 genera were recorded to be used by the studied communities in 45 formulations as a remedy of jaundice. Bhoxa, nomadic Gujjars and Tharu communities used 15, 23 and 9 plants, respectively. To our knowledge eight plants reported in the present survey viz., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cissampelos pareira L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Ocimum americanum L., Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L. and Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported earlier as remedy of jaundice in India. Literature review revealed that a total of 214 (belonging to 181 genus and 78 families), 19 (belonging to 18 genus and 12 families) and 14 (belonging to 14 genus and 11 families) plant species are used as internal

  11. Yews (Taxus) along the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region: exploring the ethnopharmacological relevance among communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ram C; Gao, Lian-Ming; Möller, Michael; Baral, Sushim R; Uprety, Yadav; Liu, Jie; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-05-02

    Three species of yews Taxus contorta Griff., Taxus mairei (Lemée & Lév.) S.Y. Hu ex T.S. Liu and Taxus wallichiana Zucc. distributed in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region have been commercially exploited in recent decades to extract an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug 'Taxol'. Additionally, indigenous people of this region are using yews for several other purposes including gastro-intestinal disorders, respiratory problems, skeletal system disorders, and as edible fruit, fodder, fish poison, traditional veterinary medicine, among others. The study was designed to document and evaluate knowledge concerning uses of yews among indigenous communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins. Ethnobotanical knowledge from 10 major ethnic/caste groups of Mongol and Caucasian origins in the Nepal Himalayas was documented in 2010 and 2011 from 27 sites covering the extant distribution range of the three species of Taxus. A total of 72 key informants (60 men, 12 women), recommended by the majority of people in informal group discussions at each study site, were interviewed to collect information on the importance of yews. This study reports multidimensional uses of yews commonly practiced by different indigenous communities of Nepal and compared those with published uses along the HKH region. The key informants cited a total 45 uses under 21 categories. A greater use diversity and high consensus value for use types were recorded for medicinal uses (gastro-intestinal ailments, cough and cold, skeleto-muscular system problem and others medicinal importance) followed by fruit consumption, household tools, agriculture implements and timber. A decline of yew populations and associated traditional knowledge among the younger generations of indigenous people was found. The present study shows a strong agreement of ethnobotanical knowledge on yews between communities of Mongols and Caucasian origins. Our findings further revealed the potential for additional therapeutic applications in

  12. Observed changes in surface air temperature and precipitation in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region over the last 100-plus years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyzed the long-term changes in temperature and precipitation in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH region based on climate datasets LSAT-V1.1 and CGP1.0 recently developed by the China Meteorological Administration. The analysis results show that during 1901–2014 the annual mean surface air temperature over the whole HKH has undergone a significant increasing trend. We determined the change rates in the mean temperature, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature to be 0.104 °C per decade, 0.077 °C per decade, and 0.176 °C per decade, respectively. Most parts of the HKH have experienced a warming trend, with the largest increase occurring on the Tibetan Plateau (TP and south of Pakistan. The trend of precipitation for the whole HKH is characterized by a slight decrease during 1901–2014. During 1961–2013, however, the trend of the annual precipitation shows a statistically significant increase, with a rate of 5.28% per decade and has a more rapid increase since the mid-1980s. Most parts of northern India and the northern TP have experienced a strong increase in the number of precipitation days (daily rainfall ≥1 mm, whereas Southwest China and Myanmar have experienced a declining trend in precipitation days. Compared to the trends in precipitation days, the spatial pattern of trends in the precipitation intensity seems to be more closely related to the terrain, and the higher altitude areas have shown more significant upward trends in precipitation intensity during 1961–2013.

  13. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  14. Changes in the Mountain Cryosphere and Potential Risks to Downstream Communities: Insights from the Indian Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Huggel, Christian; Linsbauer, Andreas; Mal, Suraj; Singh Rana, Ranbir; Singh Randhawa, Surjeet; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Singh Samant, Sher; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mountain environments around the world are often considered to be amongst the most sensitive to the impacts of climate change. For people living in mountain communities, there are clear challenges to be faced as their livelihoods and subsistence are directly dependent on their surrounding natural environment. But what of the wider implications for societies and large urban settlements living downstream - why should they care about the climate-driven changes occurring potentially hundreds of kilometers away in the snow and ice capped mountains? In this contribution we address this question, drawing on studies and experiences gained within joint Indo-Swiss research collaborations focused on the Indian Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. With the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change currently embarking on the scoping of their 6th Assessment Cycle, which includes a planned Special Report on Oceans and the Cryosphere, this contribution provides a timely reminder of the importance of mountain regions, and potential far-reaching consequences of changes in the mountain cryosphere. Our studies highlight several key themes which link the mountain environment to the lowland populated areas, including the role of the mountain cryosphere as a water source, far-reaching hazards and disasters that can originate from mountain regions, the role of mountains in providing essential ecosystem services, the economic importance of tourism in mountain regions, and the importance of transportation routes which pass through mountain environments. These themes are intricately linked, as for example demonstrated during the 2013 Uttarakhand flood disaster where many of the approximately 6000 fatalities were tourists visiting high mountain pilgrimage sites. As a consequence of the disaster, tourists stayed away during subsequent seasons with significant economic impacts felt across the State. In Himachal Pradesh, a key national transportation corridor is the Rohtang pass

  15. Mountains Under Pressure: Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in the Upper Himalayan Region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhusal, Jagat K.; Chapagain, Prem Sagar; Regmi, Santosh; Gurung, Praju; Zulkafli, Zed; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Pandeya, Bhopal; Buytaert, Wouter; Clark, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource-based livelihoods in mountainous regions are subject to new types of development as well as climate related pressures and vulnerabilities. On one hand, the integrity of the mountainous landscape is under pressure from the melting of glaciers, changes in water availability, rainfall

  16. Application of remote sensing and GIS in environmental monitoring in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finu Shrestha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH region encompasses the largest mountain system in the world extending from Myanmar in the East to Afghanistan in the West and covering the whole or part of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The region plays a vital role in providing ecosystem services and is the basis of the livelihoods of over 200 million people. The water and other ecosystem services provided by the HKH forms lifeline for one third of humanity. In the past few decades, human activities and global warming have contributed to environmental degradation in significant portion of the region. Decreasing glacier area, growth in glacial lake size, unprecedented rainfall, changes in land use and land cover, forest degradation, floods and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, landslides, and shortfalls in agricultural crop production are among the many problems brought on by such change. These issues need timely monitoring and supervision if they are to lead to a better understanding of the state of the environment, and the scale of the damages that has already been done. Effective monitoring of the environment, and an improved understanding of the same requires valuable information and data that can be extracted through the application of geospatial technologies such as remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS. This paper provides an overview of such research conducted in the HKH region. It shows how change assessment has been undertaken in thematic areas such as glacier, glacial lake, land use, land cover, and disaster events like floods, landslides and droughts and how sets of data collected over specific intervals of time are being used to identify and monitor the condition of the environment from the past to the present, and in the long run. Complete database sets and analyses pertaining to these areas are made available online to facilitate access to information. Data formulation and further research are necessary

  17. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-SA experiments in simulating seasonal mean temperature over the Himalayan region for the present climate: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengker, T.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of an ensemble of five regional climate models (hereafter RCMs) under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments-South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) in simulating the key features of present day near surface mean air temperature (Tmean) climatology (1970-2005) over the Himalayan region is studied. The purpose of this paper is to understand the consistency in the performance of models across the ensemble, space and seasons. For this a number of statistical measures like trend, correlation, variance, probability distribution function etc. are applied to evaluate the performance of models against observation and simultaneously the underlying uncertainties between them for four different seasons. The most evident finding from the study is the presence of a large cold bias (-6 to -8 °C) which is systematically seen across all the models and across space and time over the Himalayan region. However, these RCMs with its fine resolution perform extremely well in capturing the spatial distribution of the temperature features as indicated by a consistently high spatial correlation (greater than 0.9) with the observation in all seasons. In spite of underestimation in simulated temperature and general intensification of cold bias with increasing elevation the models show a greater rate of warming than the observation throughout entire altitudinal stretch of study region. During winter, the simulated rate of warming gets even higher at high altitudes. Moreover, a seasonal response of model performance and its spatial variability to elevation is found.

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  19. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over the Himalayan region during present climate: part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of regional climate simulations to evaluate the ability of 11 Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment in South Asia experiments (CORDEX-South Asia) along with their ensemble to produce precipitation from June to September (JJAS) over the Himalayan region have been carried out. These suite of 11 combinations come from 6 regional climate models (RCMs) driven with 10 initial and boundary conditions from different global climate models and are collectively referred here as 11 CORDEX South Asia experiments. All the RCMs use a similar domain and are having similar spatial resolution of 0.44° ( 50 km). The set of experiments are considered to study precipitation sensitivity associated with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over the study region. This effort is made as ISM plays a vital role in summertime precipitation over the Himalayan region which acts as driver for the sustenance of habitat, population, crop, glacier, hydrology etc. In addition, so far the summer monsoon precipitation climatology over the Himalayan region has not been studied with the help of CORDEX data. Thus this study is initiated to evaluate the ability of the experiments and their ensemble in reproducing the characteristics of summer monsoon precipitation over Himalayan region, for the present climate (1970-2005). The precipitation climatology, annual precipitation cycles and interannual variabilities from each simulation have been assessed against the gridded observational dataset: Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources for the given time period. Further, after the selection of the better performing experiment the frequency distribution of precipitation was also studied. In this study, an approach has also been made to study the degree of agreement among individual experiments as a way to quantify the uncertainty among them. The experiments though show a wide variation among themselves and individually over

  20. Multifractal analysis of earthquakes in Kumaun Himalaya and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the heterogeneity of fractal structure of the seismicity and existence of complex interconnected structure of the Himalayan .... object requires the introduction of an infinite hier- archy of ...... the Marmara sea using comparisons of GPS strain and.

  1. Operation Sadbhavana: winning hearts and minds in the Ladakh Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariappa, Mudera P; Bonventre, Eugene V; Mohanti, Bikash K

    2008-08-01

    "Sadbhavana" literally means "goodwill among people." The Indian Army has evolved a military strategy of winning hearts and minds, with this being just a phase in the broader war on terror. We have focused on actions to address the border regions of Ladakh in the Himalayas. The government of India strives against difficult conditions to provide essential services (including health care) to its population in an equitable manner; in remote areas with fragile security and hamstrung provincial government systems, the Indian Army fills this role. The Army's medical units have played a pivotal role in providing comprehensive health care as a keystone of the strategy. The endeavors of the doctors in uniform have succeeded in winning over an alienated population. A total of 163 medical camps were held in 2004, with attendance of 14,050 patients seeking medical attention and 264 patients seeking dental attention; in 2005, 87 camps were conducted, with attendance totals of 7,562 and 559, respectively. The Operation Sadbhavana military strategy has paid rich dividends in the form of changes in the perspective of the denizens of the remote and exotic locales of Ladakh. Planners must carefully analyze the target audiences and the messages delivered to those audiences at the onset of such projects. Future efforts would be enhanced by attempts to quantify the effects of medical missions on the health of the population and on population attitudes toward the Indian Army and the central government.

  2. Downscale climate change scenarios over the Western Himalayan region of India using multi-generation CMIP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra K.; Akhter, Javed

    2017-04-01

    Assessing climate change information over the Western Himalayan Region (WHR) of India is crucial but challenging task due to its limited numbers of station data containing huge missing values. The issues of missing values of station data were replaced the Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 22 numbers of rain gauge stations having continuous data during 1901-2005 and 16 numbers stations having continuous temperature data during 1969-2009 were considered as " reference stations for assessing rainfall and temperature trends in addition to evaluation of the GCMs available in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 3 (CMIP3) and phase 5 (CMIP5) over WRH. Station data indicates that the winter warming is higher and rapid (1.05oC) than other seasons and less warming in the post monsoon season in the last 41 years. Area averaged using 22 station data indicates that monsoon and winter rainfall has decreased by -5 mm and -320 mm during 1901-2000 while pre-monsoon and post monsoon showed an increasing trends of 21 mm and 13 mm respectively. Present study is constructed the downscaled climate change information at station locations (22 and 16 stations for rainfall and temperature respectively) over the WHR from the GCMs commonly available in the IPCC's different generations assessment reports namely 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th thereafter known as SAR, TAR, AR4 and AR5 respectively. Once the downscaled results are obtained for each generation model outputs, then a comparison of studies is carried out from the results of each generation. Finally an overall model improvement index (OMII) is developed using the downscaling results which is used to investigate the model improvement across generations as well as the improvement of downscaling results obtained from the empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods. In general, the results indicate that there is a gradual improvement of GCMs simulations as well as downscaling results across generation

  3. Exploration of the diversity and associated health benefits of traditional pickles from the Himalayan and adjacent hilly regions of Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rakhi; Roy, Swarnendu

    2018-05-01

    The Himalayas have provided shelter to the various communities for thousands of years and have remained the cradle for the origin of diverse cultures and traditions. The Himalayan belt is rich in biodiversity and have ushered mankind with numerous gifts for survival and existence. The art of pickling is believed to have developed independently among the different communities of this region. In this region, the main meal is supplemented with pickles or achar that not only adds flavour, but also enhances the value of the meal and often comes with inherent health benefits. The prime objective of this article was to enlist the diverse pickles that are being prepared and consumed by the different tribes and communities, and at the same time analyse the science behind pickle preparation and health benefits and concerns associated with pickles. We have enlisted about hundred monotypic pickles, that are prepared from single fruit or vegetable; but sometimes fungi such as Agaricus and ferns like Diplazium and Pteridium have also been used. Also, fish and meat pickles are common mostly in the Eastern Himalayan region. Traditional pickles constitute the medicinal values of the ingredients and other beneficial properties conferred by the associated microorganisms.

  4. Assessment of regional climatic changes in the Eastern Himalayan region: a study using multi-satellite remote sensing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anubha; Sharma, Anu Rani; Tayal, Shresth

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to capture the sensitivity of a mountainous region to elevation-dependent warming and the response of a glacier-laden surface to increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol concentration. Some of the changes Sikkim has undergone due to urban sprawl are as follows: an increase of ~0.7 ± 0.46 °C temperature in the past 40 years at an altitude of 5.5 km; a 2.21 km(2)/year rate of loss of glacierised area in the past 33 years; an increase in absorbed longwave radiation (6 ± 2.41 W/m(2)); an increase in heat fluxes (2 ± 0.97 W/m(2)); a decrease in albedo during the last 30 years; an increase in the concentrations of carbon dioxide (4.42%), methane (0.61%), ozone (0.67%) and black carbon column optical depth (7.19%); a decrease in carbon monoxide (2.61%) and an increase in aerosol optical depth (19.16%) during the last decade; a decrease in precipitation, water yield, discharge and groundwater; and an increase in evapotranspiration during 1971-2005. Detection of three climate signals (1976, 1997 and 2005) in the entire analysis is the quantification of the fact that the climate of Sikkim is moving away from its inter-annual variability. An increase in temperature (0.23 °C/decade) at higher altitude (~5.5 km), suppression of precipitation, decreasing water availability and rapid loss of glacierised area are the evidences of the fact that air pollution is playing a significant role in bringing about regional climatic changes in Sikkim. In this study, change detection method has been used for the first time for the estimation of change in a glacierised area of the region.

  5. Himalayan hydro on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The prospects for development of hydro in the Himalayas has been enhanced by privatisation and the urgent need for clean electricity in the north of India. There are various hurdles to be overcome before the projects are likely to move forward in earnest before 2005, and these are mentioned. The demand for electricity in India is said to be enormous. At present, there is much polluting industry along the Himalayas. As throughout the Indian privatisation dilemma, the critical issues for development of Himalayan hydro come down to credible commercial power markets and finance. With regard to finance and administrative changes, the Indian government is carrying out a number of actions and these are itemised. The US is vigorously promoting the development of Himalayan hydro as a key to much needed regional co-operation and the World Bank is supportive

  6. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  7. Study of the Genetic Diversity of the Ornamental Fish Badis badis (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 in the Terai Region of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf chameleon fish or Badis badis, a lesser known ornamental freshwater fish, has recently been included in the Indian threatened category of fish list. There are insufficient studies with regard to the assessment of genetic background of this ichthyofauna, especially in the western sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India, popularly known as the Terai. The present study is the first attempt to investigate the present status of the genetic background of this species in the Mahananda and Balason rivers, major streams of this region. Twenty-one selective RAPD primers generated 53 and 60 polymorphic fragments in the Mahananda and Balason populations, respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci, Nei’s genetic diversity (H, and Shannon’s index (H′ were 0.4416, 0.1654±0.2023, and 0.2450±0.2907, respectively, in Mahananda river population and were 0.5041, 0.1983±0.2126, and 0.2901±0.3037, respectively, in Balason river population. Inbreeding coefficient and degree of gene differentiation were also calculated. The H and H′ were found to be 0.1601±0.1944 and 0.2363±0.2782, respectively, in overall Mahananda-Balason river system. Our study revealed considerable lack of genetic variation among the individuals of Badis badis. The genetic data obtained from the present study lend support to the view that there is a scope of stock improvement for this ichthyofauna.

  8. Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment of forests in the Indian Western Himalayan region: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Upgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment at state and regional levels is necessary to develop adaptation strategies for forests in the biogeographically vital Himalayan region. The present study assesses forest ecosystem vulnerability to climate change across Himachal Pradesh and presents the priority districts for vulnerability reduction under ‘current climate’ and ‘future climate’ scenarios. Vulnerability of forests under ‘current climate’ scenario is assessed by adopting indicator-based approach, while the vulnerability under ‘future climate’ scenario is assessed using climate and vegetation impact models. Based on the vulnerability index estimated to present the vulnerability of forests under current and projected climate change impacts representing climate driven vulnerability, five districts – Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Mandi and Shimla are identified as priority forest districts for adaptation planning. Identifying vulnerable forest districts and forests will help policy makers and forest managers to prioritize resource allocation and forest management interventions, to restore health and productivity of forests and to build long-term resilience to climate change.

  9. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Negi, Sanjay S.

    2017-02-01

    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E-W for ˜5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ˜30 ∘ towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ˜1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  10. Foliar and soil nutrient distribution in conifer forests of moist temperate areas of himalayan and hindukush region of pakistan: a multivariate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.; Khan, Z.I.; Ashfaq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Foliar nutrient concentration for the dominant conifer species (Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara) of moist temperate areas of Himalayan and Hindukush region of Pakistan was evaluated. Soils samples and conifer needles were collected from forests at 41 sites in the study area. Six macro and seven micronutrients were analyzed for both soils and tissue. The mean nutrient levels and variability for each species was evaluated. The gradients in tissue nutrients were exposed by means of correspondence analysis (CA) and canonical correspondence (CCA), for each species. The first CA axis of Pinus wallichiana data was significantly correlated with soil N, P and K (p<0.05). The second CA axis was correlated with P, B and Ca, while the third was correlated with K and Mg (p<0.05). The first CA axis of Abies pindrow was not correlated with any soil nutrients, but the second axis showed correlation with soil Ca (p<0.05) and the third with S, Fe and N (p at the most 0.05). Cedrus deodara CA axes were not markedly correlated with soil nutrients. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) exposed the correlation structure between tissue nutrient and soil nutrient matrices with similar results thereby supporting the results of CA. (author)

  11. Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intense rainfall often leads to floods and landslides in the Himalayan region even with rainfall amounts that are considered comparatively moderate over the plains; for example, 'cloudbursts', which are devastating convective phenomena producing sudden high-intensity rainfall (∼10 cm per hour) over a small area.

  12. Current status of the traditional watermills of the Himalayan region and the need of technical improvements for increasing their energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashisht, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical solutions for evaluating the traditional-watermill’s efficiency are derived. ► Blade surface modification from flat to circular-paraboloid increases efficiency by 7.51%. ► Water-jet angle alters the geometric dimensions of the blade due to abrasion. ► Replacement of chute with circular pipe increases the power generation by 0.366 kW. -- Abstract: Traditional watermills of the Himalayan region are centuries old water-power driven small-scale industry which is serving mountain inhabitants till date. But, day by day it is becoming tough for this eco-friendly technology to keep pace with modern technologies; hence its future is dubious now. Various organizations throughout the world are trying to rejuvenate and re-popularize this environment-friendly technology for multipurpose use. However, instead of improving its existing design, stress is being given to increase the adoptability of new-design watermill. In spite of all efforts, the new-design watermill has not shown any sharp impact on its adoptability rate. Certainly, there are issues which are not considered while implementing line of action. Before commencing the study, thorough discussions on the issues affecting the watermills’ existence in the region were made with the remotely residing watermill owners. Complete study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the issues that are deciding the fate of watermills’ existence in the region are discussed. Keeping all discussed-issues in mind, design of various components of an in-operation watermill is reviewed and modifications are proposed for increasing its efficiency. For the purpose, analytical expressions for evaluating watermill efficiency are also derived.

  13. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network.

  14. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  15. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

    2013-08-01

    A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The Σ-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondary Inorganic Aerosols over an Urban Location in North-Western Himalayan Region: Seasonal Variation in Composition and Formation Process(es)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, D.; Tandon, A.

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative photo-chemical transformation of precursor gases, mainly of anthropogenic origin, produces secondary aerosols. Secondary inorganic aerosols constitute a significant fraction of total aerosol load over urban locations especially high altitude in wet-temperate climatic set-up. Towns situated in North-Western Himalayan region (NWHR) with sizable population and attractive tourist destinations have been facing ever increasing problem of gaseous and particulate air pollution from exponential increase in vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic emissions. The present study has been planned to investigate the seasonal variations in atmospheric processes responsible for the formation of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA) and to estimate contribution of SIA to PM­10 load over an Urban location, Dharamshala, in Dhauladhar region of NWHR. Twenty four hourly PM10 aerosol samples were collected, on quartz micro fibre filters in Dharamshala (1350 amsl) on weekly basis for complete one year time-period (February 2015 - January 2016). These samples were analyzed for Water Soluble Inorganic Ions (WSII) using Ion-Chromatographic System. On annual basis, SO42- ions contributed maximum (52%) followed by NO3- (13%) and NH4+ (12%) to WSII. Based upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA), dominant sources contributing to PM10 associated WSII were identified as: Fossil-Fuel and Bio-mass burning, Vehicular (mainly diesel) emissions and gaseous emissions from the microbial degradation of dead bio-mass. Throughout the year, significantly high proportion of SO42- and considerable thermodynamic stability of (NH4)2SO2 at ambient temperatures, made it the major contributor to SIA over NH4NO3 and NH4Cl. On seasonal basis, maximum contribution of SIA to PM10 was observed in monsoon followed by the winter season. Low ambient temperature in winter season favoured formation of NH4NO3 with significant contribution to SIA. It could be concluded that observed variability in the composition and

  17. Variability in the growth and nodulation of soybean in response to elevation and soil properties in the himalayan region of kashmir-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, N.; Abbasi, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the variability of soybean nodulation and growth in relation to elevation and soil properties across the slopping uplands of the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan in order to find efficient native N2 fixing bacteria adapted to local soil and climatic characteristics. Soils from twenty two different sites with variable altitude were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics including the quantitative estimation of rhizobium population through most probable number (MPN) technique. Soybean cultivar William-82 was grown in these soils under greenhouse condition for determining the nodulation potential (number and mass) and plant growth characteristics. Morphology of the nodules were observed through optical and transmission electron microscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Biplot graph were used to jointly interpret the relationship between variables and soils (treatments). Soil altitude ranged from 855 m to 3000 m while organic matter content varied between 0.8% to 3.5% and pH from 6.0 to 8.1. The indigenous rhizobia population varied between 5.0 x104 to 8.0 x106 CFU g-1 showing the existence of a substantial rhizobial population in these soils. The number of nodules per plant varied from 7 to 40 (CV 38%) suggesting site/location as an important factor contributing towards rhizobia population and impacting root nodulation. The electron microscopy of green plant nodules showed densely populated bacteria in these cells and nodule tissue cells were completely infected with bacteria. The growth characteristics of soybean i.e. shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight varied among the sites but in general a vigorous and healthy plant growth was observed reflecting N assimilation from native soils. Results showed a substantial variability between sites and this is likely to be due to inter/intra species diversity, as well as

  18. Prevalent infant feeding practices among the mothers presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Garhwal Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Kumar Rathaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of studies on infant feeding practices from the rural areas of garhwal Himalayas of the state of uttarakhand. The present study was designed to assess the infant feeding practices in Garhwal region. Infant feeding practices have significant implications on a child's health. Early nutritional status especially during the first year of life has been shown to have a significant effect on child health and development. Optimal infant feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. The study of infant feeding practices is essential before formulation of any interventional programme. Settings and Design: A study was conducted in HNB Base Hospital and Teaching Institute with the aim to assess the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of malnutrition in the study population reporting at the hospital in garhwal region of uttarakhand. Methods and Material: This is an observational cross sectional study. 275 infants were included in the study. After taking informed consent, case study forms were filled by interviewing the infants' mothers. Weight, length and head circumference of each infant was also measured. The information thus obtained was compiled, tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that 46.4% infants in the age group 0-5 months were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. 52.8% infants aged 0-5 months of were exclusively breastfed. 33.6% infants in age group 0-5 months received prelacteal feeds. 53.12% infants in age group 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid or soft food, in addition to breast milk. 53.33% infants were partially or fully bottle fed. Age appropriate feeding was found in 56% infants. The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 0-5 months was 33.6%,30.4% and 36.8% respectively . The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 6-11 months was 28%, 26.5% and

  19. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Negi, M.S.; Choubey, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 μSv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m 3 and thus are within safe limits

  20. Economic Analysis of the Impacts of Climate-Induced Changes in River Flow on Hydropower and Fisheries in Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka Mishra, S.; Hayse, J.; Veselka, T.; Yan, E.; Kayastha, R. B.; McDonald, K.; Steiner, N.; Lagory, K.

    2017-12-01

    Climate-mediated changes in melting of snow and glaciers and in precipitation patterns are expected to significantly alter the water flow of rivers at various spatial and temporal scales. Hydropower generation and fisheries are likely to be impacted annually and over the century by the seasonal as well as long-term changes in hydrological conditions. In order to quantify the interactions between the drivers of climate change, the hydropower sector and the ecosystem we developed an integrated assessment framework that links climate models with process-based bio-physical and economic models. This framework was applied to estimate the impacts of changes in snow and glacier melt on the stream flow of the Trishuli River of the High Mountain Asia Region. Remotely-sensed data and derived products, as well as in-situ data, were used to quantify the changes in snow and glacier melt. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated for stream flows at various points in the Trishuli river in order to forecast conditions at the location of a stream gauge station upstream of the Trishuli hydropower plant. The flow of Trishuli River was projected to increase in spring and decrease in summer over the period of 2020-2100 under RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5 scenarios as compared to respective mean seasonal discharge observed over 1981-2014. The simulated future annual mean stream flow would increase by 0.6 m3/s under RCP 8.5 scenario but slightly decrease under RCP 4.5. The Argonne Hydropower Energy and Economic toolkit was used to estimate and forecast electricity generation at the Trishuli power plant under various flow conditions and upgraded infrastructure. The increased spring flow is expected to increase dry-season electricity generation by 18% under RCP 8.5 in comparison to RCP 4.5. A fishery suitability model developed for the basin indicated that fishery suitability in the Trishuli River would be greater than 70% of optimal, even during dry months under both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8

  1. Importance of age in outcome of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in open access endoscopy: a profile of patients in Sub-Himalayan region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sharma

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oesophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy (OGD is done in patients received by either open access system or the conventional system. The presenting complaints and OGD findings may differ among patients with age < 45 yrs and those who are more than 45 yrs old. The referral diagnosis, age, sex, and environmental factors have important implications on the chances of finding and objective abnormality on endoscopy in a patient. This study was aimed to evaluate to evaluate the profile of 1186 patients divided into younger (<45 yrs and older age (45 or > 45 yrs groups presenting for oesophago gastroduodenoscopy through open access referral system in sub-Himalayan region of North India. This is a retrospective study carried out on patients who underwent the OGD from Jan, 2004-Dec, 2004. The study was conducted in Indira Gandhi Medical College situated at a moderate altitude in North India. All patients presenting in Medical College during the study period for OGD were taken into study. The patients were divided into two groups based on age; less than 45 yrs and 45 yrs or more than 45 yrs. Their presenting complaint, age, sex, and OGD findings were recorded. The profile was compared between the two groups. A total of 1186 patients underwent OGD; the females were 451(38% and males were 735(62%; 616(52% were < 45 yrs old and 570(48% of the patients were 45 yrs or older. In the group I 431(70% had a normal endoscopy and 185(30% showed abnormal endoscopic findings. In group II 302(53% had a normal endoscopy, and 268(47% had abnormal findings on endoscopy. Gastric ulcers, mass lesion/new growth were more common in elderly group, Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD was more common in younger group. The presenting complaints were similar in both groups. It is concluded that for the same presenting diagnosis the yield of OGD was more in patients > 45 yrs old. The positivity rate increased from 30% in < 45 yrs to 47% in the elderly cohort. So, all people >45 yrs

  2. Radionuclide analysis in the soil of Kumaun Himalaya, India, using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Prasad, Ganesh; Gusain, G.S.; Choubey, V.M.; Tosheva, Z.; Kies, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental release of low levels of radioactivity can occur as a consequence of normal radionuclides present in the earth's crust. We present here the results of a survey undertaken in 2003 on the radionuclide concentration in different rock formations in the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The activity concentration and gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial radionuclides caused by 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in the soil samples collected from the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The mean concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the earth's crust varied from 0.5 to 5 ppm (6 to 60 Bq/kg) and 2 to 20 ppm (8 to 80 Bq/kg) respectively. The reported activity concentration for the different rock formations varied from 32.6 to 1305.5 Bq/kg for 238 U, 16.3 to 136.3 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 124.6 to 1758.0 Bq/kg for 40 K. The distribution of the radionuclides varied with rock type due to different chemical properties of the measured radionuclides and the rocks. The result shows that high activity levels were found in Saryu Formation consisting of augen-gneiss, granite interbedded with schists and flaggy quartzite. The total air-absorbed dose rate in air above 1 m height was calculated from the three radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K), which varied from 39.1 to 226.8 nGy h -1 . The internal and external health-hazard indices were calculated based on the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Strong positive correlations were observed between 235 U and 226 Ra, 232 Th and 226 Ra, 40 K and 232 Th as well as 40 K and 226 Ra. However, no significant correlation was observed between 238 U and 226 Ra because of radioactive disequilibrium between them. (author)

  3. An environmental record of changes in sedimentary organic matter from Lake Sattal in Kumaun Himalayas, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Preetam; Routh, Joyanto; Chakrapani, Govind J.

    2009-01-01

    Sattal a small mountainous lake in the Kumaun Himalayas has been impacted by various cultural activities in recent years. We explored the effects of human-induced changes in this lake by using various geochemical proxies. Shifts in TOC and N flux, C/N ratio, stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), n-alkane, and pigment concentrations in sediments indicate a steady increase in primary productivity over the last few decades. The trophic status of the lake has changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic condition. The C/N, CPI, and TAR based ratios in sediments indicate accumulation of algal matter derived primarily from in situ production, with limited input of terrestrial organic matter from the watershed. The low (between 0.1 and 1 per mille ) δ 15 N values imply N 2 -fixation by cyanobacteria, and the decrease in δ 13 C values up-core represent the effect of sewage input and land based runoff, or possible contribution from microbial biomass. The pigments change from non-N 2 fixing cyanobacterial species to the N 2 -fixing community, and are consistent with the proxy-based productivity shifts inferred in the lake. The deeper sediments are affected by post-diagenetic changes causing an increase in δ 13 C (and possibly δ 15 N) due to mineralization of organic C and N

  4. Sporotrichosis in sub-himalayan India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santwana; Verma, Ghanshyam K; Singh, Gagandeep; Kanga, Anil; Shanker, Vinay; Singh, Digvijay; Gupta, Poonam; Mokta, Kiran; Sharma, Vinita

    2012-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is endemic in the Sub-Himalayan belt, which ranges from the northern to the north-eastern Indian subcontinent. Similar to many parts of the developing world, sporotrichosis is commonly recognized clinically in this region however consolidated epidemiological data is lacking. We report epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data from a hundred culture positive cases of sporotrichosis. Out of 305 clinically suspicious cases of sporotrichosis, a total of 100 isolates were identified as Sporothrix schenckii species complex (S. schenckii) on culture. Out of the culture proven cases 71% of the cases presented with lymphocutaneous type of lesions while 28% had fixed localized type and 1% had disseminated sporotrichosis. Presentation with lesions on hands was most frequently seen in 32% with arm (23%) and face (21%) in that sequence. The male to female ratio was 1∶1.27. Age ranged from 1 ½ years to 88 years. Mean age was 43.25 years. Disease was predominantly seen in the fourth to sixth decade of life with 58% cases between 31 and 60 years of age. Since the first report from the region there has been a steady rise in the number of cases of sporotrichosis. Seasonal trends reveal that most of the patients visited for consultation in the beginning of the year between March and April. This is the first study, from the most endemic region of the Sub-Himalayan belt, to delve into epidemiological and clinical details of such a large number of culture proven cases over a period of more than eighteen years which would help in the understanding of the local disease pattern of sporotrichosis.

  5. Sporotrichosis in sub-himalayan India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santwana Verma

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is endemic in the Sub-Himalayan belt, which ranges from the northern to the north-eastern Indian subcontinent. Similar to many parts of the developing world, sporotrichosis is commonly recognized clinically in this region however consolidated epidemiological data is lacking. We report epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data from a hundred culture positive cases of sporotrichosis. Out of 305 clinically suspicious cases of sporotrichosis, a total of 100 isolates were identified as Sporothrix schenckii species complex (S. schenckii on culture. Out of the culture proven cases 71% of the cases presented with lymphocutaneous type of lesions while 28% had fixed localized type and 1% had disseminated sporotrichosis. Presentation with lesions on hands was most frequently seen in 32% with arm (23% and face (21% in that sequence. The male to female ratio was 1∶1.27. Age ranged from 1 ½ years to 88 years. Mean age was 43.25 years. Disease was predominantly seen in the fourth to sixth decade of life with 58% cases between 31 and 60 years of age. Since the first report from the region there has been a steady rise in the number of cases of sporotrichosis. Seasonal trends reveal that most of the patients visited for consultation in the beginning of the year between March and April. This is the first study, from the most endemic region of the Sub-Himalayan belt, to delve into epidemiological and clinical details of such a large number of culture proven cases over a period of more than eighteen years which would help in the understanding of the local disease pattern of sporotrichosis.

  6. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  7. Into the Himalayan Exile: The Phylogeography of the Ground Beetle Ethira clade Supports the Tibetan Origin of Forest-Dwelling Himalayan Species Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joachim; Opgenoorth, Lars; Höll, Steffen; Bastrop, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan mountain arc is one of the hotspots of biodiversity on earth, and species diversity is expected to be especially high among insects in this region. Little is known about the origin of the Himalayan insect fauna. With respect to the fauna of high altitude cloud forests, it has generally been accepted that Himalayan lineages are derived from ancestors that immigrated from Western Asia and from adjacent mountainous regions of East and Southeast Asia (immigration hypothesis). In this study, we sought to test a Tibetan Origin as an alternative hypothesis for groups with a poor dispersal ability through a phylogeographic analysis of the Ethira clade of the genus Pterostichus. We sequenced COI mtDNA and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes in 168 Pterostichini specimens, including 46 species and subspecies of the Ethira clade. In our analysis, we were able to show that the Ethira clade is monophyletic and, thus, represents a Himalayan endemic clade, supporting endemism of two of the basal lineages to the Central Himalaya and documenting large distributional gaps within the phylogeographic structure of the Ethira clade. Furthermore, the molecular data strongly indicate very limited dispersal abilities of species and subspecies of these primary wingless ground beetles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a Tibetan Origin, which explains the evolution, diversity and distribution of the Himalayan ground beetle Ethira clade much more parsimoniously than the original immigration hypothesis. PMID:23049805

  8. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  9. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase one involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase two involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that no individual above 60 years of age in the studied population was diagnosed as a case of dementia. Thereby, pointing out at some unknown factors, which are responsible for prevention of dementia. Discussion: The differences between the prevalence rate in this study and other studies in India appear to be a function of a valid regional difference. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors may contribute to regional and racial variations in dementia. Societies living in isolated hilly and tribal areas seem less predisposed to dementia, particularly age related neurodegenerative and vascular dementia, which are the most common causes for dementia in elderly. This may be because some environmental risk factors are much less prevalent in these settings.

