Verifying the Kugo-Ojima Confinement Criterion in Landau Gauge Yang-Mills Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, Peter; Alkofer, Reinhard
2001-01-01
Expanding the Landau gauge gluon and ghost two-point functions in a power series we investigate their infrared behavior. The corresponding powers are constrained through the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation by exploiting multiplicative renormalizability. Without recourse to any specific truncation we demonstrate that the infrared powers of the gluon and ghost propagators are uniquely related to each other. Constraints for these powers are derived, and the resulting infrared enhancement of the ghost propagator signals that the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion is fulfilled in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory
A lattice test of the Kugo-Ojima confinement criteria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakajima, Hideo [Utsunomiya Univ., Department of Information Science, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Furui, Sadataka [Teikyo Univ., School of Science and Engineering, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)
2000-01-01
We present the first results of numerical test of the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion in the lattice Landau gauge. The Kugo-Ojima criterion of color confinement in the BRS formulation of the continuum gauge theory is given by u{sub b}{sup a}(0) = -{delta}{sub b}{sup a}, where {integral} dxe{sup ip(x-y)}<0|TD{sub {mu}}c{sup a}(x)g(A{sub {nu}} x c-bar){sup b}(y)|0> = (g{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} - p{sub {mu}}p{sub {nu}}/p{sup 2})u{sub b}{sup a}(p{sup 2}). We measured the lattice version of u{sub b}{sup a}(0) in use of 1/(-{delta}D(A)) where D{sub {mu}}(A) is a lattice covariant derivative in the new definition of the gauge field as U = e{sup A}. We obtained that u{sub b}{sup a}(0) is consistent with -c{delta}{sub b}{sup a}, c = 0.7 in SU(3) quenched simulation, {beta} = 5.5, on 8{sup 4} and 12{sup 4}. We report the {beta} dependence and finite-size effect of c. (author)
Study of the BRS charge in the Polyakov string by the Kugo-Ojima method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abad, J.; Rodriguez-Trias, R. (Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias)
1988-01-01
Using the method of Kugo and Ojima the authors obtain the Becchi-Rouet-Stora charge in the string theory proposed by Polyakov. When a conformal improved energy-momentum tensor is used, they obtain the same BRS charge that emerges from other methods.
Extended BRS algebra and color confinement criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shintani, Meiun.
1983-09-01
We examine the color-confinement criteria proposed by Kugo and Ojima. With the use of the extended BRS symmetry and the Nakanishi's theorem, we look for the representations of the BRS algebra compatible with the first condition of their criteria (the K-O condition) and then ask whether or not they are physically acceptable. As a result, the quartet mechanism does not work, and the K-O condition is not regarded as a confinement condition. (author)
Restoration of the local gauge symmetry and color confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Hiroyuki
1982-01-01
Restoration of the local gauge symmetry and its connection to color confinement is investigated in non-Abelian gauge theories with covariant gauge fixing. We consider the Noether current J sub(μ,#betta#)sup(a) of the local gauge transformation with transformation functions #betta#sup(b)(x) linear in x sub(μ); #betta#sup(b)(x) = delta sup(ab)x sub(#betta#). This current is conserved only in the physical subspace of the state vector space and in perturbation theory contains a massless pole communicating to the gauge field. We define the local gauge symmetry restoration as the disappearance of this massless ''Goldstone'' pole from J sub(μ,#betta#)sup(a). The restoration condition is obtained and it coincides exactly with the color confinement criterion proposed earlier by Kugo and Ojima. Quarks and other colored particles are shown to be confined in the local gauge symmetry restored phase by using the Ward identities of J sub(μ,#betta#)sup(a). (author)
Extended BRS algebra and color confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shintani, Meiun.
1984-02-01
We examine the color confinement scheme and its realizations proposed by Kugo and Ojima. Using the Nakanishi's theorem, we obtain a representation of the extended BRS algebra compatible with the so-called K-O condition of their confinement criteria. However, it turns out that the representation is not physically acceptable, and thus their scheme lacks self-consistency at the level of realizations. We also clarify what kind of ghost structures are suggested by the well-definedness or ill-definedness of the charge operator Nsup(a) constituting a part of the global color charge operator. It is shown that there are four possible cancellation mechanisms of ghosts. In particular, it turns out that the octet of ghosts suggested by Nishijima in his confinement theory arises from the well-definedness of the Nsup(a) charge, whereas the elementary quartet arises from the ill-definedness of the Nsup(a). Moreover, from the octet structures, we deduce the confinement condition which replaces the K-O condition. (author)
The color antisymmetric ghost propagator and one-loop vertex renormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furui, Sadataka
2008-01-01
The color matrix elements of the ghost triangle diagram that appears in the triple gluon vertex and the ghost-ghost-gluon triangle diagram that appears in the ghost-gluon-ghost vertex are calculated. The ghost-ghost-gluon triangle contains a loop consisting of two color diagonal ghosts and one gluon and a loop consisting of two color antisymmetric ghosts and one gluon. Consequently, the pQCD argument in the infrared region based on the one particle irreducible diagram should be modified. Implications for the Kugo-Ojima color confinement and the QCD running coupling are discussed. (author)
Loop calculations in the three dimensional Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gracey, J.A.
2010-01-01
The three dimensional Gribov-Zwanziger Lagrangian is analysed at one and two loops. Specifically, the two loop gap equation is evaluated and the Gribov mass is expressed in terms of the coupling constant. The one loop corrections to the propagators of all the fields are determined. It is shown that when the gap equation is satisfied the Faddeev-Popov ghost and both Bose and Grassmann localizing ghosts all enhance in the infrared limit at one loop. This verifies that the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion holds to this order and we also show that both Grassmann ghosts are enhanced at two loops. For the Bose ghost we determine the full form of the propagator in the zero momentum limit for both the transverse and longitudinal pieces and confirm Zwanziger's recent general analysis for the low energy behaviour. We provide an alternative but equivalent version of the horizon condition expressing it as the vacuum expectation value of an operator involving only the localizing Bose ghost field. The one loop static potential is also determined. (orig.)
Aspects of confinement in QCD from lattice simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spielmann, Daniel
2011-01-01
We study confinement in quantum chromodynamics via numerical simulations in the framework of lattice gauge theory. In Landau gauge, the mechanism of confinement is related to the infrared behavior of the ghost and gluon propagators via the Gribov-Zwanziger and Kugo- Ojima scenarios. These scenarios entail a scaling behavior. Functional methods in the continuum allow both for this behavior and for decoupling solutions, while lattice simulations in three and four dimensions yield only the latter. A possible explanation for this mismatch is based on limitations of standard lattice gauge fixing methods. Hence, we investigate a number of alternative gauge fixing algorithms in pure SU(2) gauge theory in two, three and four dimensions. We find that stochastic quantization yields an infrared behavior of the propagators in agreement with the results of standard procedures, even though the Faddeev-Popov operator spectrum indicates some different properties. In the strong-coupling limit, our results challenge the standard picture. In particular, we find in a non-perturbative completion of Landau gauge an enormous effect of the Gribov ambiguity. It entails that no subset of infrared solutions can be excluded yet. Moreover, we study the gluon propagator with free boundary conditions. On large lattices, the results mostly show the standard behavior. We also examine non-periodic gauge transformations. Furthermore, we analyze two topics related to the phase diagram of QCD. First, we explore the sign problem for fermions on the lattice by simulating the three-dimensional Thirring model with a complex Langevin equation. The algorithm succeeds in yielding a 'Silver Blaze' behavior of observables, but it does not reliably describe the onset to a phase with non-zero density. Second, we determine properties of the deconfinement phase transition of pure SU(2) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, like the critical temperature, by means of the gluon propagator in Landau gauge. (orig.)
Aspects of confinement in QCD from lattice simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spielmann, Daniel
2011-01-12
We study confinement in quantum chromodynamics via numerical simulations in the framework of lattice gauge theory. In Landau gauge, the mechanism of confinement is related to the infrared behavior of the ghost and gluon propagators via the Gribov-Zwanziger and Kugo- Ojima scenarios. These scenarios entail a scaling behavior. Functional methods in the continuum allow both for this behavior and for decoupling solutions, while lattice simulations in three and four dimensions yield only the latter. A possible explanation for this mismatch is based on limitations of standard lattice gauge fixing methods. Hence, we investigate a number of alternative gauge fixing algorithms in pure SU(2) gauge theory in two, three and four dimensions. We find that stochastic quantization yields an infrared behavior of the propagators in agreement with the results of standard procedures, even though the Faddeev-Popov operator spectrum indicates some different properties. In the strong-coupling limit, our results challenge the standard picture. In particular, we find in a non-perturbative completion of Landau gauge an enormous effect of the Gribov ambiguity. It entails that no subset of infrared solutions can be excluded yet. Moreover, we study the gluon propagator with free boundary conditions. On large lattices, the results mostly show the standard behavior. We also examine non-periodic gauge transformations. Furthermore, we analyze two topics related to the phase diagram of QCD. First, we explore the sign problem for fermions on the lattice by simulating the three-dimensional Thirring model with a complex Langevin equation. The algorithm succeeds in yielding a 'Silver Blaze' behavior of observables, but it does not reliably describe the onset to a phase with non-zero density. Second, we determine properties of the deconfinement phase transition of pure SU(2) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, like the critical temperature, by means of the gluon propagator in Landau gauge. (orig.)
Interview with Future Medicinal Chemistry's US Senior Editor, Iwao Ojima. Interview by Issac Bruce.
Ojima, Iwao
2012-10-01
Professor Iwao Ojima studied at the University of Tokyo (Japan) before being appointed as a Senior Research Fellow and Group Leader at the Sagami Institute of Chemical Research. He is now Director of the Institute of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery at State University of New York (USA) and has been a visiting professor in European, North American and Asian academic institutions. Professor Ojima agreed to serve as the US Senior Editor of Future Medicinal Chemistry when it launched in 2009 and continues to provide his expertise to the journal. Professor Ojima spoke to Future Medicinal Chemistry about why medicinal chemistry is such an exciting field to work in, the state of the pharmaceutical industry, and what features and issues make this journal unique.
State space in BRST-quantization and Kugo-Ojima quartets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rybkin, G.N.
1989-01-01
The structure of the state space in the BRST-quantization is considered and the connection between different approaches to the proof of the positive definiteness of the metric on the physical state space is established. The correspondence between different expressions for the BRST-charge, quadratic in fields, is obtained. The relation between different representations of the BRST-algebra is found. 22 refs
BRST quantization of Polyakov's two-dimensional gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Katsumi
1990-01-01
Two-dimensional gravity coupled to minimal models is quantized in the chiral gauge by the BRST method. By using the Wakimoto construction for the gravity sector, we show how the quartet mechanism of Kugo and Ojima works and solve the physical state condition. As a result the positive semi-definiteness of the physical subspace is shown. The formula of Knizhnik et al. for gravitational scaling dimensions is rederived from the physical state condition. We also observe a relation between the chiral gauge and the conformal gauge. (orig.)
The IR sector of QCD: lattice versus Schwinger-Dyson equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binosi, Daniele
2010-01-01
Important information about the infrared dynamics of QCD is encoded in the behavior of its (of-shell) Green's functions, most notably the gluon and the ghost propagators. Due to recent improvements in the quality of lattice data and the truncation schemes employed for the Schwinger-Dyson equations we have now reached a point where the interplay between these two non-perturbative tools can be most fruitful. In this talk several of the above points will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications for the ghost sector, the non-perturbative effective charge of QCD, and the Kugo-Ojima function.
A measurable Lawson criterion and hydro-equivalent curves for inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, C. D.; Betti, R.
2008-01-01
It is shown that the ignition condition (Lawson criterion) for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) can be cast in a form dependent on the only two parameters of the compressed fuel assembly that can be measured with existing techniques: the hot spot ion temperature (T i h ) and the total areal density (ρR tot ), which includes the cold shell contribution. A marginal ignition curve is derived in the ρR tot , T i h plane and current implosion experiments are compared with the ignition curve. On this plane, hydrodynamic equivalent curves show how a given implosion would perform with respect to the ignition condition when scaled up in the laser-driver energy. For 3 i h > n i h > n 2.6 · tot > n >50 keV 2.6 · g/cm 2 , where tot > n and i h > n are the burn-averaged total areal density and hot spot ion temperature, respectively. Both quantities are calculated without accounting for the alpha-particle energy deposition. Such a criterion can be used to determine how surrogate D 2 and subignited DT target implosions perform with respect to the one-dimensional ignition threshold.
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1978-01-01
Quantum field theory of Einstein's general relativity is formulated in the indefinitemetric Hilbert space in such a way that asymptotic fields are manifestly Lorentz covariant and the physical S-matrix is unitary. The general coordinate transformation is transcribed into a q-number transformation, called the BRS transformation. Its abstract definition is presented on the basis of the BRS transformation for the Yang-Mills theory. The BRS transformation for general relativity is then explicitly constructed. The gauge-fixing Lagrangian density and the Faddeev-Popov one are introduced in such a way that their sum behaves like a scalar density under the BRS transformation. One can then proceed in the same way as in the Kugo-Ojima formalism of the Yang-Mills theory to establish the unitarity of the physical S-matrix. (author)
Comments on confinement criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.
1977-01-01
For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt
Phase transitions and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, A.M.; Gava, E.
1978-02-01
The publication collects six lectures on the following themes: quantum field theory and classical statistical mechanics, continuous symmetries, lattice gauge theories, the nature of confinement, a criterion for confinement and non-abelian Yang-Mills theories
Correlation of the ghost and the quark in the lattice Landau gauge QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo
2007-01-01
Effects of the quark field on the ghost propagator of the lattice Landau gauge are investigated by using the unquenched SU(3) configurations produced by the MILC collaboration and compared with quenched gauge configurations of SU(2) first copy of the over relaxation gauge fixing, the parallel tempering (PT) gauge fixing and quenched SU(3) 56 4 configurations. We measure the color symmetric and the color antisymmetric ghost propagator and the Binder cumulant of the l 1 norm and the l 2 norm of color antisymmetric ghost propagators and investigate deviation from those of Gaussian distributions. In the first copy samples of quenched SU(2) we observe a large fluctuation in the Binder cumulant at the lowest momentum point. This fluctuation is reduced in the P T gauge fixed samples. The color anti-symmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(3) configurations depends on the lattice size and is small as compared to the symmetric one in the large lattice of 56 4 . The Binder cumulant of the quenched SU(2) and the N f = 2 + 1 unquenched SU(3) are almost consistent with 3-d and 8-d Gaussian distribution, respectively. A comparison of the SU(3) unquenched configurations and quenched configurations indicates that the dynamical quarks have the effect of making color antisymmetric ghost propagator closer to the Gaussian distribution and the Kugo-Ojima color confinement parameter c closer to 1. (author)
Slavnov-Taylor constraints for nontrivial backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binosi, D.; Quadri, A.
2011-01-01
We devise an algebraic procedure for the evaluation of Green's functions in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a nontrivial background field. In the ghost-free sector the dependence of the vertex functional on the background is shown to be uniquely determined by the Slavnov-Taylor identities in terms of a certain 1-PI correlator of the covariant derivatives of the ghost and the antighost fields. At nonvanishing background this amplitude is shown to encode the quantum deformations to the tree-level background-quantum splitting. The approach only relies on the functional identities of the model (Slavnov-Taylor identities, b-equation, antighost equation) and thus it is valid beyond perturbation theory, and, in particular, in a lattice implementation of the background field method. As an example of the formalism we analyze the ghost two-point function and the Kugo-Ojima function in an instanton background in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, quantized in the background Landau gauge.
Effects of the quark field on the ghost propagator of lattice Landau gauge QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo
2006-01-01
Infrared features of the ghost propagator of color-diagonal and color antisymmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(2) and quenched SU(3) are compared with those of unquenched Kogut-Susskind fermion SU(3) lattice Landau gauge. We compare (i) the fluctuation of the ghost propagator (ii) the ghost condensate parameter v of the local composite operator (LCO) approach, and (iii) the Binder cumulant of color antisymmetric ghost propagator between quenched and unquenched configurations. The color-diagonal SU(3) ghost dressing function of unquenched configurations has weaker singularity than the quenched configurations. In both cases fluctuations become large in q c configuration samples is ∼0.002-0.04 GeV 2 while that of the SU(2) parallel tempering samples is consistent with 0. The Binder cumulant defined as U(q)=1-(1/3)( 4 >/( 2 >) 2 ), where φ-vector(q) is the color antisymmetric ghost propagator measured by the sample average of gauge fixed configurations via parallel tempering method, becomes ∼4/9 in all the momentum region. The Binder cumulant of the color antisymmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(2) can be explained by the 3D Gaussian distribution, but that of the unquenched MILC c deviates slightly from that of the eight-dimensional Gaussian distribution. The stronger singularity and large fluctuation in the quenched configuration could be the cause of the deviation of the Kugo-Ojima confinement parameter c from 1, and the presence of ordering in the ghost propagator of unquenched configurations makes it closer to 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.
1992-01-01
An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied
Particle-confinement criteria for axisymmetric field-reversed magnetic configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiao, M.Y.; Miley, G.H.
1984-01-01
Based on two constants of motion, H and Psub(theta), where H is the total energy of a particle and Psub(theta) is its canonical angular momentum, particle confinement criteria are derived which impose constraints on H and Psub(theta). With no electric field at the ends of field-reversed magnetic configurations, confinement criteria for closed-field and absolute confinements are obtained explicitly, including both lower and upper bounds of Psub(theta)/q, where q is the charge of the species considered, for a class of Hill's vortex field-reversed magnetic configurations. The commonly used criterion for the Hamiltonian, H 0 Psub(theta), where ω 0 is identical to qB 0 /mc, is deduced from a more general form as a special case. In this special case, it is found necessary to impose a new criterion, -B 0 R 2 sub(w)/2c 0 is the vacuum field, which reduces the confinement region in (H,Psub(theta)) space. With the presence of electric fields at the ends of field-reversed magnetic configurations, confinement criteria are obtained for two interesting cases. In addition to lower and upper bounds of H, both lower and upper bounds of Psub(theta)/q are found. For axially confined particles, the lower bound of Psub(theta)/q reduces the confinement region in (H,Psub(theta)) space and represents a new criterion. These results can be applied to calculations for field-reversed mirrors and field-reversed theta pinches. (author)
Canonical Yang-Mills field theory with invariant gauge-families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, Kan-ichi
1978-01-01
A canonical Yang-Mills field theory with indefinite metric is presented on the basis of a covariant gauge formalism for quantum electrodynamics. As the first step of the formulation, a many-gauge-field problem, in which many massless Abelian-gauge fields coexist, is treated from a new standpoint. It is shown that only a single pair of a gaugeon field and its associated one can govern the gauge structure of the whole system. The result obtained is further extended to cases of non-Abelian gauge theories. Gauge parameters for respective components of the Yang-Mills fields are introduced as a group vector. There exists a q-number local gauge transformation which connects relevant fields belonging to the same invariant gauge family with one another in a manifestly covariant way. In canonical quantization, the Faddeev-Popov ghosts are introduced in order to guarantee the existence of a desirable physical subspace with positive semi-definite metric. As to treatment of the Faddeev-Popov ghosts, Kugo and Ojima's approach is adopted. Three supplementary conditions which are consistent with one another constrain the physical subspace. (author)
Phenomenology and theory of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervushin, V.N.
1987-01-01
Phenomenological and theoretical arguments of the separation of the hadronization dynamics from confinement and the idea of the ''kinematic'' confinement are discussed. The recent theory contains results which point out that the Wilson criterion and the confinement potentials are not sufficient for explaining the phenomenological confinement in the sense of zero color amplitudes or Green functions. However, these potentials well explain the hadron spectrum and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, i.e., the hadronization dynamics. The ''kinematic'' confinement can be explained by the topological degeneration of all color-particle physical states in QCD. This degeneration arises if the theory is quantized by explicitly solving the gauge and dynamic constraints: all color states are defined up to gauge(phase) factors describing the map of the three-dimensional space onto SU(3) c -group (π 3 (SU(3) c =Z). The total probability of the color particle generation is equal to zero due to the destructive interference of these phase factors. As a result, in QCD there remains only a hadron sector used in the phenomenology
Singularity confinement for maps with the Laurent property
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hone, A.N.W.
2007-01-01
The singularity confinement test is very useful for isolating integrable cases of discrete-time dynamical systems, but it does not provide a sufficient criterion for integrability. Quite recently a new property of the bilinear equations appearing in discrete soliton theory has been noticed: The iterates of such equations are Laurent polynomials in the initial data. A large class of non-integrable mappings of the plane are presented which both possess this Laurent property and have confined singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudal, David; Verschelde, Henri; Lemes, Vitor E.R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Sorella, Silvio P.; Picariello, Marco; Vicini, Alessandro; Gracey, John A.
2003-01-01
We analyze the ghost condensates abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-barbc c > in Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. By combining the local composite operator formalism with the algebraic renormalization technique, we are able to give a simultaneous discussion of abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-bar b c c >, which can be seen as playing the role of the BCS, respectively Overhauser effect in ordinary superconductivity. The Curci-Ferrari gauge exhibits a global continuous symmetry generated by the Nakanishi-Ojima (NO) algebra. This algebra includes, next to the {(anti-)BRST} transformation, a SL(2,R) subalgebra. We discuss the dynamical symmetry breaking of the NO algebra through these ghost condensates. Particular attention is paid to the Landau gauge, a special case of the Curci-Ferrari gauge. (author)
The effect of hexapole and vertical fields on α-particle confinement in heliotron configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, M.Yu.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamazaki, K.
2003-03-01
Collisionless mono-energetic α-particle confinement in three-dimensional magnetic fields obtained from the magnetic coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) is calculated. It is found that the inward shift of magnetic axis due to the vertical field improves the α-particle confinement. In contrast to the vertical field, both large positive and negative hexapole fields do not improve the confinement. The study of the β effect and Mercier criterion calculations for different hexapole fields are also presented. (author)
A study on spalling in soft rock under low confining stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Atsunori; Ebina, Takahito; Toida, Masaru; Shirasagi, Suguru; Kishida, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Toshihisa
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study spalling in soft rock excavation. During the test cavern excavation of the radioactive waste disposal project, spalling occurred. Therefore, it has been estimated performing the stress path simulation test and measuring the induced stress. In the stress path simulation test, the splitting failure has been confirmed under low confining stress. In the induced stress measurements, the rock mass around the cavern has shifted to the low radial confinement. Hence, spalling in soft rock was interpreted by the splitting failure caused by the induced stress under low confinement. Furthermore, the failure zone was proved by the numerical analysis applying the criterion based on the results of the above triaxial test. (author)
A theoretical derivation of the Hoek–Brown failure criterion for rock materials
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Jianping Zuo
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This study uses a three-dimensional crack model to theoretically derive the Hoek–Brown rock failure criterion based on the linear elastic fracture theory. Specifically, we argue that a failure characteristic factor needs to exceed a critical value when macro-failure occurs. This factor is a product of the micro-failure orientation angle (characterizing the density and orientation of damaged micro-cracks and the changing rate of the angle with respect to the major principal stress (characterizing the microscopic stability of damaged cracks. We further demonstrate that the factor mathematically leads to the empirical Hoek–Brown rock failure criterion. Thus, the proposed factor is able to successfully relate the evolution of microscopic damaged crack characteristics to macro-failure. Based on this theoretical development, we also propose a quantitative relationship between the brittle–ductile transition point and confining pressure, which is consistent with experimental observations.
An experiment to test centrifugal confinement for fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.F.; Hassam, A.B.; Messer, S.; Osborn, B.R.
2001-01-01
The basic idea of centrifugal confinement is to use centrifugal forces from supersonic rotation to augment conventional magnetic confinement. Optimizing this 'knob' results in a fusion device that features four advantages: steady state, no disruptions, superior cross-field confinement, and a simpler coil configuration. The idea rests on two prongs: first, centrifugal forces can confine plasmas to desired regions of shaped magnetic fields; second, the accompanying large velocity shear can stabilize even magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. A third feature is that the velocity shear also viscously heats the plasma; no auxiliary heating is necessary to reach fusion temperatures. Regarding transport, the velocity shear can also quell microturbulence, leading to fully classical confinement, as there are no neoclassical effects. Classical parallel electron transport then sets the confinement time. These losses are minimized by a large Pastukhov factor resulting from the deep centrifugal potential well: at Mach 4-5, the Lawson criterion is accessible. One key issue is whether velocity shear will be sufficient by itself to stabilize MHD interchanges. Numerical simulations indicate that laminar equilibria can be obtained at Mach numbers of 4-5 but that the progression toward laminarity with increasing Mach number is accompanied by residual convection from the interchanges. The central goal of the Maryland Centrifugal Torus (MCT) [R. F. Ellis et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 48 (1998)] is to obtain MHD stability from velocity shear. As an assist to accessing laminarity, MCT will incorporate two unique features: plasma elongation and toroidal magnetic field. The former raises velocity shear efficiency, and modest magnetic shear should suppress residual convection
The Distributed Criterion Design
McDougall, Dennis
2006-01-01
This article describes and illustrates a novel form of the changing criterion design called the distributed criterion design, which represents perhaps the first advance in the changing criterion design in four decades. The distributed criterion design incorporates elements of the multiple baseline and A-B-A-B designs and is well suited to applied…
The destructive interference phenomenon as a reason for the confinement in QEDsub(1+1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilieva, N.P.; Pervushina, V.N.
1986-01-01
Two-dimensional massless QED is considered in terms of gauge-invariant dynamical variables. By an example of the fermion Green function it is shown that the linearly risng potential allows the existence of excitations with quark quantum numbers in the spectrum of the model (so the validity of Wilson criterion does not lead automaticaly to the confinement). The topological generation of the physical-field phase in a finite-volume space-time is considered. The destructive interference of the phase factors is pointed out as a possible reason for the confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitworth, A.P.
1980-01-01
The Jeans criterion is first stated and distinguished from the Virial Theorem. Then it is discussed how the Jeans criterion can be derived from the Virial Theorem and the inherent shortcomings in this derivation. Finally, it is indicated how these shortcomings might be overcome. The Jeans criterion is a fragmentation - or condensation -criterion. An expression is given, connecting the fragmentation of an unstable extended medium into masses Msub(J). Rather than picturing the background medium fragmenting, it is probably more appropriate to envisage these masses Msub(J) 'condensing' out of the background medium. On the condensation picture some fraction of the background material separates out into coherent bound nodules under the pull of its self-gravity. For this reason the Jeans criterion is discussed as a condensation condition, reserving the term fragmentation for a different process. The Virial Theorem provides a contraction criterion. This is described with reference to a spherical cloud and is developed to derive the Jeans criterion. (U.K.)
Reliability and criterion-related validity with a smartphone used in timed-up-and-go test
Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Barón-López, Francisco Javier; Labajos-Manzanares, María T; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I
2014-01-01
Background The capacity to diagnosys, quantify and evaluate movement beyond the general confines of a clinical environment under effectiveness conditions may alleviate rampant strain on limited, expensive and highly specialized medical resources. An iPhone 4® mounted a three dimensional accelerometer subsystem with highly robust software applications. The present study aimed to evaluate the reliability and concurrent criterion-related validity of the accelerations with an iPhone 4® in an Exte...