  10. Geochemical Characteristics on NW of Ladakh Batholith region exposed in the Western part of Leh area around Trans- Himalayan Belt, NW (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A., IV; Ilbeyli, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics (major & trace elements including REE) are studied on the granitic rocks from NW of Ladakh batholith region that emplaced in the western part of Leh area around the Trans- Himalaya of Ladakh district, Jammu & Kashmir (NW India). The major element geochemistry reveals that these granitic rocks display a broad spectrum of SiO2 content (54.50 wt%- 75.80 wt%). The oxide of K2O, Al2O3, MgO & Fe2O3 shows negative correlation with SiO2 probably shows the fractionation of biotite during the process of crystallization. The oxide of CaO & TiO2 shows positive correlation that coupled with their negative correlation with SiO2 most probably reflects the fractionation of Sphene (CaTiSiO5). The fractionation of apatite is also indicated by the positive correlation with CaO & P2O5 and their negative correlation with SiO2. The classified diagram between Molar Al2O3/ (CaO+Na2O+K2O) vs Molar Al2O3/ (Na2O+K2O) shows that all samples covered peraluminous region. The total alkali diagram of (Na2O+K2O) wt% vs SiO2 (wt %) shows that all samples covered the region of granite, quartz diorite & diorite. The samples plot between K2O (wt %) vs SiO2 (wt %) shows high to medium -K (calc-alkaline) series. All these intrusive rock shows enrichment in LILE (K, Rb, Ba, & Th) and LREE (Ce) relative to the HFSE (Ta, Nb, Hf, Zr, Sm, Y, & Yb). The Chondrite- normalized REE patterns for the studied granitic rocks such as LREE & MREE and HREE's are moderately fractionated & have moderate negative Eu anomalies. In the Nb Vs Y and Rb- (Y+Nb) diagrams, all intrusive rocks fall into the VAG (volcanic- arc granite) field in order to characterize tectonic environment for the granitic rocks. The Al2O3/TiO2 vs CaO/Na2O diagram & Rb/Ba vs Rb/Sr plots are used for identifying the source of melts parental to peraluminous granites. The variations that observed in granitoid are not only by partial melting but also depend on various processes like migration of melts, magma mixing

  11. Radiation countermeasures from Himalayan herbs - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    A successful radioprotector is the one, which essentially renders protection from the multi-organ dis-function syndrome (MODS) caused by the total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Our rationale is that and instead of a single molecule, a group of molecules/compounds working synergistically can combat the MODS more effectively. Plant extracts offer natural combinations of a plethora of compounds, which act through different mechanisms and are, therefore, the ideal choice. Plants of Himalayan regions have survived under extreme climatic conditions through millions of years and are expected to harbor a battery of anti-stress adaptive molecules offering survival benefits. Our group is actively engaged in developing composite herbal radioprotective preparations from Himalayan Plants. This group is working to develop radiation countermeasures by tapping the essential complex phytochemicals from the plants inhabiting extreme climatic zones of Himalayas. In our laboratory, systematic studies were undertaken to investigate some of these plants located at high altitude regions of Himalayas viz. Hippophae rhamnoides, Rhodiola imbricata and Podophylium hexandruin. The most effective preparation from each of these plants individually, could provide more than 80% survival benefit to the irradiated (10 Gy) mice population against zero per cent survival in non-drug treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. It was observed that whole extracts of plant provided much better protection than the partial extracts/fractions. It was also observed that some of the partial extracts/fractions although, provided much higher survival benefits, yet were found to be unsuitable for drug development due to much higher mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects in comparison to the whole extracts, One of the preparations from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (drug) showed more than 90% survival benefits in the irradiated mice population. Only one time intra-peritoneal administration of the drug

  12. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...... the hypothesis that the color pattern in question-light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)-is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results in temperature-sensitive pigment production. Our study shows that marbled mink carry a mutation in exon 4...... of the TYR gene (c.1835C > G) which results in an amino acid substitution (p.H420Q). The location of this substitution corresponds to the amino acid position that is also mutated in the TYR protein of the Himalayan mouse. Thus, the marbled variant is more aptly referred to as the Himalayan mink....

  13. Microseismicity, tectonics and seismic potential in the Western Himalayan segment, NW Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, Mahesh Prasad; Kumar, Sushil; Tiwari, V. M.; Rao, N. Purnachandra; Kumar, Narendra; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Singh, Ishwar

    2018-06-01

    The tectonics and seismic potential of the western Himalayan segment (30-33°N; 76-80°E) of the NW Himalayan (India) region have been determined in this study. 423 earthquakes were located in the NW Himalaya between 2004 and 2013 using more than 4495 P and 4453 S differential travel times to determine the moment tensors for 8 (Mw ≥ 4.0) of these earthquakes using their broadband regional waveforms. The geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) plane which varies along the strike of the Himalaya in flat and ramp segments with a dip ranging between ∼2.5 to ∼4° to ∼19° below the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in the south to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the north has also been deduced in this study. Two crustal ramps were reported in this study with a depth variance below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) between 12 to 22 km and 28 to 40 km depth respectively. The estimated earthquake potential prevailing in the western Himalayan seismic gap lying between the epicentral zone of the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake reveals that the total amount of energy released since the last great event is only a fraction (3-5%) of the accommodated energy i.e.1.1E+28 dyne-cm/yr. This suggests that if an earthquake hits this NW Himalayan segment in the future, its magnitude might be around Mw ≥ 8.0.

  14. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  15. Engaging the state: ethnic patronage and cultural politics in the eastern Himalayan borderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    In the eastern Himalayan borderland, state-led initiatives have led to the transformation of pre-existing patronage networks and placed ethnic identity at the core of regional politics. Based on ethnographic research in Sikkim, the paper illustrates the prolific rise of affirmative action politics...

  16. Distributional congruence of mammalian herbivores in the Trans-Himalayan Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale distribution and diversity patterns of mammalian herbivores, especially less charismatic species in alpine environments remain little understood. We studied distributional congruence of mammalian herbivores in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh to see if the distributions of less

  17. Rising river flows throughout the twenty-first century in two Himalayan glacierized watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pelliciotti, F.; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Greater Himalayan glaciers are retreating and losing mass at rates comparable to glaciers in other regions of the world1–5 . Assessments of future changes and their associated hydrological impacts are scarce, oversimplify glacier dynamics or include a limited number of climate models6–9 . Here, we

  18. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  19. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  20. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Thayyen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is

  1. New particle formation infrequently observed in Himalayan foothills – why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Neitola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A fraction of the Himalayan aerosols originate from secondary sources, which are currently poorly quantified. To clarify the climatic importance of regional secondary particle formation in the Himalayas, data from 2005 to 2010 of continuous aerosol measurements at a high-altitude (2180 m Indian Himalayan site, Mukteshwar, were analyzed. For this period, the days were classified, and the particle formation and growth rates were calculated for clear new particle formation (NPF event days. The NPF events showed a pronounced seasonal cycle. The frequency of the events peaked in spring, when the ratio between event and non-event days was 53 %, whereas the events were truly sporadic on any other seasons. The annual mean particle formation and growth rates were 0.40 cm−3 s−1 and 2.43 nm h−1, respectively. The clear annual cycle was found to be mainly controlled by the seasonal evolution of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL height together with local meteorological conditions. Spring NPF events were connected with increased PBL height, and therefore characterised as boundary layer events, while the rare events in other seasons represented lower free tropospheric particle formation. This provides insight on the vertical extent of NPF in the atmosphere.

  2. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Negi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% differences. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broadband albedo. The retrieved snow grain sizes using different models based on the ART theory were compared for various snow types and it was observed that the grain size model using two channel method (one in visible and another in NIR region can work well for the Himalayan seasonal snow and it was found consistent with temporal changes in grain size. This method can work very well for clean, dry snow as in the upper Himalaya, but sometimes, due to the low reflectances (<20% using wavelength 1.24 μm, the ART theory cannot be applied, which is common in lower and middle Himalayan old snow. This study is important for monitoring the Himalayan cryosphere using air-borne or space-borne sensors.

  3. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Mazumdar, Sweety

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  4. Pollinator scarcity drives the shift to delayed selfing in Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Ze; Fang, Qiang; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetics have indicated that American mayapple (mainly self-incompatible, SI) and Himalayan mayapple, which was considered to be self-compatible (SC), are sister species with disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We test a hypothesis that the persistence of this early spring flowering herb in the Himalayan region is attributable to the transition from SI to SC, the capacity for selfing in an unpredictable pollination environment. Pollinator observations were conducted in an alpine meadow with hundreds of Himalayan mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle) individuals over 2 years. To examine autogamy, seed set under different pollination treatments was compared. To clarify whether automatic self-pollination is achieved by movement of the pistil as a previous study suggested, we measured incline angles of the pistil and observed flower movement during anthesis using video. Floral visitors to the nectarless flowers were very rare, but solitary bees and honeybees could be potential pollinators. Seed set of bagged flowers was not significantly different from that of open-pollinated, self- or cross-pollinated flowers. However, removal of petals or stamens lowered seed yield. The angles of inclination of pistils did not change during the process of pollination. Automatic self-pollination was facilitated by petals closing and stamens moving simultaneously to contact the stigma. Stigmatic pollen load increased little during the day time, in contrast to a sharp increase when the flowers closed during the night-time. These observations indicated that Himalayan mayapple was SC and delayed self-pollination was facilitated by the movement of petals rather than the pistil. Compared with SI American mayapple, no obvious inbreeding depression in SC Himalayan mayapple may contribute its existence in the uplifting zone. A scarcity of pollinators may have driven the shift to delayed selfing in P. hexandrum.

  5. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  6. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  7. Black carbon and the Himalayan cryosphere: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Charles G.; Puppala, Siva Praveen; Panday, Arnico; Stumm, Dorothea; Shea, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayan cryosphere borders global hotspots for emissions of black carbon (BC), a carbonaceous aerosol with a short atmospheric lifespan and potentially significant impacts on glaciers and snow cover. BC in the atmosphere absorbs radiation efficiently, leading to localized positive climate forcing. BC may also be deposited onto snow and ice surfaces, thereby changing their albedo. This review presents up-to-date observational data of BC in the atmosphere and in snow and ice, as well as its effects on the cryosphere in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region along the northern edge of South Asia. Significant spatial variation exists in the measured concentrations of BC in the atmosphere and cryosphere. A strong seasonal pattern exists, with highest concentrations in the pre-monsoon and lowest during the monsoon. Existing observations show bias towards certain areas, with a noticeable lack of measurements on the south side of the Himalaya. Significant uncertainty persists in the emissions estimates of BC in the HKH region, with a standard deviation of regional emissions from various emission inventories of 0.5150 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1, or 47.1% of the mean (1.0931 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1). This and other uncertainties, including poor model resolution, imprecision in deposition modeling, and incongruities among measurement types, propagate through simulations of BC concentration in atmosphere and cryosphere. Modeled atmospheric concentrations can differ from observations by as much as a factor of three with no systematic bias, and modeled concentrations in snow and ice can differ from observations by a factor of 60 in certain regions. In the Himalaya, estimates of albedo change due to BC range from about 2 to 10%, estimates of direct radiative forcing due to BC in the atmosphere from (-2)-7 W m-2, and surface forcing estimates from 0 to 28 W m-2, though every forcing estimate uses its own definition, with varying degrees of complexity and numbers of feedbacks. We find the

  8. Stand Structure, Productivity and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Oak Dominated Forests in Kumaun Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Bijendra Lal; L.S. Lodhiyal

    2016-01-01

    Present study deals with stand structure, biomass, productivity and carbon sequestration in oak dominated forests mixed with other broad leaved tree species. The sites of studied forests were located in Nainital region between 29058’ N lat. and 79028’ E long at 1500-2150 m elevation. Tree density of forests ranged from 980-1100 ind.ha-1. Of this, oak trees shared 69-97%. The basal area of trees was 31.81 to 63.93 m2 ha-1. R. arboreum and Q. floribunda shared maximum basal area 16.45 and 16.32...

  9. Testing the effect of the Himalayan mountains as a physical barrier to gene flow in Hippophae tibetana Schlect. (Elaeagnaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Qiong

    Full Text Available Hippophae tibetana is a small, dioecious wind-pollinated shrub endemic to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau. It is one of the shrubs that occur at very high elevations (5250 m a.s.l.. The Himalayan mountains provides a significant geographical barrier to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, dividing the Himalayan area into two regions with Nepal to the south and Tibet to the north. There is no information on how the Himalayan mountains influence gene flow and population differentiation of alpine plants. In this study, we analyzed eight nuclear microsatellite markers and cpDNA trnT-trnF regions to test the role of the Himalayan mountains as a barrier to gene flow between populations of H. tibetana. We also examined the fine-scale genetic structure within a population of H. tibetana on the north slope of Mount (Mt. Everest. For microsatellite analyses, a total of 241 individuals were sampled from seven populations in our study area (4 from Nepal, 3 from Tibet, including 121 individuals that were spatially mapped within a 100 m × 100 m plot. To test for seed flow, the cpDNA trnT-trnF regions of 100 individuals from 6 populations (4 from Nepal, 2 from Tibet were also sequenced. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two regions by both microsatellite and cpDNA data analyses. These two datasets agree about southern and northern population differentiation, indicating that the Himalayan mountains represent a barrier to H. tibetana limiting gene flow between these two areas. At a fine scale, spatial autocorrelation analysis suggests significant genetic structure within a distance of less than 45 m, which may be attributed mainly to vegetative reproduction and habitat fragmentation, as well as limited gene flow.

  10. Understanding Himalayan extreme rainfall to inform disaster governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, M. B.; Kumar, A.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological aspects of the Himalayan flooding events were investigated with the coupled atmospheric and Hydrological (WRF-LIS) modeling tool. The Convective storms occurring at the steep edge of broad high topography, such as the Rocky Mountains and Himalayas, are notorious for producing surprising and lethal flash floods. We investigated two recent Himalayan flood events (a) 2010 Ladakh flood: A flash flood and landslide in the Leh region of the Indus Valley in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir on 5-6 August 2010 resulted in hundreds of deaths and great property damage. (b) 2013 Uttrakhand flood: Over a three-day period in June 2013, approximately 500-1000 mm of rain fell over Uttarakhand and its river valleys as well as neighboring Nepal. The extensive precipitation and runoff led to devastating floods and landslides throughout the region and resulted in much destruction and loss of life (over 4,000 villages were affected, and the death toll exceeded 5,000). The Uttarakhand flood had characteristics in common with major 2013 floods in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Alberta. Our study examines the land-atmosphere interactions & cloud structure and dynamics of these flooding events in more detail, identifying the synoptic, mesoscale, convective, orographic, and land-surface components of the storm. We include satellite observations, ground-based radar imagery, and convection-permitting model simulations down to 1 km grid resolution to show the three-dimensional character of the precipitating cloud systems in more detail than previous studies. Our Land Information System (LIS) calculations suggest that soil moisture preconditioning by prior storms in the area in a vulnerable watershed is a hydrologic ingredient that should be taken into account along with the meteorological ingredients. In this regard, our results will be seen to reinforce the position taken by Doswell et al. (1996) that local forecasting of flood situations is ideally based on

  11. REVIEW: TRANSCULTURAL ENCOUNTERS IN THE HIMALAYAN BORDERLANDS - KALIMPONG AS A "CONTACT ZONE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Enrico Beltramini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Markus Viehbeck (ed., 2017. Transcultural Encounters in the Himalayan Borderlands - Kalimpong as a "Contact Zone." Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, viii + 350 pp, ISBN 978-3-946054-58-0 (paperback 55.37USD. This volume is both a story of the hill station of Kalimpong, in the Eastern Himalayan region, and a study of transcultural dynamics seen through the prism of the local story of Kalimpong. A collaborative work, the book is the result of a conference that brought together various international scholars on the cultural history of Kalimpong. Scholars from Europe (Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Heidelberg, Manchester, Oxford, Roskilde, North America (Los Angeles, Toronto, Oceania (Melbourne, and India (Sikkim met in Kalimpong 6-8 March 2015, to discuss the topic from a variety of disciplinary viewpoints, including social history, Tibetan studies, anthropology, ethnography, religious studies, and postcolonial literature. The publisher, Heidelberg University Publishing, has included this anthology in its prestigious Heidelberg Studies on Transculturality. The history of Kalimpong, the other mountain town of Darjeeling and, more generally the entire Eastern Himalayan region, has been the focus of a specialized yet expanding scholarly field. Works center on Kalimpong (Hilker, 2005, Darjeeling (Besky, 2014; Sharma, 2011 and 2014; Warner, 2014, and the entire area of the Himalayan territories of Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan, as well as parts of Northern-Eastern India (Huber and Blackburn, 2012; McKay, 2007; Mullard, 2011; Phuntsho, 2013; Shneiderman, 2015. In this context, scholars note how Kalimpong and Darjeeling shared the same destiny: originally sparsely populated settlements in the foothills of the Himalayas, both villages were acquired in the nineteenth century by the English East India Company (Kalimpong was annexed in 1865 from the kingdom of Bhutan, and Darjeeling from the kingdom of Sikkim in 1835 to become British-ruled towns and

  12. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  13. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively.

  14. Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Himalayan Medicinal Plants for Treating Wound Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habiba, U.; Ahmad, M.; Shinwari, S.; Sultana, S.; Zafar, M.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial and fungal strains are involved in wound infectious diseases as most of these strains become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Himalayan region. Plant based natural products seem to be an alternative to this problem. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of 30 medicinal plants used in folk recipes by Himalayan people to treat wound infections against multi-drug resistant pathogens. In total of six medically important Myco-bacterial strains Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were tested against methanolic plant extracts at 5 mg/ml concentration using agar disc well diffusion method to determined Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The plant extracts showed varied levels of MICs against test microorganisms. The strongest antibacterial activity was reported in methanolic extract of Cynadon dactylon (L.) Pers. against Klebsiella pneumoniae with 20.67±1.36 mm MICs, while Candida albicans was considered to be the most resistant pathogen with MICs 9.6±0.57 mm. The findings were compared with results obtained using standard antibiotics, aminooxanilic, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, fluconazole and itraconazole at conc. 5mg/ ml. The results provide an evidence of folk medicinal uses of plants among the Himalayan communities to treat wounds. Further research needs to be carried out to identify the active molecules and evaluate the in vivo antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as toxicity level with clinical trials to use full potential of these plants for drug discovery development to control wounds globally. (author)

  15. Himalayan porter's specialization: metabolic power, economy, efficiency and skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Alberto E; Formenti, Federico; Ardigò, Luca P

    2006-11-07

    Carrying heavy loads in the Himalayan region is a real challenge. Porters face extreme ranges in terrain condition, path steepness, altitude hypoxia and climate for 6-8h a day, many months a year, since they were boys. It has been previously shown that, when carrying loads on level terrain, porters' metabolic economy is higher than in Caucasians but the reasons are still unknown. We monitored Nepalese porters both during 90 km trekking in Khumbu Valley and at two different altitudes (3490 and 5050 m above sea-level), where they were compared to Caucasian mountaineers during (22%) gradient walking. Both subject groups carried a load of up to 90% body mass. The remarkably higher performance of porters during uphill locomotion (+60% in speed, +39% mechanical power) is only partly explained by the lower cost of loaded walking (-20%), being also the result of a better cardio-circulatory adaptation to altitude, which generates a higher mass-specific metabolic power (+30%). Consequently, Nepalese porters show higher efficiency, both during uphill and downhill loaded walking. Their higher economy on steep paths cannot be ascribed to a better exchange between potential and kinetic energy, as in our experiments the body centre of mass travelled monotonically uphill (or downhill). A different oscillation pattern of the loaded head-trunk segment, together with the analysis of the different components of the mechanical work during load carrying, suggests that achieved motor skills in balancing the loaded body segment above the hip could play a role in determining the better economy of porters.

  16. Extreme heterogeneity in Sr isotope systematic in the Himalayan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    due to post-collision partial melting within the Himalayan crust. ... plutons occur in two linear belts either close to ... can explain, even in outcrop scale, the observed ... between the northern Eurasian plate and the southern Indian plate. ... (b) Thrusting model and boundary conditions used for calculating transient geotherms.

  17. Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2004-01-01

    There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock

  18. Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronometric Constraints on Himalayan Thrust Belt Exhumation, Bedrock Weathering, and Cenozoic Seawater Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleps, Cody L.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Singh, Birendra P.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Myrow, Paul M.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Horton, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    Shifts in global seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr are often utilized as proxies to track global weathering processes responsible for CO2 fluctuations in Earth history, particularly climatic cooling during the Cenozoic. It has been proposed, however, that these isotopic records instead reflect the weathering of chemically distinctive Himalayan lithologies exposed at the surface. We present new zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic evidence from the Himalaya of northwest India to explore these contrasting interpretations concerning the driving mechanisms responsible for these seawater records. Our data demonstrate in-sequence southward thrust propagation with rapid exhumation of Lesser Himalayan strata enriched in labile 187Os and relatively less in radiogenic 87Sr at ˜16 Ma, which directly corresponds with coeval shifts in seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr. Results presented here provide substantial evidence that the onset of exhumation of 187Os-enriched Lesser Himalayan strata could have significantly impacted the marine 187Os/188Os record at 16 Ma. These results support the hypothesis that regional weathering of isotopically unique source rocks can drive seawater records independently from shifts in global-scale weathering rates, hindering the utility of these records as reliable proxies to track global weathering processes and climate in deep geologic time.

  19. Timing and nature of Holocene glacier advances at the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sourav; Owen, Lewis A.; Orr, Elizabeth N.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2018-05-01

    Holocene glacial chronostratigraphies are developed for four glaciated valleys at the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen using geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. The study areas include the Hamtah valley in the Lahul Himalaya, and the Karzok, Lato and upper Stok valleys in Zanskar. Five local glacial stages are dated to ∼10.4, ∼6.1-3.3, ∼2.1-0.9, ∼0.7-0.4, and ∼0.3-0.2 ka based on 49 new moraine boulder ages. Large age dispersions are evident for each of the local glacial stages. This is especially the case for ∼6.1-3.3 and ∼2.1-0.9 ka, which is likely a result of prior and/or incomplete exposures in very young moraine boulders. An additional compilation of 187 published 10Be moraine boulder ages help define seven Himalayan Holocene regional glacial stages (HHs) for the northwestern end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. These HHs date to ∼10.9-9.3, ∼8.2-7.4, ∼6.9-4.3, ∼4.5-2.8, ∼2.7-1.8, ∼1.8-0.9, and forced northerly migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and enhanced summer monsoon. The timing of the majority of HHs during mid- and late Holocene corresponds well with the North Atlantic cooling that is likely teleconnected via mid-latitude westerlies, particularly during ∼8 ka and after ∼5 ka. These chronostratigraphies suggest that Holocene glaciation in the northwestern part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is largely influenced by long-term orbital forcing amplified by large-scale migration of the Earth's thermal equator and the associated hemispheric oceanic-atmospheric systems.

  20. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  1. Orogen-transverse tectonic window in the Eastern Himalayan fold belt: A superposed buckling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Acharyya, S. K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Saha, Puspendu

    2014-09-01

    The Eastern Lesser Himalayan fold-thrust belt is punctuated by a row of orogen-transverse domal tectonic windows. To evaluate their origin, a variety of thrust-stack models have been proposed, assuming that the crustal shortening occurred dominantly by brittle deformations. However, the Rangit Window (RW) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) shows unequivocal structural imprints of ductile deformations of multiple episodes. Based on new structural maps, coupled with outcrop-scale field observations, we recognize at least four major episodes of folding in the litho-tectonic units of DSH. The last episode has produced regionally orogen-transverse upright folds (F4), the interference of which with the third-generation (F3) orogen-parallel folds has shaped the large-scale structural patterns in DSH. We propose a new genetic model for the RW, invoking the mechanics of superposed buckling in the mechanically stratified litho-tectonic systems. We substantiate this superposed buckling model with results obtained from analogue experiments. The model explains contrasting F3-F4 interferences in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS). The lower-order (terrain-scale) folds have undergone superposed buckling in Mode 1, producing large-scale domes and basins, whereas the RW occurs as a relatively higher-order dome nested in the first-order Tista Dome. The Gondwana and the Proterozoic rocks within the RW underwent superposed buckling in Modes 3 and 4, leading to Type 2 fold interferences, as evident from their structural patterns.

  2. Radon emanations: a tectonic indicator in the Dharamsala area of Himalayan Frontal Zone, Himachal Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    While throughout the length of Himalayas good exposures of the tertiary and the pre-Tertiary occurs occur, but in the Dharamsala and its adjoining areas of Himalayan Frontal Zone, tertiary and the pre-Tertiary rocks are present within a short aerial distance. This diverse lithology within a short span of distance along with the structural heterogeneity has made this region of Himalayas tectonically significant. This unique tectano-stratigraphic configuration of this area is primarily attributed to the major faults and folds which are either along the Himalayan trend or transverse to it. Interestingly the area is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zone-V of seismic atlas of India. It has been observed that regional thrusts systems and lineaments, control seismo-tectonic activity in the region. Contemporary geomorphological re-adjustments in the form of erosion intensity (meandering/drainage pattern or river incision) as a result of active nature of lineaments have been observed. In addition, due to the rampant seismic activity in the region especially in year 2013, the area has witnessed a sequence of landslides. The study further reveals these the signatures of morphological adjustment coincide with zones which have deciphered higher proportions of radon activity. Because radon transport through rocks is largely dependent on the geology of the area, which includes lithology, compaction, porosity structural/tectonic features like thrusts, faults, joints and fractures. Occurrences of landslide the thrust zones, coupled with high emanations of radon (both in soil and water) alludes attention towards dominant role of neo-tectonic activity in the area. (author)

  3. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  4. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  5. Taking a step back: Himalayan erosion as seen from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, M.; France-Lanord, C.; Lavé, J.; Blard, P.; Galy, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan range represents the archetype of mountain building and is considered in many studies as the locus of intense interactions between climate, denudation and tectonics. A better understanding of these interactions requires that the flux of material removed from the system through erosion is known. The products of Himalayan erosion are exported to the Bengal fan and the Indian Ocean by two major rivers: the Ganga and Brahmaputra. These rivers provide the opportunity to quantify the Himalayan denudation rates as they integrate surface and tectonic processes across the entire basin. Basin wide erosion or denudation rates have classically been derived from the gauging of sediments fluxes. By coping with the inherent spatial and temporal variability of sediment concentration in rivers, sediment budgets yield average denudation rate over the observational period ranging from years to decades. Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10-Be allow the estimation of basin-wide denudation rates averaged over typical time scales of hundreds to thousand of years, from a single measurement in river sediments. We compare these methods for the case of the Ganga basin that drains the central part of the Himalayan range. By using a distal point of view, i.e. by sampling and evaluating the sediment flux at the outlet of the Ganga in Bangladesh we are able to propose an average denudation rate of the entire, central part of the Himalayan range. This sampling location offers the benefit of integrating the entire basin and its distance from the sediment source makes it also less prone to perturbations in the headwaters. However, the effects of 500 to 1000 km floodplain transfer on the sedimentary signal needs to be correctly evaluated. The gauged sediment flux can mainly be impacted by the sequestration of sediments in the floodplain. For the Ganga basin, sequestration is limited to ca. 10 % of the eroded sediment flux as deduced from geochemical mass balance approaches [1]. On their side

  6. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil K.; Gosain, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    under climate change scenarios have been made and implications on groundwater and groundwater quality have been assessed. The delicate groundwater resource balance that connects livelihoods of millions of people seems to be under tremendously increasing pressure due to the dynamic conditions of the natural environment of the region and the future climate changes. - Highlights: ► Applies a framework for an integrated hydrological, hydrochemical, and groundwater quality model using SWAT–MODFLOW–MT3DMS ► Applies the integrated framework to a Himalayan watershed ► Provides calibration and validation of each of the modules, including sensitivity analysis using LH-OAT ► Estimates impact of climate change under various scenarios (A2, B2 and A1B for end of the century scenarios)

  7. Botany, ethnomedicines, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Himalayan paeony (Paeonia emodi Royle.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Malik, Khafsa; Tariq, Akash; Zhang, Guolin; Yaseen, Ghulam; Rashid, Neelam; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Ullah, Kifayat; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada

    2018-06-28

    submission and most of the studies (90%) without validation of taxonomic names using recognized databases. In reported methods, 67% studies without characterization of extracts, 25% lack proper dose, 40% without duration and 31% reports lack information on proper controls. Similarly, only 18% studies reports active compound(s) responsible for pharmacological activities, 14% studies show minimal active concentration, only 2.5% studies report mechanism of action on target while none of the reports mentioned in silico approach. P. emodi is endemic to Himalayan region (Pakistan, China, India and Nepal) with diverse traditional therapeutic uses. Majority of reviewed studies showed confusion in its taxonomic validity, incomplete methodologies and ambiguous findings. Keeping in view the immense uses of P. emodi in various traditional medicinal systems, holistic pharmacological approaches in combination with reverse pharmacology, system biology, and "omics" technologies are recommended to improve the quality of research which leads to natural drug discovery development at global perspectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Sinha, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (similar to 4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers....

  9. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  10. RIS and reservoirs in the NW and central Himalayan foothills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, R.C.

    1989-02-01

    There are nine (impounded) and three (under construction) tall (height exceeding 100 m) and large (capacity exceeding 1 km 3 ) reservoirs located in the northwestern and central Himalayan foothills. Natural earthquakes having magnitude greater than 7 have occurred in their vicinity in the past but there are no reports of reservoir associated seismic activity from a few of these sites which are under seismic surveillance following the guidelines of Indian Standard IS: 4967-1968. Case study of monitoring the seismicity around one site points to the need for rewriting the Standard. Reasons for non-occurrence of RIS in this seismically active environment are discussed. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Determining bioclimatic space of Himalayan alder for agroforestry systems in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan alder species are proven to be very useful in traditional as well as contemporary agroforestry practice. These nitrogen-fixing trees are also useful in the land restoration. Therefore, understanding the distribution of Himalayan alder and the potential zone for plantation is meaningful in the agroforestry sector. Suitable climatic zones of Alnus spp. were modelled in MaxEnt software using a subset of least correlated bioclimatic variables for current conditions (1950–2000, topographic variables (DEM derived and Landuse Landcover (LULC data. We generated several models and selected the best model against random models using ANOVA and t-test. The environmental variables that best explained the current distribution of the species were identified and used to project into the future. For future projections, ensemble scenarios of climate change projection derived from the results of 19 Earth System Models (ESM were used. Our model revealed that the most favorable conditions for Alnus nepalensis are in central Nepal in the moist north-west facing slope, whereas for Alnus nitida they are in western Nepal. The major climatic factor that contributes to Alnus species distribution in Nepal appears to be precipitation during the warmest quarter for A. nepalensis and precipitation during the driest quarter for A. nitida. Future projections revealed changes in the probability distribution of these species, as well as where they need conservation and where they can be planted. Also, our model predicts that the distribution of Alnus spp. in hilly regions will remain unchanged, and therefore may represent sites that can be used to revitalize traditional agroforestry systems and extract source material for land restoration.

  12. Abrasion-set limits on Himalayan gravel flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Elizabeth H; Attal, Mikaël; Sinclair, Hugh D

    2017-04-26

    Rivers sourced in the Himalayan mountain range carry some of the largest sediment loads on the planet, yet coarse gravel in these rivers vanishes within approximately 10-40 kilometres on entering the Ganga Plain (the part of the North Indian River Plain containing the Ganges River). Understanding the fate of gravel is important for forecasting the response of rivers to large influxes of sediment triggered by earthquakes or storms. Rapid increase in gravel flux and subsequent channel bed aggradation (that is, sediment deposition by a river) following the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes reduced channel capacity and increased flood inundation. Here we present an analysis of fan geometry, sediment grain size and lithology in the Ganga Basin. We find that the gravel fluxes from rivers draining the central Himalayan mountains, with upstream catchment areas ranging from about 350 to 50,000 square kilometres, are comparable. Our results show that abrasion of gravel during fluvial transport can explain this observation; most of the gravel sourced more than 100 kilometres upstream is converted into sand by the time it reaches the Ganga Plain. These findings indicate that earthquake-induced sediment pulses sourced from the Greater Himalayas, such as that following the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, are unlikely to drive increased gravel aggradation at the mountain front. Instead, we suggest that the sediment influx should result in an elevated sand flux, leading to distinct patterns of aggradation and flood risk in the densely populated, low-relief Ganga Plain.

  13. Characterization of a petroleum system in the Himalayan foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorkhabi, R. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    The Himalayan foreland basin that is a part of the Tethyan tectonic belt is a potential target for hydrocarbon exploration. Petroleum has been yield in the west part of basin (Pakistan), and in the east part (Myanmar). This study takes aim to the central parts of the Himalayan foreland basin (India and Nepal), and identifies sediments Paleocene in age (the Subathu Formation made up of limestone and shale, and Murree Group made up of mudstone and shale) as source rock (TOC content up to 0.5 %), and also identifies permeable Siwalik sandstone (Paleocene-Middle to Neogene) as reservoir rock (porosity ranges from 4 to 27%, and permeability ranges from 0.1 to 10 millidarcy). Source rock had been occurred thermal maturity by burial in late Miocene. The serious problem is the localization of seals and traps. It indicates a potentiality that suitable trap structures had been formed by Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), close to Lesser Himalaya, lifting up and transporting the Proterozoic shale and carbonate rocks atop the Siwalik sandstone. The overthrust activities of source rock (Subathu-Murree Group) atop the Siwalik are important for formation of seals and traps. Actuary, gas and oil seeps are found not in Tarai (plain) but in the vicinity of the MBT. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Gas exchange variability and water use efficiency of thirty landraces of rice still under cultivation in Kumaun region of the Indian Central Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, R K; Palni, L M S; Chandra, Suman; Joshi, S C

    2009-10-01

    Gas exchange characteristics of thirty landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) along with an introduced variety VL-206 (recommended high yielding variety for rainfed uplands of the Indian Central Himalaya, ICH), grown in earthen pots and kept in the open at the Institute nursery at Kosi (1150m amsl, 79°38'10″E and 29°38'15″N) were studied. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and other related parameters were found to vary considerably among landraces. Based on the comparison of Pn of landraces with that of VL-206, these were categorized into two groups: i) high (〉6.0 µmol m(-2)s(-1)), and ii) low (water use efficiency (WUE), mesophyll efficiency (low Ci/gs ratio) and chlorophyll (Chl) content in comparison to landraces in the low Pn group. However, significant differences were not found in the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) between landraces belonging to the high and low Pn groups. Differences among landraces were found with regard to dark respiration; landraces with low Pn respired proportionately more of the carbon fixed than those of high Pn group. Based on the studied gas exchange characteristics Saurajubawan, Syaudhan and Taichin, local landraces of rice, may be identified as potential cultivars with high Pn and WUE.

  15. Quantifying present and future glacier melt-water contribution to runoff in a central Himalayan river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water supply of most lowland cultures heavily depends on rain and melt water from the upstream mountains. Especially melt-water release of alpine mountain ranges is usually attributed a pivotal role for the water supply of large downstream regions. Water scarcity is assumed as consequence of glacier shrinkage and possible disappearance due to global climate change (GCC, in particular for large parts of Central and Southeast Asia. In this paper, the application and validation of a coupled modeling approach with regional climate model (RCM outputs and a process-oriented glacier and hydrological model is presented for the central Himalayan Lhasa River basin despite scarce data availability. Current and possible future contributions of ice melt to runoff along the river network are spatially explicitly shown. Its role among the other water balance components is presented. Although glaciers have retreated and will continue to retreat according to the chosen climate scenarios, water availability is and will be primarily determined by monsoon precipitation and snowmelt. Ice melt from glaciers is and will be a minor runoff component in summer monsoon-dominated Himalayan river basins.

  16. Fault Slip and GPS Velocities Across the Shan Plateau Define a Curved Southwestward Crustal Motion Around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuhua; Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Weldon, Ray; Feng, Lujia; Chan, Chung-Han; Liu-Zeng, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the 700 km wide system of active faults on the Shan Plateau, southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, is critical to understanding the geodynamics and seismic hazard of the large region that straddles neighboring China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. Here we evaluate the fault styles and slip rates over multi-timescales, reanalyze previously published short-term Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities, and evaluate slip-rate gradients to interpret the regional kinematics and geodynamics that drive the crustal motion. Relative to the Sunda plate, GPS velocities across the Shan Plateau define a broad arcuate tongue-like crustal motion with a progressively northwestward increase in sinistral shear over a distance of 700 km followed by a decrease over the final 100 km to the syntaxis. The cumulative GPS slip rate across the entire sinistral-slip fault system on the Shan Plateau is 12 mm/year. Our observations of the fault geometry, slip rates, and arcuate southwesterly directed tongue-like patterns of GPS velocities across the region suggest that the fault kinematics is characterized by a regional southwestward distributed shear across the Shan Plateau, compared to more block-like rotation and indentation north of the Red River fault. The fault geometry, kinematics, and regional GPS velocities are difficult to reconcile with regional bookshelf faulting between the Red River and Sagaing faults or localized lower crustal channel flows beneath this region. The crustal motion and fault kinematics can be driven by a combination of basal traction of a clockwise, southwestward asthenospheric flow around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and gravitation or shear-driven indentation from north of the Shan Plateau.

  17. Geoethical Audit of Himalayan Stratigraphy: A Current Insight from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep Ahluwalia, Arun

    2014-05-01

    Focus of this presentation is to illustrate how learned societies and an eminent academy fellow can unfortunately become a pressure group. It is a very unfair and unbecoming even perhaps more than HIMALAYAN HOAX perpetrated by V. J. Gupta two decades back for over 25 years where he fooled journals, funding agencies and about 120 co-authors. Unless corrected, our learned societies and academies may continue degenerate even more. If this can happen today in the biggest democracy of the world with rule of law and freedom of press, what may happen in other set ups across our planet. The ill conceived and highly misleading book HIMALAYAN FOSSIL FRAUD recently published from PSI, Lucknow University, gives some vital but also unfortunately partial, selective and falsified historical and scientific perspectives of the Himalayan Hoax. This book is a standing testimony of a geoethical failure of individuals and of a learned society who published it without checking facts. Lot of personal testimonies and experiences can be added by the presenter. Some INSA Fellows are today like a cooperative society for cover ups and dirty politicking. The nexus within INSA Fellows to mutually protect each other and gratify at public cost is transparent but ignored for fear and power of their huge clout. Mistakes are allowed in science but science ethics does not allow silence once a fraud is known. If one is such a celebrated VIP like Ashok Sahni and D. M. Banerjee highly rewarded and awarded by so many, it becomes mandatory to maintain highest ethical standards and appear to be doing so. Our eminent INSA Fellows and learned society PSI are making themselves look like a mafia. This is neither ethics nor science. It is pure reckless money making and petty politicking by big guns to save their own skin. Very unfortunate indeed for Lucknow University, Lucknow where PSI is based and the retired teachers manning it are staying put for a life time endlessly getting self elected. Ever lowering

  18. Widespread albedo decreasing and induced melting of Himalayan snow and ice in the early 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Wang, Yaqiang; Du, Zhencai; Zhang, Tong; Guo, Wanqin; Xiao, Cunde; Xu, Xiaobin; Ding, Minghu; Zhang, Dongqi; Yang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers. The surface albedo based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data over the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH) glaciers is surveyed in this study for the period 2000-2011. The general albedo trend shows that the glaciers have been darkening since 2000. The most rapid decrease in the surface albedo has occurred in the glacial area above 6000 m, which implies that melting will likely extend to snow accumulation areas. The mass-loss equivalent (MLE) of the HKH glacial area caused by surface shortwave radiation absorption is estimated to be 10.4 Gt yr-1, which may contribute to 1.2% of the global sea level rise on annual average (2003-2009). This work probably presents a first scene depicting the albedo variations over the whole HKH glacial area during the period 2000-2011. Most rapidly decreasing in albedo has been detected in the highest area, which deserves to be especially concerned.

  19. Widespread albedo decreasing and induced melting of Himalayan snow and ice in the early 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ming

    Full Text Available The widely distributed glaciers in the greater Himalayan region have generally experienced rapid shrinkage since the 1850s. As invaluable sources of water and because of their scarcity, these glaciers are extremely important. Beginning in the twenty-first century, new methods have been applied to measure the mass budget of these glaciers. Investigations have shown that the albedo is an important parameter that affects the melting of Himalayan glaciers.The surface albedo based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data over the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH glaciers is surveyed in this study for the period 2000-2011. The general albedo trend shows that the glaciers have been darkening since 2000. The most rapid decrease in the surface albedo has occurred in the glacial area above 6000 m, which implies that melting will likely extend to snow accumulation areas. The mass-loss equivalent (MLE of the HKH glacial area caused by surface shortwave radiation absorption is estimated to be 10.4 Gt yr-1, which may contribute to 1.2% of the global sea level rise on annual average (2003-2009.This work probably presents a first scene depicting the albedo variations over the whole HKH glacial area during the period 2000-2011. Most rapidly decreasing in albedo has been detected in the highest area, which deserves to be especially concerned.

  20. Summer Temperature Trend Over the Past Two Millennia Using Air Content in Himalayan Ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, S; Chappellaz, J; Jouzel, J; Chu, P. C; Masson-Delmotte, V; Qin, D; Raynaud, D; Mayewski, P. A; Lipenkov, V. Y; Kang, S

    2007-01-01

    Two Himalayan ice cores display a factor-two decreasing trend of air content over the past two millennia, in contrast to the relatively stable values in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores over the same period...

  1. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  2. On the paleoseismic evidence of the 1803 earthquake rupture (or lack of it) along the frontal thrust of the Kumaun Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Anandasabari, K.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Rajendran, Kusala; Kumar, Pankaj; Chopra, Sundeep

    2018-01-01

    The foothills of the Himalaya bordered by the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) continue to be a locus of paleoseismological studies. One of such recent studies of trench stratigraphy near the central (Indian) Himalayan foothills (Malik et al., (2016) has reported multiple ruptures dated at 467-570, 1294-1587 and 1750-1932 CE. The last offset has been attributed to the Uttarkashi earthquake of 1803 and the penultimate faulting, with lesser confidence to an earthquake in 1505 CE. We tested these claims by logging an adjacent section on a shared scarp, and the new trench site, however, revealed a stratigraphic configuration partially in variance with from what has been reported in the earlier study. Our findings do not support the previous interpretation of the trench stratigraphy that suggested multiple displacements cutting across a varied set of deformed stratigraphic units leading up to the 1803 rupture. The current interpretation posits a single episode of a low-angle displacement at this site occurred between 1266 CE and 1636. Our results suggest a single medieval earthquake, conforming to what was reported from the previously studied neighboring sites to the east and west. The present study while reiterating a great medieval earthquake questions the assumption that the 1803 earthquake ruptured the MFT. Although a décollement earthquake, the 1803 rupture may have been arrested midway on the basal flat, and fell short of reaching the MFT, somewhat comparable to a suite of blind thrust earthquakes like the1905 Kangra and the 1833 Nepal earthquakes.

  3. Himalayan tectonic evolution and uranium ore formation, south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wanwen; Wang Liming; Tian Li

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of stress field and geomorphic environment of Songliao Basin during Himalayan Movement, it is presented that Himalayan Movement supplied favorite structural and geomorphic conditions with Eocene and Pliocene being metallogenic epoch for sandstone-type uranium in Songliao Basin. Degradation inliers at the southern margin of Songliao Basin, where structure and mineralization developed well, are the target area for in-situ sandstone type uranium. (authors)

  4. Timing and mechanism of the rise of the Shillong Plateau in the Himalayan foreland.

    OpenAIRE

    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...

  5. Seasonality of Precipitation over Himalayan Watersheds in CORDEX South Asia and their Driving CMIP5 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeh ul Hasson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 experiments exhibit limited skill in reproducing the statistical properties of prevailing precipitation regimes over the major Himalayan watersheds (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong, this study evaluates the anticipated added skill of their dynamically refined simulations performed under the framework of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments for South Asia (CX-SA. For this, the fidelity of eight CX-SA experiments against their six driving CMIP5 experiments is assessed for the historical period (1971–2005 in terms of time-dependent statistical properties (onset/retreat timings and rapid fractional accumulation—RFA of the dominant summer monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR. Further, a self-defining seasonality index (SI, which is a product of precipitation and the distance of its actual distribution relative to its uniform distribution (relative entropy—RE, has been computed for MPR, westerly precipitation regime (WPR and annual precipitation. The time evolution of precipitation, RE and SI has also been analyzed. Results suggest that CX-SA experiments simulate even higher wet biases than their driving CMIP5 experiments over all study basins, mainly due to higher wet biases simulated over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Most of the CX-SA experiments suggest unrealistic timings of the monsoon onset that are far earlier than their driving CMIP5 experiments for all basins. Generally, CX-SA experiments feature higher underestimation of RFA slope, RE and SI, distancing their driving CMIP5 experiments farther from observations. Interestingly, regardless of the diverse skill of CMIP5 experiments, their fine scale CX-SA experiments exhibit quite a similar skill when downscaled by the same regional climate model (RCM, indicating RCM’s ability to considerably alter the driving datasets. These findings emphasize on improving the fidelity of simulated precipitation

  6. Temporal and spatial changes in Western Himalayan firn line altitudes from 1998 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongming; Wang, Ninglian; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Mao, Ruijuan; Wu, Hongbo; Wu, Yuwei; Jiang, Xi

    2014-07-01

    Understanding changes in glacier mass balance is important because it is indicative of changes in climate and the hydrologic cycle. The latter also has particular influence on people living near glaciers and/or glacier-fed rivers. The Western Himalayas remain one of the regions where recent changes in glacier mass balance are not well-known. The temporal and spatial changes in firn line altitudes are an indicator of equilibrium line altitudes and thus reflect changes in glacier mass balance. Here, we use Himalayan Landsat TM/ETM + data in July and August (the late summer melt season) to quantify changes in firn line altitudes from 1998 to 2009. We produced reflectance maps through radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction and use topographic correction to remove or reduce terrain or shadow effects. The real ‘surface albedo’ is obtained by narrowband-to-broadband (NTB) albedo conversion from the combined solar radiation. The firn line altitude was then extracted by combining the ‘surface albedo’ with pre-registered digital elevation model. The individual firn line altitude varies by region. The Western Himalayas display the largest range of firn line variability, where the firn line altitudes vary from 4840 m a.s.l. to 5770 m a.s.l. The individual glacier mean firn line altitude from 1998 to 2009 rose from 5072 ± 77 m a.s.l. to 5640 ± 74 m a.s.l. in the Western Himalayas. The mean firn line altitude increased from 1998 to 2009. The lowest mean recorded firn line altitude recorded was 5237 ± 166 m a.s.l. in 1998, whereas the highest was 5397 ± 135 m a.s.l. in 2000. We also observed a difference between the changes in fine line altitudes of northern and southern slopes of the western Himalayans, as the northern slope glaciers display a greater increase in firn line altitudes than the southern slope glaciers. In the southern slope, changes in firn line altitudes correlate with NCDC-NOAA temperature and precipitation data. This sustained increase of

  7. The Himalayan hydro machine and space transmission power systems - An Asian dream of 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admoddie, M.

    The advantages and disadvantages for the development of hydroelectric power are assessed for the Himalayan Rectangle, an area rising 1500 km north of a baseline between Karachi and Mandalay. This area has the potential for possessing one of the world's greatest power production capabilities. Among the disadvantages cited are the political instability and religious fundamentalism of the area, the bankrupt governments, environmental degradation, and inefficient power and irrigation systems. The advantages include the millions of talented and enterprising people in the region awaiting higher opportunities who are eager to improve their families' living standards and the large untapped hydropower resources. The concepts for hydropower development are discussed and go beyond the technologies of power and water. They include catchment ecodevelopment strategies with massive afforestation plans, setting up plans to strengthen village-level institutions to manage local natural biomass and water assets, the conversion of this regional hydropower potential into a subcontinental power system, and the exporting of power and the development of an interregional and international power grid by 2030, when both oil and local ecosystems would be dangerously depleted.

  8. Surface area changes of Himalayan ponds as a proxy of hydrological climate-driven fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Guyennon, Nicolas; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    The meteorological measurements at high-elevations of the Himalayan range are scarce due to the harsh conditions of these environments which limit the suitable maintenance of weather stations. As a consequence, the meager knowledge on how the climate is changed in the last decades at Himalayan high-elevations sets a serious limit upon the interpretation of relationships between causes and recent observed effects on the cryosphere. Although the glaciers masses reduction in Himalaya is currently sufficiently well described, how changes in climate drivers (precipitation and temperature) have influenced the melting and shrinkage processes are less clear. Consequently, the uncertainty related to the recent past amplifies when future forecasts are done, both for climate and impacts. In this context, a substantial body of research has already demonstrated the high sensitivity of lakes and ponds to climate. Some climate-related signals are highly visible and easily measurable in lakes. For example, climate-driven fluctuations in lake surface area have been observed in many remote sites. On interior Tibetan Plateau the lake growth since the late 1990s is mainly attributed to increased regional precipitation and weakened evaporation. Differently, other authors attribute at the observed increases of lake surfaces at the enhanced glacier melting. In our opinion these divergences found in literature are due to the type of glacial lakes considered in the study and in particular their relationship with glaciers. In general, in Himalaya three types of glacial lakes can be distinguished: (i) lakes that are not directly connected with glaciers, but that may have a glacier located in their basin (unconnected glacial lakes); (ii) supraglacial lakes, which develop on the surface of the glacier downstream; or (iii) proglacial lakes, which are moraine-dammed lakes that are in contact with the glacier front. Some of these lakes store large quantities of water and are susceptible to GLOFs

  9. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    century. Water yield estimates under climate change scenarios have been made and implications on groundwater and groundwater quality have been assessed. The delicate groundwater resource balance that connects livelihoods of millions of people seems to be under tremendously increasing pressure due to the dynamic conditions of the natural environment of the region and the future climate changes. - Highlights: ► Applies a framework for an integrated hydrological, hydrochemical, and groundwater quality model using SWAT–MODFLOW–MT3DMS ► Applies the integrated framework to a Himalayan watershed ► Provides calibration and validation of each of the modules, including sensitivity analysis using LH-OAT ► Estimates impact of climate change under various scenarios (A2, B2 and A1B for end of the century scenarios)

  10. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  11. Seismic vulnerability of the Himalayan half-dressed rubble stone masonry structures, experimental and analytical studies

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    N. Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Half-Dressed rubble stone (DS masonry structures as found in the Himalayan region are investigated using experimental and analytical studies. The experimental study included a shake table test on a one-third scaled structural model, a representative of DS masonry structure employed for public critical facilities, e.g. school buildings, offices, health care units, etc. The aim of the experimental study was to understand the damage mechanism of the model, develop damage scale towards deformation-based assessment and retrieve the lateral force-deformation response of the model besides its elastic dynamic properties, i.e. fundamental vibration period and elastic damping. The analytical study included fragility analysis of building prototypes using a fully probabilistic nonlinear dynamic method. The prototypes are designed as SDOF systems assigned with lateral, force-deformation constitutive law (obtained experimentally. Uncertainties in the constitutive law, i.e. lateral stiffness, strength and deformation limits, are considered through random Monte Carlo simulation. Fifty prototype buildings are analyzed using a suite of ten natural accelerograms and an incremental dynamic analysis technique. Fragility and vulnerability functions are derived for the damageability assessment of structures, economic loss and casualty estimation during an earthquake given the ground shaking intensity, essential within the context of risk assessment of existing stock aiming towards risk mitigation and disaster risk reduction.

  12. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

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    M. Lupker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr−1 and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs  ∼  150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa–Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm, an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo

  13. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  14. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of fleshy pored mushrooms: Neoboletus luridiformis and Hortiboletus rubellus from western Himalayan range of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Khalid, N.; Dentinger, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fleshy pored mushrooms is the name given to boletes due to their porous hymenium and fleshy nature. These are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes found in all continents except Antarctica. These mushrooms are important economically due to their edibility and medicinal value. This research work highlights the diversity of boletes in Pakistan and their correct identification by using molecular phylogenetic techniques. Western Himalayan range (WHR) of Pakistan is considered as diversity rich area. During present investigation regarding diversity of boletes in these areas, two bolete taxa viz. Hortiboletus rubellus and Neoboletus luridiformis were found under conifers. These mushrooms were collected and analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically by using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA sequences, and compared with their allies. All description and comparison with related taxa is provided in detail. These boletes are first time analyzed using molecular method from Pakistan. (author)

  15. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  16. Himalayan origin and evolution of Myricaria (Tamaricaeae in the neogene.

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    Ming-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myricaria consists of about twelve-thirteen species and occurs in Eurasian North Temperate zone, most species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP and adjacent areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve species of Myricaria plus two other genera Tamarix and Reaumuria in Tamaricaceae, were sampled, and four markers, ITS, rps16, psbB-psbH, and trnL-trnF were sequenced. The relaxed Bayesian molecular clock BEAST method was used to perform phylogenetic analysis and molecular dating, and Diva, S-Diva, and maximum likelihood Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area. The results indicated that Myricaria could be divided into four phylogenetic clades, which correspond to four sections within the genus, of them two are newly described in this paper. The crown age of Myricaria was dated to early Miocene ca. 20 Ma, at the probable early uplifting time of the Himalayas. The Himalayas were also shown as the center of origin for Myricaria from the optimization of ancestral distribution. Migration and dispersal of Myricaria were indicated to have taken place along the Asian Mountains, including the Himalayas, Kunlun, Altun, Hendukosh, Tianshan, Altai, and Caucasus etc., westward to Europe, eastward to Central China, and northward to the Mongolian Plateau. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Myricaria spatiotemporal evolution presented here, especially the Himalayan origin at early Miocene ca. 20 Ma, and then migrated westward and eastward along the Asian mountains, offers a significant evolutionary case for QTP and Central Asian biogeography.

  17. The Invisible Path of Karma in a Himalayan Purificatory Rite

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    Arik Moran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indic rites of purification aim to negate the law of karma by removing the residues of malignant past actions from their patrons. This principle is exemplified in the Kahika Mela, a rarely studied religious festival of the West Himalayan highlands (Himachal Pradesh, India, wherein a ritual specialist assumes karmic residues from large publics and then sacrificed to their presiding deity. British officials who had ‘discovered’ this purificatory rite at the turn of the twentieth century interpreted it as a variant of the universal ‘scapegoat’ rituals that were then being popularized by James Frazer and found it loosely connected to ancient Tantric practises. The However, observing a recent performance of the ritual significantly complicated this view. This paper proposes a novel reading of the Kahika Mela through the prism of karmic transference. Tracing the path of karmas from participants to ritual specialist and beyond, it delineates the logic behind the rite, revealing that the culminating act of human sacrifice is, in fact, secondary to the mysterious force that impels its acceptance.

  18. Transforming the Lives of Mountain Women Through the Himalayan Nettle Value Chain: A Case Study From Darchula, Far West Nepal

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    Lipy Adhikari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Naugad is a remote rural municipality in the mountains of far west Nepal with poor accessibility and limited economic opportunities, especially for women and marginalized communities. Promotion of the natural resource-based value chain for allo (the Himalayan nettle, Girardinia diversifolia was identified as an innovative livelihood strategy by the local community. Value chain development started in 2014. The project was designed to focus on women and include participation by the private sector. This paper analyzes the impact of the project, especially on women's lives, using primary and secondary data. A community-owned enterprise was established with private-sector support from the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation's Business Association of Home Based Workers (SABAH Nepal. The enterprise now has 82 members (69 of them women, with 150 households benefiting directly and indirectly. SABAH Nepal provided training in sustainable harvesting and processing techniques and promotes the products in high-end international markets. A buyback guarantee scheme provides security to local artisans. The quality and range of allo products have increased markedly, as has the share in benefits for local people. Skills training and visits to trade fairs have helped women build their capacity and take a leading role in the value chain process. The community-owned enterprise members have earned up to NPR 4000 per month from sewing, more than the local rate for day labor and sufficient to cover general household expenses. More than 25 women entrepreneurs have started microbusinesses related to allo. Allo has become an important economic asset, transforming the lives of mountain women in this village area. The approach has potential for scaling up across the subtropical to temperate areas of the Himalayan region in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

  19. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Sinha, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (similar to 4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers....... Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated...... luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after similar to 8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than...

  20. Les premières années de The Himalayan Journal (1929-1940

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    Michel Raspaud

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLa création de The Himalayan Club, sur le territoire de l’Empire des Indes à la fin de l’année 1927, s’accompagne presque aussitôt de la publication de The Himalayan Journal, en février 1929, soit mois de dix-huit mois après la création officielle de l’institution. L’objet du présent texte concerne donc la vie de The Himalayan Club lors de ses premières années d’existence, depuis la date de sa création jusqu’au début de la seconde guerre mondiale. Cependant, l’intérêt se focaliser...

  1. Case Report Associated with Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfection in Himalayan Griffons

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    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a death which occurred in four Himalayan griffons housed in Beijing zoo, China. Based on pathogen identification and the pathological changes observed, we did characterize the fungi and Hepatitis E virus (HEV in four dead Himalayan griffons. Pathological changes were severe. Membranous-like material was observed on the surface of the internal organs. Spleen was necrotic. Focal lymphocyte infiltration in the liver and many sunflower-like fungi nodules were evident in the tissues, especially in the kidney. PCR was used to identify the pathogen. Based on the 18SrRNA genomic sequence of known fungi, the results confirmed that all four dead Himalayan griffons were infected with Aspergillus. At the same time the detection of HEV also showed positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this work appears to be the first report of concurrent presence of Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E virus in rare avian species.

  2. Predictability of Western Himalayan river flow: melt seasonal inflow into Bhakra Reservoir in northern India

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    I. Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Snowmelt-dominated streamflow of the Western Himalayan rivers is an important water resource during the dry pre-monsoon spring months to meet the irrigation and hydropower needs in northern India. Here we study the seasonal prediction of melt-dominated total inflow into the Bhakra Dam in northern India based on statistical relationships with meteorological variables during the preceding winter. Total inflow into the Bhakra Dam includes the Satluj River flow together with a flow diversion from its tributary, the Beas River. Both are tributaries of the Indus River that originate from the Western Himalayas, which is an under-studied region. Average measured winter snow volume at the upper-elevation stations and corresponding lower-elevation rainfall and temperature of the Satluj River basin were considered as empirical predictors. Akaike information criteria (AIC and Bayesian information criteria (BIC were used to select the best subset of inputs from all the possible combinations of predictors for a multiple linear regression framework. To test for potential issues arising due to multicollinearity of the predictor variables, cross-validated prediction skills of the best subset were also compared with the prediction skills of principal component regression (PCR and partial least squares regression (PLSR techniques, which yielded broadly similar results. As a whole, the forecasts of the melt season at the end of winter and as the melt season commences were shown to have potential skill for guiding the development of stochastic optimization models to manage the trade-off between irrigation and hydropower releases versus flood control during the annual fill cycle of the Bhakra Reservoir, a major energy and irrigation source in the region.

  3. Interesting insights into instability of slopes and rock fall in the morphodynamic Himalayan terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T. N.; Vishal, V.; Pradhan, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan mountain ranges are tectonically and seismically very active and experience many disastrous events with time due to slope failure. Frequent failures of rock cut slopes cause obstruction in traffic and often lead to fatalities. In recent years, the number of tragedies has increased when associated with regional phenomena such at the Kedarnath tragedy of 2013 and the Gorkha earthquake of 2015. The influence of such phenomena on the stability of slopes along important national highways and key settlement areas only raise the risk to lives and property. We conducted a multi-approach investigation for some key slopes along the National Highway 58 in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. A very detailed field work was conducted to identify the unstable slopes and those with some history of failure. The pertinent geomechanical characteristics of the representative rock samples were determined in the laboratory. Based on the structural data, kinematic analysis was carried out. Finally the slopes were simulated using FDM based simulator, Flac/Slope for analysing the health of the slopes and Rockfall 4.0 to investigate the phenomenon of rockfall along the Highway. It was found that few slopes were weak due to the inherent weak rock materials while few slopes made up of high strength rocks were effectively weak due to prone-to-failure orientation of the joints. Quantification of bounce-height of rock blocks during fall, their energy, velocity and displacement along the slope was also done. Using 3-D simulations, few critically-stable slopes that appear to be stable, were identified. Little ground movement could be capable of triggering a large scale failure in the area. Slopes in the studied region are under threat to failure and need immediate proper planning using the suggested remedial measures.

  4. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

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    Rajal Debnath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on rhizosphere micobiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant R. arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang-Thang (PTSO, Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border (in triplicates each along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912m to Bum La (4509 m, revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN, organic matter (OM significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02. Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%, Acidobacteria (24.02%, Proteobacteria (16.00%, AD3 (9.23%, WPS-2 (5.1% and Chloroflexi (1.48% dominated the core microbiome.

  5. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these.

  6. The strong motion amplitudes from Himalayan earthquakes and a pilot study for the deterministic first order microzonation of Delhi City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Panza, G.F.; Gusev, A.A.; Vaccari, F.

    2001-09-01

    The interdependence among the strong-motion amplitude, earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance has been established (Parvez et al. 2001) for the Himalayan region using the dataset of six earthquakes, two from Western and four from Eastern Himalayas (M w =5.2-7.2) recorded by strong-motion networks in the Himalayas. The level of the peak strong motion amplitudes in the Eastern Himalayas is three fold larger than that in the Western Himalayas, in terms of both peak acceleration and peak velocities. In the present study, we include the strong motion data of Chamoli earthquake (M w =6.5) of 1999 from the western sub-region to see whether this event supports the regional effects and we find that the new result fits well with our earlier prediction in the Western Himalayas. The minimum estimates of peak acceleration for the epicentral zone of M w =7.5-8.5 events is A peak =0.25-0.4 g for the Western Himalayas and as large as A peak =1.0-1.6 g for the Eastern Himalayas. Similarly, the expected minimum epicentral values of V peak for M w =8 are 35 cm/s for Western and 112 cm/s for Eastern Himalayas. The presence of unusually high levels of epicentral amplitudes for the eastern subregion also agrees well with the macroseismic evidence (Parvez et al. 2001). Therefore, these results represent systematic regional effects, and may be considered as a basis for future regionalized seismic hazard assessment in the Himalayan region. Many metropolitan and big cities of India are situated in the severe hazard zone just south of the Himalayas. A detailed microzonation study of these sprawling urban centres is therefore urgently required for gaining a better understanding of ground motion and site effects in these cities. An example of the study of site effects and microzonation of a part of metropolitan Delhi is presented based on a detailed modelling along a NS cross sections from the Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar. Full synthetic strong motion waveforms have been

  7. A study of Guptkashi, Uttarakhand earthquake of 6 February 2017 ( M w 5.3) in the Himalayan arc and implications for ground motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinagesh, Davuluri; Singh, Shri Krishna; Suresh, Gaddale; Srinivas, Dakuri; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Suresh, Gudapati

    2018-05-01

    The 2017 Guptkashi earthquake occurred in a segment of the Himalayan arc with high potential for a strong earthquake in the near future. In this context, a careful analysis of the earthquake is important as it may shed light on source and ground motion characteristics during future earthquakes. Using the earthquake recording on a single broadband strong-motion seismograph installed at the epicenter, we estimate the earthquake's location (30.546° N, 79.063° E), depth ( H = 19 km), the seismic moment ( M 0 = 1.12×1017 Nm, M w 5.3), the focal mechanism ( φ = 280°, δ = 14°, λ = 84°), the source radius ( a = 1.3 km), and the static stress drop (Δ σ s 22 MPa). The event occurred just above the Main Himalayan Thrust. S-wave spectra of the earthquake at hard sites in the arc are well approximated (assuming ω -2 source model) by attenuation parameters Q( f) = 500 f 0.9, κ = 0.04 s, and f max = infinite, and a stress drop of Δ σ = 70 MPa. Observed and computed peak ground motions, using stochastic method along with parameters inferred from spectral analysis, agree well with each other. These attenuation parameters are also reasonable for the observed spectra and/or peak ground motion parameters in the arc at distances ≤ 200 km during five other earthquakes in the region (4.6 ≤ M w ≤ 6.9). The estimated stress drop of the six events ranges from 20 to 120 MPa. Our analysis suggests that attenuation parameters given above may be used for ground motion estimation at hard sites in the Himalayan arc via the stochastic method.

  8. Earthquake swarms near eastern Himalayan Syntaxis along Jiali Fault in Tibet: A seismotectonic appraisal

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    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The seismotectonic characteristics of ten repeated earthquake swarm sequence within a seismic cluster along Jiali Fault in eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS have been analysed. The swarms are spatially disposed in and around Yigong Lake (a natural lake formed by blocking of Yigong River by landslide and are characterized by low magnitude, crustal events with low to moderate b values. Ms : mb discriminant functions though indicate anomalous nature of the earthquakes within swarm but are considered as natural events that occurred under condition of high apparent stress and stress gradients. Composite fault plane solutions of selected swarms indicate strike–slip sense of shear on fault planes; solution parameters show low plunging compression and tensional axes along NW–SE and NE–SW respectively with causative fault plane oriented ENE–WSW, dipping steeply towards south or north. The fault plane is in excellent agreement with the disposition and tectonic movement registered by right lateral Jiali Fault. The process of pore pressure perturbation and resultant ‘r–t plot’ with modelled diffusivity (D = 0.12 m2/s relates the diffusion of pore pressure to seismic sequence in a fractured poro-elastic fluid saturated medium at average crustal depth of 15–20 km. The low diffusivity depicts a highly fractured interconnected medium that is generated due to high stress activity near the eastern syntaxial bent of Himalaya. It is proposed that hydro fracturing with respect to periodic pore pressure variations is responsible for generation of swarms in the region. The fluid pressure generated due to shearing and infiltrations of surface water within dilated seismogenic fault (Jiali Fault are causative factors.

  9. Estimating stream discharge from a Himalayan Glacier using coupled satellite sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Tarpanelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The 4th IPCC report highlighted our limited understanding of Himalayan glacier behavior and contribution to the region's hydrology. Seasonal snow and glacier melt in the Himalayas are important sources of water, but estimates greatly differ about the actual contribution of melted glacier ice to stream discharge. A more comprehensive understanding of the contribution of glaciers to stream discharge is needed because streams being fed by glaciers affect the livelihoods of a large part of the world's population. Most of the streams in the Himalayas are unmonitored because in situ measurements are logistically difficult and costly. This necessitates the use of remote sensing platforms to obtain estimates of river discharge for validating hydrological models. In this study, we estimate stream discharge using cost-effective methods via repeat satellite imagery from Landsat-8 and SENTINEL-1A sensors. The methodology is based on previous studies, which show that ratio values from optical satellite bands correlate well with measured stream discharge. While similar, our methodology relies on significantly higher resolution imagery (30 m) and utilizes bands that are in the blue and near-infrared spectrum as opposed to previous studies using 250 m resolution imagery and spectral bands only in the near-infrared. Higher resolution imagery is necessary for streams where the source is a glacier's terminus because the width of the stream is often only 10s of meters. We validate our methodology using two rivers in the state of Kansas, where stream gauges are plentiful. We then apply our method to the Bhagirathi River, in the North-Central Himalayas, which is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and has a well monitored stream gauge. The analysis will later be used to couple river discharge and glacier flow and mass balance through an integrated hydrologic model in the Bhagirathi Basin.

  10. Structure and tectonics of the Main Himalayan Thrust and associated faults from recent earthquake and seismic imaging studies using the NAMASTE array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, M. S.; Pant, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Sapkota, S. N.; Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The India-Eurasia collision zone presents a significant earthquake hazard, as demonstrated by the recent, devastating April 25, 2015 M=7.8 Gorkha earthquake and the following May 12, 2015 M=7.3 earthquake. Important questions remain, including distinguishing possible geometries of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the role of other regional faults, the crustal composition and role of fluids in faulting, and the details of the rupture process, including structural causes and locations of rupture segmentation both along-strike and down-dip. These recent earthquakes and their aftershocks provide a unique opportunity to learn more about this collision zone. In June 2015, funded by NSF, we deployed the Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake (NAMASTE) array of 46 seismic stations distributed across eastern and central Nepal, spanning the region with most of the aftershocks. This array remained in place for 11 months from June 2015 to May 2016. We combine new results from this aftershock network in Nepal with previous geophysical and geological studies across the Himalaya to derive a new understanding of the tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet in Nepal and surrounding countries. We focus on structure and composition of the Main Himalayan Thrust and compare this continent-continent subduction megathrust with megathrusts in other subduction zones.

  11. Accessing the capability of TRMM 3B42 V7 to simulate streamflow during extreme rain events: Case study for a Himalayan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    The paper examines the quality of Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 V7 precipitation product to simulate the streamflow using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for various rainfall intensities over the Himalayan region. The SWAT model has been set up for Gandak River Basin with 41 sub-basins and 420 HRUs. Five stream gauge locations are used to simulate the streamflow for a time span of 10 years (2000-2010). Daily streamflow for the simulation period is collected from Central Water Commission (CWC), India and Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Nepal. The simulation results are found good in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) {>}0.65, coefficient of determination (R2) {>}0.67 and Percentage Bias (PBIAS){}124.4 mm/d). The PBIAS and RSR show that TRMM simulated streamflow is suitable for moderate to heavy rainfall intensities. However, it does not perform well for light- and extremely-heavy rainfall intensities. The finding of the present work is useful for the problems related to water resources management, irrigation planning and hazard analysis over the Himalayan regions.

  12. Effects of experience and commercialisation on survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, John L; Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T

    2012-06-13

    To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Retrospective cohort study. Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. 23,995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39,038 climbs, 23,295 on 8000 m peaks. Death. After controlling for use of standard route, peak, age, season, sex, summit success, and year of expedition, increased Himalayan experience was not associated with a change in the odds of death (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.05, P = 0.904). Participation in a commercial climb was associated with a 37% lower odds of death relative to a traditional venture, although not significantly (0.63, 0.37 to 1.09, P = 0.100). Choice of peak was clearly associated with altered odds of death (omnibus P<0.001); year of expedition was associated with a significant trend toward reduced odds of death (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.011). No net survival benefit is associated with increased Himalayan experience or participation in a traditional (versus commercial) venture. The incremental decrease in risk associated with calendar year suggests that cumulative, collective knowledge and general innovation are more important than individual experience in improving the odds of survival.

  13. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187646. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * feeding strategies * soil microfauna * Himalayan cold deserts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Himalayan Vultures in Khodpe, far-west Nepal: is there any threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis is susceptible to the veterinary drug diclofenac, which is responsible for the decline of other Gyps species across South Asia.  Unlike other Gyps species, there is little quantitative data to assess Himalayan Vultures population.  Based on observation, we analyzed the flock size and breeding success of the Himalayan Vultures on two cliffs of Khodpe in Baitadi District, far-west Nepal.  The mean flock size of Himalayan Vulture was 25.83±6.33.  Overall breeding success was 90.9% based on active nests.  We also conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the perceived threats in the view of local people to vultures and these threats include loss of food, veterinary drug, lack of proper nest sites, and lack of public awareness.  Additionally, 76% of the respondents felt that vultures were decreasing in the area, 94.7% were not aware of the toxicity of diclofenac to vultures, and very few (2% knew about the availability of meloxicam as a safe alternative drug.  The colony we studied is one of the few remaining known breeding populations, which provide baseline information from far-west Nepal, thus we recommend for conservation and continuous monitoring of this species to understand their population change and breeding biology. 

  15. High-resolution monitoring of Himalayan glacier dynamics using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, W. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Kraaijenbrink, P. D A; Shea, J. M.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794; De Jong, S. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    2014-01-01

    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and they are an important source of melt water. However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers

  16. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  17. Counter-intuitive influence of Himalayan river morphodynamics on Indus Civilisation urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Thomsen, Kristina J; Sinha, Rajiv; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Mark, Darren F; Mason, Philippa J; Densmore, Alexander L; Murray, Andrew S; Jain, Mayank; Paul, Debajyoti; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-28

    Urbanism in the Bronze-age Indus Civilisation (~4.6-3.9 thousand years before the present, ka) has been linked to water resources provided by large Himalayan river systems, although the largest concentrations of urban-scale Indus settlements are located far from extant Himalayan rivers. Here we analyse the sedimentary architecture, chronology and provenance of a major palaeochannel associated with many of these settlements. We show that the palaeochannel is a former course of the Sutlej River, the third largest of the present-day Himalayan rivers. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sand grains, we demonstrate that flow of the Sutlej in this course terminated considerably earlier than Indus occupation, with diversion to its present course complete shortly after ~8 ka. Indus urban settlements thus developed along an abandoned river valley rather than an active Himalayan river. Confinement of the Sutlej to its present incised course after ~8 ka likely reduced its propensity to re-route frequently thus enabling long-term stability for Indus settlements sited along the relict palaeochannel.

  18. Characterizing anthropogenic impacts on two mid-altitude Himalayan lakes in the Western Himalaya: A look at shifts in water chemistry and phytoplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, T. S.; Tiwari, S.; Bhatt, J. P.; Pandit, M. K.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayan region is globally regarded for its natural mountain ecosystems but increased agricultural expansion and urbanization have resulted in greater nutrient loading in Himalayan water bodies causing widespread fish kills and shrinking lakes. Despite concerns for environmental degradation, lack of empirical investigations and quantitative data are major constraints in understanding these events. To determine the impact of human development on Himalayan lakes, we investigated Rewalsar, a spring-fed lake and Kareri a glacial-fed lake in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Rewalsar is surrounded by a rapidly growing town and agricultural fields while Kareri Lake is situated in a relatively remote area. Measurements were made in the spring periods of 2013 and 2016. Water samples were collected 1m below the lake surface and analyzed for major ions, nitrates, phosphates, DO, pH, temperature, turbidity, and TDS. Alagal samples were collected from each lake and species counted and identified using standard taxonomic literature. Statistical analysis was performed using PC-ORD. Results showed a significant change in water chemistry and phytoplankton communities with Rewalsar Lake showing an increase in pollutant tolerant algae over the sample period. Principle component analysis showed that the 2016 data from Kareri Lake had phytoplankton communities and chemical data resembling the urban lake of Rewalsar. Kareri Lake had the highest DO (10 mg/ml) while Rewalsar showed the lowest DO at 3 mg/ml in 2016, a decrease from 8 mg/ml in 2013. With a total oxygen demand (TOD) of 6.5 mg/ml in Rewalsar, the decreasing DO value is likely the cause of the increasing annual fish kills as reported by local governments. TDS measurements were highest in Rewalsar Lake compared to the TDS levels of Kareri, indicating a higher amount of surface runoff from the surrounding area in Rewalsar. Nitrate and phosphate levels also increased over this time period. Our multi-year investigation also

  19. Tibet- Himalayan Analogs of Pan-African Shear Zones : Implications for Neoproterozoic Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale shear zones are distinct features of Tibet-Himalayan orogen and the Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt. Prominent examples in the Pan-African-belt extend for ~2500 km from the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea and are characterized by right-slip movements. The NS shear zones, such as 4°50’-Kandi shear zone (KSZ) are complemented by NE-SW shear zones that preserve a record of sinistral movements and are represented by the Central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) in the eastern part of the Pan-African domain. The West African shear zones project into similar structures in the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. In addition, the Pan-African belt preserves structures and rock assemblages that indicate subduction-collision tectonics We propose that structures of Tibet-Himalayan collisional orogen are instructive analogs of the Pan-African structures where: (i) the Pan-African front corresponds to the Main Himalayan thrust and it’s splays; (ii) the main Pan-African suture zone is analogous to the Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Tibet-Himalayan belt; (iii) the 4°50’-KSZ corresponds to Karakoram and it’s linkages with Jiali fault system and (iv) left-slip CCSZ and related shear zones are analogs of Altyn Tagh and Kumlun faults and their splays. This suggests the operation of escape-type tectonics in the Neoproterozoic belt of West-Africa and predicts the nature of the deep structures in the Cenozoic Tibet-Himalayan orogen.