A new and effective method for thermostatting confined fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Luca, Sergio; Billy, Todd; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2014-01-01
not interact with wall atoms or each other, thus behaving as virtual particles. Their displacements violate the Lindemann criterion for melting, in such a way that the net effect would not amount to an additional confining surface. One advantage over standard techniques is the reduced computational cost......, particularly for large walls, since they can be kept rigid. Another advantage over accepted strategies is the opportunity to freeze complex charged walls such as β-cristobalite. The method furthermore overcomes the problem with polar fluids such as water, as thermalized charged surfaces require higher spring...
Discriminant Validity Assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT Criterion
Hamid, M. R. Ab; Sami, W.; Mohmad Sidek, M. H.
2017-09-01
Assessment of discriminant validity is a must in any research that involves latent variables for the prevention of multicollinearity issues. Fornell and Larcker criterion is the most widely used method for this purpose. However, a new method has emerged for establishing the discriminant validity assessment through heterotrait-monotrait (HTMT) ratio of correlations method. Therefore, this article presents the results of discriminant validity assessment using these methods. Data from previous study was used that involved 429 respondents for empirical validation of value-based excellence model in higher education institutions (HEI) in Malaysia. From the analysis, the convergent, divergent and discriminant validity were established and admissible using Fornell and Larcker criterion. However, the discriminant validity is an issue when employing the HTMT criterion. This shows that the latent variables under study faced the issue of multicollinearity and should be looked into for further details. This also implied that the HTMT criterion is a stringent measure that could detect the possible indiscriminant among the latent variables. In conclusion, the instrument which consisted of six latent variables was still lacking in terms of discriminant validity and should be explored further.
Time to Criterion: An Experimental Study.
Anderson, Lorin W.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the magnitude of individual differences in time-to-criterion and the stability of these differences. Time-to-criterion was defined in two ways: the amount of elapsed time required to attain the criterion level and the amount of on-task time required to attain the criterion level. Ninety students were…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.
2001-01-01
Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.
1999-01-01
Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)
Shear-Alfven dynamics of toroidally confined plasmas. Part A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Meiss, J.D.
1984-08-01
Recent developments in the stability theory of toroidally confined plasmas are reviewed, with the intention of providing a picture comprehensible to non-specialists. The review considers a class of low-frequency, electromagnetic disturbances that seem especially pertinent to modern high-temperature confinement experiments. It is shown that such disturbances are best unified and understood through consideration of a single, exact fluid moment: the shear-Alfven law. Appropriate versions of this law and its corresponding closure relations are derived - essentially from first principles - and applied in a variety of mostly, but not exclusively, linear contexts. Among the specific topics considered are: flux coordinates (including Hamada coordinates), the Newcomb solubility condition. Shafranov geometry, magnetic island evolution, reduced MHD and its generalizations, drift-kinetic electron response, classical tearing, twisting, and kink instabilities, pressure-modified tearing instability (Δ-critical), collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes, the ballooning representation in general geometry, ideal ballooning instability, Mercier criterion, near-axis expansions, the second stability region, and resistive and kinetic ballooning modes. The fundamental importance of toroidal topology and curvature is stressed
Fuel-pin cladding transient failure strain criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bard, F.E.; Duncan, D.R.; Hunter, C.W.
1983-01-01
A criterion for cladding failure based on accumulated strain was developed for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins and used to interpret the calculated strain results from failed transient fuel pin experiments conducted in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility. The new STRAIN criterion replaced a stress-based criterion that depends on the DORN parameter and that incorrectly predicted fuel pin failure for transient tested fuel pins. This paper describes the STRAIN criterion and compares its prediction with those of the stress-based criterion
The Bohm criterion for rf discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meijer, P.M.; Goedheer, W.J.
1991-01-01
The well-known dc Bohm criterion is extended to rf discharges. Both low- (ω rf much-lt ω pi ) and high-(ω pi much-lt ω rf ) frequency regimes are considered. For low frequencies, the dc Bohm criterion holds. This criterion states that the initial energy of the ions entering the sheath must exceed a limit in order to obtain a stable sheath. For high frequencies, a modified limit is derived, which is somewhat lower than that of the dc Bohm criterion. The resulting ion current density in a high-frequency sheath is only a few percent lower than that for the dc case
Irreducibility and co-primeness as an integrability criterion for discrete equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanki, Masataka; Mada, Jun; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2014-01-01
We study the Laurent property, the irreducibility and co-primeness of discrete integrable and non-integrable equations. First we study a discrete integrable equation related to the Somos-4 sequence, and also a non-integrable equation as a comparison. We prove that the conditions of irreducibility and co-primeness hold only in the integrable case. Next, we generalize our previous results on the singularities of the discrete Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation. In our previous paper (Kanki et al 2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 065201) we described the singularity confinement test (one of the integrability criteria) using the Laurent property, and the irreducibility, and co-primeness of the terms in the bilinear dKdV equation, in which we only considered simplified boundary conditions. This restriction was needed to obtain simple (monomial) relations between the bilinear form and the nonlinear form of the dKdV equation. In this paper, we prove the co-primeness of the terms in the nonlinear dKdV equation for general initial conditions and boundary conditions, by using the localization of Laurent rings and the interchange of the axes. We assert that co-primeness of the terms can be used as a new integrability criterion, which is a mathematical re-interpretation of the confinement of singularities in the case of discrete equations. (paper)
Towards chaos criterion in quantum field theory
Kuvshinov, V. I.; Kuzmin, A. V.
2002-01-01
Chaos criterion for quantum field theory is proposed. Its correspondence with classical chaos criterion in semi-classical regime is shown. It is demonstrated for real scalar field that proposed chaos criterion can be used to investigate stability of classical solutions of field equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolka, E.
1993-07-01
A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)
Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elyse H Norton
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.
A work criterion for plastic collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muscat, Martin; Mackenzie, Donald; Hamilton, Robert
2003-01-01
A new criterion for evaluating limit and plastic loads in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented. The proposed criterion is based on the plastic work dissipated in the structure as loading progresses and may be used for structures subject to a single load or a combination of multiple loads. Example analyses show that limit and plastic loads given by the plastic work criterion are robust and consistent. The limit and plastic loads are determined purely by the inelastic response of the structure and are not influenced by the initial elastic response: a problem with some established plastic criteria
Some properties of the computable cross-norm criterion for separability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudolph, Oliver
2003-01-01
The computable cross-norm (CCN) criterion is a powerful analytical and computable separability criterion for bipartite quantum states, which is also known to systematically detect bound entanglement. In certain aspects this criterion complements the well-known Peres positive partial transpose (PPT) criterion. In the present paper we study important analytical properties of the CCN criterion. We show that in contrast to the PPT criterion it is not sufficient in dimension 2x2. In higher dimensions, theorems connecting the fidelity of a quantum state with the CCN criterion are proved. We also analyze the behavior of the CCN criterion under local operations and identify the operations that leave it invariant. It turns out that the CCN criterion is in general not invariant under local operations
Centrifugal particle confinement in mirror geometry
White, Roscoe; Hassam, Adil; Brizard, Alain
2018-01-01
The use of supersonic rotation of a plasma in mirror geometry has distinct advantages for thermonuclear fusion. The device is steady state, there are no disruptions, the loss cone is almost closed, sheared rotation stabilizes magnetohydrodynamic instabilities as well as plasma turbulence, there are no runaway electrons, and the coil configuration is simple. In this work, we examine the effect of rotation on mirror confinement using a full cyclotron orbit code. The full cyclotron simulations give a much more complete description of the particle energy distribution and losses than the use of guiding center equations. Both collisionless loss as a function of rotation and the effect of collisions are investigated. Although the cross field diffusion is classical, we find that the local rotating Maxwellian is increased to higher energy, increasing the fusion rate and also enhancing the radial diffusion. We find a loss channel not envisioned with a guiding center treatment, but a design can be chosen that can satisfy the Lawson criterion for ions. Of course, the rotation has a minimal effect on the alpha particle birth distribution, so there is initially loss through the usual loss cone, just as in a mirror with no rotation. However after this loss, the alphas slow down on the electrons with little pitch angle scattering until reaching low energy, so over half of the initial alpha energy is transferred to the electrons. The important problem of energy confinement, with losses primarily through the electron channel, is not addressed in this work. We also discuss the use of rotating mirror geometry to produce an ion thruster.
Confinement physic study in a small low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Akiyama, R.
1999-01-01
The configuration parameter of the plasma position relative to the center of the helical coil winding is very effective one for controlling the MHD stability and the trapped particle confinement in Heliotron/Torsatron systems. But these two characteristics are contradictory to each other in this parameter. The inward shifted configuration is favorable for the drift-orbit-optimization but it is predicted unstable with the Mercier criterion. Various physics problems, such as electric field structure, plasma rotation and MHD phenomena, have been studied in CHS with a compromising intermediate position. With this standard configuration, CHS has supplied experimental results for understanding general toroidal confinement physics and low-aspect-ratio helical systems. In the recent experiments, it was found that the wide range of inward shifted configurations gives stable plasma discharges without any restriction to the special pressure profile. Such enhanced range of operation made it possible to study experimentally the drift-orbit-optimized configuration in the Heliotron/Torsatron systems. The effect of configuration improvement was studied with plasmas in a low collisionality regime. (author)
Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipton, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-08-27
The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.
The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.
2015-01-01
In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...
Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kawa Marek
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.
A Failure Criterion for Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottosen, N. S.
1977-01-01
A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace in the devi......A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...
The EMU debt criterion: an interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. BERNDSEN
1997-12-01
Full Text Available The convergence criteria specified in the Maastricht Treaty on government deficit and debt, inflation, the exchange rate and the long-term interest rate will play an important, if not decisive, role in determining which countries move on to the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. The aim of this work is to provide a possible interpretation of the EMU debt criterion. The author investigates the government debt criterion which, as Article 104c(2b of the Treaty shows, has a considerable scope for interpretation. Although this subject has been discussed extensively, relatively little work has been done to develop a clear interpretation of the EMU debt criterion. A flexible approach is adopted in which parts of the relevant Treaty text are characterised using two parameters.
Inviscid criterion for decomposing scales
Zhao, Dongxiao; Aluie, Hussein
2018-05-01
The proper scale decomposition in flows with significant density variations is not as straightforward as in incompressible flows, with many possible ways to define a "length scale." A choice can be made according to the so-called inviscid criterion [Aluie, Physica D 24, 54 (2013), 10.1016/j.physd.2012.12.009]. It is a kinematic requirement that a scale decomposition yield negligible viscous effects at large enough length scales. It has been proved [Aluie, Physica D 24, 54 (2013), 10.1016/j.physd.2012.12.009] recently that a Favre decomposition satisfies the inviscid criterion, which is necessary to unravel inertial-range dynamics and the cascade. Here we present numerical demonstrations of those results. We also show that two other commonly used decompositions can violate the inviscid criterion and, therefore, are not suitable to study inertial-range dynamics in variable-density and compressible turbulence. Our results have practical modeling implication in showing that viscous terms in Large Eddy Simulations do not need to be modeled and can be neglected.
Effect of electric fields and fluctuations on confinement in a bumpy torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiroe, S.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.
1986-06-01
In order to understand the relationships between confinement and space potential (electric field) and between confinement and density fluctuations, plasma parameters in the ELMO Bumpy Torus Scale (EBT-S) have been measured systematically for a wide range of operating conditions. Present EBT plasma parameters do not show a strong dependence on the potential profile, but rather exhibit a correlation with the fluctuations. The plasma pressure profile is found to be consistent with the profile anticipated on the basis of the flute stability criterion for a marginally stable plasma. For a heating power of 100 kW, the stored energy density is found to be restricted to the range between 4.5 x 10 13 eV-cm -3 and 7 x 10 13 eV-cm -3 . The lower limit remains constant regardless of heating power and pertains to plasmas lacking an equilibrium and/or stability. The upper limit increases with heating power and is found to result from the onset of instabilities. In between the two limits is a plasma that is in an equilibrium state and is marginally stable. Operational trajectories exist that take the EBT plasma from one limit to the other
Plasma sheath criterion in thermal electronegative plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghomi, Hamid; Khoramabadi, Mansour; Ghorannevis, Mahmod; Shukla, Padma Kant
2010-01-01
The sheath formation criterion in electronegative plasma is examined. By using a multifluid model, it is shown that in a collisional sheath there will be upper as well as lower limits for the sheath velocity criterion. However, the parameters of the negative ions only affect the lower limit.
A pellet-clad interaction failure criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howl, D.A.; Coucill, D.N.; Marechal, A.J.C.
1983-01-01
A Pellet-Clad Interaction (PCI) failure criterion, enabling the number of fuel rod failures in a reactor core to be determined for a variety of normal and fault conditions, is required for safety analysis. The criterion currently being used for the safety analysis of the Pressurized Water Reactor planned for Sizewell in the UK is defined and justified in this paper. The criterion is based upon a threshold clad stress which diminishes with increasing fast neutron dose. This concept is consistent with the mechanism of clad failure being stress corrosion cracking (SCC); providing excess corrodant is always present, the dominant parameter determining the propagation of SCC defects is stress. In applying the criterion, the SLEUTH-SEER 77 fuel performance computer code is used to calculate the peak clad stress, allowing for concentrations due to pellet hourglassing and the effect of radial cracks in the fuel. The method has been validated by analysis of PCI failures in various in-reactor experiments, particularly in the well-characterised power ramp tests in the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. It is also in accord with out-of-reactor tests with iodine and irradiated Zircaloy clad, such as those carried out at Kjeller in Norway. (author)
A multipole acceptability criterion for electronic structure theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwegler, E.; Challacombe, M.; Head-Gordon, M.
1998-01-01
Accurate and computationally inexpensive estimates of multipole expansion errors are crucial to the success of several fast electronic structure methods. In this paper, a new nonempirical multipole acceptability criterion is described that is directly applicable to expansions of high order moments. Several model calculations typical of electronic structure theory are presented to demonstrate its performance. For cases involving small translation distances, accuracies are increased by up to five orders of magnitude over an empirical criterion. The new multipole acceptance criterion is on average within an order of magnitude of the exact expansion error. Use of the multipole acceptance criterion in hierarchical multipole based methods as well as in traditional electronic structure methods is discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Nonparametric adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Coolen, F.P.A.
2007-01-01
Age replacement of technical units has received much attention in the reliability literature over the last four decades. Mostly, the failure time distribution for the units is assumed to be known, and minimal costs per unit of time is used as optimality criterion, where renewal reward theory simplifies the mathematics involved but requires the assumption that the same process and replacement strategy continues over a very large ('infinite') period of time. Recently, there has been increasing attention to adaptive strategies for age replacement, taking into account the information from the process. Although renewal reward theory can still be used to provide an intuitively and mathematically attractive optimality criterion, it is more logical to use minimal costs per unit of time over a single cycle as optimality criterion for adaptive age replacement. In this paper, we first show that in the classical age replacement setting, with known failure time distribution with increasing hazard rate, the one-cycle criterion leads to earlier replacement than the renewal reward criterion. Thereafter, we present adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion within the nonparametric predictive inferential framework. We study the performance of this approach via simulations, which are also used for comparisons with the use of the renewal reward criterion within the same statistical framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Fusion@ÖAW, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2015-09-15
Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.
Reactor instrumentation. Definition of the single failure criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-12-01
The standard defines the single failure criterion which is used in other IEC publications on reactor safety systems. The purpose of the single failure criterion is the assurance of minimum redundancy. (orig./HP) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khadkikar, S.B.; Vinodkumar, P.C.
1987-04-01
Confinement model for gluons using a 'colour super current' is formulated. An attempt has been made to derive a suitable dielectric function corresponding to the current confinement model. A simple inhomogeneous dielectric confinement model for gluons is studied for comparison. The model Hamiltonians are second quantized and the glueball states are constructed. The spurious motion of the centre of confinement is accounted for. The results of the current confinement scheme are found to be in good agreement with the experimental candidates for glueballs. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs
Modified Schur-Cohn Criterion for Stability of Delayed Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Ignacio Mulero-Martínez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A modified Schur-Cohn criterion for time-delay linear time-invariant systems is derived. The classical Schur-Cohn criterion has two main drawbacks; namely, (i the dimension of the Schur-Cohn matrix generates some round-off errors eventually resulting in a polynomial of s with erroneous coefficients and (ii imaginary roots are very hard to detect when numerical errors creep in. In contrast to the classical Schur-Cohn criterion an alternative approach is proposed in this paper which is based on the application of triangular matrices over a polynomial ring in a similar way as in the Jury test of stability for discrete systems. The advantages of the proposed approach are that it halves the dimension of the polynomial and it only requires seeking real roots, making this modified criterion comparable to the Rekasius substitution criterion.
FFTBM and primary pressure acceptance criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosek, A.
2004-01-01
When thermalhydraulic computer codes are used for simulation in the area of nuclear engineering the question is how to conduct an objective comparison between the code calculation and measured data. To answer this the fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) was developed. When the FFTBM method was developed the acceptance criteria for primary pressure and total accuracy were set. In the recent study the FFTBM method was used for accuracy quantification of RD-14M large LOCA test B9401 calculations. The blind accuracy analysis indicated good total accuracy while the primary pressure criterion was not fulfilled. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate the reasons for not fulfilling the primary pressure acceptance criterion and the applicability of the criterion to experimental facilities simulating heavy water reactor. The results of the open quantitative analysis showed that sensitivity analysis for influence parameters provide sufficient information to judge in which calculation the accuracy of primary pressure is acceptable. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ochrana František
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.
Ignition criterion for heterogeneous energetic materials based on hotspot size-temperature threshold
Barua, A.; Kim, S.; Horie, Y.; Zhou, M.
2013-02-01
A criterion for the ignition of granular explosives (GXs) and polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) under shock and non-shock loading is developed. The formulation is based on integration of a quantification of the distributions of the sizes and locations of hotspots in loading events using a cohesive finite element method (CFEM) developed recently and the characterization by Tarver et al. [C. M. Tarver et al., "Critical conditions for impact- and shock-induced hot spots in solid explosives," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5794-5799 (1996)] of the critical size-temperature threshold of hotspots required for chemical ignition of solid explosives. The criterion, along with the CFEM capability to quantify the thermal-mechanical behavior of GXs and PBXs, allows the critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition to be determined as functions of material composition, microstructure, and loading conditions. The applicability of the relation between the critical input energy (E) and impact velocity of James [H. R. James, "An extension to the critical energy criterion used to predict shock initiation thresholds," Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 21, 8-13 (1996)] for shock loading is examined, leading to a modified interpretation, which is sensitive to microstructure and loading condition. As an application, numerical studies are undertaken to evaluate the ignition threshold of granular high melting point eXplosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX) and HMX/Estane PBX under loading with impact velocities up to 350 ms-1 and strain rates up to 105 s-1. Results show that, for the GX, the time to criticality (tc) is strongly influenced by initial porosity, but is insensitive to grain size. Analyses also lead to a quantification of the differences between the responses of the GXs and PBXs in terms of critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition. Since the framework permits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Lorenci, V.A. de; Elbaz, E.
1997-02-01
In this paper we present a new model for a gauge field theory such that self-interacting spin-one particles can be confined in a compact domain. The necessary conditions to produce the confining potential appear already in the properties of the eikonal structure generated by the particular choice of the dynamics. (author)
Nartowski, K P; Tedder, J; Braun, D E; Fábián, L; Khimyak, Y Z
2015-10-14
The nanocrystallisation of complex molecules inside mesoporous hosts and control over the resulting structure is a significant challenge. To date the largest organic molecule crystallised inside the nano-pores is a known pharmaceutical intermediate - ROY (259.3 g mol(-1)). In this work we demonstrate smart manipulation of the phase of a larger confined pharmaceutical - indomethacin (IMC, 357.8 g mol(-1)), a substance with known conformational flexibility and complex polymorphic behaviour. We show the detailed structural analysis and the control of solid state transformations of encapsulated molecules inside the pores of mesoscopic cellular foam (MCF, pore size ca. 29 nm) and controlled pore glass (CPG, pore size ca. 55 nm). Starting from confined amorphous IMC we drive crystallisation into a confined methanol solvate, which upon vacuum drying leads to the stabilised rare form V of IMC inside the MCF host. In contrast to the pure form, encapsulated form V does not transform into a more stable polymorph upon heating. The size of the constraining pores and the drug concentration within the pores determine whether the amorphous state of the drug is stabilised or it recrystallises into confined nanocrystals. The work presents, in a critical manner, an application of complementary techniques (DSC, PXRD, solid-state NMR, N2 adsorption) to confirm unambiguously the phase transitions under confinement and offers a comprehensive strategy towards the formation and control of nano-crystalline encapsulated organic solids.
Covariance-Based Measurement Selection Criterion for Gaussian-Based Algorithms
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Fernando A. Auat Cheein
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Process modeling by means of Gaussian-based algorithms often suffers from redundant information which usually increases the estimation computational complexity without significantly improving the estimation performance. In this article, a non-arbitrary measurement selection criterion for Gaussian-based algorithms is proposed. The measurement selection criterion is based on the determination of the most significant measurement from both an estimation convergence perspective and the covariance matrix associated with the measurement. The selection criterion is independent from the nature of the measured variable. This criterion is used in conjunction with three Gaussian-based algorithms: the EIF (Extended Information Filter, the EKF (Extended Kalman Filter and the UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter. Nevertheless, the measurement selection criterion shown herein can also be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithms. Although this work is focused on environment modeling, the results shown herein can be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithm implementations. Mathematical descriptions and implementation results that validate the proposal are also included in this work.
Angular criterion for distinguishing between Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medina, Francisco F.; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge; Castaneda, Roman; Matteucci, Giorgio
2003-03-01
The distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction is a crucial condition for the accurate analysis of diffracting structures. In this paper we propose a criterion based on the angle subtended by the first zero of the diffraction pattern from the center of the diffracting aperture. The determination of the zero of the diffraction pattern is the crucial point for assuring the precision of the criterion. It mainly depends on the dynamical range of the detector. Therefore, the applicability of adequate thresholds for different detector types is discussed. The criterion is also generalized by expressing it in terms of the number of Fresnel zones delimited by the aperture. Simulations are reported for illustrating the feasibility of the criterion. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anang Kristianto
2012-11-01
Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement
Hazeltine, R D
2003-01-01
Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.
Criterion for testing multiparticle negative-partial-transpose entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, B.; Zhou, D.L.; Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.
2003-01-01
We revisit the criterion of multiparticle entanglement based on the overlaps of a given quantum state ρ with maximally entangled states. For a system of m particles, each with N distinct states, we prove that ρ is m-particle negative partial transpose entangled, if there exists a maximally entangled state vertical bar MES>, such that >1/N. While this sufficiency condition is weaker than the Peres-Horodecki criterion in all cases, it applies to multi-particle systems, and becomes especially useful when the number of particles (m) is large. We also consider the converse of this criterion and illustrate its invalidity with counter examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joos, H.
1976-07-01
The main topics of these lectures are: phenomenological approach to quark confinement, standard Lagrangian of hadrondynamics, Lagrangian field theory and quark confinement, classical soliton solutions in a simple model, quantization of extended systems, colour charge screening and quantization on a lattice and remarks on applications. A survey of the scientific publications listed according to the topics until 26 March 1976 is supplemented. (BJ) [de
Chernobyl new safe confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodd, L.
2011-01-01
The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru
SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CRITERIONS OF FAMILY LIFESTYLE TYPOLOGY
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Yekaterina Anatolievna Yumkina
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present socio-psychological criterions of family lifestyle typology, which were found during theoretical modelling and empirical research work. It is important in fundamental and practical aspects. St-Petersburg students (n = 116, from 19 to 21 years old were examined by special questionnaire «Family relationship and home» (Kunitsi-na V.N., Yumkina Ye.A., 2012 which measures different aspects of family lifestyle. We also used complex of methods that gave us information about personal values, self-rating and parent-child relationships. Dates were divided into six groups according to three main criterions of family lifestyle typology: social environment of family life, family activity, and family interpersonal relationships. There were found statistically significant differences between pairs of group from every criterions. The results can be useful in spheres dealing with family crisis, family development, family traditions etc.
Comparison of a low- to high-confinement transition theory with experimental data from DIII-D.
Guzdar, P N; Kleva, R G; Groebner, R J; Gohil, P
2002-12-23
From our recent theory based on the generation of shear flow and field in finite beta plasmas, the criterion for bifurcation from low to high confinement mode yields a critical parameter proportional to T(e)/square root (L(n)), where T(e) is the electron temperature and L(n) is the density scale length. The predicted threshold shows very good agreement with edge measurements on discharges undergoing low-to-high transitions in DIII-D. The observed differences in the transitions with the reversal of the toroidal magnetic field are reconciled in terms of this critical parameter. The theory also provides an explanation for pellet injection H modes in DIII-D, thereby unifying unconnected methods for accomplishing the transition.
Industry Software Trustworthiness Criterion Research Based on Business Trustworthiness
Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jun-fei; Jiao, Hai-xing; Shen, Yi; Liu, Shu-yuan
To industry software Trustworthiness problem, an idea aiming to business to construct industry software trustworthiness criterion is proposed. Based on the triangle model of "trustworthy grade definition-trustworthy evidence model-trustworthy evaluating", the idea of business trustworthiness is incarnated from different aspects of trustworthy triangle model for special industry software, power producing management system (PPMS). Business trustworthiness is the center in the constructed industry trustworthy software criterion. Fusing the international standard and industry rules, the constructed trustworthy criterion strengthens the maneuverability and reliability. Quantitive evaluating method makes the evaluating results be intuitionistic and comparable.
On improved confinement in mirror plasmas by a radial electric field
Ågren, O.; Moiseenko, V. E.
2017-11-01
A weak radial electric field can suppress radial excursions of a guiding center from its mean magnetic surface. The physical origin of this effect is the smearing action by a poloidal E × B rotation, which tend to cancel out the inward and outward radial drifts. A use of this phenomenon may provide larger margins for magnetic field shaping with radial confinement of particles maintained in the collision free idealization. Mirror fields, stabilized by a quadrupolar field component, are of particular interest for their MHD stability and the possibility to control the quasi neutral radial electric field by biased potential plates outside the confinement region. Flux surface footprints on the end tank wall have to be traced to avoid short-circuiting between biased plates. Assuming a robust biasing procedure, moderate voltage demands for the biased plates seems adequate to cure even the radial excursions of Yushmanov ions which could be locally trapped near the mirrors. Analytical expressions are obtained for a magnetic quadrupolar mirror configuration which possesses minimal radial magnetic drifts in the central confinement region. By adding a weak controlled radial quasi-neutral electric field, the majority of gyro centers are predicted to be forced to move even closer to their respective mean magnetic surface. The gyro center radial coordinate is in such a case an accurate approximation for a constant of motion. By using this constant of motion, the analysis is in a Vlasov description extended to finite β. A correspondence between that Vlasov system and a fluid description with a scalar pressure and an electric potential is verified. The minimum B criterion is considered and implications for flute mode stability in the considered magnetic field is analyzed. By carrying out a long-thin expansion to a higher order, the validity of the calculations are extended to shorter and more compact device designs.
Two novel synchronization criterions for a unified chaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao Chaohai; Xiong Hongxia; Hu Feng
2006-01-01
Two novel synchronization criterions are proposed in this paper. It includes drive-response synchronization and adaptive synchronization schemes. Moreover, these synchronization criterions can be applied to a large class of chaotic systems and are very useful for secure communication
A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations
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Urs Schaefer-Rolffs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.
Dynamics in geometrical confinement
Kremer, Friedrich
2014-01-01
This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...