  20. Prospects of solar photovoltaic–micro-wind based hybrid power systems in western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Good prospects of PV–wind hybrid systems are found in western Himalayan Indian state. • A 6 kWp roof mounted PV–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur location is studied. • Optimum PV–wind hybrid system configurations are determined for 12 locations in the region. • Comparative analysis of hybrid systems is carried out using ANN, NASA and measured data. • Methodology can be used for assessing the potential of hybrid power systems worldwide. - Abstract: The western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh is known as the hydro-power state of India with associated social and environmental problems of large hydro power plants. The reduced water inflow in the rivers during extreme winters affects power generation in the state. Therefore solar and wind resources need to be utilized to supplement power generation requirements. With this objective the prospects of photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid systems are studied for 12 locations of the state. The NASA data, Artificial Neural Network predicted and ground measured data are used in the analysis of Hamirpur location whereas for remaining 11 locations estimated, NASA and Artificial Neural Network predicted data are used, as measured solar and wind data are not available for most of the locations in the state. Root Mean Square Error between three input data types are found to range from 0.08 to 1.89. The results show that ANN predicted data are close to measured/estimated data. A 6 kWp roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur with daily average energy demand of 5.2 kWh/day is studied. This system specifications are used to obtain optimum PV–micro wind based hybrid power system configurations for all locations. The optimum configuration for Hamirpur is found to be a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 8 kWp PV system whereas for other 11 locations a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 2–9 kWp PV systems are obtained. The

  1. Expedition 354 on the Bengal fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Schwenk, T.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling in the Bengal fan generated a comprehensive record of Himalayan erosion over the Neogene and Quaternary. It documents the interplay between Himalayan tectonic and the monsoon. The fan is predominantly composed of detrital turbiditic sediments originating from Himalayan rivers, and transported through the delta and shelf canyon, supplying turbidity currents loaded with a wide spectrum of grain sizes. Turbiditic deposition makes that record at a given site is discontinuous which was the reason for an E-W transect approach. Exp. 354 drilled seven sites along a 320 km E-W transect at 8°N allowing the restitution of an almost complete record of Himalayan erosion at the scale of the Neogene. In spite of the transect's extension, a long absence of deposition was observed between 0.6 to 1.2 Ma indicating that turbiditic depocenter was derived more to the West for ca. 600 kyr. Turbidites have clear Himalayan origin with close mineralogical and isotopic analogy with those of the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments. Geochemistry shows relatively stable compositions throughout the Neogene and Quaternary and reveal a very weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. Concentrations in mobile elements such as Na and K relative to Al are significantly higher than in modern sediments suggesting that weathering is amplified in the modern time. Low weathering of the sediments at 8°N indicates that erosion was dominated by physical processes and that transport is rapid enough to prevent evolution of particles in the floodplain. In the modern Himalaya, low weathering is achieved primarily by landslides and rapid transfer through the floodplain, i.e. limited recycling of sediment deposited in the floodplain. Both processes are favoured by the seasonality and the intensity of the monsoon. Although relatively stable, source tracers such as Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and detrital carbonate compositions show organised variations with time

  2. Leaf area index retrieval using Hyperion EO-1 data-based vegetation indices in Himalayan forest system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra; Singh, Sarnam

    2016-04-01

    Present Study is being taken to retrieve Leaf Area Indexn(LAI) in Himalayan forest system using vegetation indices developed from Hyperion EO-1 hyperspectral data. Hemispherical photograph were captured in the month of March and April, 2012 at 40 locations, covering moist tropical Sal forest, subtropical Bauhinia and pine forest and temperate Oak forest and analysed using an open source GLA software. LAI in the study region was ranging in between 0.076 m2/m2 to 6.00 m2/m2. These LAI values were used to develop spectral models with the FLAASH corrected Hyperion measurements.Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used taking spectral reflectance values of all the possible combinations of 170 atmospherically corrected channels. The R2 was ranging from lowest 0.0 to highest 0.837 for the band combinations of spectral region 640 nm and 670 nm. The spectral model obtained was, spectral reflectance (y) = 0.02x LAI(x) - 0.0407.

  3. Large paleoearthquake timing and displacement near Damak in eastern Nepal on the Himalayan Frontal Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Pierce, Ian K.; Reedy, Tabor; Angster, Stephen J.; Giri, Bibek

    2017-08-01

    An excavation across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust near Damak in eastern Nepal shows displacement on a fault plane dipping 22° has produced vertical separation across a scarp equal to 5.5 m. Stratigraphic, structural, geometrical, and radiocarbon observations are interpreted to indicate that the displacement is the result of a single earthquake of 11.3 ± 3.5 m of dip-slip displacement that occurred 1146-1256 A.D. Empirical scaling laws indicate that thrust earthquakes characterized by average displacements of this size may produce rupture lengths of 450 to >800 km and moment magnitudes Mw of 8.6 to >9. Sufficient strain has accumulated along this portion of the Himalayan arc during the roughly 800 years since the 1146-1256 A.D. earthquake to produce another earthquake displacement of similar size.

  4. Along-Strike Differences of the Main Himalayan Thrust and Deformation within the Indian Crust: Insights from Seismicity and Seismic Velocities in Bhutan and its Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Singer, J.; Hetényi, G.; Kissling, E. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismicity of Bhutan is characterized by the apparent lack of great earthquakes and a significantly lower activity compared to most other parts of the Himalayan arc. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this anomalously low activity and to relate it with possible along-strike differences in the structure of the orogenic belt, a temporary network with up to 38 broadband seismometers was installed in Bhutan between January 2013 and November 2014. In this work we present a catalog of local and regional earthquakes detected and located with the GANSSER network complemented by regional stations in India, Bangladesh, and China. State-of-the-art data analysis and earthquake location procedures were applied to derive a high-precision earthquake catalog of Bhutan and surrounding regions. Focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor inversions and first-motion polarities complement the earthquake catalog. In the vicinity of the Shumar-Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, seismicity forms a moderately dipping structure at about 12 km depth, which we associate with the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). North of 27.6°N the dip of the structure steepens, which can be interpreted as a ramp along the MHT. In West Bhutan seismicity occurs at depths of 20 to 40 km and receiver function images indicate that seismicity occurs in the underthrusting Indian crust rather than on the MHT. The highest seismic activity is clustered along the Goalpara Lineament, a dextral NE-SW striking shear zone in southwest Bhutan, which appears to connect to the western edge of the Shillong Plateau in the foreland. Focal depths indicate that this shear zone is located at depths of 20-30 km and therefore in the underthrusting Indian crust. Preliminary results of a 3D local earthquake tomography show substantial differences in the uppermost crust between east and west Bhutan. Consistent with our receiver function images, the results also indicate a thinning of the crustal root towards eastern Bhutan.

  5. Breeding biology and conservation strategy of the Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris innominata) in southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang; Youhui Shen; Qingyi Liao; Jianzhang Ma

    2013-01-01

    From April 1994 to November 2007, we studied the breeding biology of the Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris innominata) based on field investigations, behavior observations, and bird bandings in the Shenjing Cave of Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province. Overall, we found a total breeding population of 2,000 swiftlets in the cave. The Himilayan swiftlet is a summer migrant in the area which arrives in early April and departs in early November. This species is monogamous ...

  6. Effects of experience and commercialisation on survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. Participants 23 995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39 038 climbs, 23 295 on 8000 m peaks. Outcome Death. Results After controlling for use of standard route, peak, age, season, sex, summit success, and year of expedition, increased Himalayan experience was not associated with a change in the odds of death (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.05, P=0.904). Participation in a commercial climb was associated with a 37% lower odds of death relative to a traditional venture, although not significantly (0.63, 0.37 to 1.09, P=0.100). Choice of peak was clearly associated with altered odds of death (omnibus P<0.001); year of expedition was associated with a significant trend toward reduced odds of death (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99, P=0.011). Conclusions No net survival benefit is associated with increased Himalayan experience or participation in a traditional (versus commercial) venture. The incremental decrease in risk associated with calendar year suggests that cumulative, collective knowledge and general innovation are more important than individual experience in improving the odds of survival. PMID:22695902

  7. Sediment pathways and emergence of Himalayan source material in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Ismaiel, M.; Srinivas, K.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; Saha, D.

    . R., Emmel, F. J. and Moore, D. G., The Bengal Fan: geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 2003, 19, 1191–1223. 26. Bull, J. M. and Scrutton, R. A., Seismic reflection images of intraplate deformation, central Indian... information on the linkage among Himalayan tectonics, Asian climate and erosional history of the Himalaya. There is a general belief that the sediment dis- charge from the Himalaya to the BoB had begun around the Eocene (~40 Ma)9...

  8. Perineal burn contractures: An experience in tertiary hospital of a Himalayan state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineal burn contracture is a rare burn sequel. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases with perineal burn contractures managed in a tertiary care centre of a Himalayan state. We found that all cases sustained burn injury from burning firewood and the time of presentation was two to six years after the burn injury. We analyzed our treatment method and have classified these contractures into two types.

  9. Reconnaissance Rb-Sr dates for the Himalayan Central Gneiss, Northwest India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C. McA.; Crawford, A.R.; Armstrong, R.L.; Wynne-Edwards, H.R.; Prakash, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr analysis of whole-rock samples and biotite and biotite - or muscovite - whole rock pairs suggests that the Himalayan Central Gneiss in the crystalline nappes of the Lesser Himalaya and the root zone in the High Himalaya was formed during Oligocene to mid-Miocene times by deformation and metamorphism of older rocks, including Precambrian. Four whole-rock samples from the Almora-Askot thrust sheets define an isochron of 1620 +- 90 Ma with a high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.749 +- 0.007; other single whole-rock samples give dates in the range 268 to 1065 Ma, assuming an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.704. These dates are considered to represent either depositional or early instructive/deformational events. Three biotite-whole rock pairs from the root zone of the Himalayan Central Gneiss in Lahaul give aqes of 16 to 19 Ma and two muscovite-whole rock pairs give similar mid-Cenozoic ages (12 and 26 Ma); two muscovite-whole rock pairs give Paleozoic ages, which suggests incomplete resetting of the muscovite by the Cenozoic metamorphism. The pattern of ages is similar to recent results from adjacent areas, and consistent with models of Himalayan tectonics involving formation of the Central Gneiss from older Indian crust during the mid-Cenozoic. (auth.)

  10. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  11. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Kumar

    Full Text Available Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and nitric oxide (NO radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and

  12. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  13. Evolution of the Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin is immensely important as it preserves evidence of India-Asia collision and related records of the Himalayan orogenesis. In this paper, the depositional regime of the Paleogene succession of the Himalayan foreland basin and variations in composition of the hinterland at different stages of the basin developments are presented. The Paleogene succession of the western Himalayan foreland basin developed in two stages, i.e. syn-collisional stage and post-collisional stage. At the onset, chert breccia containing fragments derived from the hanging walls of faults and reworked bauxite developed as a result of erosion of the forebulge. The overlying early Eocene succession possibly deposited in a coastal system, where carbonates represent barriers and shales represent lagoons. Up-section, the middle Eocene marl beds likely deposited on a tidal flat. The late Eocene/Oligocene basal Murree beds, containing tidal bundles, indicate that a mixed or semi-diurnal tidal system deposited the sediments and the sedimentation took place in a tide-dominated estuary. In the higher-up, the succession likely deposited in a river-dominated estuary or in meandering rivers. In the beginning of the basin evolution, the sediments were derived from the Precambrian basement or from the metasediments/volcanic rocks possessing terrains of the south. The early and middle Eocene (54.7–41.3 Ma succession of the embryonic foreland possibly developed from the sediments derived from the Trans-Himalayan schists and phyllites and Indus ophiolite of the north during syn-collisional stage. The detrital minerals especially the lithic fragments and the heavy minerals suggest the provenance for the late Eocene/Oligocene sequences to be from the recycled orogenic belt of the Higher Himalaya, Tethyan Himalaya and the Indus-suture zone from the north during post-collisional stage. This is also supported by the paleocurrent

  14. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-01-01

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'

  15. Terrane-Scale Metastability in Subducted Himalayan Continental Crust as Revealed by Integrated Petrological and Geodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Reuber, G. S.; White, R. W.; Kaus, B. J. P.; Weller, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Tso Morari massif, northwest India, is one of only two regions in the Himalayan Range that exposes subduction-related ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. The tectonic evolution of the massif is strongly debated, however, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism range between 2.4 GPa and 4.8 GPa. Such ambiguity hinders effective lithospheric-scale modeling of the early stages of the orogen's evolution. We present the results of integrated petrological and geodynamic modeling (Palin et al., 2017, EPSL) that provide new quantitative constraints on the prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path, and predict the parageneses that felsic and mafic components of the massif crust should have formed under equilibrium conditions. Our model shows that peak P-T conditions of 2.6-2.8 GPa and 600-620 °C, representative of subduction to 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), were reached just 3 Myr after the onset of collision. These P-T-t constraints correlate well with those reported for similar UHP eclogite in the along-strike Kaghan Valley, Pakistan, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of a 400-km long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. The extremely high pressures (up to 4.8 GPa) for peak metamorphism reported by some workers are likely to be unreliable due to thermobarometry having been performed on minerals that did not represent equilibrium assemblages. Furthermore, key high-P minerals predicted to form in subducted Tso Morari continental crust (e.g. jadeite, Mg-rich garnet) are absent from natural samples in the region, reflecting the widespread metastable preservation of lower-pressure protolith assemblages during subduction and exhumation. This result questions the reliability of geodynamic simulations of orogenesis that are commonly predicated on equilibrium metamorphism operating continuously throughout tectonic cycles.

  16. Himalayan/Karakoram Disaster After Disaster: The Pain Will Not Be Ending Anytime Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Are recent natural disasters in the Himalaya/Karakoram partly human-caused? Will disasters diminish or increase in frequency? Natural disasters in this region are nothing new. Earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, and debris flows have occurred in the Himalaya/Karakoram since the mountains first grew from the sea. Simply put, the Himalaya/Karakoram, being South Asia's 'water tower' and an active plate tectonic collision zone, must shed water and debris to the lowlands and the sea. When this activity occurs swiftly and with high intensity at or near human settlements, the results are often deadly. Remote sensing analysis of recent disasters coupled with demography, news accounts, and field studies indicate that there is a component of human responsibility. Two overarching human elements include (1) settlement and infrastructure encroachment into hazardous mountain areas and (2) aggravation of climate change. Both are substantially responsible--separately or together--for most of the recent tragedies. These conclusions provide the answer to when the disasters will end: not soon. Unfortunately, disasters will almost surely increase. Whether natural disasters have increased in frequency over the region's long historical record may be debated and must be researched. This expected link is a challenge to assess due to the stochastic nature of disasters and their triggering events (e.g., earthquakes and extreme weather events). While Himalayan tectonism, rock mechanics, glaciation, and climate are fundamental causes of the disasters, so are human land uses. Encroaching development into ever-hazardous zones is a paramount cause of much human tragedy. Climate change is harder to pin down specifically as a cause of some of these disasters, because some disasters are linked to rare extreme weather events and mass movements, which may be statistically but not individually attributable in part to climate change. Nevertheless, evidence supports a major role of climate

  17. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  18. Evidence of Himalayan erosional event at approx. 0.5 Ma from a sediment core from the equatorial Indian Ocean in the vicinityof ODP Leg 116 sites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Gupta, S.M.; Mislankar, P.G.; Rao, B.R.; Parthiban, G.; Roelandts, I.; Patil, S.K.

    ; discrimination plots of Ca/Ti versus K/Ti and K sub(2)O/Al sub(2) O sub(3) and La/Yb ratios suggest a highly metamorphosed source such as higher Himalayan crystalline (HHC) series indicating two events of increased physical weathering and erosion in the Himalayan...

  19. Evaluation of nutraceutical and antinutritional properties in barnyard and finger millet varieties grown in Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Priyankar; Dubey, Ashutosh; Verma, A K

    2016-06-01

    Five elite varieties of barnyard (Echinochloa frumentacea) and finger (Eleusine coracana) growing at northwestern Himalaya were investigated for nutraceutical and antinutritional properties. Barnyard millet contained higher amount of crude fiber, total dietary fiber, tryptophan content, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol compared to the finger millet whereas the finger millet contains higher amount of methionine and ascorbic acid as compared to the barnyard millet. The secondary metabolites of biological functions were analyzed and found that barnyard millet contained the higher amount of polyphenols, tannins and ortho-dihydroxy phenol content compared to finger millet. Among antinutitional compounds barnyard millet contained lower phytic acid content compare to finger millet whereas no significant difference in trypsin inhibition activity of barnyard millet and finger millet varieties were found. Barnyard millet contained higher acid phosphatase, α-galactosidase and α-amylase inhibitor activity compared to finger millet. Finger millet seeds contained about 10-13 folds higher calcium content and double amount of manganese content in comparison to barnyard millet seeds. Present study suggests that barnyard millet varieties studied under present investigation were found nutritionally superior compared to finger millet varieties.

  20. Evaluation of nutraceutical and antinutritional properties in barnyard and finger millet varieties grown in Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Panwar, Priyankar; Dubey, Ashutosh; Verma, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Five elite varieties of barnyard (Echinochloafrumentacea) and finger (Eleusine coracana) growing at northwestern Himalaya were investigated for nutraceutical and antinutritional properties. Barnyard millet contained higher amount of crude fiber, total dietary fiber, tryptophan content, total carotenoids, ��-tocopherol compared to the finger millet whereas the finger millet contains higher amount of methionine and ascorbic acid as compared to the barnyard millet. The secondary metabolites of b...

  1. Ficus cornelisiana, a new species of Ficus subsection Urostigma (Moraceae) from the Sino-himalayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chantarasuwan, B.; Peng, Y.-Q.; Baas, P.; Rasplus, J.-Y.; Heuven, van B.-J.; Welzen, van P.C.

    2014-01-01

    A small fig tree has been misidentified as Ficus orthoneura for a long time. However, morphologically it is distinct from F. orthoneura and F. hookeriana. Typical are the ellipsoid, puberulous receptacle and caducous basal bracts. Leaf anatomy shows a multiple epidermis with the cells in the inner

  2. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment, characteristic of dementia, is measured objectively by standard neuropsychological (cognitive tests. Given the diversity of culture and language in India, it is difficult to use a single modified version of MMSE uniformly to Indian population. In this article, we report methods on the development of a cognitive screening instrument suitable for the tribal (Bharmour elderly (60 years and above population of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: We used a systematic, item-by-item, process for development of a modified version of MMSE suitable for elderly tribal population. Results: The modifications made in the English version of MMSE and the pretesting and pilot testing thereof resulted in the development of Bharmouri version of cognitive scale. Discussion: The study shows that effective modifications can be made to existing tests that require reading and writing; and that culturally sensitive modifications can be made to render the test meaningful and relevant, while still tapping the appropriate cognitive domains.

  3. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of herbal antioxidant face cream of Nardostachys jatamansi collected from Indian Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Prakash Mishra

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: These formulations can be safely used on the skin. Hence, the study suggests that the composition of extract and the base of the cream F5 and F6 are more stable and safe, but it may produce synergistic action.

  5. Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6% are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%, menthone (1.5-11.0%, menthyl acetate (0.5-5.3%, isomenthone (2.1-3.9%, limonene (1.2-3.3% and neomenthol (1.9-2.5%. Carvone (51.3-65.1%, limonene (15.1-25.2%, -pinene (1.3-3.2% and 1,8-cineole (≤0.1-3.6% are the major constituents in 5 cultivars of M. spicata, while in one cultivar (Ganga of M. spicata the major constituents are piperitenone oxide (76.7%, α-terpineol (4.9% and limonene (4.7%. Linalool (59.7%, linalyl acetate (18.4%, nerol (2.0%, trans-p-menth-1-en-2-ol (1.8%, a-terpineol (1.5% and limonene (1.1% are the major constituents of M. citrata.

  6. Barnyard millet global core collection evaluation in the submontane Himalayan region of India using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salej Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp. is one of the most underresearched crops with respect to characterization of genetic resources and genetic enhancement. A total of 95 germplasm lines representing global collection were evaluated in two rainy seasons at Almora, Uttarakhand, India for qualitative and quantitative traits and the data were subjected to multivariate analysis. High variation was observed for days to maturity, five-ear grain weight, and yield components. The first three principal component axes explained 73% of the total multivariate variation. Three major groups were detected by projection of the accessions on the first two principal components. The separation of accessions was based mainly on trait morphology. Almost all Indian and origin-unknown accessions grouped together to form an Echinochloa frumentacea group. Japanese accessions grouped together except for a few outliers to form an Echinochloa esculenta group. The third group contained accessions from Russia, Japan, Cameroon, and Egypt. They formed a separate group on the scatterplot and represented accessions with lower values for all traits except basal tiller number. The interrelationships between the traits indicated that accessions with tall plants, long and broad leaves, longer inflorescences, and greater numbers of racemes should be given priority as donors or parents in varietal development initiatives. Cluster analysis identified two main clusters based on agro-morphological characters.

  7. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  8. Penetrating head injury with bilateral eye avulsion due to Himalayan bear bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Yam B; Roka, Narayani; Shrestha, Manzil; Puri, Puspa R; Adhikari, Hari B

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), although an omnivore, is more carnivorous than its American counterpart. It is also more aggressive towards humans and is a threatened species because of the deforestation in the Himalayas. Furthermore, poverty, encroachment of the forest, extensive deforestation, lack of education and living near the forest are factors that increase the probability of such animal injuries. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who suffered a severe penetrating head injury with scalp and bilateral eye avulsion, which was managed successfully. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  10. Ethnicity and Democracy in the Eastern Himalayan Borderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    This book presents a close look at the growth, success, and proliferation of ethnic politics on the peripheries of modern South Asia, built around a case study of the Nepal ethnic group that lives in the borderlands of Sikkim, Darjeeling, and east Nepal. Grounded in historical and ethnographic re...... research, it critically examines the relationship between culture and politics in a geographical space that is home to a diverse range of ethnic identities, showing how new modes of political representation, cultural activism, and everyday politics have emerged from the region....

  11. Chemical evolution of Himalayan leucogranites based on an O, U-Pb and Hf study of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Thomas N.; Warren, Clare J.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Parrish, Randall R.

    2015-04-01

    Crustal melting is a characteristic process at convergent plate margins, where crustal rocks are heated and deformed. Miocene leucogranite sheets and plutons are found intruded into the high-grade metasedimentary core (the Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) across the Himalayan orogen. Previously-published Himalayan whole-rock data suggest that these leucogranites formed from a purely meta-sedimentary source, isotopically similar to those into which they now intrude. Bulk rock analyses carry inherent uncertainties, however: they may hide contributions from different contributing sources, and post-crystallization processes such as fluid interaction may significantly alter the original chemistry. In contrast, zircon is more able to retain precise information of the contributing sources of the melt from which it crystallises whilst its resistant nature is impervious to post-magmatic processes. This multi-isotope study of Oligocene-Miocene leucogranite zircons from the Bhutan Himalaya, seeks to differentiate between various geochemical processes that contribute to granite formation. Hf and O isotopes are used to detect discrete changes in melt source while U-Pb isotopes provide the timing of zircon crystallisation. Our data show that zircon rims of Himalayan age yield Hf-O signatures that lie within the previously reported whole-rock GHS field, confirming the absence of a discernible mantle contribution to the leucogranite source. Importantly, we document a decrease in the minimum ɛHf values during Himalayan orogenesis through time, correlating to a change in Hf model age from 1.4 Ga to 2.4 Ga. Nd model ages for the older Lesser Himalayan metasediments (LHS) that underthrust the GHS are significantly older than those for the GHS (2.4-2.9 Ga compared with 1.4-2.2 Ga), and as such even minor contributions of LHS material incorporated into a melt would significantly increase the resulting Hf model age. Hence our leucogranite data suggest either a change of source within

  12. The dynamics of the species into collections of the North American and the Himalayan hills in Alpinarium of Peter the Great Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical gardens' collections of living plants are valuable not only because of their exhibitions, but also because of the data accumulated during introductions of new plants. Inventory allows to collect valuable material about introduction of different types of plants (species and taxa. Analysis of the available information allows to select and recommend advanced species (genus complex for the needs of urbane floristics; the perennial herbaceous plants of mountain areas come in the first place. A new list of advanced ornamental and household plants is introduced in the article. The recommended plants can be used for urban gardening and various groundscape works, and for creation of seed orchards in the neighboring regions. The study of introduction results helps not only to determine the advanced species (and taxa, but to understand which spices will not be able to survive a long time in the new conditions (mainly because of the climate, for example in the North-West of Russia. Over the past 60 years, around 385 plants of 61 families has been introduced at the North American and Himalayan rock gardens of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden. In the 60s of the 20th century, the exposition of these rock gardens had nearly 130 species from 51 families, 20 years later – 254 plants of 55 families. In the beginning of the 21st century, there were 249 taxa of the 52 families. Since 2010, the Alpinarium had to undergo a major reconstruction following the restoration and addition of the collection. As of 2015, the exposition of the North American and Himalayan rock gardens has 200 species of 54 families.

  13. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ∗∗Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India. ... under a Department of Science and Technology .... of Butterworth band pass filter used for filtering the local earthquake data. Low cutoff. Central frequency (fc). High cutoff. (Hz). (Hz). (Hz). 1.0. 1.5. 2.0. 2.0. 3.0. 4.0.

  14. Low fidelity of CORDEX and their driving experiments indicates future climatic uncertainty over Himalayan watersheds of Indus basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Böhner, Jürgen; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of future water availability from the Himalayan watersheds of Indus Basin (Jhelum, Kabul and upper Indus basin—UIB) is a growing concern for safeguarding the sustainable socioeconomic wellbeing downstream. This requires, before all, robust climate change information from the present-day state-of-the-art climate models. However, the robustness of climate change projections highly depends upon the fidelity of climate modeling experiments. Hence, this study assesses the fidelity of seven dynamically refined (0.44° ) experiments, performed under the framework of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment for South Asia (CX-SA), and additionally, their six coarse-resolution driving datasets participating in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5). We assess fidelity in terms of reproducibility of the observed climatology of temperature and precipitation, and the seasonality of the latter for the historical period (1971-2005). Based on the model fidelity results, we further assess the robustness or uncertainty of the far future climate (2061-2095), as projected under the extreme-end warming scenario of the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. Our results show that the CX-SA and their driving CMIP5 experiments consistently feature low fidelity in terms of the chosen skill metrics, suggesting substantial cold (6-10 ° C) and wet (up to 80%) biases and underestimation of observed precipitation seasonality. Surprisingly, the CX-SA are unable to outperform their driving datasets. Further, the biases of CX-SA and of their driving CMIP5 datasets are higher in magnitude than their projected changes under RCP8.5—and hence under less extreme RCPs—by the end of 21st century, indicating uncertain future climates for the Indus Basin watersheds. Higher inter-dataset disagreements of both CMIP5 and CX-SA for their simulated historical precipitation and for its projected changes reinforce uncertain future wet/dry conditions

  15. Remote Sensing of Cryosphere: Estimation of Mass Balance Change in Himalayan Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Joshi, Kabindra

    2012-07-01

    Glacial changes are an important indicator of climate change. Our understanding mass balance change in Himalayan glaciers is limited. This study estimates mass balance of some major glaciers in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) in Nepal using remote sensing applications. Remote sensing technique to measure mass balance of glaciers is an important methodological advance in the highly rugged Himalayan terrain. This study uses ASTER VNIR, 3N (nadir view) and 3B (backward view) bands to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the SNP area for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. Glacier boundaries were delineated using combination of boundaries available in the Global land ice measurement (GLIMS) database and various band ratios derived from ASTER images. Elevation differences, glacial area, and ice densities were used to estimate the change in mass balance. The results indicated that the rate of glacier mass balance change was not uniform across glaciers. While there was a decrease in mass balance of some glaciers, some showed increase. This paper discusses how each glacier in the SNP area varied in its annual mass balance measurement during the study period.

  16. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity’s sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot’s claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops’ resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop.

  17. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23 during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05 and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05 during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl, plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l, magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l, potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l and significantly lower (P<0.05 concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl, globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05 serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml and T4 (6.0±0.27 μg/ml concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 μg/ml concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep.

  18. Exploring the physicochemical profile and the binding patterns of selected novel anticancer Himalayan plant derived active compounds with macromolecular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bahadur Gurung

    Full Text Available Plants are vital source of compounds offering plethora of therapeutic effects against various ailments without much side effects. Due to wide spread prevalence and drug resistance in cancer; there is an urgent need for discovery of new anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, selected novel anti-cancer plants derived compounds (cmpd1 to cmpd15 from Himalayan region were docked with defined molecular targets that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. The binding energies of best docked compounds ranged between −8.0 kcal/mol and −11.71 kcal/mol. Further analysis revealed critical hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between compounds and targets. The best docked compounds viz., cmpd15 against cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2, cmpd8 against CDK-6 and cmpd9 against Topoisomerase I and II showed higher binding affinities than the native co-crystal ligands. The root mean square deviation (RMSD and potential energy plot clearly indicates the stability of the complexes during 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulation. The Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA binding energy analysis revealed Van der Waals energy component which is the principal stabilizing energy for their interactions except CDK-2/cmpd15 complex. The polar solvation energy did not have favorable contribution to their stabilization. The binding energy decomposition analysis revealed per residue contribution for each docked complexes. Physicochemical profile studies showed that majority of the compounds conform to Lipinski's rule of five (ROF having low to high blood brain barrier (BBB penetration, human intestinal absorption, plasma binding protein inhibition and P glycoprotein inhibition. Keywords: ADMET, Anticancer, MM/PBSA, Molecular docking, Molecular dynamics simulation and plant derived compounds

  19. Effective Reversible Immobilization of Captive Himalayan Black Bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) with Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Attur Shanmugam; Krishna, Sanath; Antony, Linto; Pillai, Harikrishnan Chandran; Venkataramanappa, Manjunatha; Suresh, Sujay

    2016-04-28

    We used a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize five Himalayan black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) in Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bangalore, India. Medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam were administered at 0.01 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. We describe procedures and observations recorded during the immobilization.

  20. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  1. Impact of land-use and climatic changes on hydrology of the Himalayan Basin: A case study of the Kosi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Keshav Prasad

    1997-10-01

    Land-use and climatic changes are of major concern in the Himalayan region because of their potential impacts on a predominantly agriculture-based economy and a regional hydrology dominated by strong seasonality. Such concerns are not limited to any particular basin but exist throughout the region including the downstream plain areas. As a representative basin of the Himalayas, we studied the Kosi basin (54,000 km2) located in the mountainous area of the central Himalayan region. We analyzed climatic and hydrologic information to assess the impacts of existing and potential future land-use and climatic changes over the basin. The assessment of anthropogenic inputs showed that the population grew at a compound growth rate of about one percent per annum over the basin during the last four decades. The comparison of land-use data based on the surveys made in the 1960s, and the surveys of 1978-79 did not reveal noticeable trends in land-use change. Analysis of meteorological and hydrological trends using parametric and nonparametric statistics for monthly data from 1947 to 1993 showed some increasing tendency for temperature and precipitation. Statistical tests of hydrological trends indicated an overall decrease of discharge along mainstem Kosi River and its major tributaries. The decreasing trends of streamflow were more significant during low-flow months. Statistical analysis of homogeneity showed that the climatological as well as the hydrological trends were more localized in nature lacking distinct basinwide significance. Statistical analysis of annual sediment time series, available for a single station on the Kosi River did not reveal a significant trend. We used water balance, statistical correlation, and distributed deterministic modeling approaches to analyze the hydrological sensitivity of the basin to possible land-use and climatic changes. The results indicated a stronger influence of basin characteristics compared to climatic characteristics on flow

  2. Re-evaluation of P-T paths across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, M.; Kelly, E. D.; Ashley, K.; Lovera, O. M.; Etzel, T.; Lizzadro-McPherson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Main Central Thrust (MCT) is the dominant crustal thickening structure in the Himalayas, juxtaposing high-grade Greater Himalayan Crystalline rocks over the lower-grade Lesser Himalaya Formations. The fault is underlain by a 2 to 12-km-thick sequence of deformed rocks characterized by an apparent inverted metamorphic gradient, termed the MCT shear zone. Garnet-bearing rocks sampled from across the MCT along the Marysandi River in central Nepal contain monazite that decrease in age from Early Miocene (ca. 20 Ma) in the hanging wall to Late Miocene-Pliocene (ca. 7 Ma and 3 Ma) towards structurally lower levels in the shear zone. We obtained high-resolution garnet-zoning pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from 11 of the same rocks used for monazite geochronology using a recently-developed semi-automated Gibbs-free-energy-minimization technique. Quartz-in-garnet Raman barometry refined the locations of the paths. Diffusional re-equilibration of garnet zoning in hanging wall samples prevented accurate path determinations from most Greater Himalayan Crystalline samples, but one that shows a bell-shaped Mn zoning profile shows a slight decrease in P (from 8.2 to 7.6kbar) with increase in T (from 590 to 640ºC). Three MCT shear zone samples were modeled: one yields a simple path increasing in both P and T (6 to 7kbar, 540 to 580ºC); the others yield N-shaped paths that occupy similar P-T space (4 to 5.5 kbar, 500 to 560ºC). Five lower lesser Himalaya garnet-bearing rocks were modeled. One yields a path increasing in both P-T (6 to 7 kbar, 525 to 550ºC) but others show either sharp compression/decompression or N-shape paths (within 4.5-6 kbar and 530-580ºC). The lowermost sample decreases in P (5.5 to 5 kbar) over increasing T (540 to 580°C). No progressive change is seen from one type of path to another within the Lesser Himalayan Formations to the MCT zone. The results using the modeling approach yield lower P-T conditions compared to the Gibbs method and lower

  3. Climate-growth relationships of Abies spectabilis in a central Himalayan treeline ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Niels; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Schickhoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines as well as rather insignificant responses. The large spectrum of responses is not fully understood. In the framework of investigating the sensitivity and response of a near-natural treeline ecotone in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal, to climate warming we present results from dendroclimatological analyses of Abies spectabilis (Himalayan Fir) increment cores. Tree ring width was measured and cross-dated. After standardization, the chronology was correlated with temperature and precipitation variables. Preliminary results point to positive correlations with autumn temperature and precipitation. We will present improved climate-growth relationships. The resulting climate - tree growth relationships may be used as an indication of future growth patterns and treeline dynamics under climate change conditions.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Trans-Himalayan Alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B.; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P.; Upreti, Dalip K.; Toppo, Kiran; Arora, Rajesh; Suseela, M. R.; Srivastava, Ravi B.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater alga Spirogyra porticalis (Muell.) Cleve, a filamentous charophyte, collected from the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert, was identified on the basis of morpho-anatomical characters. Extracts of this alga were made using solvents of varying polarity viz. n-hexane, acetonitrile, methanol and water. The antioxidant capacities and phenolic profile of the extracts were estimated. The methanol extract showing highest antioxidant capacity and rich phenolic attributes was further investigated and phytochemical profiling was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) hyphenated technique. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and colon carcinoma RKO cell lines. The anti-hypoxic effect of methanol extract of the alga was tested on in vivo animal system to confirm its potential to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antioxidant assays viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property and lipid peroxidation exhibited analogous results, wherein the algal extracts showed significantly high antioxidant potential. The extracts were also found to possess high content of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of thirteen chemotypes in the methanol extract representing different phytochemical groups like fatty acid esters, sterols, unsaturated alcohols, alkynes etc. with substantial phyto-pharmaceutical importance. The methanol extract was observed to possess anticancer activity as revealed from studies on HepG2 and RKO cell lines. In the present study, S. porticalis methanol extract also provided protection from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and accelerated the onset of adaptative changes in rats during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The

  5. Species composition and community structure of subtropical forest stands in western himalayan foothills of kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Malik, N. M.; Dar, M. E. U. I.

    2015-01-01

    Lesser Himalayan subtropical forests have unique species composition due to diverse climatic and topographic factors which create numerous microhabitats. Phytosociological characteristics, structural attributes and biological spectrum of plant communities in the forests of Himalayan foothills in Kashmir were analyzed. A total of 65 species belonging to 26 plant families were recorded constituting 6 plant communities. Average value of diversity recorded for the communities was 2.44; species richness 4.01; whereas evenness was found to be 0.48. The species data indicated random distribution of species with a hump shaped diversity pattern directly correlated with increasing altitude. Themeda anathera was the dominant species with an importance value percentage of 14.7 percentage followed by Pinus roxburghii (9.6 percentage), Mallotus philippenensis (5.2 percentage), Malvastrum coromandelianum (5.1 percentage), Acacia modesta (5 percentage), Olea ferruginea (3.8 percentage) and Oxalis corniculata (3.2 percentage). Vegetation was dominated by Therophytes (30 percentage) and megaphanerophytes (23.3) with dominant leaf spectrum as leptophylls (31.6 percentage). Thirty seven percent plants had medicinal values followed by 31 percentage having fodder values where as 12 percentage used as fuel. Principal component analyses and cluster analyses revealed the association of dominant species with specific sites due to prevailing environmental conditions. The distribution of species in ordination diagrams indicated a continuous change in species composition along the altitudinal gradient. Key stone tree species were subject to immense tree felling resulting in deteriorating changes in forest structure. Visual indicators showed over grazing at all the studied sites evident from the dominance of unpalatable species. Local forest stands demand immediate attention of policy makers as well as forest management so that local diversity and floristic richness could be conserved and

  6. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  7. Using exhumation histories to constrain Main Himalayan Thrust geometry and seismic hazard in the western Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Himalaya of western Nepal present a challenge to conventional understanding of the geometry and behavior of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), a major seismogenic structure which accommodates 2 cm/yr of Indo-Asian convergence. Slip along a steeper ramp in the MHT drives long-term uplift of the Greater Himalaya along >1000 km of the central range front, resulting in a conspicuous physiographic transition known as PT2. This physiographic break is seemingly absent in western Nepal, which suggests a structural geometry and/or kinematic history distinct from areas along strike. This anomaly must be investigated to clarify how seismic hazard may differ from better-understood areas along strike. The importance of this work is heightened by the recent and catastrophic Gorkha earthquake in 2015. We present a suite of 7 relief transects comprising a mix of apatite and zircon U-Th/He and muscovite Ar-Ar cooling ages. These transects were collected across the more gradual mountain front in western Nepal in an effort to clarify where uplift and exhumation have been focused over the past 10 Ma. We invert these cooling ages using the thermo-kinematic model Pecube in order to constrain exhumation histories that best fit the measured cooling ages. Results confirm that MHT geometry and kinematic history in western Nepal are far more complex than in better-studied areas along strike. Exhumation rates in the along-strike projection of PT2 are slow ( 0.1-0.2 km/Myr) compared with rates 50 km toward the hinterland ( 1.0-1.5 km/Myr), suggesting that exhumation has been more rapid in this more northerly position for the past several Ma. Although a range of kinematic scenarios could explain the anomalous cooling histories, it is likely that a recently active midcrustal ramp in the MHT sits beneath this more northerly position. If the 2015 Gorkha earthquake initiated near the up-dip end of the MHT ramp in central Nepal, it is conceivable that similarly hazardous earthquakes could trigger

  8. Transverse tectonic structural elements across Himalayan mountain front, eastern Arunachal Himalaya, India: Implication of superposed landform development on analysis of neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Luirei, Khayingshing; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Imsong, Watinaro

    2017-04-01

    Structural and morphotectonic signatures in conjunction with the geomorphic indices are synthesised to trace the role of transverse tectonic features in shaping the landforms developed along the frontal part of the eastern Arunachal sub-Himalaya. Mountain front sinuosity (Smf) index values close to one are indicative of the active nature of the mountain front all along the eastern Arunachal Himalaya, which can be directly attributed to the regional uplift along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). However, the mountain front is significantly sinusoidal around junctions between HFT/MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) and active transverse faults. The high values of stream length gradient (SL) and stream steepness (Ks) indices together with field evidence of fault scarps, offset of terraces, and deflection of streams are markers of neotectonic uplift along the thrusts and transverse faults. This reactivation of transverse faults has given rise to extensional basins leading to widening of the river courses, providing favourable sites for deposition of recent sediments. Tectonic interactions of these transverse faults with the Himalayan longitudinal thrusts (MBT/HFT) have segmented the mountain front marked with varying sinuosity. The net result is that a variety of tectonic landforms recognized along the mountain front can be tracked to the complex interactions among the transverse and longitudinal tectonic elements. Some distinctive examples are: in the eastern extremity of NE Himalaya across the Dibang River valley, the NW-SE trending mountain front is attenuated by the active Mishmi Thrust that has thrust the Mishmi crystalline complex directly over the alluvium of the Brahmaputra plains. The junction of the folded HFT and Mishmi Thrust shows a zone of brecciated and pulverized rocks along which transverse axial planar fracture cleavages exhibit neotectonic activities in a transverse fault zone coinciding with the Dibang River course. Similarly, the transverse faults cut the

  9. Application of artificial neural networks in hydrological modeling: A case study of runoff simulation of a Himalayan glacier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A. M.; Narain, A.; Pandey, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of runoff from a Himalayan Glacier basin using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is presented. The performance of the ANN model is found to be superior to the Energy Balance Model and the Multiple Regression model. The RMS Error is used as the figure of merit for judging the performance of the three models, and the RMS Error for the ANN model is the latest of the three models. The ANN is faster in learning and exhibits excellent system generalization characteristics.

  10. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  11. Conservation implications for the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of packs and home sites in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Werhahn, G; Kusi, N; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Macdonald, DW

    2017-01-01

    We provide insights into pack composition and den site parameters of the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of free-ranging wolves in three study areas in Nepal. We combine this with a social survey of the local Buddhist communities regarding human–carnivore conflict, to draw inferences for conservation practice in the Nepalese Himalayas. We recorded eight wolf packs (with an average composition of two adults and three pups), and found five home sites in high-alti...

  12. Active folding of fluvial terraces across a `blind' Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and four yield multiple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and depth profiles terrigenous cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Murree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggests rock uplift rates across the Suruin-Mastargh anticline range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rates across the Suruin-Mastargh anticline range between 3.8-5.4 mm/yr since 53 ka. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that the Riasi fault accounts for the remainder 60% of the convergence not taken up by the Suruin-Mastargh anticline. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled

  13. Podophyllum hexandrum (Himalayan mayapple) extract provides radioprotection by modulating the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Ashok; Prasad, Jagdish; Sagar, Ravinder; Singh, Surender; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2005-08-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Himalayan mayapple), a high-altitude Himalayan plant, has been shown to provide over 80% whole-body radioprotection in mice. To investigate the radioprotective potential of P. hexandrum at the molecular level, expression patterns of various proteins associated with apoptosis were studied in the spleen of male Swiss albino strain A mice by immunoblotting. Treatment with P. hexandrum [200 mg/kg of body weight; an ethanolic 50% (w/v) extract delivered intraperitoneally] 2 h before irradiation resulted in MAPKAP (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein) kinase-2 activation along with HSF-1 (heat-shock transcription factor-1), leading to up-regulation of HSP-70 (heat-shock protein-70) as compared with sham-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. Strong inhibition of AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) expression was observed in the mice treated with P. hexandrum 2 h before irradiation as compared with the sham-irradiated group. Inhibition in the translocation of free NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) from cytoplasm to nucleus was observed upon P. hexandrum pretreatment 2 h before irradiation when compared with radiation-treated mice. P. hexandrum pre-treatment (2 h before irradiation) resulted in inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation, and the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 was observed to be down-regulated as compared with sham-irradiated control. An increase in the expression of proteins responsible for cell proliferation [Bcl-2 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic lymphoma 2), Ras-GAP (Ras-GTPase-activating protein) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)] was observed in the P. hexandrum-pretreated irradiated mice as compared with sham-irradiated controls. Caspase 3 activation resulted PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) DNA polymerase] cleavage, and DNA degradation was strongly inhibited in the mice treated with P. hexandrm (+/-irradiation) as compared with the mice treated with radiation (+/-heat shock). The present study thus clearly

  14. Mineralogy of Nicobar Fan turbidites (IODP Leg 362): Himalayan provenance and diagenetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, M.; Garzanti, E.; Ando, S.; Carter, A.; Milliken, K. L.; Pickering, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we use quantitative petrographic and heavy-mineral data on silt-sized and sand-sized sediments from the Nicobar Fan turbiditic depositional system to unravel their provenance and discriminate between pre-depositional and post-depositional processes controlling sediment mineralogy. Eighteen samples from the two drill sites U1480 e U1481, collected down to a depth of 1400 m during International Ocean Discovery Expedition 362, were selected for analysis. A complete section of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basaltic basement was recovered at the U1480 drill site, whereas the U1481 drill site, located 35 km to the southeast, focused on the deeper interval of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basement. Here we illustrate the compositional trends observed throughout the recovered succession, and compare heavy-mineral suites characterizing sediments drilled at the two U1480 and U1481 sites to check for potential differences in sediment provenance over a relatively short distance in trench settings. Diagenetic control with increasing burial depth was also specifically investigated. In Pleistocene sediments at depths of a few tens of meters only, rich heavy-mineral assemblages include mainly hornblende, epidote, and garnet, associated with apatite, clinopyroxene, tourmaline, sillimanite, kyanite, zircon, titanite, and rare staurolite and rutile, testifying to long-distance provenance from the Himalayan range via the Ganga-Brahmaputra fluvio-deltaic-turbiditic system. Heavy-mineral concentration shows a progressive decrease with burial depth, pointing to selective diagenetic dissolution of less durable detrital minerals. Clinopyroxene becomes rare below 400 m depth and was not recorded below 500 m depth, where amphibole decreases notably in relative abundance. More durable heavy minerals, including zircon, tourmaline, apatite, garnet and epidote, consequently tend to be relatively enriched with increasing age and burial depth. Petrographic and

  15. Pre-Himalayan tectono-magmatic imprints in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Subhrangsu K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mandal, Nibir; Bose, Santanu; Pande, Kanchan

    2017-09-01

    The Lower Lesser Himalayan Sequence (L-LHS) in Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) displays intensely deformed, low-grade meta-sedimentary rocks, frequently intervened by granite intrusives of varied scales. The principal motivation of our present study is to constrain the timing of this granitic event. Using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, we dated muscovite from pegmatites emplaced along the earliest fabric in the low grade Daling phyllite, and obtained ∼1850 Ma Ar-Ar muscovite cooling age, which is broadly coeval with crystallization ages of Lingtse granite protolith (e.g., 1800-1850 Ma U-Pb zircon ages) reported from the L-LHS. We present here field observations to show the imprints (tectonic fabrics) of multiple ductile deformation episodes in the LHS terrain. The earliest penetrative fabric, axial planar to N-S trending reclined folds, suggest a regional tectonic event in the DSH prior to the active phase of Indo-Asia collision. Based on the age of granitic bodies and their structural correlation with the earliest fabric, we propose that the L-LHS as a distinct convergent tectono-magmatic belt, delineating the northern margin of Indian craton in the framework of the ∼1850 Ma Columbia supercontinent assembly.

  16. Natural resources assessment and their utilization: analyses from a Himalayan state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, Rakesh D

    2012-08-01

    The present paper quantifies and reviews the natural resource use in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). Twenty-five percent of the geographical area of HP is under forests and harbour ca. 3,400 plant species. The available bioresources not only support the livelihood of nearly 6 million people but also fulfill the forage requirement of 5.2 million livestock. Thus, dependence on bioresources is manifold. Based on field surveys to different localities of HP and analyses of published information, two types of resource use patterns have been identified. One, the direct use of forest resources which is represented by extraction of timber, fuelwood and fodder; and the second represents indirect resource use from the forest that is represented by activities related to agriculture, tourism and industry. Amongst the direct resource use, annual timber requirement of the local people works out to be 310,063 m(3). On the other hand, annual fuelwood and fodder requirement of local people is to the tune of 3,646,348.8 and 10,294,116.5 tons, respectively. Extraction of fodder therefore appears to be one of the main reasons for forest degradation in HP as opposed to timber and fuelwood extraction. However, compared to direct resource use, indirect resource use and pressures have far more pronounced effect on the forests. Of the indirect pressures, shifts in agriculture patterns and increased tourism seem to be the most prominent.

  17. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  18. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Himalayan Lichen Fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae

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    Shiva Devkota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species' response to forest disturbance and fragmentation. Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data and assessed them in 109 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 with an average of 6.9. Nei's unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.514 to 0.685 in the three populations studied. The cross-amplification success with related species (L. chinensis, L. gyrophorica, L. isidiophora, L. orientalis, L. pulmonaria, L. spathulata, and Lobaria sp. was generally high and decreased with decreasing relationship to L. pindarensis. Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and differentiation within L. pindarensis across its distribution. Moreover, they will enable us to study the effects of forest management on the genetic population structure of this tree-colonizing lichen and to carry out population genetic studies of related species in East Asia.

  19. Soil-gas radon/helium surveys in some neotectonic areas of NW Himalayan foothills, India

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    S. Mahajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at accessing the relationship between variation in the soil gases radon (222Rn and helium (4He and recently developed fissures and other neotectonic features in Nurpur and Nadha areas of the NW Himalayas, India. Two soil-gas surveys were conducted on/near known faults to reconfirm their position using soil gas technique and to check their present activity. During these surveys, soil-gas samples were collected along traverses crossing the observed structures. The data analysis reveals that the concentrations of radon and helium along the Dehar lineament and the longitudinal profile (Profile D are very high compared to any other thrust/lineament of the Nurpur area. The Nadha area shows high values of radon and helium concentrations along/near the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF as compared to the adjoining areas. This indicates the presence of some buried fault/fault zone running parallel to the HFF, not exposed to the surface and not delineated by satellite data but is geochemically active and might be tectonically active too. Hence, soil helium and radon gas patterns have been combined with morphological and geological observations to supply useful constraints for deformation of tectonic environments.

  20. Three-year observations of halocarbons at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) on the Himalayan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, M.; Giostra, U.; Arduini, J.; Furlani, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Laj, P.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring programme for halogenated climate-altering gases has been established in the frame of the SHARE EV-K2-CNR project at the Nepal Climate Laboratory - Pyramid in the Himalayan range at the altitude of 5079 m a.s.l. The site is very well located to provide important insights on changes in atmospheric composition in a region that is of great significance for emissions of both anthropogenic and biogenic halogenated compounds. Measurements are performed since March 2006, with grab samples collected on a weekly basis. The first three years of data have been analysed. After the identification of the atmospheric background values for fourteen halocarbons, the frequency of occurrence of pollution events have been compared with the same kind of analysis for data collected at other global background stations. The analysis showed the fully halogenated species, whose production and consumption are regulated under the Montreal Protocol, show a significant occurrence of "above the baseline" values, as a consequence of their current use in the developing countries surrounding the region, meanwhile the hydrogenated gases, more recently introduced into the market, show less frequent spikes. Atmospheric concentration trends have been calculated as well, and they showed a fast increase, ranging from 5.7 to 12.6%, of all the hydrogenated species, and a clear decrease of methyl chloroform (-17.7%). The comparison with time series from other stations has also allowed to derive Meridional gradients, which are absent for long living well mixed species, while for the more reactive species, the gradient increases inversely with respect to their atmospheric lifetime. The effect of long range transport and of local events on the atmospheric composition at the station has been analysed as well, allowing the identification of relevant source regions the Northern half of the Indian sub-continent. Also, at finer spatial scales, a smaller, local contribution of forest fires from the

  1. Solid waste management in Indian Himalayan tourists' treks: a case study in and around the Valley of Flowers and Hemkund Sahib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniyal, Jagdish C.; Jain, Arun P.; Shannigrahi, Ardhendu S.

    2003-01-01

    Solid waste generation in sensitive tourist areas of the Indian Himalayan region is approaching that of some metro cities of the country. The present study showed ∼288 g waste generation visitor -1 day -1 compared with the nation-wide average of 350 g capita -1 day -1 . About 29 metric tonnes (MT) solid waste is generated along a distance of about 19-km trek (a stretch of land or distance between two or more places covered by a walk) during a 4-month tourist season every year. Treks and trek stalls are the two major places where the visitors generate solid waste. Waste estimated from stalls accounted for about 51% by weight of the total waste generation in the trekking region. The native villagers generally construct stalls every year to meet the requirement of visitors going to Valley of Flowers (VOF) and Hemkund Sahib. The average annual results of 2 years (or equivalent to the average of one, 4-month tourist season for the region) showed non-biodegradable waste (NBW) to be 96.3% by weight whereas biodegradable waste (BW) amounted to merely 3.7%. From management point of view of the government, 96% NBW could easily be reused and recycled. Nevertheless, the need is to manage this waste by bringing it from the trekking areas to the road head (Govind Ghat) first and then to transport it to adjacent recycling centers. Cold drink glass bottles (68%), plastic (26%) and metal (2%) were the major items contributing to non-biodegradable waste. The remaining organic waste could be used as feedstock for composting. A well coordinated effort of public participation is necessary at all the levels for managing waste. There is a need to educate the visitors to instill in them the habit of considering discarded waste as potentially valuable and manageable

  2. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  3. Bacterial community of cushion plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum on elevational gradient in the Himalayan cold desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řeháková, Klára; Chroňáková, Alica; Krištůfek, Václav; Kuchtová, Barbora; Čapková, Kateřina; Scharfen, Josef; Čapek, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    heterotrophic bacteria in Himalayan soil.

  4. Recent shifts in Himalayan vegetation activity trends in response to climatic change and environmental drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, N. B.; Mainali, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic changes along with anthropogenic disturbances are causing dramatic ecological impacts in mid to high latitude mountain vegetation including in the Himalayas which are ecologically sensitive environments. Given the challenges associated with in situ vegetation monitoring in the Himalayas, remote sensing based quantification of vegetation dynamics can provide essential ecological information on changes in vegetation activity that may consist of alternative sequence of greening and/or browning periods. This study utilized a trend break analysis procedure for detection of monotonic as well as abrupt (either interruption or reversal) trend changes in smoothed normalized difference vegetation index satellite time-series data over the Himalayas. Overall, trend breaks in vegetation greenness showed high spatio-temporal variability in distribution considering elevation, ecoregion and land cover/use stratifications. Interrupted greening was spatially most dominant in all Himalayan ecoregions followed by abrupt browning. Areas showing trend reversal and monotonic trends appeared minority. Trend type distribution was strongly dependent on elevation as majority of greening (with or without interruption) occurred at lower elevation areas at higher elevation were dominantly. Ecoregion based stratification of trend types highlighted some exception to this elevational dependence as high altitude ecoregions of western Himalayas showed significantly less browning compared to the ecoregions in eastern Himalaya. Land cover/use based analysis of trend distribution showed that interrupted greening was most dominant in closed needleleafed forest following by rainfed cropland and mosaic croplands while interrupted browning most dominant in closed to open herbaceous vegetation found at higher elevation areas followed by closed needleleafed forest and closed to open broad leafed evergreen forests. Spatial analysis of trend break timing showed that for majority of areas experiencing

  5. Soil erosion assessment of a Himalayan river basin using TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Mishra, S. K.; Gautam, A. K.; Kumar, D.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the soil erosion of a Himalayan river basin, the Karnali basin, Nepal, using rainfall erosivity (R-factor) derived from satellite-based rainfall estimates (TRMM-3B42 V7). Average annual sediment yield was estimated using the well-known Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The eight-year annual average rainfall erosivity factor (R) for the Karnali River basin was found to be 2620.84 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. Using intensity-erosivity relationships and eight years of the TRMM daily rainfall dataset (1998-2005), average annual soil erosion was also estimated for Karnali River basin. The minimum and maximum values of the rainfall erosivity factor were 1108.7 and 4868.49 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively, during the assessment period. The average annual soil loss of the Karnali River basin was found to be 38.17 t ha-1 year-1. Finally, the basin area was categorized according to the following scale of erosion severity classes: Slight (0 to 5 t ha-1 year-1), Moderate (5 to 10 t ha-1 year-1), High (10 to 20 t ha-1 year-1), Very High (20 to 40 t ha-1 year-1), Severe (40 to 80 t ha-1 year-1) and Very Severe (>80 t ha-1 year-1). About 30.86% of the river basin area was found to be in the slight erosion class. The areas covered by the moderate, high, very high, severe and very severe erosion potential zones were 13.09%, 6.36%, 11.09%, 22.02% and 16.64% respectively. The study revealed that approximately 69% of the Karnali River basin needs immediate attention from a soil conservation point of view.

  6. High-Resolution Monitoring of Himalayan Glacier Dynamics Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Shea, J.; Shrestha, A. B.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.; de Jong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glacier tongues are commonly debris covered and play an important role in modulating the glacier response to climate . However, they remain relatively unstudied because of the inaccessibility of the terrain and the difficulties in field work caused by the thick debris mantles. Observations of debris-covered glaciers are therefore limited to point locations and airborne remote sensing may bridge the gap between scarce, point field observations and coarse resolution space-borne remote sensing. In this study we deploy an Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) on two debris covered glaciers in the Nepalese Himalayas: the Lirung and Langtang glacier during four field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. Based on stereo-imaging and the structure for motion algorithm we derive highly detailed ortho-mosaics and digital elevation models (DEMs), which we geometrically correct using differential GPS observations collected in the field. Based on DEM differencing and manual feature tracking we derive the mass loss and the surface velocity of the glacier at a high spatial resolution and accuracy. We also assess spatiotemporal changes in supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs based on the imagery. On average, mass loss is limited and the surface velocity is very small. However, the spatial variability of melt rates is very high, and ice cliffs and supra-glacial ponds show mass losses that can be an order of magnitude higher than the average. We suggest that future research should focus on the interaction between supra-glacial ponds, ice cliffs and englacial hydrology to further understand the dynamics of debris-covered glaciers. Finally, we conclude that UAV deployment has large potential in glaciology and it represents a substantial advancement over methods currently applied in studying glacier surface features.

  7. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt: Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains: the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate; it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF, which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1 plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2 suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50–60 km, we suggest that the “suprasubduction-type” magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  8. Crustal Structure and Evolution of the Eastern Himalayan Plate Boundary System, Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Gaur, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from 24 broadband seismographs located south of the Eastern Himalayan plate boundary system to investigate the crustal structure beneath Northeast India. P wave receiver function analysis reveals felsic continental crust beneath the Brahmaputra Valley, Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills, and mafic thinned passive margin transitional crust (basement layer) beneath the Bengal Basin. Within the continental crust, the central Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have the thinnest crust (30 ± 2 km) with similar velocity structure, suggesting a unified origin and uplift history. North of the plateau and Mikir Hills the crustal thickness increases sharply by 8-10 km and is modeled by ˜30∘ north dipping Moho flexure. South of the plateau, across the ˜1 km topographic relief of the Dawki Fault, the crustal thickness increases abruptly by 12-13 km and is modeled by downfaulting of the plateau crust, overlain by 13-14 km thick sedimentary layer/rocks of the Bengal Basin. Farther south, beneath central Bengal Basin, the basement layer is thinner (20-22 km) and has higher Vs (˜4.1 km s-1) indicating a transitional crystalline crust, overlain by the thickest sedimentary layer/rocks (18-20 km). Our models suggest that the uplift of the Shillong Plateau occurred by thrust faulting on the reactivated Dawki Fault, a continent margin paleorift fault, and subsequent back thrusting on the south dipping Oldham Fault, in response to flexural loading of the Eastern Himalaya. Our estimated Dawki Fault offset combined with timing of surface uplift of the plateau reveals a reasonable match between long-term uplift and convergence rate across the Dawki Fault with present-day GPS velocities.

  9. K/Ar hornblende ages from the higher Himalaya: implications for India-Asia collision and Himalayan metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkhabi, R.B.; Stump, A.K.; Jain, A.K.; Manickavasagam, R.M.; Nishimura Susumu

    1993-01-01

    Two amphibolite samples from the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) belt from the Suru Valley, Zanskar, have yielded Eocene K/Ar hornblende cooling ages between 40 and 45 Ma, thus indicating much older peak metamorphic conditions in northern parts of the Indian Plate. These ages are in conformity with almost identical ages from metamorphic complexes across the Nanga Parbat syntaxis in Pakistan and reveal a 65 to 70-Ma collision phase of the Indian indentor in the NW-Himalaya. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs

  10. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  11. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  12. Sunphotometry of the 2006-2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Verza, G. P.; Marinoni, A.; Barnaba, F.

    2010-11-01

    In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l.) at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006-March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this year to originate mainly in the west Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Ghandi College (60 m a.s.l.), in the Indo-Gangetic basin. As for Ghandi College, and in agreement with the in situ ground observations at the Pyramid, the fine mode aerosol optical depth maximizes during winter and minimizes in the monsoon season. Conversely, total optical depth maximizes during the monsoon due to the occurrence of elevated, coarse particle layers. Possible origins of these particles are wind erosion from the surrounding peaks and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing is then expected to be hampered by the presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede an effective, continuous measurement of anthropogenic aerosol radiative properties from sky radiance inversions and/or ground measurements alone. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols were rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6-0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006), the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm) are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcing. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reasons for continuous monitoring.

  13. Sunphotometry of the 2006–2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gobbi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l. at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006–March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this year to originate mainly in the west Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Ghandi College (60 m a.s.l., in the Indo-Gangetic basin. As for Ghandi College, and in agreement with the in situ ground observations at the Pyramid, the fine mode aerosol optical depth maximizes during winter and minimizes in the monsoon season. Conversely, total optical depth maximizes during the monsoon due to the occurrence of elevated, coarse particle layers. Possible origins of these particles are wind erosion from the surrounding peaks and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing is then expected to be hampered by the presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede an effective, continuous measurement of anthropogenic aerosol radiative properties from sky radiance inversions and/or ground measurements alone. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols were rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6–0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006, the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcing. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reasons for continuous monitoring.

  14. Himalayan Lake- and River-Impacting Landslides and Ice Avalanches: Some So Deadly, Some No Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Karki, A.; Haritashya, U. K.; Shugar, D. H.; Harrison, S.

    2017-12-01

    the same area. Factors for landslide triggering of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) include some of the same factors, but the mass/energy input rate into the lake, the lake's shape and length, and moraine dam properties are also important in GLOF triggering. Himalayan examples will illustrate some hazard factors.

  15. Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savale, Swapnil Anil; Pol, Chaitrali Satish; Khare, Roshni; Verma, Neeraj; Gaikwad, Subhash; Mandal, Bapi; Behera, Bhaskar C

    2016-01-01

    antioxidant, PEPI, and antimicrobial potential. The present study indicates therapeutic potential of Himalayan lichen C. olivetorum against neurodegenerative diseases owing to its radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Further, the result encourages its commercial exploitation through mass culture for production of its bioactive components and their use in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.

  16. Monopelopia mongpuense sp. n., a phytotelmata midge from sub-Himalayan region of India (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilotpol; Hazra, Niladri; Mazumdar, Abhijit

    2014-05-23

    Immature and adult stages of Monopelopia mongpuense sp. n. from phytotelmata of Cedrus deodara (Lamb.) in Darjeeling are described along with biological notes. Key to the adult males of all species of the genus Monopelopia Fittkau is also presented. This genus is recorded for the first from Indian subcontinent.

  17. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis) under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris. PMID:24587708

  18. Response of nitrogen and potassium fertigation to "Waris" almond (Prunus dulcis) under northwestern Himalayan Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Ahmed, N

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1--100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2--100% RDF through fertigations, T3--75% RDF through fertigation, T4--75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5--50% RDF through fertigation and T6--50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm(2); 16.75 and 24.26 cm(2); 3.83 and 7.49 cm(2); 0.47 and 1.23 cm(2)), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m(3)), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  19. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012 in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application, T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m, nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g, nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha, and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2, canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3, and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  20. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.

  1. SSR based genetic diversity of pigmented and aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes of the western Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Humaira; Husaini, Amjad M; Ashraf Bhat, M; Parray, G A; Khan, Salim; Ganai, Nazir A

    2016-10-01

    A set of 24 of SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity in 16 rice genotypes found in Western Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, India. The level of polymorphism among the genotypes of rice was evaluated from the number of alleles and PIC value for each of the 24 SSR loci. A total of 68 alleles were detected across the 16 genotypes through the use of these 24 SSR markers The number of alleles per locus generated varied from 2 (RM 338, RM 452, RM 171) to 6 (RM 585, RM 249, RM 481, RM 162). The PIC values varied from 0.36 (RM 1) to 0.86 (RM 249) with an average of 0.62 per locus. Based on information generated, the genotypes got separated in six different clusters. Cluster 1 comprised of 4 genotypes viz; Zag 1, Zag 13, Pusa sugandh 3, and Zag 14, separated from each other at a similarity value of 0.40. Cluster second comprised of 3 landraces viz; Zag 2. Zag 4 and Zag10 separated from each other at a similarity value of 0.45. Cluster third comprised of 3 genotypes viz; Grey rice, Mushk budji and Kamad separated from each other at a similarity value of 0.46. Cluster fourth had 2 landraces viz; Kawa kreed and Loual anzul, and was not sub clustered. Fifth cluster had 3 genotypes viz; Zag 12, Purple rice and Jhelum separated from each other at a similarity value of 0.28. Cluster 6 comprised of a single popular variety i.e. Shalimar rice 1 with independent lineage.

  2. Advancing Regional and Transboundary Cooperation in the Conflict-Prone Hindu Kush–Himalaya

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    David Molden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD supports regional and transboundary cooperation to meet challenges of climate change, disaster risks, and sustainable development in the Hindu Kush–Himalaya (HKH. Action to sustain the HKH has the potential to directly improve the lives of more than one fourth of the world's population. However, facilitating cooperation and policy coherence among the countries sharing HKH resources is a persistent challenge in a region that is prone to conflict and is highly variable regarding development. At ICIMOD, we work across HKH countries to help attain common goals related to sustainable development, using our skills in bringing together different groups within programmatic transboundary approaches covering topics such as river basins or transboundary landscapes. In addition, the Hindu Kush Himalayan Monitoring and Assessment Programme and the Himalayan University Consortium have made strides in promoting regional and transboundary cooperation among HKH countries, particularly emphasizing research synthesis and the role of academia.

  3. West-directed thrusting south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis indicates clockwise crustal flow at the indenter corner during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, Peter J.; Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2018-01-01

    Whether continental deformation is accommodated by microplate motion or continuum flow is a central issue regarding the nature of Cenozoic deformation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The microplate model predicts southeastward extrusion of rigid blocks along widely-spaced strike-slip faults, whereas the crustal-flow model requires clockwise crustal rotation along closely-spaced, semi-circular right-slip faults around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Although global positioning system (GPS) data support the crustal-flow model, the surface velocity field provides no information on the evolution of the India-Asia orogenic system at million-year scales. In this work, we present the results of systematic geologic mapping across the northernmost segment of the Indo-Burma Ranges, located directly southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Early research inferred the area to have experienced either right-slip faulting accommodating northward indentation of India or thrusting due to the eastward continuation of the Himalayan orogen in the Cenozoic. Our mapping supports the presence of dip-slip thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults. Specifically, the northern Indo-Burma Ranges exposes south- to west-directed ductile thrust shear zones in the hinterland and brittle fault zones in the foreland. The trends of ductile stretching lineations within thrust shear zones and thrust sheets rotate clockwise from the northeast direction in the northern part of the study area to the east direction in the southern part of the study area. This clockwise deflection pattern of lineations around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis mirrors the clockwise crustal-rotation pattern as suggested by the crustal-flow model and contemporary GPS velocity field. However, our finding is inconsistent with discrete strike-slip deformation in the area and the microplate model.

  4. Investigation of geothermal fields in himalayan range in pakistan using isotope and chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Sheikh, M.R.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Latif, Z.

    2007-07-01

    There are many geothermal sites in Himalayan belt of Pakistan having low to high temperatures(boiling water). Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields at Tatta Pani and Tato lying along Main Mantle Thrust, Murtazabad along Main Karakoram Thrust and Kotli in the area of overlapping thrusts: Punjal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust and the Himalaya Frontal Thrust. Discharge of the springs varies from 30 to 2000 liters per minute with the surface temperature from 47.3 to 92 degree C. Two sets of water samples were collected from these fields. The samples were analyzed for various isotopes (O/sup 18/, H/sup 2/ and H/sup 3/ of water; C/sup 13/ of dissolved inorganic carbon; S/sup 34/ and O/sup 18/ of dissolved sulphates); and water chemistry. The thermal waters of the Northern Areas of Pakistan are generally neutral to slightly alkaline and have low dissolved contents. Sodium is the dominant cation in all the cases. In terms of anions, HCO/sub 3/ is dominating. Source of recharge is meteoric water (rains and/or snow-melt). The dominant process of cooling is conduction at Tatta Pani, Tato, and Murtazabad. Shallow groundwater is mixing with the thermal springs in different proportions at Murtazabad, while there is no mixing in the thermal waters of Tatta Pani and Tato. The equilibrium temperature of the thermal end-member at Murtazabad is in the range of 185- 225 degree C and the isochemical-mixing model based on the Na-K and quartz geothermometers estimates 227 degree C temperature. O/sup 18/ (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geothermometer indicates equilibrium temperatures (before mixing) above I85 degree C. The dissolved silica vs. enthalpy plot suggests heat losses through conduction from the original temperature about 245 degree C. The reservoir temperatures of Tatta Pani (100-130 degree C) determined by the Na-K, K-Mg and quartz geothermometers are in good agreement. O/sup 18/ (SO

  5. Himalayan gneiss dome formation in the middle crust and exhumation by normal faulting: New geochronology of Gianbul dome, northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Forrest; Lee, Jeffrey; Hacker, Bradley; Bowman-Kamaha'o, Meilani; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A general lack of consensus about the origin of Himalayan gneiss domes hinders accurate thermomechanical modeling of the orogen. To test whether doming resulted from tectonic contraction (e.g., thrust duplex formation, antiformal bending above a thrust ramp, etc.), channel flow, or via the buoyant rise of anatectic melts, this study investigates the depth and timing of doming processes for Gianbul dome in the western Himalaya. The dome is composed of Greater Himalayan Sequence migmatite, Paleozoic orthogneiss, and metasedimentary rock cut by multiple generations of leucogranite dikes. These rocks record a major penetrative D2 deformational event characterized by a domed foliation and associated NE-SW–trending stretching lineation, and they are flanked by the top-down-to-the-SW (normal-sense) Khanjar shear zone and the top-down-to-the-NE (normal sense) Zanskar shear zone (the western equivalent of the South Tibetan detachment system). Monazite U/Th-Pb geochronology records (1) Paleozoic emplacement of the Kade orthogneiss and associated granite dikes; (2) prograde Barrovian metamorphism from 37 to 33 Ma; (3) doming driven by upper-crustal extension and positive buoyancy of decompression melts between 26 and 22 Ma; and (4) the injection of anatectic melts into the upper levels of the dome—neutralizing the effects of melt buoyancy and potentially adding strength to the host rock—by ca. 22.6 Ma on the southwestern flank and ca. 21 Ma on the northeastern flank. As shown by a northeastward decrease in 40Ar/39Ar muscovite dates from 22.4 to 20.2 Ma, ductile normal-sense displacement within the Zanskar shear zone ended by ca. 22 Ma, after which the Gianbul dome was exhumed as part of a rigid footwall block below the brittle Zanskar normal fault, tilting an estimated 5°–10°SW into its present orientation.

  6. Analyze the factors effecting the development of hydro power projects in hydro rich regions of India

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    Ameesh Kumar Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power is considered as the major back bone for all the nations throughout the world including India on the basis of which development of the country depends. If a country has the resources to generate the power at competitive price in that case the people of the country get the benefits in terms of improvement in their social and economical life. When we talk about India, various locations in the country where still there is no electricity people are living in dark without having the access of the modern technology. The total hydro power potential of India is 1, 50,000 MW out of this total hydro potential only 40,195 MW is exploited till 2014. More than 80% of the total hydro potential of the country is lying in the western Himalayan states (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Arunachal Pradesh. Small hydro projects are also playing a very important role in the modern world for the development of the remote areas which are not main grid connected specially in western Himalayan region of India. India has a total potential 19,749 MW of small hydro projects and of this total potential only 3990.9 MW harnessed till 2014. Ministry of new and renewable energy in India is also providing special incentives to hydro rich states of India. In this research article we are taken the case study of the small hydro projects in the western Himalayan region because theses states are having vast small hydro potential which is still needed to be harnessed. So, it is very important to identify the factors which are effecting the development of these small ventures especially in western Himalayan region in India.

  7. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  8. The great triangular seismic region in eastern Asia: Thoughts on its dynamic context

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    Xianglin Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge triangle-shaped tectonic region in eastern Asia plays host to numerous major earthquakes. The three boundaries of this region, which contains plateaus, mountains, and intermountain basins, are roughly the Himalayan arc, the Tianshan-Baikal, and longitude line ∼105°E. Within this triangular region, tectonism is intense and major deformation occurs both between crustal blocks and within most of them. Outside of this region, rigid blocks move as a whole with relatively few major earthquakes and relatively weak Cenozoic deformation. On a large tectonic scale, the presence of this broad region of intraplate deformation results from dynamic interactions between the Indian, Philippine Sea-West Pacific, and Eurasian plates, as well as the influence of deep-level mantle flow. The Indian subcontinent, which continues to move northwards at ∼40 mm/a since its collision with Eurasia, has plunged beneath Tibet, resulting in various movements and deformations along the Himalayan arc that diffuse over a long distance into the hinterland of Asia. The northward crustal escape of Asia from the Himalayan collisional zone turns eastwards and southeastwards along 95°–100°E longitude and defines the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. At the western Himalayan syntaxis, the Pamirs continue to move into central Asia, leading to crustal deformation and earthquakes that are largely accommodated by old EW or NW trending faults in the bordering areas between China, Mongolia, and Russia, and are restricted by the stable landmass northwest of the Tianshan-Altai-Baikal region. The subduction of the Philippine and Pacific plates under the Eurasian continent has generated a very long and narrow seismic zone along trenches and island arcs in the marginal seas while imposing only slight horizontal compression on the Asian continent that does not impede the eastward motion of eastern Asia. In the third dimension, there may be southeastward deep mantle flow beneath most of

  9. Mesozoic alkaline plutonism: Evidence for extensional phase in Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt in Central Alborz, north Iran

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    Roghieh Doroozi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kamarbon Jurassic alkaline basic intrusion crops out in Central Alborz, north Iran, along the northern margin of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The intrusion includes foid gabbros at the margins and foid monzodiorites towards the center. The foid monzodiorites are considered as the evolved melts after the fractional crystallization mostly of olivine and clinopyroxene from a foid gabbro parental magma. Based on mass balance calculation the evolution of the Kamarbon alkaline gabbro could be explained by 19.2% fractionation of clinopyroxene, 13.8% of olivine, 3% of plagioclase and 1.0% Ti-Magnetite, with 63% of residual liquid. REE inversion modeling indicates that the Kamarbon intrusion magma was generated by low degrees (<3% of partial melting from a garnet-bearing mantle source. In primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element diagrams, the Kamarbon rocks show enrichment in LILE elements (Ba, Rb, Sr and Th, HFSE elements (Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr and Hf and P and depletion in K, Y and HREE (Yb, Lu which are similar to patterns of HIMU-OIBs or intraplate alkaline magmas. According to the existence of extensional phases and occurrence of different rifting during late Triassic to middle Jurassic in Central Alborz, the formation of Kamarbon intrusion could be related to an intracontinental rifting.