Decision criterion dynamics in animals performing an auditory detection task.
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Robert W Mill
Full Text Available Classical signal detection theory attributes bias in perceptual decisions to a threshold criterion, against which sensory excitation is compared. The optimal criterion setting depends on the signal level, which may vary over time, and about which the subject is naïve. Consequently, the subject must optimise its threshold by responding appropriately to feedback. Here a series of experiments was conducted, and a computational model applied, to determine how the decision bias of the ferret in an auditory signal detection task tracks changes in the stimulus level. The time scales of criterion dynamics were investigated by means of a yes-no signal-in-noise detection task, in which trials were grouped into blocks that alternately contained easy- and hard-to-detect signals. The responses of the ferrets implied both long- and short-term criterion dynamics. The animals exhibited a bias in favour of responding "yes" during blocks of harder trials, and vice versa. Moreover, the outcome of each single trial had a strong influence on the decision at the next trial. We demonstrate that the single-trial and block-level changes in bias are a manifestation of the same criterion update policy by fitting a model, in which the criterion is shifted by fixed amounts according to the outcome of the previous trial and decays strongly towards a resting value. The apparent block-level stabilisation of bias arises as the probabilities of outcomes and shifts on single trials mutually interact to establish equilibrium. To gain an intuition into how stable criterion distributions arise from specific parameter sets we develop a Markov model which accounts for the dynamic effects of criterion shifts. Our approach provides a framework for investigating the dynamics of decisions at different timescales in other species (e.g., humans and in other psychological domains (e.g., vision, memory.
Tokamak confinement scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.
1998-01-01
The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)
Blind equalization with criterion with memory nonlinearity
Chen, Yuanjie; Nikias, Chrysostomos L.; Proakis, John G.
1992-06-01
Blind equalization methods usually combat the linear distortion caused by a nonideal channel via a transversal filter, without resorting to the a priori known training sequences. We introduce a new criterion with memory nonlinearity (CRIMNO) for the blind equalization problem. The basic idea of this criterion is to augment the Godard [or constant modulus algorithm (CMA)] cost function with additional terms that penalize the autocorrelations of the equalizer outputs. Several variations of the CRIMNO algorithms are derived, with the variations dependent on (1) whether the empirical averages or the single point estimates are used to approximate the expectations, (2) whether the recent or the delayed equalizer coefficients are used, and (3) whether the weights applied to the autocorrelation terms are fixed or are allowed to adapt. Simulation experiments show that the CRIMNO algorithm, and especially its adaptive weight version, exhibits faster convergence speed than the Godard (or CMA) algorithm. Extensions of the CRIMNO criterion to accommodate the case of correlated inputs to the channel are also presented.
Importance biasing quality criterion based on contribution response theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, N.M.; Panin, M.P.
2001-01-01
The report proposes a visual criterion of importance biasing both of forward and adjoint simulation. The similarity of contribution Monte Carlo and importance biasing random collision event distribution is proved. The conservation of total number of random trajectory crossings of surfaces, which separate the source and the detector is proposed as importance biasing quality criterion. The use of this criterion is demonstrated on the example of forward vs. adjoint importance biasing in gamma ray deep penetration problem. The larger amount of published data on forward field characteristics than on adjoint leads to the more accurate approximation of adjoint importance function in comparison to forward, for it adjoint importance simulation is more effective than forward. The proposed criterion indicates it visually, showing the most uniform distribution of random trajectory crossing events for the most effective importance biasing parameters and pointing to the direction of tuning importance biasing parameters. (orig.)
Criterion of damage beginning: experimental identification for laminate composite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiebaud, F.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Lebras, J.
1996-01-01
The aim of this study is to propose a criterion of damage beginning for laminate composite. The materials is a glass-epoxy laminate [+55 deg.,-55 deg.[ n performed by winding filament process. First of all a description of the damage is performed and allows to define a damage variable. Thanks to the potential of free energy, an associated variable is defined. The damage criterion is written by using this last one. The parameter of the criterion is identified using mechanical and acoustical methods. The result is compared and exhibit a good agreement. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, E.
1985-01-01
Confinement of quarks is sometimes taken as some kind of dogma in the contemporary theory of strong interactions - quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD). Scientists should not be content with that. What is meant by ''permanent confinement'' should be formulated more precisely to see whether the theory has this property or not. The author looks at some possible interpretations of ''confinement'' and their shortcomings and then turns to the most widely used rather pragmatic definition based on the somewhat unphysical notion of infinitely heavy external sources. He describes what is known about the problem and tries to bring into focus some aspects that are insufficiently understood in his opinion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsventoukh, M. M.
2010-01-01
A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as β ∼ 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than those
General stability criterion for inviscid parallel flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Liang
2007-01-01
Arnol'd's second stability theorem is approached from an elementary point of view. First, a sufficient criterion for stability is found analytically as either -μ 1 s ) s ) in the flow, where U s is the velocity at the inflection point, and μ 1 is the eigenvalue of Poincare's problem. Second, this criterion is generalized to barotropic geophysical flows in the β plane. And the connections between present criteria and Arnol'd's nonlinear criteria are also discussed. The proofs are completely elementary and so could be used to teach undergraduate students
The Concept of Performance Levels in Criterion-Referenced Assessment.
Hewitson, Mal
The concept of performance levels in criterion-referenced assessment is explored by applying the idea to different types of tests commonly used in schools, mastery tests (including diagnostic tests) and achievement tests. In mastery tests, a threshold performance standard must be established for each criterion. Attainment of this threshold…
Pattern replication by confined dewetting
Harkema, S.; Schäffer, E.; Morariu, M.D.; Steiner, U
2003-01-01
The dewetting of a polymer film in a confined geometry was employed in a pattern-replication process. The instability of dewetting films is pinned by a structured confining surface, thereby replicating its topographic pattern. Depending on the surface energy of the confining surface, two different
A criterion for heated pipe design by linear electric resistances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloch, M.; Cruz, J.R.B.
1984-01-01
A criterion for linear eletrical elements instalation on horizontal tubes is obtainned in this work. This criterion is based upon the calculation of the thermal stresses caused by the non uniform temperature distribution in the tube cross section. The finite difference method and the SAP IV computer code are both used in the calculations. The criterion is applied to the thermal circuits of the IEN which has tube diameter varying from φ 1/2 in till φ 8 in. (author) [pt
Novel global robust stability criterion for neural networks with delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Vimal
2009-01-01
A novel criterion for the global robust stability of Hopfield-type interval neural networks with delay is presented. An example illustrating the improvement of the present criterion over several recently reported criteria is given.
Numerical and Experimental Validation of a New Damage Initiation Criterion
Sadhinoch, M.; Atzema, E. H.; Perdahcioglu, E. S.; van den Boogaard, A. H.
2017-09-01
Most commercial finite element software packages, like Abaqus, have a built-in coupled damage model where a damage evolution needs to be defined in terms of a single fracture energy value for all stress states. The Johnson-Cook criterion has been modified to be Lode parameter dependent and this Modified Johnson-Cook (MJC) criterion is used as a Damage Initiation Surface (DIS) in combination with the built-in Abaqus ductile damage model. An exponential damage evolution law has been used with a single fracture energy value. Ultimately, the simulated force-displacement curves are compared with experiments to validate the MJC criterion. 7 out of 9 fracture experiments were predicted accurately. The limitations and accuracy of the failure predictions of the newly developed damage initiation criterion will be discussed shortly.
Prediction of Hot Tearing Using a Dimensionless Niyama Criterion
Monroe, Charles; Beckermann, Christoph
2014-08-01
The dimensionless form of the well-known Niyama criterion is extended to include the effect of applied strain. Under applied tensile strain, the pressure drop in the mushy zone is enhanced and pores grow beyond typical shrinkage porosity without deformation. This porosity growth can be expected to align perpendicular to the applied strain and to contribute to hot tearing. A model to capture this coupled effect of solidification shrinkage and applied strain on the mushy zone is derived. The dimensionless Niyama criterion can be used to determine the critical liquid fraction value below which porosity forms. This critical value is a function of alloy properties, solidification conditions, and strain rate. Once a dimensionless Niyama criterion value is obtained from thermal and mechanical simulation results, the corresponding shrinkage and deformation pore volume fractions can be calculated. The novelty of the proposed method lies in using the critical liquid fraction at the critical pressure drop within the mushy zone to determine the onset of hot tearing. The magnitude of pore growth due to shrinkage and deformation is plotted as a function of the dimensionless Niyama criterion for an Al-Cu alloy as an example. Furthermore, a typical hot tear "lambda"-shaped curve showing deformation pore volume as a function of alloy content is produced for two Niyama criterion values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Carpinteri
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the multiaxial fatigue life assessment of notched structural components is performed by employing a strain-based multiaxial fatigue criterion. Such a criterion, depending on the critical plane concept, is extended by implementing the control volume concept reated to the Strain Energy Density (SED approach: a material point located at a certain distance from the notch tip is assumed to be the verification point where to perform the above assessment. Such a distance, measured along the notch bisector, is a function of both the biaxiality ratio (defined as the ratio between the applied shear stress amplitude and the normal stress amplitude and the control volume radii under Mode I and Mode III. Once the position of the verification point is determined, the fatigue lifetime is assessed through an equivalent strain amplitude, acting on the critical plane, together with a unique material reference curve (i.e. the Manson-Coffin curve. Some uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue data related to V-notched round bars made of titanium grade 5 alloy (Ti-6Al-4V are examined to validate the present criterion.
Distance criterion for hydrogen bond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.
P2-17: Individual Differences in Dynamic Criterion Shifts during Perceptual Decision Making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Issac Rhim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Perceptual decision-making involves placing an optimal criterion on the axis of encoded sensory evidence to maximize outcomes for choices. Optimal criterion setting becomes critical particularly when neural representations of sensory inputs are noisy and feedbacks for perceptual choices vary over time in an unpredictable manner. Here we monitored time courses of decision criteria that are adopted by human subjects while abruptly shifting the criterion of stochastic feedback to perceptual choices with certain amounts in an unpredictable direction and at an unpredictable point of time. Subjects viewed a brief (0.3 s, thin (.07 deg annulus around the fixation and were forced to judge whether the annulus was smaller or larger than an unknown boundary. We estimated moment-to-moment criteria by fitting a cumulative Gaussian function to the data within a sliding window of trials that are locked to a shift in feedback criterion. Unpredictable shifts in feedback criterion successfully induced shifts in actual decision criterion towards an optimal criterion for many of subjects, but with time delay and amount of shifts varying across individual subjects. There were disproportionately more numbers of overshooters (reaching and then surpassing the optimal criterion required than undershooters (subpar reach, with a significant anti-correlation with sensory sensitivity. To find a mechanism that generates these individual differences, we developed a dynamic criterion learning model by modifying a reinforcement learning model, which assumes that a criterion is adjusted every trial by a weighted discrepancy between actual and expected rewards.
Criterion for the onset of quench for low-flow reflood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Y.Y.; Young, M.W.
1982-07-01
This study provides a criterion for the onset of quench for low flow reflood. The criterion is a combination of two conditions: T/sub clad/ < T/sub limiting quench/ where T = Temperature, and α < 0.95 where α = void fraction. This criterion was obtained by examining temperature data from tests simulating PWR reflood, such as FLECHT, THTF, PBF, CCTF, and FEBA tests, with void fraction data from CCTF, FEBA, and FLECHT low flood tests. The data show that quenching initiated at α = 0.95 and that the majority of quench occurred at void fractions near 0.85. The results show that rods can be completely quenched by entrained droplets even if the collapsed liquid level does not advance. A thorough discussion of the analysis which supports this quench criterion is given in the text of this report
Dynamics and reactivity of confined water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musat, R.
2008-01-01
In the context of new sustainable energy sources quest, the nuclear energy remains a key solution. However, with the development of nuclear technology, problems relating to nuclear waste disposal arise; thus, the radiolysis of water in confined media is extremely important with respect to matters related to long time storage of nuclear waste. Studies in model porous media would allow the projection of a confined water radiolysis simulator. A first step in this direction was made by studying the radiolysis of water confined in Vycor and CPG glasses; this study continues the trend set and investigates the effects of confinement in metal materials upon the water radiolysis allowing the understanding of metal - water radiation induced corrosion. A further/complete understanding of the radiolytic process under confinement requires knowledge of the effect of confinement upon the dynamics of confined molecules and on the evolution of the species produced upon ionizing radiation. In this respect, we have used the OH vibrator as a probe of the hydrogen bond network properties and thus investigated the dynamics of confined water using IR time resolved spectroscopy. The evolution of the hydrated electron under confinement was studied on a nano and picosecond time scale using UV pump - visible probe technique and single shot spectroscopy. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, H.
2005-01-01
This paper summarizes the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004 in the sessions of confinement, plasma-wall interaction and innovative confinement concept. The highlights of the presentations are as follows. Long pulse operation with high beta and high bootstrap fraction much longer than the current diffusion time has been achieved. The discharge scenario optimization and its extrapolation towards ITER have progressed remarkably. Significant progress has been made in understanding of global confinement and transport physics. (author)
Self-Adjointness Criterion for Operators in Fock Spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falconi, Marco
2015-01-01
In this paper we provide a criterion of essential self-adjointness for operators in the tensor product of a separable Hilbert space and a Fock space. The class of operators we consider may contain a self-adjoint part, a part that preserves the number of Fock space particles and a non-diagonal part that is at most quadratic with respect to the creation and annihilation operators. The hypotheses of the criterion are satisfied in several interesting applications
Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time
Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.
2011-01-01
Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N...
The precautionary principle as a rational decision criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hovi, Jon
2001-12-01
The paper asks if the precautionary principle may be seen as a rational decision criterion. Six main questions are discussed. 1. Does the principle basically represent a particular set of political options or is it a genuine decision criterion? 2. If it is the latter, can it be reduced to any of the existing criteria for decision making under uncertainty? 3. In what kinds of situation is the principle applicable? 4. What is the relation between the precautionary principle and other principles for environmental regulation? 5. How plausible is the principle's claim that the burden of proof should be reversed? 6. Do the proponents of environmental regulation carry no burden of proof at all? A main conclusion is that, for now at least, the principle contains too many unclear elements to satisfy the requirements of precision and consistency that should reasonably be satisfied by a rational decision criterion. (author)
Probabilistic interpretation of the reduction criterion for entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Zhengmin; Luo, Shunlong
2007-01-01
Inspired by the idea of conditional probabilities, we introduce a variant of conditional density operators. But unlike the conditional probabilities which are bounded by 1, the conditional density operators may have eigenvalues exceeding 1 for entangled states. This has the consequence that although any bivariate classical probability distribution has a natural separable decomposition in terms of conditional probabilities, we do not have a quantum analogue of this separable decomposition in general. The 'nonclassical' eigenvalues of conditional density operators are indications of entanglement. The resulting separability criterion turns out to be equivalent to the reduction criterion introduced by Horodecki [Phys. Rev. A 59, 4206 (1999)] and Cerf et al. [Phys. Rev. A 60, 898 (1999)]. This supplies an intuitive probabilistic interpretation for the reduction criterion. The conditional density operators are also used to define a form of quantum conditional entropy which provides an alternative mechanism to reveal quantum discord
Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...
Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F
2014-01-01
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng
2011-01-01
Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)
A Joint Optimization Criterion for Blind DS-CDMA Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio A. Cruces-Alvarez
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the blind detection of a desired user in an asynchronous DS-CDMA communications system with multipath propagation channels. Starting from the inverse filter criterion introduced by Tugnait and Li in 2001, we propose to tackle the problem in the context of the blind signal extraction methods for ICA. In order to improve the performance of the detector, we present a criterion based on the joint optimization of several higher-order statistics of the outputs. An algorithm that optimizes the proposed criterion is described, and its improved performance and robustness with respect to the near-far problem are corroborated through simulations. Additionally, a simulation using measurements on a real software-radio platform at 5 GHz has also been performed.
A Joint Optimization Criterion for Blind DS-CDMA Detection
Durán-Díaz, Iván; Cruces-Alvarez, Sergio A.
2006-12-01
This paper addresses the problem of the blind detection of a desired user in an asynchronous DS-CDMA communications system with multipath propagation channels. Starting from the inverse filter criterion introduced by Tugnait and Li in 2001, we propose to tackle the problem in the context of the blind signal extraction methods for ICA. In order to improve the performance of the detector, we present a criterion based on the joint optimization of several higher-order statistics of the outputs. An algorithm that optimizes the proposed criterion is described, and its improved performance and robustness with respect to the near-far problem are corroborated through simulations. Additionally, a simulation using measurements on a real software-radio platform at 5 GHz has also been performed.
Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture in Brittle Solids and the Volumetric Strain Criterion
Uenishi, K.; Yamachi, H.
2017-12-01
As pointed out by Uenishi (2016 AGU Fall Meeting), source dynamics of ordinary earthquakes is often studied in the framework of 3D rupture in brittle solids but our knowledge of mechanics of actual 3D rupture is limited. Typically, criteria derived from 1D frictional observations of sliding materials or post-failure behavior of solids are applied in seismic simulations, and although mode-I cracks are frequently encountered in earthquake-induced ground failures, rupture in tension is in most cases ignored. Even when it is included in analyses, the classical maximum principal tensile stress rupture criterion is repeatedly used. Our recent basic experiments of dynamic rupture of spherical or cylindrical monolithic brittle solids by applying high-voltage electric discharge impulses or impact loads have indicated generation of surprisingly simple and often flat rupture surfaces in 3D specimens even without the initial existence of planes of weakness. However, at the same time, the snapshots taken by a high-speed digital video camera have shown rather complicated histories of rupture development in these 3D solid materials, which seem to be difficult to be explained by, for example, the maximum principal stress criterion. Instead, a (tensile) volumetric strain criterion where the volumetric strain (dilatation or the first invariant of the strain tensor) is a decisive parameter for rupture seems more effective in computationally reproducing the multi-directionally propagating waves and rupture. In this study, we try to show the connection between this volumetric strain criterion and other classical rupture criteria or physical parameters employed in continuum mechanics, and indicate that the criterion has, to some degree, physical meanings. First, we mathematically illustrate that the criterion is equivalent to a criterion based on the mean normal stress, a crucial parameter in plasticity. Then, we mention the relation between the volumetric strain criterion and the
An Elasto-Plastic Damage Model for Rocks Based on a New Nonlinear Strength Criterion
Huang, Jingqi; Zhao, Mi; Du, Xiuli; Dai, Feng; Ma, Chao; Liu, Jingbo
2018-05-01
The strength and deformation characteristics of rocks are the most important mechanical properties for rock engineering constructions. A new nonlinear strength criterion is developed for rocks by combining the Hoek-Brown (HB) criterion and the nonlinear unified strength criterion (NUSC). The proposed criterion takes account of the intermediate principal stress effect against HB criterion, as well as being nonlinear in the meridian plane against NUSC. Only three parameters are required to be determined by experiments, including the two HB parameters σ c and m i . The failure surface of the proposed criterion is continuous, smooth and convex. The proposed criterion fits the true triaxial test data well and performs better than the other three existing criteria. Then, by introducing the Geological Strength Index, the proposed criterion is extended to rock masses and predicts the test data well. Finally, based on the proposed criterion, a triaxial elasto-plastic damage model for intact rock is developed. The plastic part is based on the effective stress, whose yield function is developed by the proposed criterion. For the damage part, the evolution function is assumed to have an exponential form. The performance of the constitutive model shows good agreement with the results of experimental tests.
Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans
2012-01-01
An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...
A new objective criterion for IRIS localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basit, A.
2010-01-01
Iris localization is the most important step in iris recognition systems. For commonly used databases, exact data is not given which describe the true results of localization. To cope with this problem a new objective criterion for iris localization is proposed in this paper based on our visual system. A specific number of points are selected on pupil boundary, iris boundary, upper eyelid and lower eyelid using the original image and then distance from these points to the result of complete iris localization has been calculated. If the determined distance is below a certain threshold then iris localization is considered correct. Experimental results show that proposed criterion is very effective. (author)
A Review of Quantum Confinement
Connerade, Jean-Patrick
2009-12-01
A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker [1]—henceforth cited as SW—in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell
A Review of Quantum Confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connerade, Jean-Patrick
2009-01-01
A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker - henceforth cited as SW - in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.
1997-01-01
A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss, depending on the laser intensity. In this configuration the circularly polarized light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. Experiments and preliminary calculations were performed to study the feasibility of the above scheme. Measurements of the axial magnetic field induced by circularly polarized laser light, the so called inverse Faraday effect, and of the absorption of circularly polarized laser light in plasma, are reported. The experiments were performed with a circularly polarized Nd:YAG laser, having a wavelength of 1.06 τm and a pulse duration of 7 ns, in a range of irradiances from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm 2 . Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss to 2 megagauss were measured. Up to 5*10 13 W/cm 3 the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. For the laser irradiance studied here, 9*10 13 - 2.5*10 14 W/cm 2 , the absorption of circularly polarized light was 14% higher relative to the absorption of linear polarized light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klinkhamer, F.R.
1985-06-01
Recent numerical results indicate that QCD in the limit of an infinite number (N) of colors also has confinement and moreover that it looks rather similar to normal QCD with N = 3 colors. This imposes severe restrictions on what the mechanism of confinement can be
Block copolymer morphologies confined by square-shaped particle: Hard and soft confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Qiyi; Yang Wenyan; Hu Kaiyan
2016-01-01
The self-assembly of diblock copolymers confined around one square-shaped particle is studied systematically within two-dimensional self-consistent field theory (SCFT). In this model, we assume that the thin block copolymer film is confined in the vicinity of a square-shaped particle by a homopolymer melt, which is equivalent to the poor solvents. Multiple sequences of square-shaped particle-induced copolymer aggregates with different shapes and self-assembled internal morphologies are predicted as functions of the particle size, the structural portion of the copolymer, and the volume fraction of the copolymer. A rich variety of aggregates are found with complex internal self-assembled morphologies including complex structures of the vesicle, with one or several inverted micelle surrounded by the outer monolayer with the particle confined in the core. These results demonstrate that the assemblies of diblock copolymers formed around the square-shaped particle in poor solvents are of immediate interest to the assembly of copolymer and the morphology of biomembrane in the confined environment, as well as to the transitions of vesicles to micelles. (paper)
Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates
Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.
1984-01-01
The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date.
Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Beck, Audrey N
2017-05-01
Despite growing recognition that cumulative adversity (total stressor exposure, including complex trauma), increases the risk for psychopathology and impacts development, assessment strategies lag behind: Adversity-related mental health needs (symptoms, functional impairment, maladaptive coping) are typically assessed in response to only one qualifying Criterion-A traumatic event. This is especially problematic for youth at-risk for health and academic disparities who experience cumulative adversity, including non-qualifying events (separation from caregivers) which may produce more impairing symptomatology. Data from 118 delinquent girls demonstrate: (1) an average of 14 adverse Criterion-A and non-Criterion event exposures; (2) serious maladaptive coping strategies (self-injury) directly in response to cumulative adversity; (3) more cumulative adversity-related than worst-event related symptomatology and functional impairment; and (4) comparable symptomatology, but greater functional impairment, in response to non-Criterion events. These data support the evaluation of mental health needs in response to cumulative adversity for optimal identification and tailoring of services in high-risk populations to reduce disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alternate fusion -- continuous inertial confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, D.C.; Turner, L.; Nebel, R.A.
1993-01-01
The authors argue that alternate approaches to large tokamak confinement are appropriate for fusion applications if: (1) They do not require magnetic confinement of a much higher quality than demonstrated in tokamaks; (2) Their physics basis may be succinctly stated and experimentally tested; (3) They offer near-term applications to important technical problems; and (4) Their cost to proof-of-principle is low enough to be consistent with current budget realities. An approach satisfying all of these criteria is presented. Fusion systems based on continuous inertial confinement are described. In these approaches, the inertia of a nonequilibrium plasma is used to produce local concentrations of plasma density in space and/or time. One implementation (inertial electrostatic confinement) which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically uses a system of electrostatic grids to accelerate plasma ions toward a spherical focus. This system produced a steady 2 x 10 10 D-T neutrons/second with an overall fusion gain of 10 -5 in a sphere of about 9 cm radius. Recent theoretical developments show how to raise the fusion gain to order unity or greater by replacing the internal grids by a combination of applied magnetic and electrostatic fields. In these approaches, useful thermonuclear conditions may be produced in a system as small as a few mm radius. Confinement is that of a nonneutralized plasma. A pure electron plasma with a radial beam velocity distribution is absolutely confined by an applied Penning trap field. Spherical convergence of the confined electrons forms a deep virtual cathode near r = 0, in which thermonuclear ions are absolutely confined at useful densities. The authors have examined the equilibrium, stability, and classical relaxation of such systems, and obtained many positive physics results. Equilibria exist for both pure electron and partially charge-neutralized systems with arbitrarily high core-plasma densities
Criterion for the engineering performance of carbon materials under neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Virgil'ev, Yu.S.
2002-01-01
The criterion for the engineering performance and substation of its applicability to the reactor graphite are proposed. The complex indicator, representing the ratio of strength limits by compression and bending is proposed as the above criterion, characterizing the graphite quality. The growth of this criterion indicates the accumulation of large heterogeneities microcracks of technological or radiation character. The decrease in this indicator testifies to the growth of small heterogeneities, and consequently to the increase in the graphite engineering performance [ru
Entanglement criterion for tripartite systems based on local sum uncertainty relations
Akbari-Kourbolagh, Y.; Azhdargalam, M.
2018-04-01
We propose a sufficient criterion for the entanglement of tripartite systems based on local sum uncertainty relations for arbitrarily chosen observables of subsystems. This criterion generalizes the tighter criterion for bipartite systems introduced by Zhang et al. [C.-J. Zhang, H. Nha, Y.-S. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 81, 012324 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.012324] and can be used for both discrete- and continuous-variable systems. It enables us to detect the entanglement of quantum states without having a complete knowledge of them. Its utility is illustrated by some examples of three-qubit, qutrit-qutrit-qubit, and three-mode Gaussian states. It is found that, in comparison with other criteria, this criterion is able to detect some three-qubit bound entangled states more efficiently.
Mercier criterion for high-β tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, R.M.O.
1984-01-01
An expression, for the application of the Mercier criterion to numerical studies of diffuse high-β tokamaks (β approximatelly Σ,q approximatelly 1), which contains only leading order contributions in the high-β tokamak approximation is derived. (L.C.) [pt
Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device
Owen, L.W.
1985-01-01
The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.
Study on the quantitative rod internal pressure design criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Han, Hee Tak
1991-01-01
The current rod internal pressure criterion permits fuel rods to operate with internal pressures in excess of system pressure only if internal overpressure does not cause the diametral gap enlargement. In this study, the generic allowable internal gas pressure not violating this criterion is estimated as a function of rod power. The results show that the generic allowable internal gas pressure decreases linearly with the increase of rod power. Application of the generic allowable internal gas pressure for the rod internal pressure design criterion will result in the simplication of the current design procedure for checking the diametral gap enlargement caused by internal overpressure because according to the current design procedure the cladding creepout rate should be compared with the fuel swelling rate at each axial node at each time step whenever internal pressure exceeds the system pressure. (Author)
Gauge orbits and the Coulomb potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.