  10. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

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    Garee Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  11. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, Fang; JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; JIN, Jie-Qiong; SUWANNAPOOM, Chatmongkon; LI, Cheng; Jens, V. VINDUM; Rafe, M. BROWN; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpine, Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpine form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis. PMID:26828029

  12. Nitrogen and carbon source-sink relationships in trees at the Himalayan treelines compared with lower elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mai-He; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Shi, Peili; Wang, San-Gen; Zhong, Yong-De; Liu, Xing-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Cai, Xiao-Hu; Shi, Zuo-Min

    2008-10-01

    No single hypothesis or theory has been widely accepted for explaining the functional mechanism of global alpine/arctic treeline formation. The present study tested whether the alpine treeline is determined by (1) the needle nitrogen content associated with photosynthesis (carbon gain); (2) a sufficient source-sink ratio of carbon; or (3) a sufficient C-N ratio. Nitrogen does not limit the growth and development of trees studied at the Himalayan treelines. Levels of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in trees were species-specific and site-dependent; therefore, the treeline cases studied did not show consistent evidence of source/carbon limitation or sink/growth limitation in treeline trees. However, results of the combined three treelines showed that the treeline trees may suffer from a winter carbon shortage. The source capacity and the sink capacity of a tree influence its tissue NSC concentrations and the carbon balance; therefore, we suggest that the persistence and development of treeline trees in a harsh alpine environment may require a minimum level of the total NSC concentration, a sufficiently high sugar:starch ratio, and a balanced carbon source-sink relationship.

  13. Digitizing information for wider reach through 'him-Padap-Sanklan', an e-inventory of Himalayan flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'him-Padap-Sankalan' is a digital directory of floral resources of Himachal Pradesh H.P., a biologically rich state of the Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot. It provides information on nomenclature, taxonomic classification, local name(s, trade name(s and uses of 3348 plant species along with maps showing their distribution in H.P. The information housed in 'Him-Padap-Sankalan' has been compiled from published sources, primarily the Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Analysis. The Graphic User Interface of the 'him-Padap-Sankalan' has been prepared using ASP.Net having MS-Access database in the back end. The 'scientific names', 'trade names', 'local names', 'synonyms', 'genus' and 'species' are the various search modules of 'him-Padap-Sankalan', which can be accessed using an internet browser connected through local area network. Analysis of information reveals that of the 201 families, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Scrophularariaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae and Apiaceae are the ten dominat families in the state. 24 families and 18 genera are common to all the 12 districts of H.P. The maximum number of families, genera and species are in Shimla district and the least in Bilaspur district of H.P.

  14. Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the Lower Cenozoic sediments, NW Himalayan foreland basin: Clues for exhumation and denudation of the Himalaya during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Lal, N.; Suelmani, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Singh, S.; Kumar, R.

    2007-12-01

    Detrital-zircon fission-track geochronology of the synorogenically-deposited Subathu-Dagshai-Kasauli-Lower Siwalik Formations of the Sub-Himalayan Lower Cenozoic foreland basin reflects progressive effects of the Himalayan tectonometamorphic events on the Proterozoic-Paleozoic source rock as a consequence of the India-Asia collision. The oldest transgressive marine Subathu Formation (57.0-41.5 Ma) contains a very dominant 302.4 ± 21.9 Ma old detrital zircon FT suite with a few determinable 520.0 Ma grains. This old suite was derived by mild erosion of the Zircon Partially Annealed Zone (ZPAZ) of 240-180 oC, which affected the Himalayan Proterozoic basement and its Tethyan sedimentary cover as a consequence of first imprint of the collision. In addition, 50.0 Ma old detrital zircons in this formation were derived possibly from the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone and the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith. Sudden source rock changes and unroofing are manifested in the overlying fluvial Dagshai (~30-20 Ma) and Kasauli (20-13 Ma) molassic sediments, which are characterised by dominant 30.0 and 25.0 Ma old youngest zircon FT peaks, respectively. A distinct unconformity spanning for about 10 Myr gets established between the Subathu-Dagshai formations on the basis of detrital- zircon FT ages. Molassic sedimentation since ~30 Ma coincides with the depletion of detritus from the suture zone, and the bulk derivation from the main Higher Himalayan source rock, which has undergone sequentially the UHP-HP-amphibolite facies metamorphism (53-40 Ma) in the extreme north and widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan tectonothermal events in the middle. Strength of the Pre-Himalayan Peaks (PHP) >50 Ma in these younger sediments gradually decreases with the intensification of the Himalayan thermal events till the end of the Kasauli sedimentation. Widespread Eo- and Neo-Himalayan metamorphic events (40.0-30.0 and 25.0-15.0 Ma) have almost remobilised the provenance and obliterated most of the

  15. Evolutionary history of enigmatic bears in the Tibetan Plateau–Himalaya region and the identity of the yeti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianying; Gill, Stephanie; Bellemain, Eva; Bischof, Richard; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Although anecdotally associated with local bears (Ursus arctos and U. thibetanus), the exact identity of ‘hominid’-like creatures important to folklore and mythology in the Tibetan Plateau–Himalaya region is still surrounded by mystery. Recently, two purported yeti samples from the Himalayas showed genetic affinity with an ancient polar bear, suggesting they may be from previously unrecognized, possibly hybrid, bear species, but this preliminary finding has been under question. We conducted a comprehensive genetic survey of field-collected and museum specimens to explore their identity and ultimately infer the evolutionary history of bears in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences determined clade affinities of the purported yeti samples in this study, strongly supporting the biological basis of the yeti legend to be local, extant bears. Complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled for Himalayan brown bear (U. a. isabellinus) and black bear (U. t. laniger) for the first time. Our results demonstrate that the Himalayan brown bear is one of the first-branching clades within the brown bear lineage, while Tibetan brown bears diverged much later. The estimated times of divergence of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan bear lineages overlap with Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciation events, suggesting that extant bears in the region are likely descendants of populations that survived in local refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:29187630

  16. Evolutionary history of enigmatic bears in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalaya region and the identity of the yeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianying; Gill, Stephanie; Bellemain, Eva; Bischof, Richard; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2017-12-13

    Although anecdotally associated with local bears ( Ursus arctos and U. thibetanus ), the exact identity of 'hominid'-like creatures important to folklore and mythology in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalaya region is still surrounded by mystery. Recently, two purported yeti samples from the Himalayas showed genetic affinity with an ancient polar bear, suggesting they may be from previously unrecognized, possibly hybrid, bear species, but this preliminary finding has been under question. We conducted a comprehensive genetic survey of field-collected and museum specimens to explore their identity and ultimately infer the evolutionary history of bears in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences determined clade affinities of the purported yeti samples in this study, strongly supporting the biological basis of the yeti legend to be local, extant bears. Complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled for Himalayan brown bear ( U. a. isabellinus ) and black bear ( U. t. laniger ) for the first time. Our results demonstrate that the Himalayan brown bear is one of the first-branching clades within the brown bear lineage, while Tibetan brown bears diverged much later. The estimated times of divergence of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan bear lineages overlap with Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciation events, suggesting that extant bears in the region are likely descendants of populations that survived in local refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Juan-Juan Xue; Stewart C. Sanderson; Peter W. Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for...

  18. Fine-resolution remote-sensing and modelling of Himalayan catchment sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quincey, D.J.; Luckman, A.; Hessel, R.; Davies, R.; Sankhayan, P.L.; Balla, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have reported on environmental degradation in the Nepal Himalaya as a result of large-scale deforestation and the associated agricultural extension. In contrast to many previous regional scale studies, we consider land cover and its environmental impact on an individual

  19. Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Kang, Shichang; Singh Mahata, Khadak; Naja, Manish; Zhang, Qianggong; Panday, Arnico Kumar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-09-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. We present here results from measurements of ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (PM, BC, CO, O3) in Lumbini, first of its kind for Lumbini, conducted during an intensive measurement period of 3 months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The main objective of this work is to understand and document the level of air pollution, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini. The hourly average concentrations during the entire measurement campaign ranged as follows: BC was 0.3-30.0 µg m-3, PM1 was 3.6-197.6 µg m-3, PM2. 5 was 6.1-272.2 µg m-3, PM10 was 10.5-604.0 µg m-3, O3 was 1.0-118.1 ppbv and CO was 125.0-1430.0 ppbv. These levels are comparable to other very heavily polluted sites in South Asia. Higher fraction of coarse-mode PM was found as compared to other nearby sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The ΔBC / ΔCO ratio obtained in Lumbini indicated considerable contributions of emissions from both residential and transportation sectors. The 24 h average PM2. 5 and PM10 concentrations exceeded the WHO guideline very frequently (94 and 85 % of the sampled period, respectively), which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. These air pollutants exhibited clear diurnal cycles with high values in the morning and evening. During the study period, the worst air pollution episodes were mainly due to agro-residue burning and regional forest fires combined with meteorological conditions conducive of

  20. Climatic modulation of seismicity in the Alpine-Himalayan mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Peresan, A.; Zuccolo, E.

    2009-04-01

    The influence of strain field variations associated with seasonal and longer term climatic phenomena on earthquake occurrence is investigated. Two regions (Himalaya and Alps), characterized by present day mountain building and relevant glaciers retreat, as well as by sufficiently long earthquake catalogues, are suitable for the analysis. Secular variations of permanent glaciers dimensions, which are naturally grossly correlated with long-term average surface atmosphere temperature changes, as well as seasonal snow load, cause crustal deformations that modulate seismicity. (author)

  1. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  2. What happens along the flank and corner of a continental indenter? Insights from the easternmost Himalayan orogen and constraints on the models of the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.; Zuza, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of continental collisions often focus on thrust belts oriented perpendicular to the plate-convergence direction and exclude belts that bound the flanks of a continental indenter despite being crucial to understanding the collisional process. Research of the Himalayan orogen, for example, has mostly centered on the east-trending thrust belt between the eastern and western syntaxes, resulting in inadequate examination of the north-trending Indo-Burma Ranges located along the eastern margin of India. To better understand the development of the entire Himalayan orogenic system, we conducted field mapping across the Northern Indo-Burma Range (NIBR), situated at the intersection of the eastern Himalaya and Indo-Burma Ranges. Our research shows that major lithologic units and thrust faults of the Himalaya extend to the NIBR, suggesting a shared geologic evolution. The structural framework of the NIBR consists of a southwest-directed thrust belt cored by a hinterland-dipping duplex, like the Himalaya. However, the Northern Indo-Burma orogen is distinct based on (1) the absence of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence and southern Gangdese batholith, (2) the absence of the South Tibetan detachment, (3) crustal shortening greater than 80%, (4) an incredibly narrow orogen width of 7-33 km, (5) exposure of an ophiolitic mélange complex as a klippe, (6) and right-slip shear along the active range-bounding thrust fault. Furthermore, lithospheric deformation along the flank and northeast corner of India is characterized by right-slip transpression partitioned between the thrust belt and right-slip faults. Such a regime is interpreted to accommodate both contraction and clockwise rotation of Tibetan lithosphere around India, consistent with existing continuum deformation and rotation models.

  3. Timing of initiation and fault rates of the Yushu-Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Replumaz, Anne; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Zhang, Yuan-Ze; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Wang, Guo-Can; Bernet, Matthias; van der Beek, Peter; Pan, Jiawei; Metois, Marianne; Li, Haibing

    2017-04-01

    In eastern Tibet, the left-lateral strike-slip Yushu-Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system (YXX-FS) is 1400 km long, veering from N100° to N175° broadly following a small circle whose pole is located in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Several competing models are proposed to explain the geological evolution of eastern Tibet, and in particular of the YXX-FS: fault following slip-lines in a plastic media, book-shelf fault in a large right-lateral shear zone, or fault bounding a lower channel flow veering around the syntaxis. In this contribution we document the timing of onset of the YXX-FS, its propagation through time, its rate at various time-scales; and discuss how these relate to the deformation models. The YXX-FS comprises four segments from east (Tibetan Plateau) to west (Yunnan): Yushu-Ganzi, Xianshuihe, Anninghe, and Zemuhe-Xiaojiang. It is one of the most tectonically active intra-continental fault system in China along which more than 20 M>6.5 earthquakes occurred since 1700. Slip-rates of 3.5 to 30 mm/yr along the YXX-FS have been suggested by matching geological offsets of 60-100 km with initiation ages of 2 to 17 Ma. Late Quaternary rates deduced from morphological offsets, InSAR, paleoseismology and GPS also show a large range: between 3 and 20 mm/yr. The timing of initiation of the Yushu-Ganzi segment has been constrained at 12.6±1 Ma and its total offset to 76 - 90 km (Wang et al., 2009) yielding a rate of 6.6+0.8-0.7 mm/yr. By measuring the offsets of moraine crests and fan edges across the fault using LiDAR and kinematic GPS, and dating their surfaces using 10Be, we determined slip-rates of 7+1.1-1.0 mm/yr, 3 - 11.2 mm/yr and 8.5+0.8-0.7 mm/yr at three different sites. This suggests a constant rate of 6-8 mm/yr along the fault segment since 13Ma. The timing of initiation of the Xianshuihe segment was thought to be prior to 12.8±1.4 Ma (Roger et al., 1995), but new field studies and geochronological ages suggest that the fault initiated later. Using

  4. Soil carbon stocks along an altitudinal gradient in different land-use categories in Lesser Himalayan foothills of Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, H.; Saeed, Y.; Abbasi, M. K.; Khaliq, A.

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration potential of soils plays an important role in mitigating the effect of climate change, because soils serve as sinks for atmospheric carbon. The present study was conducted to estimate the carbon stocks and their variation with altitudinal gradient in the Lesser Himalayan foothills of Kashmir. The carbon stocks were estimated in different land use categories, namely: closed canopy forests, open forests, disturbed forests, and agricultural lands within the altitudinal range from 900 to 2500 m. The soil carbon content was determined by the Walkley-Black titration method. The average soil carbon stock was found to be 2.59 kg m-2. The average soil carbon stocks in closed canopy forests, open forests, and disturbed forests were 3.39, 2.06, and 2.86 kg m-2, respectively. The average soil carbon stock in the agricultural soils was 2.03 kg m-2. The carbon stocks showed a significant decreasing trend with the altitudinal gradient with maximum values of 4.13 kg m-2 at 900-1200 m a.s.l. and minimum value of 1.55 kg m-2 at 2100-2400 m a.s.l. The agricultural soil showed the least carbon content values indicating negative impacts of soil plowing, overgrazing, and soil degradation. Lower carbon values at higher altitudes attest to the immature character of forest stands, as well as to degradation due to immense fuel wood extraction, timber extraction, and harsh climatic conditions. The study indicates that immediate attention is required for the conservation of rapidly declining carbon stocks in agricultural soils, as well as in the soils of higher altitudes.

  5. Malnutrition as a cause of mental retardation: A population-based study from Sub-Himalayan India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood. The research on childhood malnutrition and its relationship with cognitive functioning suggests that malnutrition alone does not cause mental retardation. Objective: To identify the relation between malnutrition and cognition among children from a Sub-Himalayan state in North India. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural, urban, and slum area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase, a door-to-door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for clinical examination to confirm mental retardation. Anthropometric assessment of all study children was done by measuring weight and height. The nutritional assessment was done by categorizing them according to Waterlow classification for malnutrition. Results: Out of the total 5300 children, 1.7% were diagnosed as mentally retarded. No positive association was reported with different types of malnutrition and mental retardation. A weakly positive association existed between nutritional status and mental retardation (correlation coefficient-0.04. Children who were both wasted and stunted had the highest risk (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval - 5.57, 2.29–10.36 of mental retardation as compared to normal. Conclusion: Malnutrition may be one of the causes but certainly not the only cause of mental retardation. Other causes may be contributing more significantly toward it.

  6. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Asam; Khalid, Perveiz; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Jouini, Mohammed Soufiane

    2014-10-01

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center.

  7. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2014-07-10

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  8. Radiation, Aerosol Joint Observation-Modeling Exploration over Glaciers in Himalayan Asia (RAJO-MEGHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    All major rivers that run through densely populated Asia (i.e., Yangtze, Yellow in China; Mekong in Southeast Asian peninsula; Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus in Indian subcontinent) originate in High Mountain Asia (HMA) and are fed by the seasonal melt of snowpack and glaciers. Although varying greatly in space and time, the overall snowpack/ glaciers in the HMA are losing mass and retreating at an accelerated rate (e.g., Kulkarni et al., 2007; Kehrwald et al., 2008), as revealed from recent observations. This situation poses an imminent danger to the water supply and environmental hazards (e.g., soil erosion, glacial-lake-outburst flood) not only to regional inhabitants, but also to the global ecosystem through feedback mechanisms. Comprehensive regional-to-global assimilation models, advancing in lockstep with the advent of satellite observations (e.g., MODIS-/CERES-like sensors) and complementary surface measurements (e.g., AERONET), are playing an ever-increasing role in developing mitigation strategies. However, the complex characteristics of HMA, such as its ragged terrain, atmospheric inhomogeneity, snow susceptibility, and ground-truth accessibility, introduces difficulties for the aforementioned research tools to retrieve/assess radiative forcing on snow/ice melting with a high degree of fidelity. In terms of quantifying radiative forcing, the key components are transport/evolution of light-absorbing aerosols (e.g., dust, black carbon) aloft, the surface solar/terrestrial irradiance budget, and snow reflectivity/absorptivity with/without impurities. The RAJO-MEGHA (Sanskrit for Dust-Cloud) project is an initiative on the integrated (aerosols, clouds, and precipitation) measurements in the vicinity of HMA (e.g., Indo-Gangetic Plain, Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau). We will discuss an array of ground-based (e.g., AERONET, MPLNET, SMARTLabs, etc.) and satellite (e.g., Terra, A-Train, etc.) sensors utilized to acquire aerosol characteristics, sources/sinks, and

  9. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Rongbuk Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  10. Contrasting Climate Change Impact on River Flow from Glacierised Catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W. W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers and glacierised catchments in mountainous regions react to a changing climate in different manners depending on climate and glacier characteristics. Despite the key role of mountain ranges as natural water towers, their hydrological balance and future changes in glacier runoff associated with climate warming remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility and the complex interplay between climate, cryosphere and hydrological processes. We use a state-of-the art glacio-hydrological model informed by data from high altitude observations and the latest CMIP5 climate change scenarios to quantify the climate change impact on glaciers and runoff for two contrasting catchments vulnerable to changes in the cryosphere. The two catchments are located in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Nepalese Himalaya in close vicinity of densely populated areas. Although both sites are projected to experience a strong decrease in glacier area, they show remarkably different hydrological responses. Icemelt is on a rising limb in Langtang at least until 2041-2050 and starts to decrease afterwards, while in Juncal icemelt was already beyond its tipping point at the beginning of the 21st century. This contrasting response can be explained by differences in the elevation distribution of the glaciers in the two regions. In Juncal, many glaciers are melting up to the highest elevations already during the reference period (2000-2010) and increasing melt rates due to higher air temperatures cannot compensate the loss of glacier area. In Langtang, large sections of the glaciers at high elevations are currently not exposed to melt, but will be in the future, thus compensating for the loss of glacier area at lower elevations. As a result of these changes and projected changes in precipitation, in Juncal runoff will sharply decrease in the future and the runoff seasonality is sensitive to projected climatic changes. In Langtang, future water

  11. Aspects of Hydrological Modelling In The Punjab Himalayan and Karakoram Ranges, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, A.; Khan, M. I.; Quick, M. C.

    Various aspects of hydrologic modelling of high mountainous basins in the Punjab Hi- malayan and Karakoram ranges of Northern Pakistan were studied. The runoff from three basins in this region was simulated using the U.B.C. watershed model, which re- quires limited meteorological data of minimum and maximum daily temperature and precipitation. The structure of the model is based on the concept that the hydrolog- ical behavior is a function of elevation and thus, a watershed is conceptualized as a number of elevational zones. A simplified energy budget approach, which is based on daily maximum and minimum temperature and can account for forested and open areas, and aspect and latitude, is used in the U.B.C. model for the estimation of the snowmelt and glacier melt. The studied basins have different hydrological responses and limited data. The runoff from the first basin, the Astore basin, is mainly gener- ated by snowmelt. In the second basin, the Kunhar basin, the runoff is generated by snowmelt but significant redistribution of snow, caused by snow avalanches, affect the runoff generation. The third basin, the Hunza basin, is a highly glacierized basin and its runoff is mainly generated by glacier melt. The application of the U.B.C. watershed model to these three basins showed that the model could estimate reasonably well the runoff generated by the different components.

  12. Insights into Himalayan biogeography from geckos: a molecular phylogeny of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ishan; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Karanth, K Praveen

    2014-11-01

    The India-Asia collision profoundly influenced the climate, topography and biodiversity of Asia, causing the formation of the biodiverse Himalayas. The species-rich gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is an ideal clade for exploring the biological impacts of the India-Asia collision, as previous phylogenetic hypotheses suggest basal divergences occurred within the Himalayas and Indo-Burma during the Eocene. To this end, we sampled for Cyrtodactylus across Indian areas of the Himalayas and Indo-Burma Hotspots and used three genes to reconstruct relationships and estimate divergence times. Basal divergences in Cyrtodactylus, Hemidactylus and the Palaearctic naked-toed geckos were simultaneous with or just preceded the start of the India-Asia collision. Diversification within Cyrtodactylus tracks the India-Asia collision and subsequent geological events. A number of geographically concordant clades are resolved within Indo-Burmese Cyrtodactylus. Our study reveals 17 divergent lineages that may represent undescribed species, underscoring the previously undocumented diversity of the region. The importance of rocky habitats for Cyrtodactylus indicates the Indo-Gangetic flood plains and the Garo-Rajmahal Gap are likely to have been important historical barriers for this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of geoinformatics and Markov chain model: A case study on sub-Himalayan town Gangtok, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Arun; Mukherjee, Sandip; Khatua, Dipam; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mitra, Debasish; Ghosh, Tuhin

    2014-08-01

    In the Himalayan states of India, with increasing population and activities, large areas of forested land are being converted into other land-use features. There is a definite cause and effect relationship between changing practice for development and changes in land use. So, an estimation of land use dynamics and a futuristic trend pattern is essential. A combination of geospatial and statistical techniques were applied to assess the present and future land use/land cover scenario of Gangtok, the subHimalayan capital of Sikkim. Multi-temporal satellite imageries of the Landsat series were used to map the changes in land use of Gangtok from 1990 to 2010. Only three major land use classes (built-up area and bare land, step cultivated area, and forest) were considered as the most dynamic land use practices of Gangtok. The conventional supervised classification, and spectral indices-based thresholding using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) were applied along with the accuracy assessments. Markov modelling was applied for prediction of land use/land cover change and was validated. SAVI provides the most accurate estimate, i.e., the difference between predicted and actual data is minimal. Finally, a combination of Markov modelling and SAVI was used to predict the probable land-use scenario in Gangtok in 2020 AD, which indicted that more forest areas will be converted for step cultivation by the year 2020.

  14. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  15. Predicting the Future Contribution of Himalayan Debris-covered Glaciers to River Discharge: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, D. J.; Hubbard, B. P.; Klaar, M. J.; Miles, E.; Miles, K.; Rowan, A. V.; King, O.; Watson, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The glaciers and snowfields of the Himalaya are the ultimate source for the many rivers that flow across the Asian subcontinent, but they are diminishing rapidly in the face of sustained climatic change. Predictions of how future river discharge may vary through space and time are hampered by two major knowledge gaps. First, simulations of glacier mass loss in high Asia are severely limited by data availability and assumptions made in the parameterisation of glacier models. Consequently, projections of glacier change vary widely; in Nepal for example, recent estimates of volumetric ice loss by AD2100 have ranged between 8% and 99%. A second major gap in knowledge lies in the coupling between glaciers and downstream areas, and specifically in quantifying the relative contributions of different sources to river flow. Although it is clear that ice and snow melt dominates flow for considerable distances downstream, how this contribution interacts with groundwater supplies with increasing distance from its source remains poorly understood. This presentation will review recent work that closes some of the knowledge gaps in understanding debris-covered glacier behaviour including new results from drilling work on the Khumbu Glacier in Nepal. Additionally, it will report on the outputs from an interdisciplinary study in the Annapurna region of Nepal, which is focussing specifically on disaggregating the relative contributions to flow using isotope-based hydrograph separations. It will finish by exploring the most likely drivers of future changes to water supply, including an evaluation of the impact of glacial lake development, and by identifying the main challenges for future related research.

  16. Cellulosic ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing by a novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from a Himalayan hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Mathur, Anshu S; Tuli, Deepak K; Gupta, Ravi P; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium as a suitable host for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been proposed as an economically suited platform for the production of second-generation biofuels. To recognize the overall objective of CBP, fermentation using co-culture of different cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting thermophilic anaerobic bacteria has been widely studied as an approach to achieving improved ethanol production. We assessed monoculture and co-culture fermentation of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium for ethanol production from real substrates under controlled conditions. In this study, Clostridium sp. DBT-IOC-C19, a cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the cellulolytic enrichment cultures obtained from a Himalayan hot spring. Strain DBT-IOC-C19 exhibited a broad substrate spectrum and presented single-step conversion of various cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates to ethanol, acetate, and lactate with ethanol being the major fermentation product. Additionally, the effect of varying cellulose concentrations on the fermentation performance of the strain was studied, indicating a maximum cellulose utilization ability of 10 g L -1 cellulose. Avicel degradation kinetics of the strain DBT-IOC-C19 displayed 94.6% degradation at 5 g L -1 and 82.74% degradation at 10 g L -1 avicel concentration within 96 h of fermentation. In a comparative study with Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313, the ethanol and total product concentrations were higher by the newly isolated strain on pretreated rice straw at an equivalent substrate loading. Three different co-culture combinations were used on various substrates that presented two-fold yield improvement than the monoculture during batch fermentation. This study demonstrated the direct fermentation ability of the novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria on various cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol without the aid of any exogenous enzymes

  17. The Great Himalayan Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Thapa, Manish

    The aim of this paper is to explore the rivalry between India and China and how it impacts Nepal in geo-strategic and geo-political terms both theoretically, conceptually and empirically. The foreign policy rivalry between India and China appears not only to influence investment and trade decisions...

  18. Chamera: A Himalayan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havercroft, P.E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The 540 MW Chamera hydroelectric project is located on the Ravi River in the foothills of the Himalayas 500 km north of Delhi. The Chamera Constructors Consortium is made up of a joint venture of SNC Inc., Acres International, Marine Industries Limited and General Electric Canada. The consortium provides engineering, procurement, and construction management services, and supplies turbines and gates, generators and associated electrical equipment. The experience of the consortium in dealing with the Indian Government is detailed. A multi-envelope bidding system was used, with the lowest cost, technically acceptable bid receiving the contract. Misunderstandings can arise due to different perceptions of the bidding process between Canadian companies and the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) of the Indian government, with NHPC taking a more formal approach in contractual dealings. Export paperwork was frequently in error leading to delays in passage of goods through Indian customs. With the liberalization of the Indian trade laws there is a potential for Canada to supply a significant quantity of equipment for India's planned 38,000 MW of hydroelectric expansion. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Ground-Penetrating Radar Investigations along Hajipur Fault: Himalayan Frontal Thrust—Attempt to Identify Near Subsurface Displacement, NW Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed N. Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area falls in the mesoseismal zone of 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw 7.8. To identify appropriate trenching site for paleoseismic investigation and to understand the faulting geometry, ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey was conducted across a Hajipur Fault (HF2 scarp, a branching out fault of Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT in a foot hill zone of NW Himalaya. Several 2D and 3D profiles were collected using 200 MHz antenna with SIR 3000 unit. A 2D GPR profile collected across the HF2 scarp revealed prominent hyperbolas and discontinuous-warped reflections, suggesting a metal pipe and a zone of deformation along a low-angle thrust fault, respectively. The 3D profile revealed remarkable variation in dip of the fault plane and pattern of deformation along the strike of the fault.

  20. Invasion establishment and habitat suitability of Chromolaena odorata (L. King and Robinson over time and space in the western Himalayan forests of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability assessment of the invasive species Chromolaena odorata (L. King and Robinson from Himalayan forests reveals some interesting findings and conclusions. At different study sites, 29 of 72 species were exotic and invasive and comprised 21 genera and eight families. Indigenous species accounted for 59% of the total species and comprised 26 genera and 11 families. Perennials outnumbered the annuals in all study sites. Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara L. were the only invasive species that were common to all sites with high importance value index values. The present work reveals that sites with high biotic pressure, maximum temperature variation, open forest canopy, and free from herbivory are the most suitable habitat for the growth of C. odorata. An elevated level of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, soil organic matter, and nitrogen and acidic soil in all invaded sites are possible reasons for further invasion of C. odorata.

  1. Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayedur Rahman Miah; Chowdhury Habibur Rasul; Ashoke Kumar Paul

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

  2. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  3. Diabetes Drug Prescription Pattern and Awareness Among Health Care Providers in Sub-Himalayan Region of India: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokta, Jatinder; Mokta, Kiran; Ranjan, Asha; Joshi, Ivan; Garg, Mahak

    2017-05-01

    To determine the pattern of diabetic drug prescription and awareness about diabetes among primary health providers in the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh situated in the western Himalayas at an elevation range from 350 meters (1,148ft) to 6900 meters (22,966ft) above sea level. Study was conducted in 20 rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, located 50 to 400 Km from state capital, at 2200 to 10,000 feet altitude. Non-pregnant diabetic adults were surveyed through 31 diabetic camps. Detailed history, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index recorded. Fasting or random blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile measured and blood pressure recorded. 894 diabetic patients were included in the study (59.83% male) with the mean age of 52.94±6.78 years. Two in three patients were on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), and one in three on alternative approaches for diabetes control. Among OHAs, sulphonylureas (SU) were the most commonly prescribed oral agents in 76.09% of patients followed by metformin in 23.87%. Glibenclamide was the most commonly prescribed SU in 44.60%. Amlodipine and atenolol was the commonest anti-hypertensive drug prescribed in 77.85% either in combination or as individual drug. Only 10.59% were on lipid lowering therapy. For primary care providers glycemic target was the mainstay of diabetes treatment with little emphasis on blood pressure control and no emphasis on lipid reduction. Sulphonylureas were the commonest anti-diabetic drug prescribed by the primary care providers followed by metformin. Insulin was prescribed to 2.23% only. Combination of amlodipine and atenolol was the commonest anti-hypertensive drugs prescribed and only 10% of patients were prescribed statin.

  4. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar, S. S.; Keshani,

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, sugg...

  5. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality.

  6. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound.

  7. Neotectonic inversion of the Hindu Kush-Pamir mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Hindu Kush-Pamir region of southern Asia is one of Earth's most rapidly deforming regions and it is poorly understood. This study develops a kinematic model based on active faulting in this part of the Trans-Himalayan orogenic belt. Previous studies have described north-verging thrust faults and some strike-slip faults, reflected in the northward-convex geomorphologic and structural grain of the Pamir Mountains. However, this structural analysis suggests that contemporary tectonics are changing the style of deformation from north-verging thrusts formed during the initial contraction of the Himalayan orogeny to south-verging thrusts and a series of northwest-trending, dextral strike-slip faults in the modern transpressional regime. These northwest-trending fault zones are linked to the major right-lateral Karakoram fault, located to the east, as synthetic, conjugate shears that form a right-stepping en echelon pattern. Northwest-trending lineaments with dextral displacements extend continuously westward across the Hindu Kush-Pamir region indicating a pattern of systematic shearing of multiple blocks to the northwest as the deformation effects from Indian plate collision expands to the north-northwest. Locally, east-northeast- and northwest-trending faults display sinistral and dextral displacement, respectively, yielding conjugate shear pairs developed in a northwest-southeast compressional stress field. Geodetic measurements and focal mechanisms from historical seismicity support these surficial, tectono-morphic observations. The conjugate shear pairs may be structurally linked subsidiary faults and co-seismically slip during single large magnitude (> M7) earthquakes that occur on major south-verging thrust faults. This kinematic model provides a potential context for prehistoric, historic, and future patterns of faulting and earthquakes.

  8. Constraining metamorphic rates through allanite and monazite petrochronology: a case study from the Miyar Valley (High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna

    2014-05-01

    Dating metamorphic rocks raises specific issues because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over millions or tens of millions of years so that metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". Therefore, an accurate interpretation of radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in LREE-accessory phases like monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages are collectively interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. As a consequence, to correctly interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is essential to accurately determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A meticulous account of the chemical and textural evolution of monazite and allanite along a well constrained prograde pelitic sequence of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (Miyar Valley; e.g. Robyr et al., 2002; 2006; 2014) reveals that: (1) the occurrence of the first metamorphic allanite coincides with the biotite-in isograd and (2) the formation of the first metamorphic monazite occurs at the staurolite-in isograd. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite porphyroblasts indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. Thermobarometry results show that the metamorphic allanites are appeared in the 400-420 °C, while the signature of the first metamorphic monazite is found at ~ 600 °C with staurolite-in isograd. Allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages thus constrain the timing when the rocks reached the ~ 420 °C and ~ 600 °C isotherms respectively. In situ LA-ICPMS dating of coexisting allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet

  9. An analysis of the daily precipitation variability in the Himalayan orogen using a statistical parameterisation and its potential in driving landscape evolution models with stochastic climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Eric; Braun, Jean

    2015-04-01

    A current challenge in landscape evolution modelling is to integrate realistic precipitation patterns and behaviour into longterm fluvial erosion models. The effect of precipitation on fluvial erosion can be subtle as well as nonlinear, implying that changes in climate (e.g. precipitation magnitude or storminess) may have unexpected outcomes in terms of erosion rates. For example Tucker and Bras (2000) show theoretically that changes in the variability of precipitation (storminess) alone can influence erosion rate across a landscape. To complicate the situation further, topography, ultimately driven by tectonic uplift but shaped by erosion, has a major influence on the distribution and style of precipitation. Therefore, in order to untangle the coupling between climate, erosion and tectonics in an actively uplifting orogen where fluvial erosion is dominant it is important to understand how the 'rain dial' used in a landscape evolution model (LEM) corresponds to real precipitation patterns. One issue with the parameterisation of rainfall for use in an LEM is the difference between the timescales for precipitation (≤ 1 year) and landscape evolution (> 103 years). As a result, precipitation patterns must be upscaled before being integrated into a model. The relevant question then becomes: What is the most appropriate measure of precipitation on a millennial timescale? Previous work (Tucker and Bras, 2000; Lague, 2005) has shown that precipitation can be properly upscaled by taking into account its variable nature, along with its average magnitude. This captures the relative size and frequency of extreme events, ensuring a more accurate characterisation of the integrated effects of precipitation on erosion over long periods of time. In light of this work, we present a statistical parameterisation that accurately models the mean and daily variability of ground based (APHRODITE) and remotely sensed (TRMM) precipitation data in the Himalayan orogen with only a few

  10. Linking bedrock exhumation, fluvial terraces, and geomorphic indices to constrain deformation rates at multiple timescales across the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no major emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study combines bedrock exhumation, folded fluvial terraces, long-river profiles and river incision (specific stream power) analyses across the deformation front. At the core of the frontal fold, Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages of detrital grains from the Siwalik foreland sediments indicate significant resetting. AHe data and thermal modeling reveal rapid cooling and exhumation initiated ca. 4 Ma for the deformation front, at least 3 Ma earlier than is indicated from previously available data. Exhumation rates over the last 1 m.y. and 4 m.y. range from 0.5 - 2.4 mm/yr, and 0.5 - 1 mm/yr, respectively. Four fluvial terraces yield multiple OSL and depth profiles Be10 TCN ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles, calculated specific stream power values, bedrock dip data, and stratigraphic thickness indicate a deformation pattern controlled by a duplex structure emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and foreland strata into a detachment-like fold. Dated terraces across the frontal fold yield rock uplift and shortening rates that range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr, and 3.8-5.4 mm/yr, respectively, since 53 ka. Similarly, a balanced cross section yields a long-term shortening rate of 5mm mm/yr since 4 Ma. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that shortening occurs roughly at an equal rate between folding at

  11. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches.

  12. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  13. Reduced hypoxic ventilatory response with preserved blood oxygenation in yoga trainees and Himalayan Buddhist monks at altitude: evidence of a different adaptive strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Passino, Claudio; Spadacini, Giammario; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Arcaini, Luca; Malcovati, Luca; Bandinelli, Gabriele; Schneider, Annette; Keyl, Cornelius; Feil, Paul; Greene, Richard E; Bernasconi, Carlo

    2007-03-01

    Yoga induces long-term changes in respiratory function and control. We tested whether it represents a successful strategy for high-altitude adaptation. We compared ventilatory, cardiovascular and hematological parameters in: 12 Caucasian yoga trainees and 12 control sea-level residents, at baseline and after 2-week exposure to high altitude (Pyramid Laboratory, Nepal, 5,050 m), 38 active lifestyle high-altitude natives (Sherpas) and 13 contemplative lifestyle high-altitude natives with practice of yoga-like respiratory exercises (Buddhist monks) studied at 5,050 m. At baseline, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), red blood cell count and hematocrit were lower in Caucasian yoga trainees than in controls. After 14 days at altitude, yoga trainees showed similar oxygen saturation, blood pressure, RR interval compared to controls, but lower HVR (-0.44 +/- 0.08 vs. -0.98 +/- 0.21 l/min/m/%SaO(2), P monks was lower than in Sherpas (-0.23 +/- 0.05 vs. -0.63 +/- 0.09 l/min/m/%SaO(2), P monks as compared to Sherpas. In conclusion, Caucasian subjects practicing yoga maintain a satisfactory oxygen transport at high altitude, with minimal increase in ventilation and with reduced hematological changes, resembling Himalayan natives. Respiratory adaptations induced by the practice of yoga may represent an efficient strategy to cope with altitude-induced hypoxia.

  14. Burial of thermally perturbed Lesser Himalayan mid-crust: Evidence from petrochemistry and P-T estimation of the western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna; Bhowmik, Santanu Kumar; Dasgupta, Somnath; Pant, Naresh Chandra

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we establish a dual prograde P-T path of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) rocks from the western Arunachal Himalaya (WAH). The investigated metagranites, garnet- and kyanite-zone metapelites of the LHS are part of an inverted metamorphic sequence (IMS) that is exposed on the footwall side of the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Integrated petrographic, mineral chemistry, geothermobarometric (conventional and isopleth intersection methods) and P-T pseudosection modeling studies reveal a near isobaric (at P ~ 8-9 kbar) peak Barrovian metamorphism with increase in TMax from ~ 560 °C in the metagranite through ~ 590-600 °C in the lower and middle garnet-zone to ~ 600-630 °C in the upper garnet- and kyanite-zone rocks. The metamorphic sequence of the LHS additionally records a pre-Barrovian near isobaric thermal gradient in the mid crust (at ~ 6 kbar) from ~ 515 °C (in the middle garnet zone) to ~ 560-580 °C (in the upper garnet- and kyanite zone, adjoining the Main Central Thrust). Further burial (along steep dP/dT gradient) to a uniform depth corresponding to ~ 8-9 kbar and prograde heating of the differentially heated LHS rocks led to the formation of near isobaric metamorphic field gradient in the Barrovian metamorphic zones of the WAH. A combined critical taper and channel flow model is presented to explain the inverted metamorphic zonation of the rocks of the WAH.

  15. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Douglas I.; Thompson, Sarah; Gulley, Jason; Mertes, Jordan; Luckman, Adrian; Nicholson, Lindsey

    2017-09-01

    We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1) a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2) supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3) sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4) perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5) englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6) a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake) dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  16. Geomorphic effectiveness of a long profile shape and the role of inherent geological controls in the Himalayan hinterland area of the Ganga River basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam; Jain, Vikrant

    2018-03-01

    Long profiles of rivers provide a platform to analyse interaction between geological and geomorphic processes operating at different time scales. Identification of an appropriate model for river long profile becomes important in order to establish a quantitative relationship between the profile shape, its geomorphic effectiveness, and inherent geological characteristics. This work highlights the variability in the long profile shape of the Ganga River and its major tributaries, its impact on stream power distribution pattern, and role of the geological controls on it. Long profile shapes are represented by the sum of two exponential functions through the curve fitting method. We have shown that coefficients of river long profile equations are governed by the geological characteristics of subbasins. These equations further define the spatial distribution pattern of stream power and help to understand stream power variability in different geological terrains. Spatial distribution of stream power in different geological terrains successfully explains spatial variability in geomorphic processes within the Himalayan hinterland area. In general, the stream power peaks of larger rivers lie in the Higher Himalaya, and rivers in the eastern hinterland area are characterised by the highest magnitude of stream power.

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coda (c) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec ...

  18. Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rupakheti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. We present here results from measurements of ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (PM, BC, CO, O3 in Lumbini, first of its kind for Lumbini, conducted during an intensive measurement period of 3 months (April–June 2013 in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley – Atmospheric Brown Clouds. The main objective of this work is to understand and document the level of air pollution, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini. The hourly average concentrations during the entire measurement campaign ranged as follows: BC was 0.3–30.0 µg m−3, PM1 was 3.6–197.6 µg m−3, PM2. 5 was 6.1–272.2 µg m−3, PM10 was 10.5–604.0 µg m−3, O3 was 1.0–118.1 ppbv and CO was 125.0–1430.0 ppbv. These levels are comparable to other very heavily polluted sites in South Asia. Higher fraction of coarse-mode PM was found as compared to other nearby sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The ΔBC ∕ ΔCO ratio obtained in Lumbini indicated considerable contributions of emissions from both residential and transportation sectors. The 24 h average PM2. 5 and PM10 concentrations exceeded the WHO guideline very frequently (94 and 85 % of the sampled period, respectively, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. These air pollutants exhibited clear diurnal cycles with high values in the morning and evening. During the study period, the worst air pollution episodes were mainly due to agro-residue burning and

  19. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  20. Structural diversity, its components and regenerating capacity of lesser Himalayan forests vegetation of Nikyal valley District Kotli (A.K), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Arshad, Muhammad; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-09-01

    To report the patterns of species diversity, and regenerating capacity in the forest of Nikyal valley in relation to environmental variables and underlying anthropogenic influence. A study area was selected in a traditionally managed mountain woody pasture during July 2012 to June 2013. The area was sampled by quadrat method. The quadrats were laid down at regular intervals of 150 m. The size of quadrats was kept 10×10, 5×5 and 1×1 m(2) for trees, shrubs and herbs respectively. Density, frequency and cover were recorded. Importance value index of each plant species was calculated and plant communities were named after the plant species having the highest IV. Then diversity, its components and regenerating capacity were calculated with their formulas. Shannon's diversity ranged from 2.75 to 3.31, Simpson's diversity, 0.90 to 0.95; Menhinick's diversity, 0.83 to 1.19; evenness, 0.41 to 0.65; species richness, 4.89 to 6.08 and maturity index, 30 to 44 species distribution pattern. Diversity values were similar to the other Himalayan forests. Pinus roxburghaii was the only regenerating species whereas the remaining four tree species including Qurecus dilatata regenerate up to 100 cm; they are at extreme risk of elimination due to anthropogenic factors. Nikyal valley is under severe deforestation pressure for fuel and timber value. There is an urgent need to promote the ethics among the people that improvement and conservation of natural resources are critical for land and soil management. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea.

  2. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  3. Language and Language-in-Education Planning in Multilingual India: A Minoritized Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…

  4. Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects over Manora Peak in the Himalayan foothills: seasonal variability and role of transported aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Ram, K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kumar, Sanjeev; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The higher altitude regions of Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau are influenced by the dust and black carbon (BC) aerosols from the emissions and long-range transport from the adjoining areas. In this study, we present impacts of advection of polluted air masses of natural and anthropogenic emissions, on aerosol optical and radiative properties at Manora Peak (∼ 2000 m amsl) in central Himalaya over a period of more than two years (February 2006–May 2008). We used the most updated and comprehensive data of chemical and optical properties available in one of the most climatically sensitive region, the Himalaya, to estimate atmospheric radiative forcing and heating rate. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to vary from 0.04 to 0.45 with significantly higher values in summer mainly due to an increase in mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols due to transport. In contrast, single scattering albedo (SSA) varied from 0.74 to 0.88 with relatively lower values during summer, suggesting an increase in absorbing BC and mineral dust aerosols. As a result, a large positive atmospheric radiative forcing (about 28 ± 5 Wm −2 ) and high values of corresponding heating rate (0.80 ± 0.14 Kday −1 ) has been found during summer. During the entire observation period, radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere varied from − 2 to + 14 Wm −2 and from − 3 to − 50 Wm −2 at the surface whereas atmospheric forcing was in the range of 3 to 65 Wm −2 resulting in a heating rate of 0.1–1.8 Kday −1 . - Highlights: • Aerosol chemical and optical properties at Manora Peak, in central Himalaya, were significantly affected by dust and black carbon (BC) aerosols from the emissions and long-range transport from the adjoining areas. • Elevated AOD and lower SSA values were observed at Manora Peak during summer. • Enhancement in absorbing aerosols was observed during summer. • Large aerosol radiative forcing and heating rate was observed over the station in the

  5. Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects over Manora Peak in the Himalayan foothills: seasonal variability and role of transported aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (Branch), Prof Ramnath Vij Marg, New Delhi (India); Ram, K. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Singh, Sachchidanand, E-mail: ssingh@nplindia.org [Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Sanjeev [Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (Branch), Prof Ramnath Vij Marg, New Delhi (India)

    2015-01-01

    The higher altitude regions of Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau are influenced by the dust and black carbon (BC) aerosols from the emissions and long-range transport from the adjoining areas. In this study, we present impacts of advection of polluted air masses of natural and anthropogenic emissions, on aerosol optical and radiative properties at Manora Peak (∼ 2000 m amsl) in central Himalaya over a period of more than two years (February 2006–May 2008). We used the most updated and comprehensive data of chemical and optical properties available in one of the most climatically sensitive region, the Himalaya, to estimate atmospheric radiative forcing and heating rate. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to vary from 0.04 to 0.45 with significantly higher values in summer mainly due to an increase in mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols due to transport. In contrast, single scattering albedo (SSA) varied from 0.74 to 0.88 with relatively lower values during summer, suggesting an increase in absorbing BC and mineral dust aerosols. As a result, a large positive atmospheric radiative forcing (about 28 ± 5 Wm{sup −2}) and high values of corresponding heating rate (0.80 ± 0.14 Kday{sup −1}) has been found during summer. During the entire observation period, radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere varied from − 2 to + 14 Wm{sup −2} and from − 3 to − 50 Wm{sup −2} at the surface whereas atmospheric forcing was in the range of 3 to 65 Wm{sup −2} resulting in a heating rate of 0.1–1.8 Kday{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Aerosol chemical and optical properties at Manora Peak, in central Himalaya, were significantly affected by dust and black carbon (BC) aerosols from the emissions and long-range transport from the adjoining areas. • Elevated AOD and lower SSA values were observed at Manora Peak during summer. • Enhancement in absorbing aerosols was observed during summer. • Large aerosol radiative forcing and heating rate was observed

  6. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  7. A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Murton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This photo essay illustrates and contrasts the infrastructure and operations of three international border posts between China and Nepal. Located at Zhangmu-Kodari, Kyirong-Rasuwa, and Likse-Neychung borders, these posts function as the only motorable China-Nepal border crossings and represent half of the six official, open borders recognized by Kathmandu and Beijing. In addition to China’s new position as Nepal’s number-one source of foreign direct investment, bilateral trade, humanitarian aid, and tourism traffic between the two countries continue to expand annually. As infrastructure development facilitates new political-economic dynamics between China and Nepal, these three border posts are becoming increasingly potent symbols of ongoing evolutions in Sino-Nepal relations. Because each crossing is also located at Nepal’s border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, each site exhibits a complex politics of identity, citizenship, and mobility with respect to the movement and control of local traders, Tibetan exiles, the Nepali Army, and the Chinese State Police, among other actors.

  8. Conceptual Structures of Copulas and Locative-Existential Verbs in Tibetan and Himalayan Languages%藏语与喜马拉雅语言中存在类动词的概念结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成龙

    2014-01-01

    文章从认知语言学、语言人类学和认知心理学的角度讨论藏语的系词(yin 与 red)“是”和处所/存在动词(yod、dug、yog.red)“在、有”的功能分布,并且与喜马拉雅语言的存在类动词进行了比较。通过亲属语言之间跨语言的比较,了解存在类动词之间概念的关联性。探索存在类动词在这些语言中概念结构的相似性和差异性。%In this paper,we describe and analyze functional distribution of copulas yin,red and locative-existential verbs yod,dug,yog.red in varieties of Tibetan,in the meantime,we compare Tibetan copulas and locative-existential verbs with those of Himalayan languages.We finally provide similarities and differences of conceptual structures of copulas and locative-existential verbs between Tibetan and Himalayan languages in terms of cognitive linguistics,linguistic anthropology and cogni-tive psychology.

  9. Current Status of the Systematics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae with Special Reference to the Himalayan Species in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus is considered one of the most diverse genera in the family Leguminosae (nom. alt. Fabaceae. Although a large number of works have been carried out on the genus, no monograph is available except some regional accounts and revisions chiefly at sectional level. It may be due to the sheer size of the genus (ca. 3000 spp. and diverse nature, the genus is quite variable in habit and habitats, size of the plants, nature of indumentums, stipules, leaf rachis, types of inflorescence, relative length of petals, pods etc. Usually, genus is divided into eight to ten subgenera and more than 245 sections. In recently conducted molecular phylogenetic studies it has been shown that none of the subgenera and large sections are monophyletic. However, it has been clearly demonstrated that Astragalus is monophyletic except some outlier species. The chromosome numbers are also quite interesting and significant in Astragalus for its phylogenetic studies. There is a strong correlation between its geographic distribution and chromosome numbers. Currently about 80 species have been recorded from India chiefly from the Himalayas. Except some of our recent publications, not much studies have been carried out on the genus in India after 'The Flora of British India'. Astragalus is not of much economic importance, however, some of its species are well known for commercial gum tragacanth production especially in Iran and China. In India, A. candolleanus is a well known drug as ‘Rudanti’ or ‘Rudravanti’used for tuberculosis, skin diseases, coughs and blood purifier. The aim of this article is to review the entire work carried out on Astragalus and to bring out scattered information at one place for better understanding of the subject and to find out the future prospective of the research in India on the genus.

  10. MEDEX2015: Greater Sea-Level Fitness Is Associated with Lower Sense of Effort During Himalayan Trekking Without Worse Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Gabriella M K; Macdonald, Jamie H; Smith, Matthew; Jackson, Anna R; Callender, Nigel; Newcombe, Hannah K; Storey, Heather M; Willis, Sebastian; van den Beukel, Jojanneke; Woodward, Jonathan; Pollard, James; Wood, Benjamin; Newton, Victoria; Virian, Jana; Haswell, Owen; Oliver, Samuel J

    2017-06-01

    Rossetti, Gabriella M.K., Jamie H. Macdonald, Matthew Smith, Anna R. Jackson, Nigel Callender, Hannah K. Newcombe, Heather M. Storey, Sebastian Willis, Jojanneke van den Beukel, Jonathan Woodward, James Pollard, Benjamin Wood, Victoria Newton, Jana Virian, Owen Haswell, and Samuel J. Oliver. MEDEX2015: Greater sea-level fitness is associated with lower sense of effort during Himalayan trekking without worse acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18:152-162, 2017.-This study examined the complex relationships of fitness and hypoxic sensitivity with submaximal exercise responses and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at altitude. Determining these relationships is necessary before fitness or hypoxic sensitivity tests can be recommended to appraise individuals' readiness for altitude. Forty-four trekkers (26 men; 18 women; 20-67 years) completed a loaded walking test and a fitness questionnaire in normoxia to measure and estimate sea-level maximal aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]O 2max ]), respectively. Participants also completed a hypoxic exercise test to determine hypoxic sensitivity (cardiac, ventilatory, and arterial oxygen saturation responses to acute hypoxia, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] = 0.112). One month later, all participants completed a 3-week trek to 5085 m with the same ascent profile. On ascent to 5085 m, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE ascent ), fatigue by Brunel Mood Scale, and AMS were recorded daily. At 5085 m, RPE during a fixed workload step test (RPE fixed ) and step rate during perceptually regulated exercise (STEP RPE35 ) were recorded. Greater sea-level [Formula: see text]O 2max was associated with, and predicted, lower sense of effort (RPE ascent ; r = -0.43; p sea-level fitness reported less effort during simulated and actual trekking activities, had better mood (less fatigue), and chose a higher step rate during perceptually regulated exercise, but did not suffer from worse AMS

  11. High-pressure anatectic paragneisses from the Namche Barwa, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Textural evidence for partial melting, phase equilibria modeling and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, C.; Indares, A.; Hébert, R.

    2011-05-01

    Rare kyanite-bearing anatectic paragneisses are found as boudins within sillimanite-bearing paragneisses of the core of the Namche Barwa Antiform, Tibet. In the present study, we document an occurrence from the NW side of the Yarlung Zangbo River. These rocks mainly consist of the assemblage garnet + K-feldspar + kyanite ± biotite + quartz + rutile ± plagioclase with kyanite locally pseudomorphed by sillimanite. The documented textures are consistent with the rocks having undergone biotite-dehydration melting in the kyanite stability field, under high-P granulite facies conditions, and having experienced melt extraction. However textures related to melt crystallization are ubiquitous both in polymineralic inclusions in garnet and in the matrix, suggesting that a melt fraction had remained in these rocks. Phase equilibria modelling was undertaken in the NCKFMASTHO system with THERMOCALC. P-T pseudosections built with the bulk compositions of one aluminous and one sub-aluminous paragneiss samples predict a biotite-kyanite-garnet-quartz-plagioclase-K-feldspar-liquid-rutile ± ilmenite field, in which biotite-dehydration melting occurs, located in the P-T range of ~ 800-875 °C and ~ 10-17 kbar. In addition, the topologies of these pseudosections are consistent with substantial melt loss during prograde metamorphism. A second set of P-T pseudosections with melt-reintegrated model bulk compositions were thus constructed to evaluate the effect of melt loss. The integration of textural information, precise mineral modes, mineral chemistry, and phase equilibria modelling allowed to constrain a P-T path where the rocks are buried to lower crustal depths at peak P-T conditions higher than 14 kbar and 825 °C, possibly in the order of 15-16 kbar and 850 °C, followed by decompression and cooling to P-T conditions of around 9 kbar and 810 °C, under which the remaining melt was solidified. The implications for granite production at the NBA and for Himalayan tectonic models

  12. Time-scales of erosion and weathering processes in the Himalayan river system: Element and isotope approach using the U-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granet, M.

    2007-06-01

    The time-scales of erosion and weathering processes are key parameters which need to be determined to understand the response of the reliefs to external forcing like tectonics, climate and human activities. They were recovered by using U-series nuclides analyzed in sediments and suspended materials carried by the Himalayan rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. In the Ganges basin, the time-scales of weathering determined from the study of coarse sediments carried by the Kali Gandaki range from several ky, where the uplift is located, to 350 ky. Such values indicate that the bed-rocks are in situ weathered for a long period before the weathering residual products get transported in the rivers as coarse sediments. At the outlet of the high range, these sediments are carried by the tributaries of the Ganges, the Gandak and Ghaghara, during a transfer period of about 100 ka. The study of the sediments at the outlet of the Brahmaputra tributaries allows to propose time-scales of weathering ranging from 110 to 270 ky. Such long periods confirm that during their transfer in the plains, the sediments are temporarily trapped at several places in the basins. In the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the time-scales of sedimentary transfer are 575 and 160 ky, respectively. These values, which are of the same order as their response times, are much longer than the timescales of the Quaternary climate oscillations. It confirms the buffering action of the asiatic alluvial plains for the high-frequency sediment flux variations in response to external forcing in the chain. The study of suspended materials suggests that their chemical compositions result from the mixing of coarse river sediments with fine particles from various locations in the basin which are affected by vegetation recycling. By contrast to coarse sediments, the time-scales of transfer for the suspended materials are fast, e.g. a few ky, pointing the potential of U-series nuclides to assess particle transport

  13. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  14. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  15. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  16. Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the South Asian Monsoon Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virts, Katrina S.; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal and intraseasonal differences in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over South Asia are examined using A-Train satellites, a ground-based lightning network, and reanalysis fields. Pre-monsoon (April-May) MCSs occur primarily over Bangladesh and the eastern Bay of Bengal. During the monsoon (June-September), small MCSs occur over the Meghalaya Plateau and northeast Himalayan notch, while large and connected MCSs are most widespread over the Bay of Bengal. Monsoon MCSs produce less lightning and exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil reflectivity structures in CloudSat observations than do pre-monsoon MCSs. During the monsoon season, Bay of Bengal and Meghalaya Plateau MCSs vary with the 30-60 day northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation, while northeast Himalayan notch MCSs are associated with weak large-scale anomalies but locally enhanced CAPE. During intraseasonal active periods, a zone of enhanced large and connected MCSs, precipitation, and lightning extends from the northeastern Arabian Sea southeast over India and the Bay of Bengal, flanked by suppressed anomalies. Spatial variability is observed within this enhancement zone: lightning is most enhanced where MCSs are less enhanced, and vice versa. Reanalysis composites indicate that Bay of Bengal MCSs are associated with monsoon depressions, which are frequent during active monsoon periods, while Meghalaya Plateau MCSs are most frequent at the end of break periods, as anomalous southwesterly winds strengthen moist advection toward the terrain. Over both regions, MCSs exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil regions and less lightning when the large-scale environment is moister, and vice versa.

  17. What can the Cretaceous-to-present latitude history of the Lhasa terrane tell us about plate-scale deformation in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Huang, W.

    2013-12-01

    collision of the Tibetan Himalayan microcontinent can account for the large amount of post-50 Ma convergence that is partitioned into Greater India. We suggest that Cordilleran-style tectonics were more important in constructing the Tibetan Plateau than previous thought, wherein substantial crustal thickening of the plateau occurred at subtropical latitudes above an oceanic subduction zone in the absence of a continent-continent collision, sensu stricto. Although our Lhasa APWP is constructed from only a handful paleomagnetic studies, these data were processed in a framework consistent with an empirical and modeling-based understanding of geomagnetic field behavior and detrital magnetization processes. By contrast, the majority of volcanic-based paleomagnetic poles used in recent reviews of paleomagnetic data from Asia do not average paleosecular variation and therefore cannot be used ';as-is' or used as a baseline against which to compare detrital paleomagnetic records.

  18. Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the surficial sediments of the fresh water Naini Lake, Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Hashimi, N.H.

    mineralogy show that the surface sediments of these two sub-basins differ slightly. The general distribution of most of the analysed elements is higher in the Mallital (NW) sub-basin as compared to the Tallital (SE) sub-basin, the exception being total C, Ca...

  20. Bathymetric study of the Neotectonic Naini Lake in outer Kumaun Himalaya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Pathak, M.C; Jauhari, P.; Nair, R.R.; Sharma, A.K.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Bisht, M.K.S.; Valdiya, K.S.

    The Naini Lake is a product of rotational movement on a NW-SE trending Nainital Fault, quite after the establishment of the drainage of a mature stream named Balia Nala. Detailed bathymetric study, permits division of this crescent-shaped lake...

  1. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  2. Earthquakes of Garhwal Himalaya region of NW Himalaya, India: A study of relocated earthquakes and their seismogenic source and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, A. P.; Paul, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the continent-continent collision 55 Ma, the Himalaya has accommodated 2000 km of convergence along its arc. The strain energy is being accumulated at a rate of 37-44 mm/yr and releases at time as earthquakes. The Garhwal Himalaya is located at the western side of a Seismic Gap, where a great earthquake is overdue atleast since 200 years. This seismic gap (Central Seismic Gap: CSG) with 52% probability for a future great earthquake is located between the rupture zones of two significant/great earthquakes, viz. the 1905 Kangra earthquake of M 7.8 and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake of M 8.0; and the most recent one, the 2015 Gorkha earthquake of M 7.8 is in the eastern side of this seismic gap (CSG). The Garhwal Himalaya is one of the ideal locations of the Himalaya where all the major Himalayan structures and the Himalayan Seimsicity Belt (HSB) can ably be described and studied. In the present study, we are presenting the spatio-temporal analysis of the relocated local micro-moderate earthquakes, recorded by a seismicity monitoring network, which is operational since, 2007. The earthquake locations are relocated using the HypoDD (double difference hypocenter method for earthquake relocations) program. The dataset from July, 2007- September, 2015 have been used in this study to estimate their spatio-temporal relationships, moment tensor (MT) solutions for the earthquakes of M>3.0, stress tensors and their interactions. We have also used the composite focal mechanism solutions for small earthquakes. The majority of the MT solutions show thrust type mechanism and located near the mid-crustal-ramp (MCR) structure of the detachment surface at 8-15 km depth beneath the outer lesser Himalaya and higher Himalaya regions. The prevailing stress has been identified to be compressional towards NNE-SSW, which is the direction of relative plate motion between the India and Eurasia continental plates. The low friction coefficient estimated along with the stress inversions

  3. First record of three species of soil nematodes of the suborder Cephalobina from Ladakh region, Jammu & Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rizvi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports three species of soil nematodes of the suborder Cephalobina collected from Ladakh region of the Jammu & Kashmir State, India. Two species, Cervidellus vexilliger (de Man, 1880 Thorne, 1937 and Chiloplacus demani (Thorne, 1925 Thorne, 1937 are reported for the first time from India, while, Acrobeloides nanus (de Man, 1880 Anderson 1968 is a first record from Ladakh. The species dealt with here have been adequately described and photomicrographed, with additional notes provided on variations encountered in measurements. The occurrence of these species from trans-Himalayan zone conforms with the zoogeographical pattern of distribution of the invertebrate fauna of the zone which harbours both Palaearctic and Oriental elements.

  4. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  5. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  6. Structure and evolution of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier, and its relationship with patterns of mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Benn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first synoptic view of the drainage system of a Himalayan debris-covered glacier and its evolution through time, based on speleological exploration and satellite image analysis of Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. The drainage system has several linked components: (1 a seasonal subglacial drainage system below the upper ablation zone; (2 supraglacial channels, allowing efficient meltwater transport across parts of the upper ablation zone; (3 sub-marginal channels, allowing long-distance transport of meltwater; (4 perched ponds, which intermittently store meltwater prior to evacuation via the englacial drainage system; (5 englacial cut-and-closure conduits, which may undergo repeated cycles of abandonment and reactivation; and (6 a "base-level" lake system (Spillway Lake dammed behind the terminal moraine. The distribution and relative importance of these elements has evolved through time, in response to sustained negative mass balance. The area occupied by perched ponds has expanded upglacier at the expense of supraglacial channels, and Spillway Lake has grown as more of the glacier surface ablates to base level. Subsurface processes play a governing role in creating, maintaining, and shutting down exposures of ice at the glacier surface, with a major impact on spatial patterns and rates of surface mass loss. Comparison of our results with observations on other glaciers indicate that englacial drainage systems play a key role in the response of debris-covered glaciers to sustained periods of negative mass balance.

  7. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  8. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  9. Increasing aridity threats to Himalayan alpine ecosystems? A millenial history of hydroclimate from the Tibetan plateau derived from a δ18O tree-ring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessinger, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Tibetan plateau (TP) plays an important role as an elevated heat source responsible for the establishment of the Asias monsoonal systems. Besides the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), also the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is triggering the regional precipitation regimes during the vegetation period from May to September. Within recent decades, fundamental climate changes on the southeastern part of the TP were detected leading to substantial changes within the regional hydrological budget and affecting local ecosystems. By using a spatial network of multicentennial to 1.5 millenial year old tree-ring δ18O time-series from the southeastern part of the TP, the regional climate history as well as the late Holocene monsoonal variability will be presented. Since the main climatically sensitive periods like the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age are displayed in all chronologies, their typical hydroclimatological characteristics and impacts will be discussed especially in regard to the recent warming trend on the TP and the responsible climatic triggers. Arising from these results, regional impacts and differences of the proposed hydrological changes will be discussed. In addition, first results of a comparison between proxy-based (δ18O) and model-based (re-analysis datasets) trajectory calculations will be presented, trying to give insights in the origin and impact of air masses for the most striking last three decades on the southeastern part of the TP.

  10. Segmentation and rejuvenation of the Greater Himalayan sequence in western Nepal revealed by in situ U-Th/Pb monazite petrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Zoe; Godin, Laurent; Cottle, John M.

    2017-07-01

    In the western Nepal Himalaya, a major mountain building shear zone, the Main Central thrust, is exposed in multiple locations along its southward transport direction. The hanging wall of the Main Central thrust was sampled in both hinterland and foreland exposures, in the upper Karnali valley and around Jumla, respectively. In situ U-Th/Pb monazite petrochronology coupled with microstructural and petrographic observations reveals distinctly different timing of deformation, despite the geographic proximity and apparent structural continuity between the two regions. The Y content, the Gd to Yb ratio and the Eu anomaly in monazite constrain the timing of metamorphic reactions. Rocks in the upper Karnali valley record deformation associated with metamorphism at 18 Ma, melt crystallization starting at ca. 14 Ma and lasting until at least 11-10 Ma. In contrast, the Jumla region records a more protracted series of events with metamorphism initiating as early as 47 Ma and lasting until 18 Ma, punctuated by at least two periods of melt crystallization. In both areas, the age of melt crystallization decreases down section through the hanging wall towards the Main Central thrust. Ductile deformation in the Jumla region ceased around ca. 18 Ma, while rocks at similar structural positions in the hinterland in upper Karnali valley were still being actively deformed and melting at ca. 11 Ma. The southern, foreland-most, hanging-wall rocks (Jumla region) were consequently exhumed above the ductile-brittle transition while the northern hinterland-most hanging-wall rocks (upper Karnali valley) were still undergoing ductile deformation and partial melting.

  11. Indigenous perspectives on depression in rural regions of India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Pepper, Carolyn M; Maack, Danielle J; Birgenheir, Denis G

    2011-11-01

    Depression is a major health concern in India, yet indigenous Indian perspectives on depression have often been disregarded in favor of Western conceptualizations. The present study used quantitative and qualitative measures modeled on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to elicit beliefs about the symptoms, causes, treatments, and stigma associated with depression. Data were collected from 92 students at a university in the Himalayan region of Northern India and from 97 students at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. U.S. participants in this study were included primarily to approximate a "Western baseline" (in which professional conceptions of depression are predominantly rooted) from which to elucidate Indian perspectives. Compared to U.S. participants, Indian participants were more likely to view restive symptoms (e.g., irritation, anxiety, difficulty thinking) as common features of depression, to view depression as the result of personally controllable causes (e.g., failure), to endorse social support and spiritual reflection or relaxation (e.g., yoga, meditation) as useful means for dealing with depression, and to associate stigma with depression. Efforts aimed at reducing depression among Indians should focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as yoga, meditation, and increasing social support.

  12. Survey of ferns and clinico-pathological studies on the field cases of Enzootic bovine haematuria in Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sarvesh K.; Sharma, Rinku; Kumari, Alka

    2017-01-01

    Enzootic bovine haematuria (EBH) in cattle occurs in upland areas of the world. In India, the disease is present in isolated pockets in the Himalayas and in the Nilgiri Hills. The variation in the disease incidence has been attributed to different environmental conditions and animal rearing pract...... bladder tissue, the field case was diagnosed as transitional cell adenocarcinoma with chronic lymphocytic cystitis.......B) in some of the ferns collected from Kullu and Chamba regions ranged from 0 to 358.6 ± 70.5 μg/g and 0 to 652.4 ± 50.0 μg/g, respectively. In addition, field cases of the disease in cattle were also studied in the EBH endemic districts. A total of sixteen cattle urine samples and one urinary bladder of EBH...

  13. Premonsoon Aerosol Characterization and Radiative Effects Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains: Implications for Regional Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, K.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The Himalayas have a profound effect on the South Asian climate and the regional hydrological cycle, as it forms a barrier for the strong monsoon winds and serves as an elevated heat source, thus controlling the onset and distribution of precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon. Recent studies have suggested that radiative heating by absorbing aerosols, such as dust and black carbon over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and slopes of the Himalayas, may significantly accelerate the seasonal warming of the Hindu Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) and influence the subsequent evolution of the summer monsoon. This paper presents a detailed characterization of aerosols over the IGP and their radiative effects during the premonsoon season (April-May-June) when dust transport constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading, using ground radiometric and spaceborne observations. During the dust-laden period, there is a strong response of surface shortwave flux to aerosol absorption indicated by the diurnally averaged forcing efficiency of -70 W/sq m per unit optical depth. The simulated aerosol single-scattering albedo, constrained by surface flux and aerosol measurements, is estimated to be 0.89+/- 0.01 (at approx.550 nm) with diurnal mean surface and top-of-atmosphere forcing values ranging from -11 to -79.8 W/sq m and +1.4 to +12 W/sq m, respectively, for the premonsoon period. The model-simulated solar heating rate profile peaks in the lower troposphere with enhanced heating penetrating into the middle troposphere (5-6 km), caused by vertically extended aerosols over the IGP with peak altitude of approx.5 km as indicated by spaceborne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations. On a long-term climate scale, our analysis, on the basis of microwave satellite measurements of tropospheric temperatures from 1979 to 2007, indicates accelerated annual mean warming rates found over the Himalayan-Hindu Kush region (0.21 C/decade+/-0.08 C

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    windows that form the lower margin of the HMB. .... (a) Tectonic framework of Himalayan collision zone of NW Himalaya (after Kwatra et al. ...... ably generated in the middle of the continental ..... be the result of accumulation and/or heteroge- ..... Petrol. 81 219–229. Mehnert K R 1968 Migmatites and the origin of granitic.

  15. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  16. A study of clinical profile of vitamin B 12 deficiency with special reference to dermatologic manifestations in a Tertiary Care Hospital in sub-Himalayan Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon in the eastern parts of India including Bengal and the eastern states as compared to the northern and southern parts of India. The importance of cutaneous features in relation to vitamin B 12 deficiency is not well described in literature. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitamin B 12 deficiency in this region and to find out if there is any relationship between dermatologic manifestations with vitamin B 12 deficiency. Materials and Methods: All symptomatic patients of anemia requiring blood transfusions who had either raised mean corpuscular volume (MCV or bicytopenia/pancytopenia on complete blood count or were symptomatic in the form of skin hyperpigmentation were screened for vitamin B 12 deficiency. Results: Twenty-five patients were tested for vitamin B 12 deficiency. Of them 19 patients were found to be having vitamin B 12 deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin B 12 deficiency is not uncommon in the eastern parts of India, contrasting the previous thoughts that it was uncommon in this area, though larger studies are required to know it better. This study included only those requiring blood transfusions, thus a much higher prevalence is expected in this area. Patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency do present with severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and often have skin hyperpigmentation.

  17. Aerosol and rainfall variability over the Indian monsoon region: distributions, trends and coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gautam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol solar absorption over the Indian monsoon region has a potential role of modulating the monsoon circulation and rainfall distribution as suggested by recent studies based on model simulations. Prior to the onset of the monsoon, northern India is influenced by significant dust transport that constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading over the Gangetic-Himalayan region. In this paper, a multi-sensor characterization of the increasing pre-monsoon aerosol loading over northern India, in terms of their spatial, temporal and vertical distribution is presented. Aerosol transport from the northwestern arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains and over the foothills of the Himalayas is found to be vertically extended to elevated altitudes (up to 5 km as observed from the space-borne lidar measurements (CALIPSO. In relation with the enhanced pre-monsoon aerosol loading and the associated solar absorption effects on tropospheric temperature anomalies, this paper investigates the monsoon rainfall variability over India in recent past decades from an observational viewpoint. It is found that the early summer monsoon rainfall over India is on the rise since 1950s, as indicated by historical rainfall data, with over 20% increase for the period 1950–2004. This large sustained increase in the early summer rainfall is led by the observed strengthening of the pre-monsoon tropospheric land-sea thermal gradient over the Indian monsoon region as indicated by microwave satellite measurements (MSU of tropospheric temperatures from 1979–2007. Combined analysis of changes in tropospheric temperatures and summer monsoon rainfall in the past three decades, suggest a future possibility of an emerging rainfall pattern of a wetter monsoon over South Asia in early summer followed by a drier period.

  18. The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region including southeast and south Asian countries and the Pacific island of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, and the Solomon Islands is discussed in terms of mobility transition and origin and destination factors. The changing patterns of mobility in Asia are further delineated in the discussion of internal movements and international movement. Emigration in the smaller countries of the Pacific are treated separately. Future predictions are that the Asia Pacific region will experience continued fertility decline and stabilization of low rates over the next 20 years. The declines will result in slow labor force growth, and increased demand for labor in traditional core and neocore countries as defined and presented in table form by Friedman will be heightened. International movements are likely to increase in large urban areas within destination countries. Tokyo and Singapore are the principal cities in Asia. Tokyo by restrictive government policy has limited immigration, but future labor shortages of unskilled labor from southeast Asia and China are expected. Singapore is already dependent on foreign labor by 10%. Current labor shortages have led to the creation of a growth triangle between Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Other cities expected to emerge as primary cities in international regional complexes with spillover into the hinterlands include the Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Macau triangle in the Pearl River delta, Taipei and Seoul, and possibly Kuala Lumpur. Internal migration is expected to increase in the capital cities of Bangkok, Manila,j and centers such as Shanghai, Beijing, and other large cities of southeast Asia. These cities will be linked through the flows of skilled international migrants, which began in the 1960s and is expected to become a future major flow. Recreational and resource niches will be left in much of the Pacific, the Himalayan Kingdoms, and

  19. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and uranium potential evaluations of basins in Beishan-Gansu corridor region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Liu Hongxu; Yu Jinshui

    2006-01-01

    Beishan-Gansu Corridor region is located at the intersection of the plates of Tarim, North China, Kazakhstan, Siberia and Qaidam. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the region experienced movements of Indo-sinian, Yanshanian, Sichuanian, North China, Himalayan and Neotectonic, and over 20 medium-small size superimposed continental basins were formed. On the basis of analyzing the tectonic stress field, sediment-filling and structure-deformation; the general trending of tectonic evolution in the Meso-Cenozoic is summarized as three-time compressional uplifting and two-time extensional down-faulting. The different evolution of basins under the above mentioned setting can be divided into six stages according to characteristics of filled sediment. The sand bodies developed in down-faulted basins are favorable for uranium ore-formation as they are formed under humid paleoclimates, and rich in reducing matter. Therefore, the Lower-Middle Jurassic is selected as the main target horizon for sandstone-hosted uranium deposit, and the Lower Cretaceous as the minor one. Although the tectonic reactivation of the target horizon after its deposition was generally strong, the slopes formed in some basins could be favorable for the infiltration of uranium-and oxygen-bearing groundwater into sand bodies and form uranium deposits. According to the favorable sand bodies and tectonic reactivation, the northern parts of Chaoshui and Bayingobi basins are regarded as potential regions which are worthy of further exploration. (authors)

  20. Probabilistic Models For Earthquakes With Large Return Periods In Himalaya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Chhavi; Sharma, Mukat Lal

    2017-12-01

    Determination of the frequency of large earthquakes is of paramount importance for seismic risk assessment as large events contribute to significant fraction of the total deformation and these long return period events with low probability of occurrence are not easily captured by classical distributions. Generally, with a small catalogue these larger events follow different distribution function from the smaller and intermediate events. It is thus of special importance to use statistical methods that analyse as closely as possible the range of its extreme values or the tail of the distributions in addition to the main distributions. The generalised Pareto distribution family is widely used for modelling the events which are crossing a specified threshold value. The Pareto, Truncated Pareto, and Tapered Pareto are the special cases of the generalised Pareto family. In this work, the probability of earthquake occurrence has been estimated using the Pareto, Truncated Pareto, and Tapered Pareto distributions. As a case study, the Himalayas whose orogeny lies in generation of large earthquakes and which is one of the most active zones of the world, has been considered. The whole Himalayan region has been divided into five seismic source zones according to seismotectonic and clustering of events. Estimated probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes have also been compared with the modified Gutenberg-Richter distribution and the characteristics recurrence distribution. The statistical analysis reveals that the Tapered Pareto distribution better describes seismicity for the seismic source zones in comparison to other distributions considered in the present study.