2009-01-01
If the color Coulomb potential is confining, then the Coulomb field energy of an isolated color charge is infinite on an infinite lattice, even if the usual UV divergence is lattice regulated. A simple criterion for Coulomb confinement is that the expectation value of timelike link variables vanishes in the Coulomb gauge, but it is unclear how this criterion is related to the spectrum of the corresponding Faddeev-Popov operator, which can be used to formulate a quite different criterion for Coulomb confinement. The purpose of this article is to connect the two seemingly different Coulomb confinement criteria, and explain the geometrical basis of the connection.
Generating equilateral random polygons in confinement III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U
2012-01-01
In this paper we continue our earlier studies (Diao et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 405202, Diao et al J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 275203) on the generation methods of random equilateral polygons confined in a sphere. The first half of this paper is concerned with the generation of confined equilateral random walks. We show that if the selection of a vertex is uniform subject to the position of its previous vertex and the confining condition, then the distributions of the vertices are not uniform, although there exists a distribution such that if the initial vertex is selected following this distribution, then all vertices of the random walk follow this same distribution. Thus in order to generate a confined equilateral random walk, the selection of a vertex cannot be uniform subject to the position of its previous vertex and the confining condition. We provide a simple algorithm capable of generating confined equilateral random walks whose vertex distribution is almost uniform in the confinement sphere. In the second half of this paper we show that any process generating confined equilateral random walks can be turned into a process generating confined equilateral random polygons with the property that the vertex distribution of the polygons approaches the vertex distribution of the walks as the polygons get longer and longer. In our earlier studies, the starting point of the confined polygon is fixed at the center of the sphere. The new approach here allows us to move the starting point of the confined polygon off the center of the sphere. (paper)
Generalized Majority Logic Criterion to Analyze the Statistical Strength of S-Boxes
Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan
2012-05-01
The majority logic criterion is applicable in the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard (AES). The performance of modified or advanced substitution boxes is predicted by processing the results of statistical analysis by the majority logic criteria. In this paper, we use the majority logic criteria to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, the majority logic criterion is applied to AES, affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J, residue prime, S8 AES, Skipjack, and Xyi substitution boxes. The majority logic criterion is further extended into a generalized majority logic criterion which has a broader spectrum of analyzing the effectiveness of substitution boxes in image encryption applications. The integral components of the statistical analyses used for the generalized majority logic criterion are derived from results of entropy analysis, contrast analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation (MAD) analysis.
Conflicting views on a neutrality criterion for radioactive-waste management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochran, T.B.; Bodde, D.L.
1983-01-01
Two essays are presented by authors who agree that risks imposed on future generations through the management of radioactive waste are acceptable if they meet a criterion of neutrality, but who disagree on the interpretation of the neutrality criterion. The first viewpoint argues that acceptable isolation of high-level radioactive waste is yet to be accomplished and that a fundamental criterion for radioactive waste disposal must include consideration of the intergenerational radiation effects. The second essay promotes balanced resource allocation, technological progress, and adequate problem-solving institutions as the solution to the problem. The debate illustrates the complexities involved in applying philosophical principles to public policy, even when the principles have been agreed upon. 23 references, 1 figure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strassler, M J [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2002-05-15
Confinement in four-dimensional gauge theories is considered from several points of view. General features are discussed, and the mechanism of confinement is investigated. Dualities between field theories, and duality between field theory and string theory, are both put to use. In these lectures I have given an overview of some of the key ideas underlying confinement as a property of field theory, and now, of string theory as well. This is a tiny fraction of what field theory (and now string theory) is capable of, and we are still uncovering new features on a monthly basis. In fact, most field theories do not have confinement, for reasons entirely different from those of QCD. Many become nontrivial conformal field theories at low energy. Others become composite, weakly-coupled gauge theories. Dualities of many stripes are found everywhere. Ordinary dimensional analysis in string theory is totally wrong in the regime where it looks like weakly-coupled field theory, and ordinary dimensional analysis in field theory is totally wrong in the regime where it looks like weakly-coupled supergravity.
Elitism, Sharing and Ranking Choices in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimisation
Pursehouse, R.C.; Fleming, P.J.
2002-01-01
Elitism and sharing are two mechanisms that are believed to improve the performance of an evolutionary multi-criterion optimiser. The relative performance of of the two most popular ranking strategies is largely unknown. Using a new empirical inquiry framework, this report studies the effect of elitism, sharing and ranking design choices using a benchmark suite of two-criterion problems.........
ATR confinement leakage determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.
1998-01-01
The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident
Validation of a Criterion for Cam Mechanisms Optimization Using Constraints upon Cam’s Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stelian Alaci
2016-06-01
Full Text Available For the mechanism with rotating cam and knife-edge follower, an optimization criterion by means of imposed constraints upon cam’s curvature is expressed in a special coordinate system. Thus, stating the optimization criterion in the coordinate system defined by the mechanisms constructive parameters -eccentricity and minimum follower’s stroke, a contour is obtained for any position of the mechanism. The optimization criterion assumes establishing the position of the characteristic point of the mechanism with respect to this contour. Fulfillment of optimization criterion assumes that the characteristic point is positioned in the same manner with respect to all contours. The optimization criterion is simplified when considering the envelope of the contours. The method is exemplified using two mechanisms, with the cams priori satisfying the criterion.
Generating equilateral random polygons in confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U
2011-01-01
One challenging problem in biology is to understand the mechanism of DNA packing in a confined volume such as a cell. It is known that confined circular DNA is often knotted and hence the topology of the extracted (and relaxed) circular DNA can be used as a probe of the DNA packing mechanism. However, in order to properly estimate the topological properties of the confined circular DNA structures using mathematical models, it is necessary to generate large ensembles of simulated closed chains (i.e. polygons) of equal edge lengths that are confined in a volume such as a sphere of certain fixed radius. Finding efficient algorithms that properly sample the space of such confined equilateral random polygons is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose a method that generates confined equilateral random polygons based on their probability distribution. This method requires the creation of a large database initially. However, once the database has been created, a confined equilateral random polygon of length n can be generated in linear time in terms of n. The errors introduced by the method can be controlled and reduced by the refinement of the database. Furthermore, our numerical simulations indicate that these errors are unbiased and tend to cancel each other in a long polygon. (paper)
Global confinement characteristics of Jet limiter plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.J.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K.
1989-01-01
Data from a wide variety of plasma pulses on JET (aux. heating, current, field, minority species, plasma shape, etc) are analysed in order to assess the characteristics of global confinement. The scaling of confinement in ohmically and auxiliary heated discharges is examined. The ohmic confinement in the present new JET configuration (Belt Limiter) is essentially the same as previously. Confinement in auxiliary heated discharges shows presently a slight improvement since 1986. Both ohmic and non-ohmic data is used in a set of confinement time regression analyses and certain constraints derived from theory are imposed
Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2016-08-29
Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.
Shrinkage Porosity Criterion and Its Application to A 5.5 Ton Steel Ingot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang C.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In order to predict the distribution of shrinkage porosity in steel ingot efficiently and accurately, a criterion R√L and a method to obtain its threshold value were proposed. The criterion R√L was derived based on the solidification characteristics of steel ingot and pressure gradient in the mushy zone, in which the physical properties, the thermal parameters, the structure of the mushy zone and the secondary dendrite arm spacing were all taken into consideration. The threshold value of the criterion R√L was obtained with combination of numerical simulation of ingot solidification and total solidification shrinkage rate. Prediction of the shrinkage porosity in a 5.5 ton ingot of 2Cr13 steel with criterion R√L>0.21 m · °C1/2 · s−3/2 agreed well with the results of experimental sectioning. Based on this criterion, optimization of the ingot was carried out by decreasing the height-to-diameter ratio and increasing the taper, which successfully eliminated the centreline porosity and further proved the applicability of this criterion.
Judging Criterion of Controlled Structures with Closely Spaced Natural Frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Faxiang; Sun Limin
2010-01-01
The structures with closely spaced natural frequencies widely exist in civil engineering; however, the judging criterion of the density of closely spaced frequencies is in dispute. This paper suggests a judging criterion for structures with closely spaced natural frequencies based on the analysis on a controlled 2-DOF structure. The analysis results indicate that the optimal control gain of the structure with velocity feedback is dependent on the frequency density parameter of structure and the maximum attainable additional modal damping ratio is 1.72 times of the frequency density parameter when state feedback is applied. Based on a brief review on the previous researches, a judging criterion related the minimum frequency density parameter and the required mode damping ratio was proposed.
A New Criterion for Prediction of Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Cast Alloys
Nasresfahani, Mohamad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad
2014-08-01
A new criterion for prediction of hot tearing susceptibility of cast alloys is suggested which takes into account the effects of both important mechanical and metallurgical factors and is believed to be less sensitive to the presence of volume defects such as bifilms and inclusions. The criterion was validated by studying the hot tearing tendency of Al-Cu alloy. In conformity with the experimental results, the new criterion predicted reduction of hot tearing tendency with increasing the copper content.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergeman, T.; Moore, M.G.; Olshanii, M.
2003-01-01
It was recently predicted [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 938 (1998)10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.938] that atom-atom scattering under transverse harmonic confinement is subject to a 'confinement-induced resonance' where the effective one-dimensional coupling strength diverges at a particular ratio of the confinement and scattering lengths. As the initial prediction made use of the zero-range pseudopotential approximation, we now report numerical results for finite-range interaction potentials that corroborate this resonance. In addition, we now present a physical interpretation of this effect as a novel type of Feshbach resonance in which the transverse modes of the confining potential assume the roles of 'open' and 'closed' scattering channels
Confinement effects and mechanistic aspects for montmorillonite nanopores.
Li, Xiong; Zhu, Chang; Jia, Zengqiang; Yang, Gang
2018-08-01
Owing to the ubiquity, critical importance and special properties, confined microenvironments have recently triggered overwhelming interest. In this work, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to address the confinement effects and ion-specific effects for electrolyte solutions within montmorillonite nanopores, where the pore widths vary with a wide range. The adsorption number, structure, dynamics and stability of inner- and outer-sphere metal ions are affected by the change of pore widths (confinement effects), while the extents are significantly dependent on the type of adsorbed species. The type of adsorbed species is, however, not altered by the magnitude of confinement effects, and confinement effects are similar for different electrolyte concentrations. Ion-specific effects are pronounced for all magnitudes of confinement effects (from non- to strong confined conditions), and Hofmeister sequences of outer-sphere species are closely associated with the magnitude of confinement effects while those of inner-sphere species remain consistent. In addition, mechanistic aspects of confinement have been posed using the electrical double layer theories, and the results can be generalized to other confined systems that are ubiquitous in biology, chemistry, geology and nanotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
General Criterion for Harmonicity
Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian
2017-10-01
Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdoolaege, G; Karagounis, G; Oost, G Van; Tendler, M
2012-01-01
Pattern recognition is becoming an increasingly important tool for making inferences from the massive amounts of data produced in fusion experiments. The purpose is to contribute to physics studies and plasma control. In this work, we address the visualization of plasma confinement data, the (real-time) identification of confinement regimes and the establishment of a scaling law for the energy confinement time. We take an intrinsically probabilistic approach, modeling data from the International Global H-mode Confinement Database with Gaussian distributions. We show that pattern recognition operations working in the associated probability space are considerably more powerful than their counterparts in a Euclidean data space. This opens up new possibilities for analyzing confinement data and for fusion data processing in general. We hence advocate the essential role played by measurement uncertainty for data interpretation in fusion experiments. (paper)
Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.
2015-01-01
Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)
Stochastic Learning and the Intuitive Criterion in Simple Signaling Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen
A stochastic learning process for signaling games with two types, two signals, and two responses gives rise to equilibrium selection which is in remarkable accordance with the selection obtained by the intuitive criterion......A stochastic learning process for signaling games with two types, two signals, and two responses gives rise to equilibrium selection which is in remarkable accordance with the selection obtained by the intuitive criterion...
Effect of grain size on the melting point of confined thin aluminum films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wejrzanowski, Tomasz; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Sikorski, Krzysztof; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Materials Design Division, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)
2014-10-28
The melting of aluminum thin film was studied by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. The effect of the grain size and type of confinement was investigated for aluminum film with a constant thickness of 4 nm. The results show that coherent intercrystalline interface suppress the transition of solid aluminum into liquid, while free-surface gives melting point depression. The mechanism of melting of polycrystalline aluminum thin film was investigated. It was found that melting starts at grain boundaries and propagates to grain interiors. The melting point was calculated from the Lindemann index criterion, taking into account only atoms near to grain boundaries. This made it possible to extend melting point calculations to bigger grains, which require a long time (in the MD scale) to be fully molten. The results show that 4 nm thick film of aluminum melts at a temperature lower than the melting point of bulk aluminum (933 K) only when the grain size is reduced to 6 nm.
Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.
Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.
1982-01-01
Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)
Global energy confinement in TORE SUPRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, G.T.; Bizarro, J.P.; Genile, B. de; Hutter, Th.; Laurent, L.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Tonon, G.; Houtte, D. van
1992-01-01
The global energy confinement behaviour of mixed Ohmic/Lower Hybrid driven Tore Supra plasmas has been analysed at various densities. In contradiction with L-mode ITER scaling law, this analysis indicates that the global energy confinement time depends strongly on the plasma density and the isotopic dependence seems not to be observed. The thermal electron energy content of steady-state discharges is in good agreement with the offset linear Rebut-Lallia scaling law. During current ramp experiments, the global energy confinement time was found to depend on the internal self-inductance (li). Improved confinement has been obtained for a steady-state 0.8 MA plasma where the plasma current profile is peaked by LH waves (li ∼1.8). In this case, the global confinement time is found to be about 40% higher than the value predicted by the Rebut-Lallia scaling law. (author) 3 refs., 6 figs
An introduction to the confinement problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, Jeff
2011-01-01
This book addresses the confinement problem, which quite generally deals with the behavior of non-abelian gauge theories, and the force which is mediated by gauge fields, at large distances.The word ''confinement'' in the context of hadronic physics originally referred to the fact that quarks and gluons appear to be trapped inside mesons and baryons, from which they cannot escape. There are other, and possibly deeper meanings that can be attached to the term, and these will be explored in this book. Although the confinement problem is far from solved, much is now known about the general features of the confining force, and there are a number of very well motivated theories of confinement which are under active investigation. This volume gives a both pedagogical and concise introduction and overview of the main ideas in this field, their attractive features, and, as appropriate, their shortcomings. (orig.)
Multiaxial fatigue criterion based on parameters from torsion and axial S-N curve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Margetin
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Multiaxial high cycle fatigue is a topic that concerns nearly all industrial domains. In recent years, a great deal of recommendations how to address problems with multiaxial fatigue life time estimation have been made and a huge progress in the field has been achieved. Until now, however, no universal criterion for multiaxial fatigue has been proposed. Addressing this situation, this paper offers a design of a new multiaxial criterion for high cycle fatigue. This criterion is based on critical plane search. Damage parameter consists of a combination of normal and shear stresses on a critical plane (which is a plane with maximal shear stress amplitude. Material parameters used in proposed criterion are obtained from torsion and axial S-N curves. Proposed criterion correctly calculates life time for boundary loading condition (pure torsion and pure axial loading. Application of proposed model is demonstrated on biaxial loading and the results are verified with testing program using specimens made from S355 steel. Fatigue material parameters for proposed criterion and multiple sets of data for different combination of axial and torsional loading have been obtained during the experiment.
Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.
1988-01-01
The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs
The role of word choice and criterion on intentional memory.
Toyota, Hiroshi
2015-02-01
The relationship between the criterion for choosing and the self-choice effects (greater recall in a self-choice compared to a forced-choice condition) on intentional memory was examined. Thirty-three female nursing school volunteers were administered 24 word pairs in a 2 × 2 design to assess the influence of motivation upon free recall. When word pairs were presented to participants, they were asked to choose a word to-be-remembered, either in a self-choice condition or a forced-choice condition. Words chosen by the participants were recalled more often than those chosen by the experimenter (forced choice). Thus, the self-choice effect was greater for words chosen with a self-reference criterion compared to a metamemory criterion, supporting the integration hypothesis as the origin of the self-choice effect.
From Pauli's birthday to 'Confinement Resonances' – a potted history of Quantum Confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connerade, J P
2013-01-01
Quantum Confinement is in some sense a new subject. International meetings dedicated to Quantum Confinement have occurred only recently in Mexico City (the first in 2010 and the second, in September 2011). However, at least in principle, the subject has existed since a very long time. Surprisingly perhaps, it lay dormant for many years, for want of suitable experimental examples. However, when one looks carefully at its origin, it turns out to have a long and distinguished history. In fact, the problem of quantum confinement raises a number of very interesting issues concerning boundary conditions in elementary quantum mechanics and how they should be applied to real problems. Some of these issues were missed in the earliest papers, but are implicit in the structure of quantum mechanics, and lead to the notion of Confinement Resonances, the existence of which was predicted theoretically more than ten years ago. Although, for several reasons, these resonances remained elusive for a very long time, they have now been observed experimentally, which puts the whole subject in much better shape and, together with the advent of metallofullerenes, has contributed to its revival.
Development of Predictor and Criterion Measures for the NCO21 Research Program
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Knapp, Deidre
2002-01-01
... incorporated into an NCO performance management system geared to 21st century job demands. This report documents the design and development of predictor and criterion measures that will be used in a criterion-related validation data collection...
Momentum confinement at low torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); De Grassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Budny, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mikkelsen, D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Scott, S D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zeeland, M A Van [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Zarnstorff, M C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)
2007-12-15
Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized beta {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. GLF23 modeling suggests that the role of E x B shearing is quite different between the two plasmas, which may help to explain the different dependence of the momentum confinement on torque.
Confinement-induced resonances in anharmonic waveguides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng Shiguo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)
2011-10-15
We develop the theory of anharmonic confinement-induced resonances (ACIRs). These are caused by anharmonic excitation of the transverse motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of two bound atoms in a waveguide. As the transverse confinement becomes anisotropic, we find that the c.m. resonant solutions split for a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system, in agreement with recent experiments. This is not found in harmonic confinement theories. A new resonance appears for repulsive couplings (a{sub 3D}>0) for a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) system, which is also not seen with harmonic confinement. After inclusion of anharmonic energy corrections within perturbation theory, we find that these ACIRs agree extremely well with anomalous 1D and 2D confinement-induced resonance positions observed in recent experiments. Multiple even- and odd-order transverse ACIRs are identified in experimental data, including up to N=4 transverse c.m. quantum numbers.
A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder
Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.
2011-01-01
Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…
Effects of Mastery Criterion on the Emergence of Derived Equivalence Relations
Fienup, Daniel M.; Brodsky, Julia
2017-01-01
In this study, we manipulated mastery criterion form (rolling or block) and stringency (across 6 or 12 trials) and measured the emergence of derived relations. College students learned neuroanatomy equivalence classes and experienced one of two rolling mastery criteria (6 or 12 consecutive correct responses) or a block mastery criterion (12 trials…
Fulfillment of the kinetic Bohm criterion in a quasineutral particle-in-cell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahedo, Eduardo; Santos, Robert; Parra, Felix I.
2010-01-01
Quasineutral particle-in-cell models of ions must fulfill the kinetic Bohm criterion, in its inequality form, at the domain boundary in order to match correctly with solutions of the Debye sheaths tied to the walls. The simple, fluid form of the Bohm criterion is shown to be a bad approximation of the exact, kinetic form when the ion velocity distribution function has a significant dispersion and involves different charge numbers. The fulfillment of the Bohm criterion is measured by a weighting algorithm at the boundary, but linear weighting algorithms have difficulties to reproduce the nonlinear behavior around the sheath edge. A surface weighting algorithm with an extended temporal weighting is proposed and shown to behave better than the standard volumetric weighting. Still, this must be supplemented by a forcing algorithm of the kinetic Bohm criterion. This postulates a small potential fall in a supplementary, thin, transition layer. The electron-wall interaction is shown to be of little relevance in the fulfillment of the Bohm criterion.
The Physics Basis of ITER Confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, F.
2009-01-01
ITER will be the first fusion reactor and the 50 year old dream of fusion scientists will become reality. The quality of magnetic confinement will decide about the success of ITER, directly in the form of the confinement time and indirectly because it decides about the plasma parameters and the fluxes, which cross the separatrix and have to be handled externally by technical means. This lecture portrays some of the basic principles which govern plasma confinement, uses dimensionless scaling to set the limits for the predictions for ITER, an approach which also shows the limitations of the predictions, and describes briefly the major characteristics and physics behind the H-mode--the preferred confinement regime of ITER.
On the implications of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, C.D.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors consider some implications of confinement starting from the basic observation that cross-sections for the production of colored asymptotic states, such as free quarks and gluons, from color singlet initial states must be zero if QCD is to be confining. The authors discuss two pictures of confinement: the failure of the cluster decomposition property and the absence of a pole at timelike momenta in the propagator of a confined particle. The authors use QCD-based models as a framework to relate the failure of the cluster decomposition property to other ideas, such as the role of a nonzero gluon condensate. The authors' primary interest is to address the question of the absence of a mass pole through a study of model Schwinger-Dyson equations. These equations contain some of the dynamical information that is present in the study of the cluster decomposition property. The authors discuss the problems within this idea and its study using the Schwinger-Dyson equations
Slope stability analysis using limit equilibrium method in nonlinear criterion.
Lin, Hang; Zhong, Wenwen; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Wenyu
2014-01-01
In slope stability analysis, the limit equilibrium method is usually used to calculate the safety factor of slope based on Mohr-Coulomb criterion. However, Mohr-Coulomb criterion is restricted to the description of rock mass. To overcome its shortcomings, this paper combined Hoek-Brown criterion and limit equilibrium method and proposed an equation for calculating the safety factor of slope with limit equilibrium method in Hoek-Brown criterion through equivalent cohesive strength and the friction angle. Moreover, this paper investigates the impact of Hoek-Brown parameters on the safety factor of slope, which reveals that there is linear relation between equivalent cohesive strength and weakening factor D. However, there are nonlinear relations between equivalent cohesive strength and Geological Strength Index (GSI), the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock σ ci , and the parameter of intact rock m i . There is nonlinear relation between the friction angle and all Hoek-Brown parameters. With the increase of D, the safety factor of slope F decreases linearly; with the increase of GSI, F increases nonlinearly; when σ ci is relatively small, the relation between F and σ ci is nonlinear, but when σ ci is relatively large, the relation is linear; with the increase of m i , F decreases first and then increases.
Mechanical collapse of confined fluid membrane vesicles.
Rim, Jee E; Purohit, Prashant K; Klug, William S
2014-11-01
Compact cylindrical and spherical invaginations are common structural motifs found in cellular and developmental biology. To understand the basic physical mechanisms that produce and maintain such structures, we present here a simple model of vesicles in confinement, in which mechanical equilibrium configurations are computed by energy minimization, balancing the effects of curvature elasticity, contact of the membrane with itself and the confining geometry, and adhesion. For cylindrical confinement, the shape equations are solved both analytically and numerically by finite element analysis. For spherical confinement, axisymmetric configurations are obtained numerically. We find that the geometry of invaginations is controlled by a dimensionless ratio of the adhesion strength to the bending energy of an equal area spherical vesicle. Larger adhesion produces more concentrated curvatures, which are mainly localized to the "neck" region where the invagination breaks away from its confining container. Under spherical confinement, axisymmetric invaginations are approximately spherical. For extreme confinement, multiple invaginations may form, bifurcating along multiple equilibrium branches. The results of the model are useful for understanding the physical mechanisms controlling the structure of lipid membranes of cells and their organelles, and developing tissue membranes.
The Leadership Criterion in Technological Institute
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, Marcelo Souza de; Cussa, Adriana Lourenco d'Avila; Suita, Julio Cezar
2005-01-01
This paper introduces the Direction's 'Decision Making Practice'. It has recently been reviewed with the merging of the beddings of the Leadership Criterion (CE-PNQ). These changes improved the control of institutional plans of action which are the result of the global performance critical analysis and other information associated with the Decision Making Practice. (author)
Spatial frequency discrimination: visual long-term memory or criterion setting?
Lages, M; Treisman, M
1998-02-01
A long-term sensory memory is believed to account for spatial frequency discrimination when reference and test stimuli are separated by long intervals. We test an alternative proposal: that discrimination is determined by the range of test stimuli, through their entrainment of criterion-setting processes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that the 50% point of the psychometric function is largely determined by the midpoint of the stimulus range, not by the reference stimulus. Experiment 3 shows that discrimination of spatial frequencies is similarly affected by orthogonal contextual stimuli and parallel contextual stimuli and that these effects can be explained by criterion-setting processes. These findings support the hypothesis that discrimination over long intervals is explained by the operation of criterion-setting processes rather than by long-term sensory retention of a neural representation of the stimulus.
LSSVM-Based Rock Failure Criterion and Its Application in Numerical Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changxing Zhu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A rock failure criterion is very important for the prediction of the failure of rocks or rock masses in rock mechanics and engineering. Least squares support vector machines (LSSVM are a powerful tool for addressing complex nonlinear problems. This paper describes a LSSVM-based rock failure criterion for analyzing the deformation of a circular tunnel under different in situ stresses without assuming a function form. First, LSSVM was used to represent the nonlinear relationship between the mechanical properties of rock and the failure behavior of the rock in order to construct a rock failure criterion based on experimental data. Then, this was used in a hypothetical numerical analysis of a circular tunnel to analyze the mechanical behavior of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. The Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown failure criteria were also used to analyze the same case, and the results were compared; these clearly indicate that LSSVM can be used to establish a rock failure criterion and to predict the failure of a rock mass during excavation of a circular tunnel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A.R.
1989-01-01
The importance of confinement for obtaining a unitary high-energy limit for QCD is discussed. ''Minijets'' are argued to build up non-unitary behavior endash when k T > Λ is imposed. For minijets to mix with low k T Pomeron Field Theory describing confinement, and give consistent asymptotic behavior, new ''quarks'' must enter the theory above the minijet transverse momentum scale. The Critical Pomeron is the resulting high-energy limit. 22 refs
On the upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotelnikov, I. A., E-mail: I.A.Kotelnikov@inp.nsk.su; Skovorodin, D. I., E-mail: D.I.Skovorodin@inp.nsk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2016-02-15
The question is discussed about the existence of an upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion, according to which the Debye sheath at the interface between plasma and a negatively charged electrode is stable only if the ion flow velocity in plasma exceeds the ion sound velocity. It is stated that, with an exception of some artificial ionization models, the Bohm sheath criterion is satisfied as an equality at the lower bound and the ion flow velocity is equal to the speed of sound. In the one-dimensional theory, a supersonic flow appears in an unrealistic model of a localized ion source the size of which is less than the Debye length; however, supersonic flows seem to be possible in the two- and three-dimensional cases. In the available numerical codes used to simulate charged particle sources with a plasma emitter, the presence of the upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion is not supposed; however, the correspondence with experimental data is usually achieved if the ion flow velocity in plasma is close to the ion sound velocity.
FRP confined smart concrete/mortar
Xiao, Y.; Zhu, P. S.; Choi, K. G.; Wu, Y. T.; Huang, Z. Y.; Shan, B.
2006-03-01
In this study, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined smart concrete/mortar sensors were invented and validated for significantly improved measurement range. Several trial mixes were made using cement mortar and micron-phase graphite powders at different mix proportions. Compressive loading tests were conducted on smart mortar cylinder specimens with or without FRP confinement. Two-probe method was used to detect the electrical resistance of the smart cement mortar specimens. Strong correlation was recognized between the stress and electric resistance of the smart mortar. The test results indicated that the FRP wrapping could significantly enlarge the range of such self-sensing property as a consequence of confinement.
Criterion learning in rule-based categorization: simulation of neural mechanism and new data.