  1. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  2. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  3. Environmental isotope studies in the arid regions of Western Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Joseph, T.B.

    2001-01-01

    An environmental isotope study carried out along an 'identified' buried river course in Jaisalmer showed that its expected head water connection with present day Himalayan sources to be very remote. The groundwater along the course is old as indicated by absence of tritium and low carbon-14 values. In an effort to understand the contribution of canal waters and return flow of irrigation waters to the groundwater and related problems in the command area of a large irrigation project, the area affected by canal water could be delineated. The ground water salinity is attributed both to the uplift of local saline groundwaters caused by water logging in the area as well as to evaporation from shallow groundwaters. Deep fresh groundwater is available in many parts in the desert region, which have been identified as palaeowaters: over exploitation of these old waters in some areas is indicated by their mixing with shallow groundwaters. Modem recharge is possible in the southern part of the state where comparatively higher precipitation is received. (author)

  4. Monazite behaviours during high-temperature metamorphism: a case study from Dinggye region, Tibetan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Jin-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Monazite is a key accessory mineral for metamorphic geochronology, but its growth mechanisms during melt-bearing high-temperature metamorphism is not well understood. Therefore, the petrology, pressure-temperature and timing of metamorphism have been investigated in pelitic and psammitic granulites from the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) in Dinggye, southern Tibet. These rocks underwent an isothermal decompression process from pressure conditions of >10 kbar to armour effect of matrix crystals (biotite and quartz). Most monazite grains formed at the M3-stage (21-19 Ma) through either dissolution-reprecipitation or recrystallization that was related to biotite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains record HREE and Y signatures in local equilibrium with different reactions involving either garnet breakdown or peritectic garnet growth. Another peak of monazite growth occurs during melt crystallization ( 15 Ma), and these monazites are unzoned and have homogeneous compositions. Our results documented the widespread recrystallization to account for monazite growth during high-temperature metamorphism and related melting reactions that trigger monazite recrystallization. In a regional sense, our P-T-t data along with published data indicate that the pre-M1 eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 39-30 Ma in the Dinggye Himalaya. Our results are in favour of a steady exhumation of the GHC rocks since Oligocene that was contributed by partial melting. Key words: U-Th-Pb geochronology, Monazite, Recrystallization, Pelitic granulite, Himalaya

  5. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  6. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  7. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  8. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  9. Comparative study of fuelwood consumption by villagers and seasonal 'Dhaba owners' in the tourist affected regions of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gajendra; Rawat, G.S.; Verma, Deepti

    2010-01-01

    The rural inhabitants of the Himalayan region have been exploiting forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The excessive and uncontrolled use of firewood for domestic purposes has ended up with severe deforestation. Therefore, quantification, assessment and restoration of such valuable but exhaustible resources and is imperative their scientific management. The estimates reflect that a total of 88 species are consumed as fuelwood (54 trees and 34 shrubs) by the local people. Fuelwood consumption by 'dhaba' (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (90-120 kg/household/day) was much higher over the common villagers (20-22 kg/household/day). The fuelwood is mainly burnt for cooking, water heating, space heating and lighting, etc. Among these, cooking consumes the fuelwood most. In addition, fuelwood demand increases due to influx of tourists. In the near future, this may also affect the status of the undisturbed forests at the middle elevation. The information in this communication could be utilized for developing various conservation and sustainable strategies in the region to mitigate the impact of forest resource for fodder and fuelwood.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees: Measurement invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire scores across global regions and response patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Verkuilen, Jay; Ho, Emily; Fan, Yuyu

    2015-12-01

    Despite the central role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the measurement invariance of PTSD measures across culturally defined refugee subgroups. This leaves mental health workers in disaster settings with little to support inferences made using the results of standard clinical assessment tools, such as the severity of symptoms and prevalence rates. We examined measurement invariance in scores from the most widely used PTSD measure in refugee populations, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ; Mollica et al., 1992), in a multinational and multilingual sample of asylum seekers from 81 countries of origin in 11 global regions. Clustering HTQ responses to justify grouping regional groups by response patterns resulted in 3 groups for testing measurement invariance: West Africans, Himalayans, and all others. Comparing log-likelihood ratios showed that while configural invariance seemed to hold, metric and scalar invariance did not. These findings call into question the common practice of using standard cut-off scores on PTSD measures across culturally dissimilar refugee populations. In addition, high correlation between factors suggests that the construct validity of scores from North American and European measures of PTSD may not hold globally. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Regional flood reconstruction in Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh, India): implication for Disaster Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Trappmann, Daniel; Shekhar, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    2016-04-01

    Floods are a common natural hazard in the Western Indian Himalayas. They usually occur when humid monsoon airs are lifted along the Himalayan relief, thereby creating intense orographic rainfall and runoff, a process which is often enhanced by simultaneous snowmelt. Monsoon floods are considered a major threat in the region and frequently affect inhabited valleys, disturbing the status quo of communities, stressing the future welfare and condition of their economic development. Given the assumption that ongoing and future climatic changes may impact on monsoon patterns and extreme precipitation, the implementation of adaptation policies in this region is critically needed in order to improve local resilience of Himalayan communities. However, its success implementation is highly dependent on system knowledge and hence reliable baseline data of past disasters. In this communication, we demonstrate how newly gained knowledge on past flood incidents may improve flood hazard and risk assessments. Based on growth-ring analysis of trees growing in the floodplains and other, more classical paleo-hydrology techniques, we reconstruct the regional flood activity for the last decades. This information is then included as non-systematic data into the regional flood frequency by using Bayesian Markov Monte Carlo Chain algorithms, so as to analyse the impact of the additional data on flood hazard assessments. Moreover, through a detailed analysis of three flood risk hotspots, we demonstrate how the newly gained knowledge on past flood disasters derived from indirect proxies can explain failures in the implementation of disaster risk management (DRM). Our methodology allowed identification of thirty-four unrecorded flood events at the study sites located in the upper reaches since the early 20th century, and thus completion of the existing flood history in the region based on flow measurements in the lower part of the catchment. We observe that 56% of the floods occurred

  12. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  13. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  14. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen for all students to follow or students may work individually on computers. Working individually will allow students to set their own…

  15. Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over South Asia: a Synthesis of Hybrid-Synergistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, T.; Gogoi, M. M.; Pathak, B.; Bhuyan, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    The south-Asian region faces formidable challenges in the accurate estimation of the aerosol-climate forcing due to the increasing demographic pressure and the rapid socio-economic growth which intensify the anthropogenic emissions causing degradation of regional air quality and climate. In this context, the present study employs a hybrid-method synergizing the aerosol data from ground-based measurements, satellite retrievals and radiative transfer simulations over the south-Asian region. The ground based aerosol and solar radiation data (2010-2015) are considered for nine selected locations of India as well as the adjoining Bay of Bengal representing distinct aerosol environment. The land use land cover (LULC) data from Indian remote sensing satellite (IRS-P6) is used to understand the association of aerosol environment with the change in the land surface pattern.The results indicate that the northern part, pre-dominantly the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) experiences the highest aerosol optical depth throughout the year. While the presence of dust plays a significant role in modifying the radiation balance over the west Asian region, extending to IGP; the highest Fire Radiative Power is observed over Eastern India ( 30 MW), the hotspot of biomass burning sources, followed by Central, South/West and Northern India. Considering the distinct source processes, incoming ground reaching fluxes are simulated using radiative transfer model, which showed a good correlation with the measured values (R2 0.97) with the mean bias errors between -40 to +7 Wm-2 (an overestimation of 2-4%). Estimated aerosol direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFE) is highest over the eastern IGP due to heavy loading of long range transported aerosols from the arid region in the west, followed by the Himalayan foothills and west-Asian regions which are mostly dominated by agro-industrial and dust activities. However, a pristine high altitude location in the Western Ghats showed lower DRFE compared

  16. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  17. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  18. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  19. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  20. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  1. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  2. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  3. Regional manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  4. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  5. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  6. Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center » Deploying Innovation » Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to

  7. The zitterbewegung region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with a precise description of the region of zitterbewegung below the Compton scale and the stochastic nature associated with it. We endeavor to delineate this particular region by means of Ito’s calculus and instigate certain features that are in sharp contrast with conventional physics. Interestingly, our work substantiates that the zitterbewegung region represents a pre-space-time region and from therein emerges the notion of our conventional space-time. Interestingly, this unique region engenders the relativistic and quantum mechanical aspects of space-time.

  8. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  9. Comparative study of fuelwood consumption by villagers and seasonal 'Dhaba owners' in the tourist affected regions of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gajendra; Rawat, G.S. [Department of Habitat Ecology, Post Box 18, Chandrabani, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248001 (India); Verma, Deepti [Indian Council of Forest Research and Education, Dehradun. Uttarakhand (India)

    2010-04-15

    The rural inhabitants of the Himalayan region have been exploiting forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The excessive and uncontrolled use of firewood for domestic purposes has ended up with severe deforestation. Therefore, quantification, assessment and restoration of such valuable but exhaustible resources and is imperative their scientific management. The estimates reflect that a total of 88 species are consumed as fuelwood (54 trees and 34 shrubs) by the local people. Fuelwood consumption by 'dhaba' (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (90-120 kg/household/day) was much higher over the common villagers (20-22 kg/household/day). The fuelwood is mainly burnt for cooking, water heating, space heating and lighting, etc. Among these, cooking consumes the fuelwood most. In addition, fuelwood demand increases due to influx of tourists. In the near future, this may also affect the status of the undisturbed forests at the middle elevation. The information in this communication could be utilized for developing various conservation and sustainable strategies in the region to mitigate the impact of forest resource for fodder and fuelwood. (author)

  10. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  11. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  12. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  13. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  14. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...... of Afghan-Pakistani relations and to the region in general. Military institutions, officers and officials facing deployment in the region as well as universities and scholars with ongoing research and programmes in the region will also benefit from output of the stabilization project that this report...

  15. Styringskapaciteten i regional arbejdsmarkedspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte

    This book discovers the potential in regional labour market policy. It raises the question whether the regional labour market councils seek for and follows deliberative proces norms when they formulate the regional policy, and the more theoretical question about whether corporatism is compatible...... with deliberative proces norms at all. The conclusion is that if certain circumstances are fullfilled such as 1) competence to decide the policy, 2) trust from the central level and 3) an orientation towards a regional identity then there actually exists an institutional basis for deliberation....

  16. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  17. Tourism of Khmelnytskyi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шоробура

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we

  18. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we

  19. The Wealth of Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistotskaya, Marina; Charron, Nicholas; Lapuente, Victor

    2015-01-01

    . Using original survey data on QoG from 172 regions in eighteen European Union countries, we find that regions where governments are perceived by their citizens as impartial and free from corruption have on average significantly more SMEs. We also find that in less corrupt countries the spatial...... distribution of SMEs is more even than in more corrupt countries...

  20. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  1. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  2. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  3. Politics, Planning and Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukosky, Jerome

    The concept of regionalism identifies the issues in public affairs pertaining to a region and develops structures through which citizens can participate in the decisionmaking process. This speech describes educational decisions in the State of New York as affected by local decentralization and by concentration of power at the State level. Relevant…

  4. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusses...

  5. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  6. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  7. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  8. Arkadien. Region og identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    Oldtidens Grækenland bestod af et mylder af bystater, grupperet i regioner, og grækerne mente, at de forskellige regioners beboere havde hver deres karakteristika. Bogen undersøger dette emne nærmere i forhold til Arkadien på Peloponnes: Hvad ville det sige at være arkader? Var det et geografisk...

  9. International Center for Himalayan Biodiversity (ICHB): Conserving Himalayan Biodiversity--A Global Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Bhandari

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity is a global endowment of nature. Conservation of biodiversity includes all species of plants, animals and other organisms, the range of genetic stocks within each species, and ecosystem diversity. Food, many types of medicine and industrial products are provided by the biological resources that are the basis of life on Earth. The value of the Earth’s...

  10. Connecting to Regional Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce the interdepend......Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce...... the interdependence of the then Soviet republics, while conflicting economic interests make cross-border cooperation difficult. Based on extensive fieldwork on infrastructure systems and firm export strategies, this paper identifies contemporary infrastructure and transportation issues within the Central Asian region...

  11. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    , Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory....... This is the basis for two short case studies of African and European regional integration. The paper tentative answers to the question: will the crisis in Africa and Europe respectively further or block regional integration? With a ‘that depends’. But the use of Federalism theory and neo-functionalism is seen...

  12. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  13. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  14. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  15. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  16. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region Revealed by receiver Function Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Sichuan-Yunnan and its surrounding areas locates in the southeast side to the Tibetan Plateau, due to the intrusion of the Indian Plate under the Tibetan Plateau, materials escape from the Tibetan Plateau and flow southward to southeastward. Because of such tectonic environment, the Sichuan-Yunnan region is experiencing high tectonic movement, and is capable of highly diffused seismicity. Based on dynamic simulation and field survey investigations, tectonic and geological studies proposed a decoupling model in this region and lower crustal flow may inflate in the crust. However, this idea needs more evidences, especially anisotropic structures to support it, since the anisotropic structures are usually directly related to the movement of materials, or to the tectonic distributions. In the past several years, a number of works have been done on the anisotropic structures in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. In usually, previous studies were mainly carried out by two kinds of methods. First, the shear wave splitting of SKS, which mainly reflects the accumulation effect of the anisotropy of the crust to the mantle; the other way is use surface wave to investigate the anisotropic features at different azimuths and depths. In the recent years, receiver function is used to determine the inclination and anisotropy of the subsurface structure, comparing with the other two methods, receiver functions can provide higher resolution and reliable anisotropic features in the crust. Following the method of Liu and Niu(2012), we collected teleseismic data from the Himalayan first term network, and picked out high quality data based on the waveform SNR ratio, as well as the azimuthal distributions. Comparing with previous work (e.g., Sun et al.,2012), our work can provide more receiver functions results with higher reliability. We find that the crust beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan region has a thickness of 30-60 km and Vp/Vs ratio of 1.70-1.80. The Moho depth from northwest to

  17. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the foundations of regional knowledge and its long-term impact onthe region's companies' and how a particular knowledge has developed an ability tostay competitive within a specific technological field. The case illustrates how theCopenhagen region has been able to develop...... a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...

  18. Regional Stability & Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It seems that regional decision makers during the last two decades has been unable to produce a sustainable peacebuilding plan for the region and it is questionable whether any remarkable change will occur in the near future. Some would argue that the political differences are simply too far apart...... to the process of peacebuilding, this could prove as a useful tool, and for this reason politicians, officials, and persons in general with an interest in this region will benefit from the perspectives presented here....

  19. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  20. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  1. Regional Education Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  2. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  3. Aeromagnetic Regional Grid Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several regions are represented in this unique collection of earth surface measurements of magnetic field parameters and their related anomalies. The DNAG Magnetics...

  4. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  5. Paediatric regional anaesthesia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced respiratory depression. The purpose ... regional blocks are usually performed under anaesthesia or .... brachial plexus, as well as the axillary, musculo-cutaneous, ulnar, ... of their use for continuous postoperative pain management or.

  6. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  7. Second region of stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.M.; Chance, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    A new type of axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is presented. It is characterized by a region of pressure and safety factor variation with a short scale length imposed as a perturbation. The equilibrium consistent with these profile variations can be calculated by means of an asymptotic expansion. The flexibility obtained by generating such equilibria allows for a close examination of the mechanisms that are relevant to ballooning instabilities - ideal MHD modes with large toroidal mode number. The so-called first and second regions of stability against these modes are seen well within the limits of validity of the asymptotic expansion. It appears that the modes must be localized in regions with small values of the local shear of the magnetic field. The second region of stability occurs where the local shear is large throughout the range where the magnetic field line curvature is destabilizing

  8. Regional utvikling og partnerskap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, H.; Gjertsen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Danish regional policy has changed dramatically. As of January 1991, all central government incentive schemes were terminated, and since then the main components of spatial economic policy have been a host of subnational initiatives and the European Structural...... in European matters as envisaged in the ?Europe of the Regions? slogan. The aim of this chapter is to examine the transformation of regional policy in Denmark from the perspective of political decentralization and Europeanization in order to establish to what extent recent changes have increased the capacity...... of Danish regions to pursue their own agendas with regard to economic development, and explore the organizational strategies pursued by varies tiers of government in this process of rapid and profound policy change. The text is divided into three parts. The following section provides a brief outline...

  9. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  10. Southeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  11. Northeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  12. Regional Hearing Clerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  13. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  14. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  15. RCA's regional industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, formulated under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), came into force in June 1972. The overall objective of RCA is to promote technical cooperation among the developing and developed countries in the Asia Pacific region in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and related technology. Currently, the biggest project under RCA is the Regional Project on the Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology for Asia and the Pacific. The project was established in 1982 for a period of five years and was completed in December 1986. The first phase of the project has generated a high degree of awareness on the industrial potential of isotopes and radiation technology throughout the region; produced a cadre of trained manpower in all areas covered by the project; identified the expertise available in the region; and developed in the region, a unique network of people and institutions involved with the utilization of isotope and radiation technology. A Phase II of the project, which cover all but one of the sub-projects under Phase I, was approved in early 1987 for another five years until 1991. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Regional boundaries study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

    1978-02-01

    The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

  17. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parera, María Delia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author) [es

  18. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  19. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  20. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  1. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Scholars studying economic inequality in China have maintained that regional inequality and economic divergence across provinces have steadily increased over the past 30 years. New studies have shown that this trend is a statistical aberration; calculations show that instead of quickly and sharply...... rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...... across provinces in order to show that without these processes, we would have seen more of a rise in interprovincial income inequality. We conclude by arguing that inequality in China is still increasing, but it is changing and becoming less place-based. As regional inequality decreases, there are signs...

  2. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact...... of entrepreneurship). This study sets out to obtain an in-depth understanding of the micro-, community-, and regional-level localized entrepreneurial processes as well as the way in which these processes are intertwined with the spatial context. The contribution of this dissertation lies in the illustration of how......, culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...

  3. GRTgaz and the regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the regional activities of GRTgaz in France in the form of 12 regional fact sheets summarizing the key data by the end of 2016: network structure, financial indicators (investments, orders), public and industrial gas consumptions, 2017 projects, institutional and environmental partnerships

  4. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  6. ASEAN : Extra-Regional Cooperation Triggers Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Krapohl, S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter contains two case studies of regional cooperation within Southeast Asia. The network analysis of ASEAN demonstrates that the region is dependent on extra-regional trade with the EU and the USA, but also with China and Japan. However, the region is not dominated by a single regional

  7. Regional Resource Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by

  8. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  9. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  10. Regional Governance Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dijkstra, Lewis; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    study presents novel data (European QoG Index – EQI) on the ‘quality of government’ (QoG) – understood as low corruption, impartial public services and rule of law – for national and sub-national levels in twenty-seven European Union countries. The EQI shows notable within-country variations: while...... high-performing regions in Italy and Spain (for example, Bolzano, País Vasco) rank amongst the best European Union regions, others perform well below the European Union average. The index is highly correlated with sub-national levels of socio-economic development and levels of social trust, yet...

  11. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social infrastructure,including social housing and improved social services. Improved regional and localtransportation are key areas of intervention rehabilitation and upgrading of county roads,city streets, including road construction and rehabilitation of belt.

  12. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016).......Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....

  13. Voksenuddannelse og regional udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i regionale og lokale forskelle uddannelsesforskelle behandler artiklen uddannelsers rolle i regional udvikling. Der lægges særlig vægt på forskellige former for voksenuddannelse. Hvad betyder udviklingen mod vidensamfundet for udviklingen i erhverv, beskæftigelse og sociale...... forhold? Hvilken rolle spiller uddannelse i centerområder og udkantsområder? Hvordan kan uddannelse og læring bidrage til regional udvikling? Hvilke roller kan voksenuddannelse have i denne sammenhæng?...

  14. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  15. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Regionalism in Scottish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Dougal

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that Scottish universities are highly local institutions and that over two-fifth of Scottish university students live at home. Attempts to ascertain if this regionalism has relaxed over the past twenty years with student grant regulations, improvement in communications and the increasing affluence of today's society. (Author/RK)

  17. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  18. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  19. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  20. H2 region detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The now classical technique of detection of HII regions is by means of photography and/or interferometry through narrow-band interference filters, with a large aperture ratio of the imaging optics. It enables the detailed study of the spiral structure and the repartition of ionized gas in our Galaxy as well as in the external galaxies [fr

  1. REGIONAL CUSTOMS DIRECTORATES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABA STEFAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  2. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  3. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  4. Aid for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POPESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of regional development has captured the attention of researchers long UMA, but some trends in contemporary economy and international division of labor, cooperation, integration and globalization bring it back to the forefront of current theoretical and methodological concerns. Especially the process of European integration requires comprehensive and pragmatic approach, realistic subject (2, 3, 4.

  5. Regional anaesthesia in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H; Finster, M

    1984-01-01

    This review includes a brief discussion of the indications and pitfalls of regional anaesthetic techniques commonly used during parturition. Emphasis is given to the physiological changes of pregnancy and the potential effects on the fetus. The criteria for the choice of local anaesthetic are also presented.

  6. Venus - Phoebe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This Magellan radar image is of part of the Phoebe region of Venus. It is a mosaic of parts of revolutions 146 and 147 acquired in the first radar test on Aug. 16, 1990. The area in the image is located at 291 degrees east longitude, 19 degrees south latitude. The image shows an area 30 kilometers (19.6 miles) wide and 76 km (47 miles) long. On the basis of Pioneer Venus and Arecibo data, it is known that two major rift zones occur in southern Phoebe Regio and that they terminate at about 20 to 25 degrees south latitude, about 2,000 km (1,240 miles) apart. This image is of an area just north of the southern end of the western rift zone. The region is characterized by a complex geologic history involving both volcanism and faulting. Several of the geologic units show distinctive overlapping or cross cutting relationships that permit identification and separation of geologic events and construction of the geologic history of the region. The oldest rocks in this image form the complexly deformed and faulted, radar bright, hilly terrain in the northern half. Faults of a variety of orientations are observed. A narrow fault trough (about one-half to one km (three tenths to six tenths of a mile) wide is seen crossing the bright hills near the lower part in the middle of the image. This is one of the youngest faults in the faulted, hilly unit as it is seen to cut across many other structures. The fault trough in turn appears to be embayed and flooded by the darker plains that appear in the south half of the image. These plains are interpreted to be of volcanic origin. The dark plains may be formed of a complex of overlapping volcanic flows. For example, the somewhat darker region of plains in the lower left (southwest) corner of the image may be a different age series of plains forming volcanic lava flows. Finally, the narrow bright line crossing the image in its lower part is interpreted to be a fault which cross cuts both plains units and is thus the youngest event in

  7. Regional planning without means - search for regional leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian

    and stakeholders, not least due to its polycentric urban structure with several medium-sized towns. Besides the regional authority and the regions 22 municipalities, sub-regional collaboration is gaining momentum. Furthermore, different fora, councils and associations are engaging in regional issues. However......, collaboration is often focused on specific sectors or sub-regions, while the joint development of the region is left behind. The regional authority has changed its focus from planning to the provision of knowledge, suitable to kick-off joint action with regional stakeholders, while municipalities keep focus...... on their own territories, eventually in the context of one of the new sub-regional collaborations. Based on an empirical analysis of the regional interplay in Southern Denmark and results from the ESPON ReSSI project, we go through these new settings of regional collaboration in the search for new forms...

  8. Midwest regional management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    In response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. One of the top priorities of the Compact Commission is the development of a comprehensive regional waste management plan. The plan consists of five major elements: (1) waste inventory; (2) waste stream projections; (3) analysis of waste management and disposal options; (4) development of a regional waste management system; and (5) selection of a host state(s) for future low-level waste facilities. When completed, the Midwest Management Plan will serve as the framework for future low-level radioactive waste management and disposal decisions

  9. A region in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, M.U.; Nicolet, R.; Dufour, J.

    1998-01-01

    On July 19 and 20 of 1996, torrential rains provoked catastrophic floods in the Saguenay Region of Quebec. The overflowing waters of the region's rivers damaged 3000 residential buildings, completely destroyed another 426, and seriously affected the activities of 850 business establishments. In this comprehensive report, the physical causes and the social, economic, psychological, cultural, political and administrative consequences of this natural catastrophe are discussed by several experts. The report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the actual flooding conditions and the immediate response of local emergency services such as the Red Cross and the Saint-Vincent-de-Paul agencies. Reactions of the various public agencies and governments to the disaster are described in Part Two. Part Three of the document focuses on lessons to be drawn from this natural disaster, in particular the need to improve emergency relief strategies. The legal implications and consequences of the disaster are also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  11. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0465564.pdf

  12. Disarmament through regional dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yuhei

    1994-01-01

    The role played by the United Nations in the pursuit of peace and disarmament and in support of the construction of a stable order in the region is very great. The attitude of Japan as a 'peace loving state' shown by its support to Non-proliferation is expressed by its high appreciation of the fact that this Second United Nations Conference in Hiroshima has been convened, as such exchanges of views constitute an important aspect of the process of disarmament

  13. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  14. Cleantech Region Stedendriehoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A. (Andries)

    2016-01-01

      http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/B1917A51-5AA6-4723-9EDF87AB64EC267B Keynote speech. In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).  It just so happens that innovation and

  15. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions...... there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison....

  16. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name are included with the feature dataset. Public Domain Allotments are not included in this data set.

  17. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  18. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  19. SERVICES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven ILLERIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to discuss what roles the different economic sectors, and in particular services activities (the tertiary sector play in regional development, understood as growth in production, incomes and employment in weakly developedregions. This question is approached in two ways. The contribution first contains a – primarily theoretical – re-examination of the so-called economic base model, which states that services play a passive role in regional development. The discussion leads to substantial modifications of the model. The second approach is more empirical. It will take as its point of departure the proposition – often heard, but rarely examined – that since service activities are more concentrated in big cities than other activities and in recent decades have shown higher growth rates than other economic activities, it follows that the economic development is now pulled towards big city regions. Examined by way of a statistical analysisin Denmark and France, this proposition could not be verified.

  20. Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the Alligator Rivers Region is presented. It contains general information regarding the physiography, climate, hydrology and mining of the region. The Alligator Rivers Region is within an ancient basin, the Pine Creek Geosyncline, which has an area of approximately 66000 km 2 . The Geosyncline has a history of mineral exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted (silver, arsenic, gold, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, tantalum, uranium, tungsten, zinc). Uranium exploration in the Pine Creek Geosyncline was stimulated by the discovery in 1949 of secondary uranium mineralisation near Rum June, 70 km south-east of Darwin. This was followed by a decade of intense exploration activity resulting in the discoveries of economic uranium ore bodies at Rum Jungle and in the upper reaches of the South Alligator River Valley. All the known major uranium deposits of the East Alligator River uranium field have been discovered since 1969. The present known resources of the Geosyncline are approximately 360 000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 . 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  2. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  3. Automated seismic detection of landslides at regional scales: a Random Forest based detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Michéa, D.; Provost, F.; Malet, J. P.; Geertsema, M.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of landslide occurrences and measurement of their dynamics properties during run-out is a high research priority but a logistical and technical challenge. Seismology has started to help in several important ways. Taking advantage of the densification of global, regional and local networks of broadband seismic stations, recent advances now permit the seismic detection and location of landslides in near-real-time. This seismic detection could potentially greatly increase the spatio-temporal resolution at which we study landslides triggering, which is critical to better understand the influence of external forcings such as rainfalls and earthquakes. However, detecting automatically seismic signals generated by landslides still represents a challenge, especially for events with small mass. The low signal-to-noise ratio classically observed for landslide-generated seismic signals and the difficulty to discriminate these signals from those generated by regional earthquakes or anthropogenic and natural noises are some of the obstacles that have to be circumvented. We present a new method for automatically constructing instrumental landslide catalogues from continuous seismic data. We developed a robust and versatile solution, which can be implemented in any context where a seismic detection of landslides or other mass movements is relevant. The method is based on a spectral detection of the seismic signals and the identification of the sources with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm. The spectral detection allows detecting signals with low signal-to-noise ratio, while the Random Forest algorithm achieve a high rate of positive identification of the seismic signals generated by landslides and other seismic sources. The processing chain is implemented to work in a High Performance Computers centre which permits to explore years of continuous seismic data rapidly. We present here the preliminary results of the application of this processing chain for years

  4. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountainous/Hilly regions of Nepal: A case study of Bhotekoshi Hydropower site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gautam, S.; Kafle, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nepal is a mountainous, developing country that straddles the boundary between the Indian and Himalayan tectonic plates. In Nepal, landslides represent a major constraint on development, causing high levels of economic loss and substantial number of fatalities each year. There is a general consensus that the impacts of landslides in mountainous countries such as Nepal are increasing with time due to unstable slopes. The present study deals with the field investigation of slope stability in mountainous/hilly region of Nepal. Among the natural hazards that occur in regularly in Nepal, flood and landslides due to unstable slopes are by far the serious ones. They claim many human lives every year and cause other damages such as destruction and blockage of highway, destruction of hydropower, losses of livestock, crops and agricultural land. Slope Mass Rating system and stereographic projection has been carried out for analysis of slope stability using standard formats and parameters. It has been found that there are few major discontinuities that play the role for the rock/soil slides around the area. The major discontinuities are 235°/67°. These joint sets play the main role to the plane as well as wedge failures around the area. The rock mass rating of the slope has been found to be 27 and the slope mass rating has been found to be 37.8. The obtained slope mass rating value lies on IV class (Bad) that represents unstable slope having planner or big wedge failure and needs to be corrective measures in the slope. From stereographic projection, wedge failure of the slope has been seen according to the conditions of slope failure.

  5. A subspecies of region crossing change, region freeze crossing change

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Ayumu; Shimizu, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a local move on a link diagram named a region freeze crossing change which is close to a region crossing change, but not the same. We study similarity and difference between region crossing change and region freeze crossing change.

  6. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  7. Regional Studies Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on methodology studies with regard to hydrologic analysis; atmospheric transport; forest growth models; distribution of sensitive species; agricultural analysis; and environmental objectives in energy facility siting. National coal utilization assessment studies are reported with regard to technology characterization; air quality impacts; water resources; regional characterization; forest impacts; coal extraction impacts on sensitive animal species; and health impacts. The following special projects were carried out: water resource aspects of inexhaustible technology deployment; ecological constraints on the rapidly expanded use of coal; and U.S. coal and the global carbon problem

  8. Region & Gateway Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Derik

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art robot mapping approaches are capable of acquiring impressively accurate 2D and 3D models of their environments. To the best of our knowledge, few of them represent structure or acquire models of task-relevant objects. In this work, a new approach to mapping of indoor environments is presented, in which the environment structure in terms of regions and gateways is automatically extracted, while the robot explores. Objects, both in 2D and 3D, are modeled explicitly in those map...

  9. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  10. OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, Karen; Marsan, Giulia Ajmone; Nauwelaers, Claire

    This book examines regional innovation in central and southern Denmark, looking at its role in the economy, its governance and policy context and regional strategies for innovation driven growth.......This book examines regional innovation in central and southern Denmark, looking at its role in the economy, its governance and policy context and regional strategies for innovation driven growth....

  11. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  12. Active region structures in the transition region and corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Observational aspects of the transition region and coronal structures of the solar active region are reviewed with an emphasis on imaging of the plasma loops which act as tracers of the magnetic flux loops. The study of the basic structure of an active region is discussed in terms of the morphological and thermal classifications of active region loops, including umbral structures, and observational knowledge of the thermal structure of loops is considered in relation to scaling laws, emission measures and the structures of individual loops. The temporal evolution of active region loop structures is reviewed with emphasis on ephemeral regions and the emergence of active regions. Planned future spaceborne observations of active region loop structures in the EUV and soft X-ray regions are also indicated

  13. Regional climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because studies of the regional impact of climate change need higher spatial resolution than that obtained in standard global climate change scenarios, developing regional scenarios from models is a crucial goal for the climate modelling community. The zoom capacity of ARPEGE-Climat, the Meteo-France climate model, allows use of scenarios with a horizontal resolution of about 50 km over France and the Mediterranean basin. An IPCC-A2 scenario for the end of the 21. century in France shows higher temperatures in each season and more winter and less summer precipitation than now. Tuning the modelled statistical distributions to observed temperature and precipitation allows us to study changes in the frequency of extreme events between today's climate and that at the end of century. The frequency of very hot days in summer will increase. In particular, the frequency of days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C will be multiplied by a factor of 10, on average. In our scenario, the Toulouse area and Provence might see one quarter of their summer days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C. (author)

  14. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional Population Projections for China

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, F.L.; Cao, G.-Y.; Hizsnyik, E.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the size and the regional diversity of China, a prudent analysis of many economic and policy issues needs to consider the regional differences in climate, soil, water, and other natural resource endowments, population density, and social and economic development. Future-oriented multi-regional assessments require regionally detailed scenarios. A key component of such scenarios is the evolution of the population in different regions. For studies of land-use change and agriculture, ...

  16. Regional Healthcare Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kudelina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of healthcare systems effectiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation (federal districts was conducted using the Minmax method based on the data available at the United Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. Four groups of components (i.e. availability of resources; use of resources; access to resources and medical effectiveness decomposed into 17 items were analyzed. The resource availability was measured by four indicators, including the provision of doctors, nurses, hospital beds; agencies providing health care to the population. Use of resources was measured by seven indicators: the average hospital stay, days; the average bed occupancy, days; the number of operations per 1 physician surgical; the cost per unit volume of medical care: in outpatient clinics, day hospitals, inpatient and emergency care. Access to the resources was measured by three indicators: the satisfaction of the population by medical care; the capacity of outpatient clinics; the average number of visits to health facility. The medical effectiveness was also measured by three indicators: incidence with the "first-ever diagnosis of malignancy"; life expectancy at birth, years; the number of days of temporary disability. The study of the dynamics of the components and indexes for 2008–2012 allows to indicate a multidirectional influence on the regional healthcare system. In some federal districts (e.g. North Caucasian, the effectiveness decreases due to resource availability, in others (South, North Caucasian — due to the use of resources, in others (Far Eastern, Ural — due to access to resources. It is found that the effectiveness of the healthcare systems of the federal districts differs significantly. In addition, the built matrix proves the variability the of effectiveness (comparison of expenditures and results of healthcare systems of the federal districts of the Russian Federation: the high results can be obtained at high costs

  17. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  18. Regional Course: Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Calderon, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    They chose the Arenal's Dam and its damming, which has a control established from 1978. Currently, this technique is not applied in any other work of the 'Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad'. Their interest is to apply it in similar works. Among the projects that has been accomplished, they have the sampling of different sites water, the most representative to see the quality of water, the most representative waters Ions analysis of the damming, in underground waters of the region, in the available wells and for all of the river banks about the dam. With this technique they hope to obtain some parameters to define the water sources, the underground flow dynamics, the water turbulent stream, the mixings, the movement time and the relation to the damming. (author)

  19. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Crustal deformation rates in Assam Valley, Shillong Plateau, Eastern Himalaya, and Indo-Burmese region from 11 years (2002-2013) of GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Prakash; Jade, Sridevi; Shrungeshwara, T. S.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Ray, Jagat Dwipendra; Jagannathan, Saigeetha; Jamir, Wangshi Menla

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports the contemporary deformation of the tectonically complex northeast India using 11 years (2002-2013) of GPS observations. The central Shillong Plateau and few sites north of Plateau located in Assam Valley behave like a rigid block with 7 mm/year India-fixed southward velocity. The Euler pole of rotation of this central Shillong Plateau-Assam Valley (SH-AS) block is estimated to be at -25.1° ± 0.2°N, -97.8° ± 1.8°E with an angular velocity of 0.533° ± 0.10° Myr-1 relative to India-fixed reference frame. Kopili fault located between Shillong Plateau and Mikir massif records a dextral slip of 4.7 ± 1.3 mm/year with a locking depth of 10.2 ± 1.4 km indicating the fragmentation of Assam Valley across the fault. Presently, western edge of Mikir massif appears to be locked to Assam block indicating strain accumulation in this region. First-order elastic dislocation modelling of the GPS velocities estimates a slip rate of 16 mm/year along the Main Himalayan Thrust in Eastern Himalaya which is locked over a width of 130 km from the surface to a depth of 17 km with underthrusting Indian plate. Around 9 mm/year arc-normal convergence is accommodated in Lesser Himalaya just south of Main Central Thrust indicating high strain accumulation. Out of 36 mm/year (SSE) India-Sunda plate motion, about 16 mm/year motion is accommodated in Indo-Burmese Fold and Thrust Belt, both as normal convergence ( 6 mm/year) and active slip ( 7-11 mm/year) in this region.