Helie, Sebastien; Ell, Shawn W; Filoteo, J Vincent; Maddox, W Todd
2015-04-01
In perceptual categorization, rule selection consists of selecting one or several stimulus-dimensions to be used to categorize the stimuli (e.g., categorize lines according to their length). Once a rule has been selected, criterion learning consists of defining how stimuli will be grouped using the selected dimension(s) (e.g., if the selected rule is line length, define 'long' and 'short'). Very little is known about the neuroscience of criterion learning, and most existing computational models do not provide a biological mechanism for this process. In this article, we introduce a new model of rule learning called Heterosynaptic Inhibitory Criterion Learning (HICL). HICL includes a biologically-based explanation of criterion learning, and we use new category-learning data to test key aspects of the model. In HICL, rule selective cells in prefrontal cortex modulate stimulus-response associations using pre-synaptic inhibition. Criterion learning is implemented by a new type of heterosynaptic error-driven Hebbian learning at inhibitory synapses that uses feedback to drive cell activation above/below thresholds representing ionic gating mechanisms. The model is used to account for new human categorization data from two experiments showing that: (1) changing rule criterion on a given dimension is easier if irrelevant dimensions are also changing (Experiment 1), and (2) showing that changing the relevant rule dimension and learning a new criterion is more difficult, but also facilitated by a change in the irrelevant dimension (Experiment 2). We conclude with a discussion of some of HICL's implications for future research on rule learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nambu, J.
1978-01-01
Three quark models of hadron structure, which suggest an explanation of quarks confinement mechanism in hadrons are considered. Quark classifications, quark flawors and colours, symmetry model of hadron structure based on the colour theory of strong interaction are discussed. Diagrams of colour combinations of quarks and antiquarks, exchange of gluons, binding quarks in hadron. Quark confinement models based on the field theory, string model rotating and bag model are discussed. Diagrams of the colour charge distribution explaining the phenomena of infrared ''slavery'' and ultraviolet ''freedom'' are given. The models considered explain but some quark properties, creating prerequisites for the development of the consequent theory of hadron structure
The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: Does it matter?
Roberts, Andrea L.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Aiello, Allison; Wright, Rosalind J.; Maercker, Andreas; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.
2013-01-01
Objective The definition of the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (“Criterion A1”) is hotly debated with major revisions being considered for DSM-V. We examine whether symptoms, course, and consequences of PTSD vary predictably with the type of stressful event that precipitates symptoms. Method We used data from the 2009 PTSD diagnostic subsample (N=3,013) of the Nurses Health Study II. We asked respondents about exposure to stressful events qualifying under 1) DSM-III, 2) DSM-IV, or 3) not qualifying under DSM Criterion A1. Respondents selected the event they considered worst and reported subsequent PTSD symptoms. Among participants who met all other DSM-IV PTSD criteria, we compared distress, symptom severity, duration, impairment, receipt of professional help, and nine physical, behavioral, and psychiatric sequelae (e.g. physical functioning, unemployment, depression) by precipitating event group. Various assessment tools were used to determine fulfillment of PTSD Criteria B through F and to assess these 14 outcomes. Results Participants with PTSD from DSM-III events reported on average 1 more symptom (DSM-III mean=11.8 symptoms, DSM-IV=10.7, non-DSM=10.9) and more often reported symptoms lasted one year or longer compared to participants with PTSD from other groups. However, sequelae of PTSD did not vary systematically with precipitating event type. Conclusions Results indicate the stressor criterion as defined by the DSM may not be informative in characterizing PTSD symptoms and sequelae. In the context of ongoing DSM-V revision, these results suggest that Criterion A1 could be expanded in DSM-V without much consequence for our understanding of PTSD phenomenology. Events not considered qualifying stressors under the DSM produced PTSD as consequential as PTSD following DSM-III events, suggesting PTSD may be an aberrantly severe but nonspecific stress response syndrome. PMID:22401487
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴金平
1991-01-01
The relation between the excess entropy production criterion of thermodynamic stabilityfor nonequilibrium states and kinetic linear stability principle is discussed. It is shown thatthe condition required by the excess entropy production criterion generally is sufficient, butnot necessary to judge the system stability. The condition required by the excess entropyproduction criterion is stronger than that of the linear stability principle. Only when theproduct matrix between the linearized matrix of kinetic equations and matrix of quadraticform of second-order excess entropy is symmetric, is the condition required by the excessentropy production criterion that the steady steate is asymptotically stable (δ_xP>0) necessaryand sufficient. The counterexample given by Fox to prove that the excess entropy, (δ~2S)ss,is not a Liapunov function is incorrect. Contradictory to his conclusion, the counterexampleis just a positive one that proves that the excess entropy is a Liapunov function. Moreover,the excess entropy production criterion is not limited by symmetric conditions of the linear-ized matrix of kinetic equations. The excess entropy around nonequilibrium steady states,(δ~2S)ss, is a Liapunov function of thermodynamic system.
Combined confinement system applied to tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkawa, Tihiro
1986-01-01
From particle orbit point of view, a tokamak is a combined confinement configuration where a closed toroidal volume is surrounded by an open confinement system like a magnetic mirror. By eliminating a cold halo plasma, the energy loss from the plasma becomes convective. The H-mode in diverted tokamaks is an example. Because of the favorable scaling of the energy confinement time with temperature, the performance of the tokamak may be significantly improved by taking advantage of this effect. (author)
The Mercier Criterion in Reversed Shear Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kessel, C.; Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.
1999-01-01
A recent numerical study has found that, contrary to conventional theoretical and experimental expectations, reversed shear plasmas are unstable primarily because the term proportional to the shear in the Mercier criterion is destabilizing. In the present study, the role of the magnetic shear, both local and global, is examined for various tokamak configurations with monotonic and non-monotonic safety factor profiles. The enhancement of the local shear due to the outward shift of the magnetic axis suggests that the latter are less susceptible to interchanges. Furthermore, by regrouping the terms in the criterion, the V'' term when differentiated instead with respect to the toroidal flux, is shown to absorb the dominant shear term. No Mercier instability is found for similar profiles as in the previous study
Dimensional crossover in fluids under nanometer-scale confinement.
Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, J
2012-05-01
Several earlier studies have shown signatures of crossover in various static and dynamics properties of a confined fluid when the confining dimension decreases to about a nanometer. The density fluctuations govern the majority of such properties of a fluid. Here, we illustrate the crossover in density fluctuation in a confined fluid, to provide a generic understanding of confinement-induced crossover of fluid properties, using computer simulations. The crossover can be understood as a manifestation of changes in the long-wavelength behavior of fluctuation in density due to geometrical constraints. We further show that the confining potential significantly affects the crossover behavior.
Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M
2007-04-01
The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events.
Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.
1999-01-01
A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)
Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.
2001-01-01
A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)
Jou, Jerwen; Escamilla, Eric E; Arredondo, Mario L; Pena, Liann; Zuniga, Richard; Perez, Martin; Garcia, Clarissa
2018-02-01
How much of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory is attributable to decision criterion is so far a controversial issue. Previous studies typically used explicit warnings against accepting the critical lure to investigate this issue. The assumption is that if the false memory results from using a liberally biased criterion, it should be greatly reduced or eliminated by an explicit warning against accepting the critical lure. Results showed that warning was generally ineffective. We asked the question of whether subjects can substantially reduce false recognition without being warned when the test forces them to make a distinction between true and false memories. Using a two-alternative forced choice in which criterion plays a relatively smaller role, we showed that subjects could indeed greatly reduce the rate of false recognition. However, when the forced-choice restriction was removed from the two-item choice test, the rate of false recognition rebounded to that of the hit for studied list words, indicating the role of criterion in false recognition.
Bifurcated equilibria in centrifugally confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamim, I.; Teodorescu, C.; Guzdar, P. N.; Hassam, A. B.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Lunsford, R.
2008-01-01
A bifurcation theory and associated computational model are developed to account for abrupt transitions observed recently on the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)], a supersonically rotating magnetized plasma that relies on centrifugal forces to prevent thermal expansion of plasma along the magnetic field. The observed transitions are from a well-confined, high-rotation state (HR-mode) to a lower-rotation, lesser-confined state (O-mode). A two-dimensional time-dependent magnetohydrodynamics code is used to simulate the dynamical equilibrium states of the MCX configuration. In addition to the expected viscous drag on the core plasma rotation, a momentum loss term is added that models the friction of plasma on the enhanced level of neutrals expected in the vicinity of the insulators at the throats of the magnetic mirror geometry. At small values of the external rotation drive, the plasma is not well-centrifugally confined and hence experiences the drag from near the insulators. Beyond a critical value of the external drive, the system makes an abrupt transition to a well-centrifugally confined state in which the plasma has pulled away from the end insulator plates; more effective centrifugal confinement lowers the plasma mass near the insulators allowing runaway increases in the rotation speed. The well-confined steady state is reached when the external drive is balanced by only the viscosity of the core plasma. A clear hysteresis phenomenon is shown.
A criterion for selecting renewable energy processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter C.
2010-01-01
We propose that minimum incremental cost per unit of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, in essence the carbon credit required to economically sustain a renewable energy plant, is the most appropriate social criterion for choosing from a myriad of alternatives. The application of this criterion is illustrated for four processing alternatives for straw/corn stover: production of power by direct combustion and biomass integrated gasification and combined cycle (BIGCC), and production of transportation fuel via lignocellulosic ethanol and Fischer Tropsch (FT) syndiesel. Ethanol requires a lower carbon credit than FT, and direct combustion a lower credit than BIGCC. For comparing processes that make a different form of end use energy, in this study ethanol vs. electrical power via direct combustion, the lowest carbon credit depends on the relative values of the two energy forms. When power is 70$ MW h -1 , ethanol production has a lower required carbon credit at oil prices greater than 600$ t -1 (80$ bbl -1 ). (author)
A Study of Confined Helium Atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Wenfang
2007-01-01
The helium atom confined by a spherical parabolic potential well is studied employing the adiabatic hyperspherical approach method. Total energies of the ground and three low-excited states are obtained as a function of the confined potential radii. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic potential well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. We find also that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values. The results for the three-dimensional spherical potential well and the two-dimensional disc-like potential well are compared with each other. We find that the energy difference between states in a two-dimensional parabolic potential is also obviously larger than the corresponding levels for a spherical parabolic potential.
Topology of polymer chains under nanoscale confinement.
Satarifard, Vahid; Heidari, Maziar; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Tans, Sander J; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Mashaghi, Alireza
2017-08-24
Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of l p under a spherical confinement of radius R c . At low values of l p /R c , the entropy of the linear chain leads to the formation of independent contacts along the chain and accordingly, increases the fraction of series topology with respect to other topologies. However, at high l p /R c , the fraction of cross and parallel topologies are enhanced in the chain topological circuits with cross becoming predominant. At an intermediate confining regime, we identify a critical value of l p /R c , at which all topological states have equal probability. Confinement thus equalizes the probability of more complex cross and parallel topologies to the level of the more simple, non-cooperative series topology. Moreover, our topology analysis reveals distinct behaviours for ring- and linear polymers under weak confinement; however, we find no difference between ring- and linear polymers under strong confinement. Under weak confinement, ring polymers adopt parallel and series topologies with equal likelihood, while linear polymers show a higher tendency for series arrangement. The radial distribution analysis of the topology reveals a non-uniform effect of confinement on the topology of polymer chains, thereby imposing more pronounced effects on the core region than on the confinement surface. Additionally, our results reveal that over a wide range of confining radii, loops arranged in parallel and cross
Energy confinement scaling from the international stellarator database
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stroth, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Murakami, M; Dory, R A; Yamada, H; Okamura, S; Sano, F; Obiki, T
1995-09-01
An international stellarator database on global energy confinement is presented comprising data from the ATF, CHS and Heliotron E heliotron/torsatrons and the W7-A and W7-AS shearless stellarators. Regression expressions for the energy confinement time are given for the individual devices and the combined dataset. A comparison with tokamak L mode confinement is discussed on the basis of various scaling expressions. In order to make this database available to interested colleagues, the structure of the database and the parameter list are explained in detail. More recent confinement results incorporating data from enhanced confinement regimes such as H mode are reported elsewhere. (author).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MingZheng Zhu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The deformation and failure of tunnel surrounding rock is the result of tunnel excavation disturbance and rock stress release. When the local stress of surrounding rock exceeds the elastic limit of rock mass, the plastic analysis of surrounding rock must be carried out to judge the stability of tunnel. In this study, the Lade–Duncan yield criterion is used to calculate the analytic solutions for the surrounding rock in a tunnel, and the radius and displacement of the plastic zone are deduced using an equilibrium equation. The plastic zone radius and displacement based on Lade–Duncan criterion and Mohr–Coulomb criterion were compared by using single-factor analysis method under the different internal friction angles, in situ stresses, and support resistances. The results show that the solutions of the radius and displacement of plastic zone calculated by the Lade–Duncan criterion are close to those of Mohr–Coulomb criterion under the high internal friction angle and support resistance or low in situ rock stress; however, the radius and displacement of the plastic zone calculated by the Lade–Duncan criterion are larger under normal circumstances, and the Lade–Duncan criterion is more applicable to the stability analysis of the surrounding rock in a tunnel.
Quark confinement in a constituent quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.
1995-01-01
On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model's phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density
Momentum Confinement at Low Torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Budny, R.; Groebner, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Kinsey, J.E.; Kramer, G.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Mikkelsen, D.; Nazikian, R.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Scott, S.D.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
2007-01-01
Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized β N , by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q min show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.
A critical analysis of the Mises stress criterion used in frequency domain fatigue life prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Niesłony
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue failure criteria are formulated in time and frequency domain. The number of frequency domain criteria is rather small and the most popular one is the equivalent von Mises stress criterion. This criterion was elaborated by Preumont and Piefort on the basis of well-known von Mises stress concept, first proposed by Huber in 1907, and well accepted by the scientific community and engineers. It is important to know, that the criterion was developed to determine the yield stress and material effort under static load. Therefore the direct use of equivalent von Mises stress criterion for fatigue life prediction can lead to some incorrectness of theoretical and practical nature. In the present study four aspects were discussed: influence of the value of fatigue strength of tension and torsion, lack of parallelism of the SN curves, abnormal behaviour of the criterion under biaxial tensioncompression and influence of phase shift between particular stress state components. Information contained in this article will help to prevent improper use of this criterion and contributes to its better understanding
Inferring phylogenetic networks by the maximum parsimony criterion: a case study.
Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir
2007-01-01
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may result in genes whose evolutionary histories disagree with each other, as well as with the species tree. In this case, reconciling the species and gene trees results in a network of relationships, known as the "phylogenetic network" of the set of species. A phylogenetic network that incorporates HGT consists of an underlying species tree that captures vertical inheritance and a set of edges which model the "horizontal" transfer of genetic material. In a series of papers, Nakhleh and colleagues have recently formulated a maximum parsimony (MP) criterion for phylogenetic networks, provided an array of computationally efficient algorithms and heuristics for computing it, and demonstrated its plausibility on simulated data. In this article, we study the performance and robustness of this criterion on biological data. Our findings indicate that MP is very promising when its application is extended to the domain of phylogenetic network reconstruction and HGT detection. In all cases we investigated, the MP criterion detected the correct number of HGT events required to map the evolutionary history of a gene data set onto the species phylogeny. Furthermore, our results indicate that the criterion is robust with respect to both incomplete taxon sampling and the use of different site substitution matrices. Finally, our results show that the MP criterion is very promising in detecting HGT in chimeric genes, whose evolutionary histories are a mix of vertical and horizontal evolution. Besides the performance analysis of MP, our findings offer new insights into the evolution of 4 biological data sets and new possible explanations of HGT scenarios in their evolutionary history.
Infrared slavery and quark confinement
Alabiso, C
1976-01-01
The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).
Infrared slavery and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alabiso, C.; Schierholz, G.
1976-01-01
The question of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks is posed. Making a specific ansatz for the long-range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (Auth.)
Information criterion for the categorization quality evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michail V. Svirkin
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the variation of information function as a quality criterion for categorizing a collection of documents. The performance of the variation of information function is being examined subject to the number of categories and the sample volume of the test document collection.
Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P.
1995-01-01
First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e., of the nonlocal character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future
Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains
Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos
2010-11-01
Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.
Optimization of Thermal Object Nonlinear Control Systems by Energy Efficiency Criterion.
Velichkin, Vladimir A.; Zavyalov, Vladimir A.
2018-03-01
This article presents the results of thermal object functioning control analysis (heat exchanger, dryer, heat treatment chamber, etc.). The results were used to determine a mathematical model of the generalized thermal control object. The appropriate optimality criterion was chosen to make the control more energy-efficient. The mathematical programming task was formulated based on the chosen optimality criterion, control object mathematical model and technological constraints. The “maximum energy efficiency” criterion helped avoid solving a system of nonlinear differential equations and solve the formulated problem of mathematical programming in an analytical way. It should be noted that in the case under review the search for optimal control and optimal trajectory reduces to solving an algebraic system of equations. In addition, it is shown that the optimal trajectory does not depend on the dynamic characteristics of the control object.
Correlations In Confined Quantum Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, J.W.
2012-01-01
This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed
Cylindrical fabric-confined soil structures
Harrison, Richard A.
A cylindrical fabric-soil structural concept for implementation on the moon and Mars which provides many advantages is proposed. The most efficient use of fabric is to fashion it into cylindrical tubes, creating cylindrical fabric-confined soil structures. The length, diameter, and curvature of the tubes will depend on the intended application. The cylindrical hoop forces provide radial confinement while end caps provide axial confinement. One of the ends is designed to allow passage of the soil into the fabric tube before sealing. Transportation requirements are reduced due to the low mass and volume of the fabric. Construction requirements are reduced due to the self-erection capability via the pneumatic exoskeleton. Maintenance requirements are reduced due to the passive nature of the concept. The structure's natural ductility is well suited for any seismic activity.
Reinforced confinement in a nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, H.
1988-01-01
The present invention concerns a nuclear reactor containing a reactor core, a swimming pool space that is filled and pressurized with a neutron-absorbing solution, a reactor tank, at least one heat exchanger, at least one inlet line, at least one return line and at least one circulation pump, where the said reactor tank is confined in the said swimming pool space and designed to be cooled with the aid of relatively pure water, which is fed by means of the said at least one circulating pump to the said reactor tank from the said heat exchanger via the said at least one inlet line and is returned to the heat exchanger via the said at least one return line. The problem that is to be solved by the invention is to design a reactor of the above type in such a way that a complete confinement of the primary circuit of the reactor is achieved at relatively low extra cost. This problem is solved by providing the reactor with a special confinement space that confines the heat exchanger, but not the reactor tank, with the confinement space and the swimming pool space being fashioned in the same concrete body
Exceptional confinement in G(2) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, K.; Minkowski, P.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.
2003-01-01
We study theories with the exceptional gauge group G(2). The 14 adjoint 'gluons' of a G(2) gauge theory transform as {3}, {3-bar} and {8} under the subgroup SU(3), and hence have the color quantum numbers of ordinary quarks, anti-quarks and gluons in QCD. Since G(2) has a trivial center, a 'quark' in the {7} representation of G(2) can be screened by 'gluons'. As a result, in G(2) Yang-Mills theory the string between a pair of static 'quarks' can break. In G(2) QCD there is a hybrid consisting of one 'quark' and three 'gluons'. In supersymmetric G(2) Yang-Mills theory with a {14} Majorana 'gluino' the chiral symmetry is Z(4) χ . Chiral symmetry breaking gives rise to distinct confined phases separated by confined-confined domain walls. A scalar Higgs field in the {7} representation breaks G(2) to SU(3) and allows us to interpolate between theories with exceptional and ordinary confinement. We also present strong coupling lattice calculations that reveal basic features of G(2) confinement. Just as in QCD, where dynamical quarks break the Z(3) symmetry explicitly, G(2) gauge theories confine even without a center. However, there is not necessarily a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature
Optimal Conformal Polynomial Projections for Croatia According to the Airy/Jordan Criterion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dražen Tutić
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The paper describes optimal conformal polynomial projections for Croatia according to the Airy/Jordan criterion. A brief introduction of history and theory of conformal mapping is followed by descriptions of conformal polynomial projections and their current application. The paper considers polynomials of degrees 1 to 10. Since there are conditions in which the 1st degree polynomial becomes the famous Mercator projection, it was not considered specifically for Croatian territory. The area of Croatia was defined as a union of national territory and the continental shelf. Area definition data were taken from the Euro Global Map 1:1 000 000 for Croatia, as well as from two maritime delimitation treaties. Such an irregular area was approximated with a regular grid consisting of 11 934 ellipsoidal trapezoids 2' large. The Airy/Jordan criterion for the optimal projection is defined as minimum of weighted mean of Airy/Jordan measure of distortion in points. The value of the Airy/Jordan criterion is calculated from all 11 934 centres of ellipsoidal trapezoids, while the weights are equal to areas of corresponding ellipsoidal trapezoids. The minimum is obtained by Nelder and Mead’s method, as implemented in the fminsearch function of the MATLAB package. Maps of Croatia representing the distribution of distortions are given for polynomial degrees 2 to 6 and 10. Increasing the polynomial degree results in better projections considering the criterion, and the 6th degree polynomial provides a good ratio of formula complexity and criterion value.
Role of optimization criterion in static asymmetric analysis of lumbar spine load.
Daniel, Matej
2011-10-01
A common method for load estimation in biomechanics is the inverse dynamics optimization, where the muscle activation pattern is found by minimizing or maximizing the optimization criterion. It has been shown that various optimization criteria predict remarkably similar muscle activation pattern and intra-articular contact forces during leg motion. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the choice of optimization criterion on L4/L5 loading during static asymmetric loading. Upright standing with weight in one stretched arm was taken as a representative position. Musculoskeletal model of lumbar spine model was created from CT images of Visible Human Project. Several criteria were tested based on the minimization of muscle forces, muscle stresses, and spinal load. All criteria provide the same level of lumbar spine loading (difference is below 25%), except the criterion of minimum lumbar shear force which predicts unrealistically high spinal load and should not be considered further. Estimated spinal load and predicted muscle force activation pattern are in accordance with the intradiscal pressure measurements and EMG measurements. The L4/L5 spine loads 1312 N, 1674 N, and 1993 N were predicted for mass of weight in hand 2, 5, and 8 kg, respectively using criterion of mininum muscle stress cubed. As the optimization criteria do not considerably affect the spinal load, their choice is not critical in further clinical or ergonomic studies and computationally simpler criterion can be used.
Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.
Davis, Diane, Ed.
This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…
Energy Confinement of both Ohmic and LHW Plasma on EAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yao; Gao Xiang
2011-01-01
Study on the characters of energy confinement in both Ohmic and lower hybrid wave (LHW) discharges on EAST is conducted and the linear Ohmic confinement (LOC), saturated ohmic confinement (SOC) and improved Ohmic confinement (IOC) regimes are investigated in this paper. It is observed that an improved confinement mode characterized by both a drop of D α line intensity and an increase in line average density can be triggered by a gas puffing pulse. (magnetically confined plasma)
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles
Peise, J.; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Hammerer, K.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.
2016-03-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, as shown successfully with light fields. Here, we report on the production of massive particles which meet the EPR criterion for continuous phase/amplitude variables. The created quantum state of ultracold atoms shows an EPR parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 standard deviations below the threshold of 1/4. Our state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality with massive particles and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology.
Energy confinement in Doublet III with high-Z limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcus, F.B.; Adcock, S.J.; Baker, D.R.; Blau, F.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Chase, R.P.; DeBoo, J.C.; Ejima, S.; Fairbanks, E.S.; Fisher, R.K.
1980-02-01
This report describes the experimental measurements and data analysis techniques used to evaluate the energy confinement in noncircular plasmas produced in Doublet III. Major aspects of the confinement measurements and analysis techniques are summarized. Machine parameters, diagnostic systems and discharge parameters relavent to the confinement measurements are given. Magnetic analysis techniques used to determine the plasma shape are reviewed. Scaling of the on-axis values of electron temperature, confinement time and Z/sub eff/ with plasma density is presented. Comparison with scaling results from other circular tokamaks is discussed. Numerical and analytic techniques developed for calculating the plasma energy confinement time and self-consistent profiles of density, temperature, current, and flux in non-circular geometries are described. These techniques are applied to the data and used to determine the central and global electron energy confinement time for a typical doublet plasma. Additional aspects of the confinement such as the radial dependence of the electron thermal conductivity and the estimated ion temperature are explored with the aid of a non-circular transport simulation code. The results of the confinement measurements are summarized and discussed. A brief summary of the theoretically expected effects of noncircularity on plasma confinement is included for reference as Appendix I.
Monopole current dynamics and color confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichie, H.; Suganuma, H.; Tanaka, A.
1998-01-01
Color confinement can be understood by the dual Higgs theory, where monopole condensation leads to the exclusion of the electric flux from the QCD vacuum. We study the role of the monopole for color confinement by investigating the monopole current system. When the self-energy of the monopole current is small enough, long and complicated monopole world-lines appear, which is a signal of monopole condensation. In the dense monopole system, the Wilson loop obeys the area-law, and the string tension and the monopole density have similar behavior as the function of the self-energy, which seems that monopole condensation leads to color confinement. On the long-distance physics, the monopole current system almost reproduces essential features of confinement properties in lattice QCD. In the short-distance physics, however, the monopole-current theory would become nonlocal and complicated due to the monopole size effect. This monopole size would provide a critical scale of QCD in terms of the dual Higgs mechanism. (orig.)
Meijer, P. M.; W. J. Goedheer,
1993-01-01
Recently it was shown that, by using the analysis of electrostatic waves entering the plasma-sheath edge, the direct-current (dc) Bohm criterion also holds for discharges under radio-frequency (rf) conditions. In this paper, the influence of Bohm's criterion on the sheath characteristics for
An Integrated Pruning Criterion for Ensemble Learning Based on Classification Accuracy and Diversity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fu, Bin; Wang, Zhihai; Pan, Rong
2013-01-01
be further considered while designing a pruning criterion is presented, and then an effective definition of diversity is proposed. The experimental results have validated that the given pruning criterion could single out the subset of classifiers that show better performance in the process of hill...
Physics of inertial confinement pellets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mead, W.C.
1979-01-01
An overview of inertial confinement fusion pellet physics is given. A discussion is presented of current estimated ICF driver requirements and a couple of pellet examples. The physics of driver/plasma coupling for two drivers which are being considered, namely a laser driver and a heavy ion accelerator driver, is described. Progress towards inertial confinement fusion that has been made using laser drivers in target experiments to date is discussed
Climate conditions in bedded confinement buildings
Confinement buildings are utilized for finishing cattle to allow more efficient collection of animal waste and to buffer animals against adverse climatic conditions. Environmental data were obtained from a 29 m wide x 318 m long bedded confinement building with the long axis oriented east to west. T...
Zero mass field quantization and Kibble's long-range force criterion for the Goldstone theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, S.H.
1981-01-01
The central theme of the dissertation is an investigation of the long-range force criterion used by Kibble in his discussion of the Goldstone Theorem. This investigation is broken up into the following sections: I. Introduction. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone Theorem and the conditions under which it holds are discussed. II. Massless Wave Expansions. In order to make explicit calculations of the operator commutators used in applying Kibble's criterion, it is necessary to work out the operator expansions for a massless field. Unusual results are obtained which include operators corresponding to classical macroscopic field modes. III. The Kibble Criterion for Simple Models Exhibiting Spontaneously Broken Symmetries. The results of the previous section are applied to simple models with spontaneously broken symmetries, namely, the real scalar massless field and the Goldstone model without gauge coupling. IV. The Higgs Mechanism in Classical Field Theory. It is shown that the Higgs Mechanism has a simple interpretation in terms of classical field theory, namely, that it arises from a derivative coupling term between the Goldstone fields and the gauge fields. V. The Higgs Mechanism and Kibble's Criterion. This section draws together the material discussed in sections II to IV. Explicit calculations are made to evaluate Kibble's criterion on a Goldstone-Higgs type of model in the Coulomb gauge. It is found, as expected, that the criterion is not met, but not for reasons relating to the range of the mediating force. By referring to the findings of sections III and IV, it is concluded that the common denominator underlying both the Higgs Mechanism and the failure of Kibble's criterion is a structural aspect of the field equations: derivative coupling between fields
A characterization of optimal portfolios under the tail mean-variance criterion
Owadally, I.; Landsman, Z.
2013-01-01
The tail mean–variance model was recently introduced for use in risk management and portfolio choice; it involves a criterion that focuses on the risk of rare but large losses, which is particularly important when losses have heavy-tailed distributions. If returns or losses follow a multivariate elliptical distribution, the use of risk measures that satisfy certain well-known properties is equivalent to risk management in the classical mean–variance framework. The tail mean–variance criterion...
Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
2012-01-01
In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…
Botanical Criterions of Quchan Baharkish pastureland in Khorasan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
Botanical Criterions of Quchan Baharkish pastureland in Khorasan Razavi Province,. Iran. *1SAEED, JAHEDI POUR 2ALIREZA, KOOCHEKI 3MEHDI, NASSIRI. MAHALLATI 4PARVIZ REZVANI MOGHADDAM. 1Department of Agroecology and Plant Breeding, Ferdowsi. University of Mashhad International Campus, ...
Quark propagators and correlators in a confining vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonov, Yu.A.
1987-01-01
Quark propagators, quark-antiquark Green functions and photon selfenergy operator Π (2) (k) are considered in the background (anti)selfdual field. The cases of a homogeneous selfdual field in d=4 and magnetic field in d=2 are studied in detail. Isolated quarks and quark-antiquark pairs are shown to be confined in those cases with the quadratic form of confining potential. In the space filled with domains of the homogeneous field with random directions the confining potential is of linear form, and the colorless qq-bar pair is not confined
Plasma confinement system and methods for use
Jarboe, Thomas R.; Sutherland, Derek
2017-09-05
A plasma confinement system is provided that includes a confinement chamber that includes one or more enclosures of respective helicity injectors. The one or more enclosures are coupled to ports at an outer radius of the confinement chamber. The system further includes one or more conductive coils aligned substantially parallel to the one or more enclosures and a further set of one or more conductive coils respectively surrounding portions of the one or more enclosures. Currents may be provided to the sets of conductive coils to energize a gas within the confinement chamber into a plasma. Further, a heat-exchange system is provided that includes an inner wall, an intermediate wall, an outer wall, and pipe sections configured to carry coolant through cavities formed by the walls.
Norbeck, Jack H.; Horne, Roland N.
2018-05-01
The maximum expected earthquake magnitude is an important parameter in seismic hazard and risk analysis because of its strong influence on ground motion. In the context of injection-induced seismicity, the processes that control how large an earthquake will grow may be influenced by operational factors under engineering control as well as natural tectonic factors. Determining the relative influence of these effects on maximum magnitude will impact the design and implementation of induced seismicity management strategies. In this work, we apply a numerical model that considers the coupled interactions of fluid flow in faulted porous media and quasidynamic elasticity to investigate the earthquake nucleation, rupture, and arrest processes for cases of induced seismicity. We find that under certain conditions, earthquake ruptures are confined to a pressurized region along the fault with a length-scale that is set by injection operations. However, earthquakes are sometimes able to propagate as sustained ruptures outside of the zone that experienced a pressure perturbation. We propose a faulting criterion that depends primarily on the state of stress and the earthquake stress drop to characterize the transition between pressure-constrained and runaway rupture behavior.
On translational superfluidity and the Landau criterion for Bose gases in the Gross-Pitaevski limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wreszinski, Walter F
2008-01-01
The two-fluid and Landau criteria for superfluidity are compared for trapped Bose gases. While the two-fluid criterion predicts translational superfluidity, it is suggested, on the basis of the homogeneous Gross-Pitaevski limit, that a necessary part of Landau's criterion, adequate for non-translationally invariant systems, does not hold for trapped Bose gases in the GP limit. As a consequence, if the compressibility is detected to be very large (infinite by experimental standards), the two-fluid criterion is seen to be the relevant one in case the system is a translational superfluid, while the Landau criterion is the relevant one if translational superfluidity is absent. (fast track communication)
A compliant mechanism for inspecting extremely confined spaces
Mascareñas, David; Moreu, Fernando; Cantu, Precious; Shields, Daniel; Wadden, Jack; El Hadedy, Mohamed; Farrar, Charles
2017-11-01
We present a novel, compliant mechanism that provides the capability to navigate extremely confined spaces for the purpose of infrastructure inspection. Extremely confined spaces are commonly encountered during infrastructure inspection. Examples of such spaces can include pipes, conduits, and ventilation ducts. Often these infrastructure features go uninspected simply because there is no viable way to access their interior. In addition, it is not uncommon for extremely confined spaces to possess a maze-like architecture that must be selectively navigated in order to properly perform an inspection. Efforts by the imaging sensor community have resulted in the development of imaging sensors on the millimeter length scale. Due to their compact size, they are able to inspect many extremely confined spaces of interest, however, the means to deliver these sensors to the proper location to obtain the desired images are lacking. To address this problem, we draw inspiration from the field of endoscopic surgery. Specifically we consider the work that has already been done to create long flexible needles that are capable of being steered through the human body. These devices are typically referred to as ‘steerable needles.’ Steerable needle technology is not directly applicable to the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces, but it does provide guidance on how this problem should be approached. Specifically, the super-elastic nitinol tubing material that allows steerable needles to operate is also appropriate for the problem of navigating maze-like arrangements of extremely confined spaces. Furthermore, the portion of the mechanism that enters the extremely confined space is completely mechanical in nature. The mechanical nature of the device is an advantage when the extremely confined space features environmental hazards such as radiation that could degrade an electromechanically operated mechanism. Here, we present a compliant mechanism
Density and Phase State of a Confined Nonpolar Fluid
Kienle, Daniel F.; Kuhl, Tonya L.
2016-07-01
Measurements of the mean refractive index of a spherelike nonpolar fluid, octamethytetracylclosiloxane (OMCTS), confined between mica sheets, demonstrate direct and conclusive experimental evidence of the absence of a first-order liquid-to-solid phase transition in the fluid when confined, which has been suggested to occur from previous experimental and simulation results. The results also show that the density remains constant throughout confinement, and that the fluid is incompressible. This, along with the observation of very large increases (many orders of magnitude) in viscosity during confinement from the literature, demonstrate that the molecular motion is limited by the confining wall and not the molecular packing. In addition, the recently developed refractive index profile correction method, which enables the structural perturbation inherent at a solid-liquid interface and that of a liquid in confinement to be determined independently, was used to show that there was no measurable excess or depleted mass of OMCTS near the mica surface in bulk films or confined films of only two molecular layers.
Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P.
1993-04-01
First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e. of the non-local character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future. (author) 1 fig., 11 refs
Diffusion of Finite-Size Particles in Confined Geometries
Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan
2013-01-01
The diffusion of finite-size hard-core interacting particles in two- or three-dimensional confined domains is considered in the limit that the confinement dimensions become comparable to the particle's dimensions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle probability density function, with an overall collective diffusion that depends on both the excluded-volume and the narrow confinement. By including both these effects, the equation is able to interpolate between severe confinement (for example, single-file diffusion) and unconfined diffusion. Numerical solutions of both the effective nonlinear diffusion equation and the stochastic particle system are presented and compared. As an application, the case of diffusion under a ratchet potential is considered, and the change in transport properties due to excluded-volume and confinement effects is examined. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Blasi, Joyce F.
Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in…
Changing the criterion for memory conformity in free recall and recognition.
Wright, Daniel B; Gabbert, Fiona; Memon, Amina; London, Kamala
2008-02-01
People's responses during memory studies are affected by what other people say. This memory conformity effect has been shown in both free recall and recognition. Here we examine whether accurate, inaccurate, and suggested answers are affected similarly when the response criterion is varied. In the first study, participants saw four pictures of detailed scenes and then discussed the content of these scenes with another participant who saw the same scenes, but with a couple of details changed. Participants were either told to recall everything they could and not to worry about making mistakes (lenient), or only to recall items if they were sure that they were accurate (strict). The strict instructions reduced the amount of inaccurate information reported that the other person suggested, but also reduced the number of accurate details recalled. In the second study, participants were shown a large set of faces and then their memory recognition was tested with a confederate on these and fillers. Here also, the criterion manipulation shifted both accurate and inaccurate responses, and those suggested by the confederate. The results are largely consistent with a shift in response criterion affecting accurate, inaccurate, and suggested information. In addition we varied the level of secrecy in the participants' responses. The effects of secrecy were complex and depended on the level of response criterion. Implications for interviewing eyewitnesses and line-ups are discussed.
Simulations of water nano-confined between corrugated planes
Zubeltzu, Jon; Artacho, Emilio
2017-11-01
Water confined to nanoscale widths in two dimensions between ideal planar walls has been the subject of ample study, aiming at understanding the intrinsic response of water to confinement, avoiding the consideration of the chemistry of actual confining materials. In this work, we study the response of such nanoconfined water to the imposition of a periodicity in the confinement by means of computer simulations, both using empirical potentials and from first-principles. For that we propose a periodic confining potential emulating the atomistic oscillation of the confining walls, which allows varying the lattice parameter and amplitude of the oscillation. We do it for a triangular lattice, with several values of the lattice parameter: one which is ideal for commensuration with layers of Ih ice and other values that would correspond to more realistic substrates. For the former, the phase diagram shows an overall rise of the melting temperature. The liquid maintains a bi-layer triangular structure, however, despite the fact that it is not favoured by the external periodicity. The first-principles liquid is significantly affected by the modulation in its layering and stacking even at relatively small amplitudes of the confinement modulation. Beyond some critical modulation amplitude, the hexatic phase present in flat confinement is replaced by a trilayer crystalline phase unlike any of the phases encountered for flat confinement. For more realistic lattice parameters, the liquid does not display higher tendency to freeze, but it clearly shows inhomogeneous behaviour as the strength of the rugosity increases. In spite of this expected inhomogeneity, the structural and dynamical response of the liquid is surprisingly insensitive to the external modulation. Although the first-principles calculations give a more triangular liquid than the one observed with empirical potentials (TIP4P/2005), both agree remarkably well for the main conclusions of the study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grierson, B. A., E-mail: bgriers@pppl.gov; Nazikian, R. M.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Belli, E. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Evans, T. E.; Smith, S. P.; Chrobak, C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); McKee, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53796 (United States); Orlov, D. M. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2015-05-15
Impurity transport in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] is investigated in stationary high confinement (H-mode) regimes without edge localized modes (ELMs). In plasmas maintained by resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), ELM-suppression, and QH-mode, the confinement time of fluorine (Z = 9) is equivalent to that in ELMing discharges with 40 Hz ELMs. For selected discharges with impurity injection, the impurity particle confinement time compared to the energy confinement time is in the range of τ{sub p}/τ{sub e}≈2−3. In QH-mode operation, the impurity confinement time is shown to be smaller for intense, coherent magnetic, and density fluctuations of the edge harmonic oscillation than weaker fluctuations. Transport coefficients are derived from the time evolution of the impurity density profile and compared to neoclassical and turbulent transport models NEO and TGLF. Neoclassical transport of fluorine is found to be small compared to the experimental values. In the ELMing and RMP ELM-suppressed plasma, the impurity transport is affected by the presence of tearing modes. For radii larger than the mode radius, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is smaller than the experimental value by a factor of 2–3, while the convective velocity is within error estimates. Low levels of diffusion are observed for radii smaller than the tearing mode radius. In the QH-mode plasma investigated, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is higher inside of ρ=0.4 and lower outside of 0.4 than the experiment, and the TGLF convective velocity is more negative by a factor of approximately 1.7.
Criterion of Semi-Markov Dependent Risk Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Yun MO; Xiang Qun YANG
2014-01-01
A rigorous definition of semi-Markov dependent risk model is given. This model is a generalization of the Markov dependent risk model. A criterion and necessary conditions of semi-Markov dependent risk model are obtained. The results clarify relations between elements among semi-Markov dependent risk model more clear and are applicable for Markov dependent risk model.
A simple stability criterion for CANDU figure-of-eight flow oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulshani, P.; Spinks, N.J.
1983-01-01
Potential flow oscillations in CANDU reactor primary heat transport system are analyzed in terms of a simple, linearized model. A simple, algebraic stability criterion is obtained. The model predictions are found to be in good agreement with those of thermohydraulic codes for high pressure natural circulation conditions. For normal operating conditions the criterion predicts the correct trend but overlooks important stabilizing effects. The model clarifies the instability mechanism; namely the response of enthalpy and, hence, pressure in the boiling region to flow change
Random walks and polygons in tight confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Ziegler, U
2014-01-01
We discuss the effect of confinement on the topology and geometry of tightly confined random walks and polygons. Here the walks and polygons are confined in a sphere of radius R ≥ 1/2 and the polygons are equilateral with n edges of unit length. We illustrate numerically that for a fixed length of random polygons the knotting probability increases to one as the radius decreases to 1/2. We also demonstrate that for random polygons (walks) the curvature increases to πn (π(n – 1)) as the radius approaches 1/2 and that the torsion decreases to ≈ πn/3 (≈ π(n – 1)/3). In addition we show the effect of length and confinement on the average crossing number of a random polygon
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.
Gallagher, Shaun
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.
Carbon emissions and an equitable emission reduction criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golomb, Dan
1999-01-01
In 1995 the world-wide carbon emissions reached 5.8 billion metric tonnes per year (GTC/y). The Kyoto protocol calls for a reduction of carbon emissions from the developed countries (Annex I countries) of 6-8% below 1990 levels on the average, and unspecified commitments for the less developed (non-Annex I) countries. It is doubtful that the Kyoto agreement will be ratified by some parliaments, especially the USA Congress. Furthermore, it is shown that if the non-Annex I countries will not curtail their carbon emissions drastically, the global emissions will soar to huge levels by the middle of the next century. An equitable emission criterion is proposed which may lead to a sustainable rate of growth of carbon emissions, and be acceptable to all countries of the world. The criterion links the rate of growth of carbon emissions to the rate of growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A target criterion is proposed R = 0.15 KgC/SGDP, which is the current average for western European countries and Japan. This allows for both the growth of the GDP and carbon emissions. However, to reach the target in a reasonable time, the countries for which R≤ 0.3 would be allowed a carbon emission growth rate of 1%./y, and countries for which R≥ 0.3, 0.75%/y. It is shown that by 2050 the world-wide carbon emissions would reach about 10 GTC/y, which is about 3 times less than the Kyoto agreement would allow. (Author)
Higher representations: Confinement and large N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sannino, Francesco
2005-01-01
We investigate the confining phase transition as a function of temperature for theories with dynamical fermions in the two index symmetric and antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. By studying the properties of the center of the gauge group we predict for an even number of colors a confining phase transition, if second order, to be in the universality class of Ising in three dimensions. This is due to the fact that the center group symmetry does not break completely for an even number of colors. For an odd number of colors the center group symmetry breaks completely. This pattern remains unaltered at a large number of colors. The confining/deconfining phase transition in these theories at large and finite N is not mapped in the one of super Yang-Mills theory. We extend the Polyakov loop effective theory to describe the confining phase transition of the theories studied here for a generic number of colors. Our results are not modified when adding matter in the same higher dimensional representations of the gauge group. We comment on the interplay between confinement and chiral symmetry in these theories and suggest that they are ideal laboratories to shed light on this issue also for ordinary QCD. We compare the free energy as a function of temperature for different theories. We find that the conjectured thermal inequality between the infrared and ultraviolet degrees of freedom computed using the free energy does not lead to new constraints on asymptotically free theories with fermions in higher dimensional representations of the gauge group. Since the center of the gauge group is an important quantity for the confinement properties at zero temperature our results are relevant here as well
Magnetic well for plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valfells, A.; Chiu, Y.C.
1977-01-01
A multipole magnetic well for plasma confinement includes a plurality of current-carrying coils placed on planes corresponding to the facets of a regular polyhedron that can be symmetrically circumscribed about a sphere. The direction of current in the coils is such as to minimize the flux density at the center of the polyhedron, thereby providing a confinement well with three-dimensional symmetry having an increasing flux density in all directions from the center. 16 claims, 18 figures
Neutron spectroscopy for confinement studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorn, R.
2010-01-01
Neutron spectroscopy is an important method for the study of microscopic dynamics because it captures the spatial as well as the temporal aspects of the atomic or molecular motion. In this article techniques will be presented which are of special importance for the study of confined systems. Many of these are based on the fact that neutron scattering is isotope-dependent. Possible sources of systematic errors in measurements of confined systems will be pointed out. (author)
PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology.
Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie
2017-06-01
A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diffusion of Finite-Size Particles in Confined Geometries
Bruna, Maria
2013-05-10
The diffusion of finite-size hard-core interacting particles in two- or three-dimensional confined domains is considered in the limit that the confinement dimensions become comparable to the particle\\'s dimensions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle probability density function, with an overall collective diffusion that depends on both the excluded-volume and the narrow confinement. By including both these effects, the equation is able to interpolate between severe confinement (for example, single-file diffusion) and unconfined diffusion. Numerical solutions of both the effective nonlinear diffusion equation and the stochastic particle system are presented and compared. As an application, the case of diffusion under a ratchet potential is considered, and the change in transport properties due to excluded-volume and confinement effects is examined. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.
On the Modified Barkhausen Criterion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.
2016-01-01
Oscillators are normally designed according to the Modified Barkhausen Criterion i.e. the complex pole pair is moved out in RHP so that the linear circuit becomes unstable. By means of the Mancini Phaseshift Oscillator it is demonstrated that the distortion of the oscillator may be minimized by i...... by introducing a nonlinear ”Hewlett Resistor” so that the complex pole-pair is in the RHP for small signals and in the LHP for large signals i.e. the complex pole pair of the instant linearized small signal model is moving around the imaginary axis in the complex frequency plane....
Perspectives on confinement in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae
1989-01-01
A review on recent experimental results and theoretical models on anomalous transport and density limit in toroidal helical devices is presented. Importance of transport problems is discussed. Experiments on Heliotron-E, Wendelstein-VIIA and new devices, i.e., ATF, Wendelstein-VIIAS and CHS, are reviewed and an overview on confinement property is given. From recent experimental results one sees that there are anomalous transport, which increases with temperature, and density limit, and that they limit the energy confinement time as well as the attainable beta value. The confinement characteristics of the scrape off layer plasma and loss cone loss are discussed, and perspectives on the high temperature plasma are given. These anomalous transport and density limit will be difficult obstacles in realizing a reactor grade plasma in helical systems. It is an urgent task to draw a realistic picture of the confinement based on the present data base. The relevant knowledge now would be critically essential for the successful development of the research in 1990's. (author) 102 refs
Use of the Niyama criterion to predict porosity of the mushy zone with deformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Polyakov
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The article presents new results on the use of the Niyama criterion to estimate porosity appearance in castings under hindered shrinkage. The effect of deformation of the mushy zone on filtration is shown. A new form of the Niyama criterion accounting for the hindered shrinkage and the range of deformation localization has been obtained. The results of this study are illustrated by the examp le of the Niyama criterion calculated for Al-Cu alloys under different diffusion conditions of solidification and rate of deformation in the mushy zone. Derived equations can be used in a mathematical model of the casting solidification as well as for interpretation of the simulation results of casting solidification under hindered shrinkage. The presented study resulted in a new procedure of using the Niyama criterion under mushy zone deformation.
Comments on experimental results of energy confinement of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1989-04-01
The results of energy-confinement experiments on steady-state tokamak plasmas are examined. For plasmas with auxiliary heating, an analysis based on the heat diffusion equation is used to define heat confinement time (the incremental energy confinement time). For ohmically sustained plasmas, experiments show that the onset of the saturation regime of energy confinement, marfeing, detachment, and disruption are marked by distinct values of the parameter /bar n//sub e///bar j/. The confinement results of the two types of experiments can be described by a single surface in 3-dimensional space spanned by the plasma energy, the heating power, and the plasma density: the incremental energy confinement time /tau//sub inc/ = ΔW/ΔP is the correct concept for describing results of heat confinement in a heating experiment; the commonly used energy confinement time defined by /tau//sub E/ = W/P is not. A further examination shows that the change of edge parameters, as characterized by the change of the effective collision frequency ν/sub e/*, governs the change of confinement properties. The totality of the results of tokamak experiments on energy confinement appears to support a hypothesis that energy transport is determined by the preservation of the pressure gradient scale length. 70 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Prioritising transport infrastructure projects: towards a multi-criterion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kirstam
multi-criterion analysis (MCA), partial equilibrium analysis, project appraisal ... In the case of transport infrastructure projects, though, this is no mean ... vehicle ownership and mileage-based depreciation (an improved road network and/ .... urban, rural or regional development initiatives – they typically include one or more.
Decision models for use with criterion-referenced tests
van der Linden, Willem J.
1980-01-01
The problem of mastery decisions and optimizing cutoff scores on criterion-referenced tests is considered. This problem can be formalized as an (empirical) Bayes problem with decisions rules of a monotone shape. Next, the derivation of optimal cutoff scores for threshold, linear, and normal ogive
Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes
2010-01-01
Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension component...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beidler, C; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Dinklage, A; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Geiger, J; Hartmann, D; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Koenig, R; Laqua, H P; Maassberg, H; Wagner, F; Weller, A; Wobig, H [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Greifswald (Germany)
2012-09-15
Stellarators, conceived 1951 by Lyman Spitzer in Princeton, are toroidal devices that confine a plasma in a magnetic field which originates from currents in coils outside the plasma. A plasma current driven by external means, for example by an ohmic transformer, is not required for confinement. Supplying the desired poloidal field component by external coils leads to a helically structured plasma topology. Thus stellarators - or helical confinement devices - are fully three-dimensional in contrast to the toroidal (rotational) symmetry of tokamaks. As stellarators can be free of an inductive current, whose radial distribution depends on the plasma parameters, their equilibrium must not be established via the evolving plasma itself, but to a first order already given by the vacuum magnetic field. They do not need an active control (like positional feedback) and therefore cannot suffer from its failure. The outstanding conceptual advantage of stellarators is the potential of steady state plasma operation without current drive. As there is no need for current drive, the recirculating power is expected to be smaller than in equivalent tokamaks. The lack of a net current avoids current driven instabilities; specifically, no disruptions, no resistive wall modes and no conventional or neoclassical tearing modes appear. Second order pressure-driven currents (Pfirsch-Schlueter, bootstrap) exist but they can be modified and even minimized by the magnetic design. The magnetic configuration of helical devices naturally possesses a separatrix, which allows the implementation of a helically structured divertor for exhaust and impurity control. (author)
Confinement and quark structure of light hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.
1988-01-01
We present a quark confinement model (QCM) for the description of the low-energy physics of light hadrons (mesons and baryons). The model is based on two hypotheses. First, the quark confinement is realized as averaging over vacuum gluon fields which are believed to provide the confinement of any colour objects. Second, hadrons are treated as collective colourless excitations of quark-gluon interactions. The description of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons and baryons at the low energy is given from a unique point of view
High temperature L- and H-mode confinement in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balet, B.; Boyd, D.A.; Campbell, D.J.
1990-01-01
The energy confinement properties of low density, high ion temperature L- and H-mode plasmas are investigated. For L-mode plasmas it is shown that, although the global confinement is independent of density, the energy confinement in the central region is significantly better at low densities than at higher densities. The improved confinement appears to be associated with the steepness of the density gradient. For the H-mode phase, although the confinement at the edge is dramatically improved, which is once again associated with the steep density gradient in the edge region, the central confinement properties are essentially the same as for the standard L-mode. The results are compared in a qualitative manner with the predictions of the ion temperature gradient instability theory and appear to be in disagreement with some aspects of this theory. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs
On the gap-opening criterion of migrating planets in protoplanetary disks
Malik, Matej; Meru, Farzana; Mayer, Lucio; Meyer, Michael R.
2015-01-01
We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to quantitatively explore the torque balance criterion for gap-opening (as formulated by Crida et al.) in a variety of disks when considering a migrating planet. We find that even when the criterion is satisfied, there are instances when planets still do not open gaps. We stress that gap-opening is not only dependent on whether a planet has the ability to open a gap, but whether it can do so quickly enough. This can be expressed as an addi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Chen; Chen, Yong
2015-01-01
In the work of Amann, Schmiedl and Seifert (2010 J. Chem. Phys. 132 041102), the authors derived a sufficient criterion to identify a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) in a three-state Markov system based on the coarse-grained information of two-state trajectories. In this paper, we present a mathematical derivation and provide a probabilistic interpretation of the Amann–Schmiedl–Seifert (ASS) criterion. Moreover, the ASS criterion is compared with some other criterions for a NESS. (paper)
On global stability criterion for neural networks with discrete and distributed delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Ju H.
2006-01-01
Based on the Lyapunov functional stability analysis for differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization approach, a new delay-dependent criterion for neural networks with discrete and distributed delays is derived to guarantee global asymptotic stability. The criterion is expressed in terms of LMIs, which can be solved easily by various convex optimization algorithms. Some numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of proposed method
A Criterion for Stability of Synchronization and Application to Coupled Chua's Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Haixia; Lu Qishao; Wang Qingyun
2009-01-01
We investigate synchronization in an array network of nearest-neighbor coupled chaotic oscillators. By using of the Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, a criterion for stability of complete synchronization is deduced. Meanwhile, an estimate of the critical coupling strength is obtained to ensure achieving chaos synchronization. As an example application, a model of coupled Chua's circuits with linearly bidirectional coupling is studied to verify the validity of the criterion. (general)
A novel delay-dependent criterion for delayed neural networks of neutral type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.M.; Kwon, O.M.; Park, Ju H.
2010-01-01
This Letter considers a robust stability analysis method for delayed neural networks of neutral type. By constructing a new Lyapunov functional, a novel delay-dependent criterion for the stability is derived in terms of LMIs (linear matrix inequalities). A less conservative stability criterion is derived by using nonlinear properties of the activation function of the neural networks. Two numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swieca, J.A.
1976-01-01
Some aspects of two recent developments in quantum field theory are discussed. First, related with 'extended particles' such as soliton, kink and the 't Hooft monopole. Second, with confinement of particles which are realized in the Schwinger model [pt
Evaluation of the confinement option for LMRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Himes, D.A.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Franz, G.R.
1985-12-01
The coolant in liquid metal cooled reactors operates at low pressures and therefore contains relatively little stored energy compared to LWR systems. This presents the possibility of using a more conventional building for containment coupled with a confinement system which vents the internal volume of the building through a filter/scrubber. The confinement system would be designed to keep the internal pressure in the containment near atmospheric thereby minimizing unfiltered leakage. The principal benefits of such an arrangement would be lower capital cost and less stringent leaktightness requirements permitting simpler and less disruptive testing. In conclusion, the confinement system assumed here would reduce consequences to the public of an LMR HCDA to acceptable levels. However control room doses are unacceptable due to the noble gas concentration inside the control room. A confinement system is therefore a viable design option for LMR's provided means are included for keeping noble gases out of the control room. Such means are readily available including, for example, selectable remote air intakes, an exhaust stack, or a noble gas filter. Probably the most satisfactory alternative would be a large cryogenic filter on the confinement system exhaust
Generating equilateral random polygons in confinement II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U
2012-01-01
In this paper we continue an earlier study (Diao et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 405202) on the generation algorithms of random equilateral polygons confined in a sphere. Here, the equilateral random polygons are rooted at the center of the confining sphere and the confining sphere behaves like an absorbing boundary. One way to generate such a random polygon is the accept/reject method in which an unconditioned equilateral random polygon rooted at origin is generated. The polygon is accepted if it is within the confining sphere, otherwise it is rejected and the process is repeated. The algorithm proposed in this paper offers an alternative to the accept/reject method, yielding a faster generation process when the confining sphere is small. In order to use this algorithm effectively, a large, reusable data set needs to be pre-computed only once. We derive the theoretical distribution of the given random polygon model and demonstrate, with strong numerical evidence, that our implementation of the algorithm follows this distribution. A run time analysis and a numerical error estimate are given at the end of the paper. (paper)
Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.
Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland
2014-09-07
Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.
Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time
Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
2011-01-01
The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns
Plasma confinement in the TMX tandem mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooper, E.B. Jr.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.
1981-01-01
Plasma confinement in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) is described. Axially confining potentials are shown to exist throughout the central 20-cm core of TMX. Axial electron-confinement time is up to 100 times that of single-cell mirror machines. Radial transport of ions is smaller than axial transport near the axis. It has two parts at large radii: nonambipolar, in rough agreement with predictions from resonant-neoclassical transport theory, and ambipolar, observed near the plasma edge under certain conditions, accompanied by a low-frequency, m = 1 instability or strong turbulence
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaun eGallagher
2014-06-01
Full Text Available What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of ‘cruelty’ by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.
Corner-point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers
Landeau, Stéphane; Pigois, Laurent; Foing, Jean-Paul; Deshors, Gilles; Swiathy, Greggory
2017-10-01
Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points. This paper presents an approach based on a Corner-Point (CP) resolution criterion, derived from the Probability of Correct Resolution (PCR) of binary fractal patterns. The fundamental principle lies in the respectful perception of the CP direction of one pixel minority value among the majority value of a 2×2 pixels block. The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth (GT). After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest. The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: a CP measurement for the highly non-linear part (imaging) with real signature test target and conventional methods for the more linear part (displaying). The application to
A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems
Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke
1989-04-01
A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems.
Refocusing criterion via sparsity measurements in digital holography.
Memmolo, Pasquale; Paturzo, Melania; Javidi, Bahram; Netti, Paolo A; Ferraro, Pietro
2014-08-15
Several automatic approaches have been proposed in the past to compute the refocus distance in digital holography (DH). However most of them are based on a maximization or minimization of a suitable amplitude image contrast measure, regarded as a function of the reconstruction distance parameter. Here we show that, by using the sparsity measure coefficient regarded as a refocusing criterion in the holographic reconstruction, it is possible to recover the focus plane and, at the same time, establish the degree of sparsity of digital holograms, when samples of the diffraction Fresnel propagation integral are used as a sparse signal representation. We employ a sparsity measurement coefficient known as Gini's index thus showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, its application in DH, as an effective refocusing criterion. Demonstration is provided for different holographic configurations (i.e., lens and lensless apparatus) and for completely different objects (i.e., a thin pure phase microscopic object as an in vitro cell, and macroscopic puppets) preparation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, L. [LMP, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, X.Y. [LMP, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Y.W., E-mail: liuyangwei@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2016-12-09
In order to shed light on understanding the subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling methodology, we analyze and define the concepts of assumption and restriction in the modelling procedure, then show by a generalized derivation that if there are multiple stationary restrictions in a modelling, the corresponding assumption function must satisfy a criterion of orthogonality. Numerical tests using one-dimensional nonlinear advection equation are performed to validate this criterion. This study is expected to inspire future research on generally guiding the SGS modelling methodology. - Highlights: • The concepts of assumption and restriction in the SGS modelling procedure are defined. • A criterion of orthogonality on the assumption and restrictions is derived. • Numerical tests using one-dimensional nonlinear advection equation are performed to validate this criterion.
Fluctuations and confinement in ATF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isler, R.C.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, M.
1993-01-01
In the period immediately prior to the suspension of ATF operation in November, 1991, a great deal of emphasis was palced on investigations of the fundamental mechanisms controlling confinement in this device. At that time, measurements of the density fluctuations throughout the plasma volume indicated the existence of theoretically predicted dissipative trapped electron and resistive interchange instabilities. These identifications were supported by results of dynamic configuration scans of the magnetic fields during which the extent of the magnetic well, shear, and fraction of confined trapped particles were changed continuously. Interpretation of the data from these experiments has been an ongoing exercise. Most recently, analysis of discharges employing strong gas puffing to change density gradients and fluctuation levels have strengthened the view that dissipative trapped electron modes may be present but do not play a significant direct role in energy transport. The present paper summarizes the current understanding concerning the identification of instabilities and their relationship to confinement in ATF
Confinement and strings in MQCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanany, A.; Strassler, M.J.; Zaffaroni, A.
1998-01-01
We study aspects of confinement in the M-theory fivebrane version of QCD (MQCD). We show heavy quarks are confined in hadrons (which take the form of membrane-fivebrane bound states) for N=1 and softly broken N=2 SU(N) MQCD. We explore and clarify the transition from the exotic physics of the latter to the standard physics of the former. In particular, the many strings and quark-antiquark mesons found in N=2 field theory by Douglas and Shenker are reproduced. It is seen that in the N=1 limit all but one such meson disappears while all of the strings survive. The strings of softly broken N=2, N=1, and even non-supersymmetric SU(N) MQCD have a common ratio for their tensions as a function of the amount of flux they carry. We also comment on the almost BPS properties of the Douglas-Shenker strings and discuss the brane picture for monopole confinement on N=2 QCD Higgs branches. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.; Nickell, R.E.
1992-01-01
An effort has been undertaken to develop a brittle fracture acceptance criterion for structural components of nuclear material transportation casks. The need for such a criterion was twofold. First, new generation cask designs have proposed the use of ferritic steels and other materials to replace the austenitic stainless steel commonly used for structural components in transport casks. Unlike austenitic stainless steel which fails in a high-energy absorbing, ductile tearing mode, it is possible for these candidate materials to fail via brittle fracture when subjected to certain combinations of elevated loading rates and low temperatures. Second, there is no established brittle fracture criterion accepted by the regulatory community that covers a broad range of structural materials. Although the existing IAEA Safety Series number-sign 37 addressed brittle fracture, its the guidance was dated and pertained only to ferritic steels. Consultant's Services Meetings held under the auspices of the IAEA have resulted in a recommended brittle fracture criterion. The brittle fracture criterion is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics, and is the result of a consensus of experts from six participating IAEA-member countries. The brittle fracture criterion allows three approaches to determine the fracture toughness of the structural material. The three approaches present the opportunity to balance material testing requirements and the conservatism of the material's fracture toughness which must be used to demonstrate resistance to brittle fracture. This work has resulted in a revised Appendix IX to Safety Series number-sign 37 which will be released as an IAEA Technical Document within the coming year
Critical quench dynamics in confined systems.
Collura, Mario; Karevski, Dragi
2010-05-21
We analyze the coherent quantum evolution of a many-particle system after slowly sweeping a power-law confining potential. The amplitude of the confining potential is varied in time along a power-law ramp such that the many-particle system finally reaches or crosses a critical point. Under this protocol we derive general scaling laws for the density of excitations created during the nonadiabatic sweep of the confining potential. It is found that the mean excitation density follows an algebraic law as a function of the sweeping rate with an exponent that depends on the space-time properties of the potential. We confirm our scaling laws by first order adiabatic calculation and exact results on the Ising quantum chain with a varying transverse field.
Systems interaction and single failure criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-01-01
This report documents the results of a six-month study to evaluate the ongoing research programs of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and U.S. commercial nuclear station owners which address the safety significance of systems interaction and the regulatory adequacy of the single failure criterion. The evaluation of system interactions provided is the initial phase of a more detailed study leading to the development and application of methodology for quantifying the relative safety of operating nuclear plants. (Auth.)
Generalized melting criterion for beam-induced amorphization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, Paul R.
1993-09-01
Recent studies have shown that the mean-square static atomic displacements provide a generic measure of the enthalpy stored in the lattice in the form of chemical and topological disorder, and that the effect of the displacements on the softening of shear elastic constants is identical to that of heating. This finding lends support to a generalized form of the Lindemann phenomenological melting criterion and leads to a natural interpretion of crystalline-to-amorphous transformations as defect-induced melting of metastable crystals driven beyond a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature falls below the glass-transition temperature. Application of the generalized Lindemann criterion to both the crystalline and amorphous phases indicates that the enthalpies of the two phases become identical when their shear moduli become equal. This thermo-elastic rule provides a basis for predicting the relative susceptibility of compounds to amorphization in terms of their elastic properties as measured by Debye temperatures. The present approach can explain many of the basic findings on beam-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds as well as amorphous phase formation associated with ion implantation, ion-beam mixing and other solid-state processes
Short-Cut Estimators of Criterion-Referenced Test Consistency.
Brown, James Dean
1990-01-01
Presents simplified methods for deriving estimates of the consistency of criterion-referenced, English-as-a-Second-Language tests, including (1) the threshold loss agreement approach using agreement or kappa coefficients, (2) the squared-error loss agreement approach using the phi(lambda) dependability approach, and (3) the domain score…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun
2013-01-01
This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method
Experiments and modeling of ballistic penetration using an energy failure criterion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolinski M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available One of the most intricate problems in terminal ballistics is the physics underlying penetration and perforation. Several penetration modes are well identified, such as petalling, plugging, spall failure and fragmentation (Sedgwick, 1968. In most cases, the final target failure will combine those modes. Some of the failure modes can be due to brittle material behavior, but penetration of ductile targets by blunt projectiles, involving plugging in particular, is caused by excessive localized plasticity, with emphasis on adiabatic shear banding (ASB. Among the theories regarding the onset of ASB, new evidence was recently brought by Rittel et al. (2006, according to whom shear bands initiate as a result of dynamic recrystallization (DRX, a local softening mechanism driven by the stored energy of cold work. As such, ASB formation results from microstructural transformations, rather than from thermal softening. In our previous work (Dolinski et al., 2010, a failure criterion based on plastic strain energy density was presented and applied to model four different classical examples of dynamic failure involving ASB formation. According to this criterion, a material point starts to fail when the total plastic strain energy density reaches a critical value. Thereafter, the strength of the element decreases gradually to zero to mimic the actual material mechanical behavior. The goal of this paper is to present a new combined experimental-numerical study of ballistic penetration and perforation, using the above-mentioned failure criterion. Careful experiments are carried out using a single combination of AISI 4340 FSP projectiles and 25[mm] thick RHA steel plates, while the impact velocity, and hence the imparted damage, are systematically varied. We show that our failure model, which includes only one adjustable parameter in this present work, can faithfully reproduce each of the experiments without any further adjustment. Moreover, it is shown that the
Statistical criterion for Bubbly-slug flow transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zigler, J; Elias, E [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-01
The investigation of flow pattern transitions is still an interesting problem in the research of multiphase Row. It has been studied theoretically, and experimental confirmation of the models has been found by many investigators. The present paper deals with a statistical approach to bubbly-slug transitions in a vertical upward two phase flow and a new transition criterion is deduced from experimental data (authors).
A new risk-based screening criterion for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Slidsborg, Carina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen Christian
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark.......The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.S. Petrushin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.
Enhancement of confinement in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furth, H.P.
1986-05-01
A plausible interpretation of the experimental evidence is that energy confinement in tokamaks is governed by two separate considerations: (1) the need for resistive MHD kink-stability, which limits the permissible range of current profiles - and therefore normally also the range of temperature profiles; and (2) the presence of strongly anomalous microscopic energy transport near the plasma edge, which calibrates the amplitude of the global temperature profile, thus determining the energy confinement time tau/sub E/. Correspondingly, there are two main paths towards the enhancement of tokamak confinement: (1) Configurational optimization, to increase the MHD-stable energy content of the plasma core, can evidently be pursued by varying the cross-sectional shape of the plasma and/or finding stable radial profiles with central q-values substantially below unity - but crossing from ''first'' to ''second'' stability within the peak-pressure region would have the greatest ultimate potential. (2) Suppression of edge turbulence, so as to improve the heat insulation in the outer plasma shell, can be pursued by various local stabilizing techniques, such as use of a poloidal divertor. The present confinement model and initial TFTR pellet-injection results suggest that the introduction of a super-high-density region within the plasma core should be particularly valuable for enhancing ntau/subE/. In D-T operation, a centrally peaked plasma pressure profile could possibly lend itself to alpha-particle-driven entry into the second-stability regime
Elaboration of generalized criterion for zonality determination of the Chernobyl' NPP working spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simakov, A.V.; Bad'in, V.I.; Nosovskij, A.V.
1992-01-01
Analysis of the features of radioactive dose rating, regularities of their formation and dosimetry allows suggesting generalized criterion for assess zonality of compartments and territories, combining all factors and their action on operators. This criterion may be used during design of the new objects, development of programs and pursuance of work on removal of atomic power plants from operation. 6 refs.; 1 fig
Fluorescence Microscopy of Nanochannel-Confined DNA.
Westerlund, Fredrik; Persson, Fredrik; Fritzsche, Joachim; Beech, Jason P; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O
2018-01-01
Stretching of DNA in nanoscale confinement allows for several important studies. The genetic contents of the DNA can be visualized on the single DNA molecule level and both the polymer physics of confined DNA and also DNA/protein and other DNA/DNA-binding molecule interactions can be explored. This chapter describes the basic steps to fabricate the nanostructures, perform the experiments and analyze the data.
Synchronization criterion for Lur'e type complex dynamical networks with time-varying delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, D.H.; Park, Ju H.; Yoo, W.J.; Won, S.C.; Lee, S.M.
2010-01-01
In this Letter, the synchronization problem for a class of complex dynamical networks in which every identical node is a Lur'e system with time-varying delay is considered. A delay-dependent synchronization criterion is derived for the synchronization of complex dynamical network that represented by Lur'e system with sector restricted nonlinearities. The derived criterion is a sufficient condition for absolute stability of error dynamics between the each nodes and the isolated node. Using a convex representation of the nonlinearity for error dynamics, the stability condition based on the discretized Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is obtained via LMI formulation. The proposed delay-dependent synchronization criterion is less conservative than the existing ones. The effectiveness of our work is verified through numerical examples.
Jeans' criterion and nonextensive velocity distribution function in kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Jiulin
2004-01-01
The effect of nonextensivity of self-gravitating systems on the Jeans' criterion for gravitational instability is studied in the framework of Tsallis statistics. The nonextensivity is introduced in the Jeans problem by a generalized q-nonextensive velocity distribution function through the equation of state of ideal gas in nonextensive kinetic theory. A new Jeans' criterion is deduced with a factor √(2/(5-3q)) that, however, differs from that one in [Astron. Astrophys. 396 (2002) 309] and new results of gravitational instability are analyzed for the nonextensive parameter q. An understanding of physical meaning of q and a possible seismic observation to find astronomical evidence for a value of q different from unity are also discussed
Establishment of an equivalence acceptance criterion for accelerated stability studies.
Burdick, Richard K; Sidor, Leslie
2013-01-01
In this article, the use of statistical equivalence testing for providing evidence of process comparability in an accelerated stability study is advocated over the use of a test of differences. The objective of such a study is to demonstrate comparability by showing that the stability profiles under nonrecommended storage conditions of two processes are equivalent. Because it is difficult at accelerated conditions to find a direct link to product specifications, and hence product safety and efficacy, an equivalence acceptance criterion is proposed that is based on the statistical concept of effect size. As with all statistical tests of equivalence, it is important to collect input from appropriate subject-matter experts when defining the acceptance criterion.
Behaviour of FRP confined concrete in square columns
Diego Villalón, Ana de; Arteaga Iriarte, Ángel; Fernandez Gomez, Jaime Antonio; Perera Velamazán, Ricardo; Cisneros, Daniel
2015-01-01
A significant amount of research has been conducted on FRP-confined circular columns, but much less is known about rectangular/square columns in which the effectiveness of confinement is much reduced. This paper presents the results of experimental investigations on low strength square concrete columns confined with FRP. Axial compression tests were performed on ten intermediate size columns. The tests results indicate that FRP composites can significantly improve the bearing capacity and duc...
Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treder, H.J.
1983-01-01
The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric
Finite temperature approach to confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gave, E.; Jengo, R.; Omero, C.
1980-06-01
The finite temperature treatment of gauge theories, formulated in terms of a gauge invariant variable as in a Polyakov method, is used as a device for obtaining an effective theory where the confinement test takes the form of a correlation function. The formalism is discussed for the abelian CPsup(n-1) model in various dimensionalities and for the pure Yang-Mills theory in the limit of zero temperature. In the latter case a class of vortex like configurations of the effective theory which induce confinement correspond in particular to the instanton solutions. (author)
Pellet injection and toroidal confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-12-01
The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs
INERT Atmosphere confinement operability test procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
RISENMAY, H.R.
1999-01-01
This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) provides instructions for testing operability of the Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC). The Inert Atmosphere Confinement was designed and built for opening cans of metal items that might have hydrided surfaces. Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) PFP-97-005 addresses the discovery of suspected plutonium hydride forming on plutonium metal currently stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant vaults. Plutonium hydride reacts quickly with air, liberating energy. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement was designed to prevent this sudden liberation of energy by opening the material in an inert argon atmosphere instead of the normal glovebox atmosphere. The IAC is located in glovebox HC-21A, room 230B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site
Deep processes in non-relativistic confining potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishbane, P.M.; Grisaru, M.T.
1978-01-01
The authors study deep inelastic and hard scattering processes for non-relativistic particles confined in deep potentials. The mechanisms by which the effects of confinement disappear and the particles scatter as if free are useful in understanding the analogous results for a relativistic field theory. (Auth.)
Potential Role of Inorganic Confined Environments in Prebiotic Phosphorylation.
Dass, Avinash Vicholous; Jaber, Maguy; Brack, André; Foucher, Frédéric; Kee, Terence P; Georgelin, Thomas; Westall, Frances
2018-03-05
A concise outlook on the potential role of confinement in phosphorylation and phosphate condensation pertaining to prebiotic chemistry is presented. Inorganic confinement is a relatively uncharted domain in studies concerning prebiotic chemistry, and even more so in terms of experimentation. However, molecular crowding within confined dimensions is central to the functioning of contemporary biology. There are numerous advantages to confined environments and an attempt to highlight this fact, within this article, has been undertaken, keeping in context the limitations of aqueous phase chemistry in phosphorylation and, to a certain extent, traditional approaches in prebiotic chemistry.
Earing Prediction in Cup Drawing using the BBC2008 Yield Criterion
Vrh, Marko; Halilovič, Miroslav; Starman, Bojan; Štok, Boris; Comsa, Dan-Sorin; Banabic, Dorel
2011-08-01
The paper deals with constitutive modelling of highly anisotropic sheet metals. It presents FEM based earing predictions in cup drawing simulation of highly anisotropic aluminium alloys where more than four ears occur. For that purpose the BBC2008 yield criterion, which is a plane-stress yield criterion formulated in the form of a finite series, is used. Thus defined criterion can be expanded to retain more or less terms, depending on the amount of given experimental data. In order to use the model in sheet metal forming simulations we have implemented it in a general purpose finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit via VUMAT subroutine, considering alternatively eight or sixteen parameters (8p and 16p version). For the integration of the constitutive model the explicit NICE (Next Increment Corrects Error) integration scheme has been used. Due to the scheme effectiveness the CPU time consumption for a simulation is comparable to the time consumption of built-in constitutive models. Two aluminium alloys, namely AA5042-H2 and AA2090-T3, have been used for a validation of the model. For both alloys the parameters of the BBC2008 model have been identified with a developed numerical procedure, based on a minimization of the developed cost function. For both materials, the predictions of the BBC2008 model prove to be in very good agreement with the experimental results. The flexibility and the accuracy of the model together with the identification and integration procedure guarantee the applicability of the BBC2008 yield criterion in industrial applications.
Interaction between confined phonons and photons in periodic silicon resonators
Iskandar, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Younes, J.; Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Tabbal, M.; Lerondel, G.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that phonons and photons of different momenta can be confined and interact with each other within the same nanostructure. The interaction between confined phonons and confined photons in silicon resonator arrays is observed by means of Raman scattering. The Raman spectra from large arrays of dielectric silicon resonators exhibited Raman enhancement accompanied with a downshift and broadening. The analysis of the Raman intensity and line shape using finite-difference time-domain simulations and a spatial correlation model demonstrated an interaction between photons confined in the resonators and phonons confined in highly defective regions prompted by the structuring process. It was shown that the Raman enhancement is due to collective lattice resonance inducing field confinement in the resonators, while the spectra downshift and broadening are signatures of the relaxation of the phonon wave vector due to phonon confinement in defective regions located in the surface layer of the Si resonators. We found that as the resonators increase in height and their shape becomes cylindrical, the amplitude of their coherent oscillation increases and hence their ability to confine the incoming electric field increases.
Improved confinement in L-mode JET plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, T.T.C.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bures, M.; Campbell, D.J.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Core, W.F.; Corti, S.; Costley, A.E.; Cottrell, G.A.; Edwards, A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Jacquinot, J.; Lallia, P.; Lomas, P.J.; Lowry, C.; Malacarne, M.; Muir, D.G.; Nave, M.F.; Nielsen, P.; Sack, C.; Sadler, G.; Start, D.F.H.; Taroni, A.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K.
1989-01-01
The JET confinement data show considerable variations of stored plasma energy W (thermal + fast ions) at fixed input power P, plasma current I, toroidal field B and plasma configuration C. The data on confinement properties, e.g. the confinement time τ E or its incremental value τ E (inc), derived from variations of P at fixed I, B, C thus exhibit scatter which makes the scaling of τ E with P, I, B, C difficult to establish. The effects from sawteeth, from variations in the power deposition profiles and from plasma edge physics on confinement do not depend on P, I, B, C in any simple way which would permit a deduced scaling law to be identified with a single (or more) physics loss mechanism(s). In this paper we examine the response of confinement to variations in plasma configuration at fixed I and B (3 MA and 3 T). Results from global and local transport analysis are discussed in sections 2 and 3; section 4 describes the role of fast ions produced by ICRF and NBI heating. High confinement in the L-mode regime at increased plasma currents up to 6 MA is also studied, in particular the effects from sawteeth on stored energy W. Such effects increase with current and presently only predictive transport studies (section 5) can estimate what may be achieved at high current without sawteeth effects. The predictive studies also assess the benefits which may arise from an increase of the neutral beam energy at high plasma currents (section 6). The conclusions are based on extensive study of data from JET pulses with up to 14 MW of ICRH, 21 MW of NBI and 6 MW of ohmic power. None of the pulses included in the study show the sudden reduction of D α emission characteristic of the L to H mode transition of confinement. 7 refs., 4 figs
A simple criterion to predict the glass forming ability of metallic alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falcao de Oliveira, Marcelo
2012-01-01
A new and simple criterion with which to quantitatively predict the glass forming ability (GFA) of metallic alloys is proposed. It was found that the critical cooling rate for glass formation (R C ) correlates well with a proper combination of two factors, the minimum topological instability (λ min ) and the Δh parameter, which depends on the average work function difference (Δφ) and the average electron density difference (Δn ws 1/3 ) among the constituent elements of the alloy. A correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.76 was found between R c and the new criterion for 68 alloys in 30 different metallic systems. The new criterion and the Uhlmann's approach were used to estimate the critical amorphous thickness (Z C ) of alloys in the Cu-Zr system. The new criterion underestimated R C in the Cu-Zr system, producing predicted Z C values larger than those observed experimentally. However, when considering a scale factor, a remarkable similarity was observed between the predicted and the experimental behavior of the GFA in the binary Cu-Zr. When using the same scale factor and performing the calculation for the ternary Zr-Cu-Al, good agreement was found between the predicted and the actual best GFA region, as well as between the expected and the observed critical amorphous thickness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, T.L.
1976-01-01
The infrared limit in asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories using recently developed non-perturbative methods which allow derivation of zero momentum theorems for Green's functions and vertices is described. These low-energy theorems are compared to the infrared behavior predicted from the renormalization group equation when the existence of an infrared fixed point is assumed. A set of objects is exhibited whose low energy theorems violate the scaling behavior predicted by the renormalization group. This shows that the assumed fixed point cannot exist and that in the Landau gauge the effective charge becomes infinite in the infrared. Qualitatively this implies that as an attempt is made to separate elementary quanta the interaction between the quanta becomes arbitrarily strong. This indicates at least that the theories studied are capable of color confinement. Results are true only for theories with large numbers of quarks. This opens the possibility that large numbers of quarks are actually necessary for confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.
1989-01-01
Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure
Specific strain work as a failure criterion in plane stress state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuchowski, R.; Zietkowski, L.
1985-01-01
An experimental verification of failure criterion based on specific strain work was performed. Thin-walled cylindrical specimens were examined by loading with constant force and constant torque moment, assuming different values for particular tests, at the same time keeping stress intensity constant, and by subjecting to thermal cycling. It was found that the critical value of failure did not depend on axial-to-shearing stresses ratio, i.e., on the type of state of stress. Thereby, the validity of the analysed failure criterion in plane stress was confirmed. Besides, a simple description of damage development in plane stress was suggested. (orig./RF)
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.
1981-12-01
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized
An analytic expression for the sheath criterion in magnetized plasmas with multi-charged ion species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatami, M. M.
2015-01-01
The generalized Bohm criterion in magnetized multi-component plasmas consisting of multi-charged positive and negative ion species and electrons is analytically investigated by using the hydrodynamic model. It is assumed that the electrons and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with different temperatures and the positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely. Our results show that the positive and negative ion temperatures, the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the charge number of positive and negative ions strongly affect the Bohm criterion in these multi-component plasmas. To determine the validity of our derived generalized Bohm criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition and it is shown that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when entrance velocity of ion into the sheath satisfies the obtained Bohm criterion. Also, as a practical application of the obtained Bohm criterion, effects of the ionic temperature and concentration as well as magnetic field on the behavior of the charged particle density distributions and so the sheath thickness of a magnetized plasma consisting of electrons and singly charged positive and negative ion species are studied numerically
Curvature of random walks and random polygons in confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the curvature of equilateral random walks and polygons that are confined in a sphere. Curvature is one of several basic geometric properties that can be used to describe random walks and polygons. We show that confinement affects curvature quite strongly, and in the limit case where the confinement diameter equals the edge length the unconfined expected curvature value doubles from π/2 to π. To study curvature a simple model of an equilateral random walk in spherical confinement in dimensions 2 and 3 is introduced. For this simple model we derive explicit integral expressions for the expected value of the total curvature in both dimensions. These expressions are functions that depend only on the radius R of the confinement sphere. We then show that the values obtained by numeric integration of these expressions agrees with numerical average curvature estimates obtained from simulations of random walks. Finally, we compare the confinement effect on curvature of random walks with random polygons. (paper)
Integral criterion for selecting nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grechin, Sergei G
2009-01-01
An integral criterion, which takes into account all parameters determining the conversion efficiency, is offered for selecting nonlinear crystals for frequency conversion. The angular phase-matching width is shown to be related to the beam walk-off angle. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peise, Jan; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.
2016-01-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, as shown successfully...
Statistical Relations for Yield Degradation in Inertial Confinement Fusion
Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Patel, D.; Gopalaswamy, V.
2017-10-01
In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the yield-over-clean (YOC) is a quantity commonly used to assess the performance of an implosion with respect to the degradation caused by asymmetries. The YOC also determines the Lawson parameter used to identify the onset of ignition and the level of alpha heating in ICF implosions. In this work, we show that the YOC is a unique function of the residual kinetic energy in the compressed shell (with respect to the 1-D case) regardless of the asymmetry spectrum. This result is derived using a simple model of the deceleration phase as well as through an extensive set of 3-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations using the code DEC3D. The latter has been recently upgraded to include a 3-D spherical moving mesh, the HYPRE solver for 3-D radiation transport and piecewise-parabolic method for robust shock-capturing hydrodynamic simulations. DEC3D is used to build a synthetic single-mode database to study the behavior of yield degradation caused by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in the deceleration phase. The relation between YOC and residual kinetic energy is compared with the result in an adiabatic implosion model. The statistical expression of YOC is also applied to the ignition criterion in the presence of multidimensional nonuniformities. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Percolating cluster of center vortices and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Panero, Marco; Provero, Paolo
2003-01-01
We study the role of percolating clusters of center vortices in configurations of an Ising gauge theory in 3D. It is known that low energy features of gauge theories can be described in terms of an 'effective string picture', and that confinement properties are associated with topologically non-trivial configurations. We focus our attention upon percolating clusters of center vortices, and present numerical evidence for the fact that these objects play a preminent role in confinement phenomenon, since their removal sweeps off confinement altogether. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the string fluctuations, and in particular the Mischer term, are completely encoded in the percolating cluster
Wang, Cong; Shang, De-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei
2015-02-01
An improved high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion based on the critical plane was proposed in this paper. The critical plane was defined as the plane of maximum shear stress (MSS) in the proposed multiaxial fatigue criterion, which is different from the traditional critical plane based on the MSS amplitude. The proposed criterion was extended as a fatigue life prediction model that can be applicable for ductile and brittle materials. The fatigue life prediction model based on the proposed high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion was validated with experimental results obtained from the test of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and some references.
FRP-Confined Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Experimental Investigation and Model Comparison
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingwu Zhou
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The in situ application of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC is of great significance in environmental protection and construction resources sustainability. However, it has been limited to nonstructural purposes due to its poor mechanical performance. External confinement using steel tubes and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP can significantly improve the mechanical performance of RAC and thus the first-ever study on the axial compressive behavior of glass FRP (GFRP-confined RAC was recently reported. To have a full understanding of FRP-confined RAC, this paper has extended the type of FRP and presents a systematic experimental study on the axial compressive performance of carbon FRP (CFRP-confined RAC. The mechanical properties of CFRP-confined RAC from the perspective of the failure mode, ultimate strength and strain, and stress–strain relationship responses were analyzed. Integrated with existing experimental data of FRP-confined RAC, the paper compiles a database for the mechanical properties of FRP-confined RAC. Based on the database, the effects of FRP type (i.e., GFRP and CFRP and the replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate were investigated. The results indicated that the stress–stain behavior of FRP-confined RAC depended heavily on the unconfined concrete strength and the FRP confining pressure instead of the replacement ratio. Therefore, this study adopted eleven high-performance ultimate strength and strain models developed for FRP-confined normal aggregate concrete (NAC to predict the mechanical properties of FRP-confined RAC. All the predictions had good agreement with the test results, which further confirmed similar roles played by FRP confinement in improving the mechanical properties of RAC and improving those of NAC. On this basis, this paper finally recommended a stress–strain relationship model for FRP-confined RAC.
Optimal order and time-step criterion for Aarseth-type N-body integrators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, Junichiro
1991-01-01
How the selection of the time-step criterion and the order of the integrator change the efficiency of Aarseth-type N-body integrators is discussed. An alternative to Aarseth's scheme based on the direct calculation of the time derivative of the force using the Hermite interpolation is compared to Aarseth's scheme, which uses the Newton interpolation to construct the predictor and corrector. How the number of particles in the system changes the behavior of integrators is examined. The Hermite scheme allows a time step twice as large as that for the standard Aarseth scheme for the same accuracy. The calculation cost of the Hermite scheme per time step is roughly twice as much as that of the standard Aarseth scheme. The optimal order of the integrators depends on both the particle number and the accuracy required. The time-step criterion of the standard Aarseth scheme is found to be inapplicable to higher-order integrators, and a more uniformly reliable criterion is proposed. 18 refs
Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.
Structure and spectra of a confined HeH molecule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo, J M H; Klobukowski, M; Bielinska-Wacz, D; Schreiner, E W S; Diercksen, G H F
2006-01-01
The influence of spatial confinement on the structure and spectra of the Rydberg HeH molecule is analysed at the level of the variational full configuration interaction approach. The confining potential is assumed to have cylindrical symmetry, with the symmetry axis of the potential overlapping with the molecular bond. In the direction perpendicular to the axis quadratic dependence of the potential on the electron coordinates is assumed. The influence of the confining potential on the form of the potential energy curves (in particular on the bond lengths), on the electronic spectra and on the ionization due to the confinement is studied in detail
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Shaun eGallagher; Shaun eGallagher; Shaun eGallagher
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we ...
Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Vrana
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.
Masonry Columns Confined by Steel Fiber Composite Wraps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Corradi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The application of steel fiber reinforced polymer (SRP as a means of increasing the capacity of masonry columns is investigated in this study. The behavior of 23 solid-brick specimens that are externally wrapped by SRP sheets in low volumetric ratios is presented. The specimens are subjected to axial monotonic load until failure occurs. Two widely used types of masonry columns of differing square cross-sections were tested in compression (square and octagonal cross-sections. It is concluded that SRP-confined masonry behaves very much like fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-confined masonry. Confinement increases both the load-carrying capacity and the deformability of masonry almost linearly with average confining stress. A comparative analysis between experimental and theoretical values computed in compliance with the Italian Council of Research (CNR was also developed.
Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials
Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe
2017-01-01
Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...
Chiral symmetry breaking and confinement - solutions of relativistic wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murugesan, P.
1983-01-01
In this thesis, an attempt is made to explore the question whether confinement automatically leads to chiral symmetry breaking. While it should be accepted that chiral symmetry breaking manifests in nature in the absence of scalar partners of pseudoscalar mesons, it does not necessarily follow that confinement should lead to chiral symmetry breaking. If chiral conserving forces give rise to observed spectrum of hadrons, then the conjuncture that confinement is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking is not valid. The method employed to answer the question whether confinement leads to chiral symmetry breaking or not is to solve relativistic wave equations by introducing chiral conserving as well as chiral breaking confining potentials and compare the results with experimental observations. It is concluded that even though chiral symmetry is broken in nature, confinement of quarks need not be the cause of it
CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA
Koenig, H.R.
1963-05-01
The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)
Geerdink, R.B.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.
2001-01-01
The suitability of a confirmation criterion recently recommended in the Netherlands for gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), was evaluated for flow-injection analysis (FIA) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation MS-MS detection. The main feature of the criterion is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ru Liang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Two kinds of evaluative criteria are associated with Public–Private Partnership (PPP infrastructure projects, i.e., private evaluative criteria and public evaluative criteria. These evaluative criteria are inversely related, that is, the higher the public benefits; the lower the private surplus. To balance evaluative criteria in the Two-Sided Matching (TSM decision, this paper develops a quantitative matching decision model to select an optimal matching scheme for PPP infrastructure projects based on the Hesitant Fuzzy Set (HFS under unknown evaluative criterion weights. In the model, HFS is introduced to describe values of the evaluative criteria and multi-criterion information is fully considered given by groups. The optimal model is built and solved by maximizing the whole deviation of each criterion so that the evaluative criterion weights are determined objectively. Then, the match-degree of the two sides is calculated and a multi-objective optimization model is introduced to select an optimal matching scheme via a min-max approach. The results provide new insights and implications of the influence on evaluative criteria in the TSM decision.
Entanglement in SU(2)-invariant quantum systems: The positive partial transpose criterion and others
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schliemann, John
2005-01-01
We study entanglement in mixed bipartite quantum states which are invariant under simultaneous SU(2) transformations in both subsystems. Previous results on the behavior of such states under partial transposition are substantially extended. The spectrum of the partial transpose of a given SU(2)-invariant density matrix ρ is entirely determined by the diagonal elements of ρ in a basis of tensor-product states of both spins with respect to a common quantization axis. We construct a set of operators which act as entanglement witnesses on SU(2)-invariant states. A sufficient criterion for ρ having a negative partial transpose is derived in terms of a simple spin correlator. The same condition is a necessary criterion for the partial transpose to have the maximum number of negative eigenvalues. Moreover, we derive a series of sum rules which uniquely determine the eigenvalues of the partial transpose in terms of a system of linear equations. Finally we compare our findings with other entanglement criteria including the reduction criterion, the majorization criterion, and the recently proposed local uncertainty relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Su Gil; Jang, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Uk [Romax Technology Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Su; Hong, Sup [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
Sequential surrogate model-based global optimization algorithms, such as super-EGO, have been developed to increase the efficiency of commonly used global optimization technique as well as to ensure the accuracy of optimization. However, earlier studies have drawbacks because there are three phases in the optimization loop and empirical parameters. We propose a united sampling criterion to simplify the algorithm and to achieve the global optimum of problems with constraints without any empirical parameters. It is able to select the points located in a feasible region with high model uncertainty as well as the points along the boundary of constraint at the lowest objective value. The mean squared error determines which criterion is more dominant among the infill sampling criterion and boundary sampling criterion. Also, the method guarantees the accuracy of the surrogate model because the sample points are not located within extremely small regions like super-EGO. The performance of the proposed method, such as the solvability of a problem, convergence properties, and efficiency, are validated through nonlinear numerical examples with disconnected feasible regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anosova, Z.P.
1988-01-01
A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Gallagher, Shaun
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we ca...
Measurement of suprathermal electron confinement by cyclotron transmission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkwood, R.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Porkolab, M.; Squire, J.P.
1990-01-01
The confinement time of suprathermal electrons is determined experimentally from the distribution function determined via wave transmission measurements. Measurements of the lowest moment of the distribution perpendicular to the B field as a function of the parallel electron momentum as well as the global input power allow the suprathermal electron confinement time (τ se ) to be calculated during lower-hybrid and inductive current drive. Finite particle confinement is found to be the dominant energy loss term for the suprathermals and improves with plasma current and density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T. (Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Ishii, J. (Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Sumi, Y. (Division of Oral and Dental Surgery, Dept. of Advanced Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi (Japan))
2009-08-15
Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T.; Ishii, J.; Sumi, Y.
2009-01-01
Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone
Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voronov Yuri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs. One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks.
Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines
Voronov, Yuri; Voronov, Artyoni
2017-11-01
Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs). One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks.
A complete graphical criterion for the adjustment formula in mediation analysis.
Shpitser, Ilya; VanderWeele, Tyler J
2011-03-04
Various assumptions have been used in the literature to identify natural direct and indirect effects in mediation analysis. These effects are of interest because they allow for effect decomposition of a total effect into a direct and indirect effect even in the presence of interactions or non-linear models. In this paper, we consider the relation and interpretation of various identification assumptions in terms of causal diagrams interpreted as a set of non-parametric structural equations. We show that for such causal diagrams, two sets of assumptions for identification that have been described in the literature are in fact equivalent in the sense that if either set of assumptions holds for all models inducing a particular causal diagram, then the other set of assumptions will also hold for all models inducing that diagram. We moreover build on prior work concerning a complete graphical identification criterion for covariate adjustment for total effects to provide a complete graphical criterion for using covariate adjustment to identify natural direct and indirect effects. Finally, we show that this criterion is equivalent to the two sets of independence assumptions used previously for mediation analysis.
The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?
Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven
2015-01-01
The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cristoforetti, G.; De Giacomo, A.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Legnaioli, S.; Tognoni, E.; Palleschi, V.; Omenetto, N.
2010-01-01
In the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, the existence of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) is the essential requisite for meaningful application of theoretical Boltzmann-Maxwell and Saha-Eggert expressions that relate fundamental plasma parameters and concentration of analyte species. The most popular criterion reported in the literature dealing with plasma diagnostics, and usually invoked as a proof of the existence of LTE in the plasma, is the McWhirter criterion [R.W.P. McWhirter, in: Eds. R.H. Huddlestone, S.L. Leonard, Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, Academic Press, New York, 1965, pp. 201-264]. However, as pointed out in several papers, this criterion is known to be a necessary but not a sufficient condition to insure LTE. The considerations reported here are meant to briefly review the theoretical analysis underlying the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium and the derivation of the McWhirter criterion, and to critically discuss its application to a transient and non-homogeneous plasma, like that created by a laser pulse on solid targets. Specific examples are given of theoretical expressions involving relaxation times and diffusion coefficients, as well as a discussion of different experimental approaches involving space and time-resolved measurements that could be used to complement a positive result of the calculation of the minimum electron number density required for LTE using the McWhirter formula. It is argued that these approaches will allow a more complete assessment of the existence of LTE and therefore permit a better quantitative result. It is suggested that the mere use of the McWhirter criterion to assess the existence of LTE in laser-induced plasmas should be discontinued.
Electrostatically confined quantum rings in bilayer graphene.
Zarenia, M; Pereira, J M; Peeters, F M; Farias, G A
2009-12-01
We propose a new system where electron and hole states are electrostatically confined into a quantum ring in bilayer graphene. These structures can be created by tuning the gap of the graphene bilayer using nanostructured gates or by position-dependent doping. The energy levels have a magnetic field (B(0)) dependence that is strikingly distinct from that of usual semiconductor quantum rings. In particular, the eigenvalues are not invariant under a B(0) --> -B(0) transformation and, for a fixed total angular momentum index m, their field dependence is not parabolic, but displays two minima separated by a saddle point. The spectra also display several anticrossings, which arise due to the overlap of gate-confined and magnetically confined states.
Holographic repulsion and confinement in gauge theory
Husain, Viqar; Kothawala, Dawood
2013-02-01
We show that for asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds with negative energy, such as the AdS soliton and regulated negative-mass AdS-Schwarzshild metrics, the Wilson loop expectation value in the AdS/CFT conjecture exhibits a Coulomb to confinement transition. We also show that the quark-antiquark (q \\bar{q}) potential can be interpreted as affine time along null geodesics on the minimal string worldsheet and that its intrinsic curvature provides a signature of transition to confinement phase. Our results suggest a generic (holographic) relationship between confinement in gauge theory and repulsive gravity, which in turn is connected with singularity avoidance in quantum gravity. Communicated by P R L V Moniz
Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furth, H.P.
1987-10-01
During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields.
Helander, Per
2014-08-01
The theory of plasma confinement by non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is reviewed. Such fields are used to confine fusion plasmas in stellarators, where in contrast to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches the magnetic field generally does not possess any continuous symmetry. The discussion is focussed on magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium conditions, collisionless particle orbits, and the kinetic theory of equilbrium and transport. Each of these topics is fundamentally affected by the absence of symmetry in the magnetic field: the field lines need not trace out nested flux surfaces, the particle orbits may not be confined, and the cross-field transport can be very large. Nevertheless, by tailoring the magnetic field appropriately, well-behaved equilibria with good confinement can be constructed, potentially offering an attractive route to magnetic fusion. In this article, the mathematical apparatus to describe stellarator plasmas is developed from first principles and basic elements underlying confinement optimization are introduced.
Multidimensional adaptive testing with a minimum error-variance criterion
van der Linden, Willem J.
1997-01-01
The case of adaptive testing under a multidimensional logistic response model is addressed. An adaptive algorithm is proposed that minimizes the (asymptotic) variance of the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator of a linear combination of abilities of interest. The item selection criterion is a simple
A Criterion-Referenced Approach to Student Ratings of Instruction
Meyer, J. Patrick; Doromal, Justin B.; Wei, Xiaoxin; Zhu, Shi
2017-01-01
We developed a criterion-referenced student rating of instruction (SRI) to facilitate formative assessment of teaching. It involves four dimensions of teaching quality that are grounded in current instructional design principles: Organization and structure, Assessment and feedback, Personal interactions, and Academic rigor. Using item response…
Wet scrubber technology for tritium confinement at ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perevezentsev, A.N., E-mail: alexander.perevezentsev@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Andreev, B.M.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Pak, Yu.S.; Ovcharov, A.V.; Marunich, S.A. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 125047 Miusskaya Sq. 9, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2010-12-15
Operation of the ITER machine with tritium plasma requires tritium confinement systems to protect workers and the environment. Tritium confinement at ITER is based on multistage approach. The final stage provides tritium confinement in building sectors and consists of building's walls as physical barriers and control of sub-atmospheric pressure in those volumes as a dynamic barrier. The dynamic part of the confinement function shall be provided by safety important components that are available all the time when required. Detritiation of air prior to its release to the environment is based on catalytic conversion of tritium containing gaseous species to water vapour followed by their isotopic exchange with liquid water in scrubber column of packed bed type. Wet scrubber technology has been selected because of its advantages over conventional air detritiation technique based on gas drying by water adsorption. The most important design target of system availability was very difficult to meet with conventional water adsorption driers. This paper presents results of experimental trial for validation of wet scrubber technology application in the ITER tritium confinement system and process evaluation using developed simulation computer code.
Effect of laser peening with glycerol as plasma confinement layer
Tsuyama, Miho; Ehara, Naoya; Yamashita, Kazuma; Heya, Manabu; Nakano, Hitoshi
2018-03-01
The effects of controlling the plasma confinement layer on laser peening were investigated by measuring the hardness and residual stress of laser-peened stainless steels. The plasma confinement layer contributes to increasing the pressure of shock waves by suppressing the expansion of the laser-produced plasma. Most previous studies on laser peening have employed water as the plasma confinement layer. In this study, a glycerol solution is used in the context of a large acoustic impedance. It is found that this glycerol solution is superior to water in its ability to confine plasma and that suitable conditions exist for the glycerol solution to act as a plasma confinement layer to achieve efficient laser peening.
Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadejda Yu. Gubanova
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.
Quantum-confined nanowires as vehicles for enhanced electrical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, S Noor
2012-01-01
Electrical transport in semiconductor nanowires taking quantum confinement and dielectric confinement into account has been studied. A distinctly new route has been employed for the study. The fundamental science underlying the model is based on a relationship between the quantum confinement and the structural disorder of the nanowire surface. The role of surface energy and thermodynamic imbalance in nanowire structural disorder has been described. A model for the diameter dependence of energy bandgap of nanowires has been developed. Ionized impurity scattering, dislocation scattering and acoustic phonon scattering have been taken into account to study carrier mobility. A series of calculations on silicon nanowires show that carrier mobility in nanowires can be greatly enhanced by quantum confinement and dielectric confinement. The electron mobility can, for example, be a factor of 2–10 higher at room temperature than the mobility in a free-standing silicon nanowire. The calculated results agree well with almost all experimental and theoretical results available in the literature. They successfully explain experimental observations not understood before. The model is general and applicable to nanowires from all possible semiconductors. It is perhaps the first physical model highlighting the impact of both quantum confinement and dielectric confinement on carrier transport. It underscores the basic causes of thin, lowly doped nanowires in the temperature range 200 K ≤ T ≤ 500 K yielding very high carrier mobility. It suggests that the scattering by dislocations (stacking faults) can be very detrimental for carrier mobility. (paper)
Fusion radioactivity confinement and application to postulated ITER accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piet, S.J.; Brereton, S.J.
1991-01-01
An assessment of the ITER radioactivity confinement shows reduction of potential accidental releases to the environment by two orders of magnitude. Important credits are the 1% volume/day confinement leakage rate, radioactivity decay for short-lived isotopes, resumption of detritiation/negative pressure within seven days of the accident, and wind meander during the slow confinement leakage. Achieving this two order of magnitude credit in practice requires appropriate design details, especially the leakage rate and detritiation/negative pressure equipment, and research to validate some key assumptions. The confinement maximizes dependence on passive safety features, thereby working toward using fusion's potential safety advantages. The confinement includes several confinement zones with varying human access allowances. Some confinement areas are normally isolated from the environment, the closed ventilation zone. Some areas have an inert cover gas to inhibit combustion. If future assessments of accidental overpressure show the need, we propose a filter/vent system. This report documents our work for the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The report is consistent with the final CDA design reports and descriptions, except that our analysis includes a filter/vent. For gaseous or vapor tritium and for most activated aerosols, the reference release fraction is about 2%. For short-lived tungsten-rhenium aerosols, the reference release fraction is somewhat lower, as low as 0.5% for some accident scenarios. Even without resumption of detritiation/decontamination or negative pressure within seven days of the accident, the release fraction for stays below 4%
Electrostatic-Dipole (ED) Fusion Confinement Studies
Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.; Yang, Yang; Thomas, Robert
2004-11-01
The Electrostatic-Dipole (ED) concept significantly differs from a "pure" dipole confinement device [1] in that the charged particles are preferentially confined to the high-pressure region interior of the dipole coil by the assistance of a surrounding spherical electrostatic grid. In present ED experiments, a current carrying coil is embedded inside the grid of an IEC such as to produce a magnetic dipole field. Charged particles are injected axisymmetrically from an ion gun (or duo-plasmatron) into the center of the ED confinement grid/dipole ring where they oscillate along the magnetic field lines and pass the peak field region at the center of the dipole region. As particles begin accelerating away from the center region towards the outer electrostatic grid region, they encounter a strong electrostatic potential (order of 10's of kilovolts) retarding force. The particles then decelerate, reverse direction and re-enter the dipole field region where again magnetic confinement dominates. This process continues, emulating a complex harmonic oscillator motion. The resulting pressure profile averaged over the field curvature offers good plasma stability in the ED configuration. The basic concept and results from preliminary experiments will be described. [1] M.E. Mauel, et al. "Dipole Equilibrium and Stability," 18th IAEA Conference of Plasma Phys. and Control. Nuclear Fusion, Varenna, Italy 2000, IAEA-F1-CN-70/TH
An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some…
Experimental Study of Damage Evolution in Circular Stirrup-Confined Concrete.
Li, Zuohua; Peng, Zhihan; Teng, Jun; Wang, Ying
2016-04-08
This paper presents an experimental study on circular stirrup-confined concrete specimens under uniaxial and monotonic load. The effects of stirrup volume ratio, stirrup yield strength and concrete strength on damage evolution of stirrup-confined concrete were investigated. The experimental results showed that the strength and ductility of concrete are improved by appropriate arrangement of the stirrup confinement. Firstly, the concrete damage evolution can be relatively restrained with the increase of the stirrup volume ratio. Secondly, higher stirrup yield strength usually causes larger confining pressures and slower concrete damage evolution. In contrast, higher concrete strength leads to higher brittleness, which accelerates the concrete damage evolution. A plastic strain expression is obtained through curve fitting, and a damage evolution equation for circular stirrup-confined concrete is proposed by introducing a confinement factor ( C ) based on the experimental data. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed damage evolution model can accurately describe the experimental results.
Experimental Study of Damage Evolution in Circular Stirrup-Confined Concrete
Li, Zuohua; Peng, Zhihan; Teng, Jun; Wang, Ying
2016-01-01
This paper presents an experimental study on circular stirrup-confined concrete specimens under uniaxial and monotonic load. The effects of stirrup volume ratio, stirrup yield strength and concrete strength on damage evolution of stirrup-confined concrete were investigated. The experimental results showed that the strength and ductility of concrete are improved by appropriate arrangement of the stirrup confinement. Firstly, the concrete damage evolution can be relatively restrained with the increase of the stirrup volume ratio. Secondly, higher stirrup yield strength usually causes larger confining pressures and slower concrete damage evolution. In contrast, higher concrete strength leads to higher brittleness, which accelerates the concrete damage evolution. A plastic strain expression is obtained through curve fitting, and a damage evolution equation for circular stirrup-confined concrete is proposed by introducing a confinement factor (C) based on the experimental data. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed damage evolution model can accurately describe the experimental results. PMID:28773402
Issues in tokamak/stellarator transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, F.W.
1990-08-01
At present, the mechanism for anomalous energy transport in low-β toroidal plasmas -- tokamaks and stellarators -- remains unclear, although transport by turbulent E x B velocities associated with nonlinear, fine-scale microinstabilities is a leading candidate. This article discusses basic theoretical concepts of various transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms as well as experimental ramifications which would enable one to distinguish among them and hence identify a dominant transport mechanism. While many of the predictions of fine-scale turbulence are born out by experiment, notable contradictions exist. Projections of ignition margin rest both on the scaling properties of the confinement mechanism and on the criteria for entering enhanced confinement regimes. At present, the greatest uncertainties lie with the basis for scaling confinement enhancement criteria. A series of questions, to be answered by new experimental/theoretical work, is posed to resolve these outstanding contradictions (or refute the fine-scale turbulence model) and to establish confinement enhancement criteria. 73 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs
Large Eddy Simulation of the spray formation in confinements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lampa, A.; Fritsching, U.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Process stability of confined spray processes is affected by the geometric design of the spray confinement. • LES simulations of confined spray flow have been performed successfully. • Clustering processes of droplets is predicted in simulations and validated with experiments. • Criteria for specific coherent gas flow patterns and droplet clustering behaviour are found. -- Abstract: The particle and powder properties produced within spray drying processes are influenced by various unsteady transport phenomena in the dispersed multiphase spray flow in a confined spray chamber. In this context differently scaled spray structures in a confined spray environment have been analyzed in experiments and numerical simulations. The experimental investigations have been carried out with Particle-Image-Velocimetry to determine the velocity of the gas and the discrete phase. Large-Eddy-Simulations have been set up to predict the transient behaviour of the spray process and have given more insight into the sensitivity of the spray flow structures in dependency from the spray chamber design
Some aspects of geometrical confinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novello, M.; De Lorenci, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Elbaz, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)
1998-04-01
In this paper we present a toy model for the dynamics of a gauge field theory in such way that spin-one particles can be confined in a compact domain. We show that the property of confinement can be associated to the formation of a null surface identified to a horizon. This is due to the presence of an effective geometry generated by the self-interaction of the gauge field that guides the wave propagation of the field. This phenomenon has a striking analogy to the gravitational black hole in Einstein general theory of relativity, separating two domains of spacetime that can be trespassed only into one direction. (author) 4 refs.
Unconfined versus confined speleogenetic settings: variations of solution porosity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klimchouk Alexander
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Speleogenesis in confined settings generates cave morphologies that differ much from those formed in unconfined settings. Cavesdeveloped in unconfined settings are characterised by broadly dendritic patterns of channels due to highly competing development.In contrast, caves originated under confined conditions tend to form two- or three-dimensional mazes with densely packed conduits.This paper illustrates variations of solution (channel porosity resulted from speleogenesis in unconfined and confined settings by theanalysis of morphometric parameters of typical cave patterns. Two samples of typical cave systems formed in the respective settingsare compared. The sample that represents unconfined speleogenesis consists of solely limestone caves, whereas gypsum cavesof this type tend to be less dendritic and more linear. The sample that represents confined speleogenesis consists of both limestoneand gypsum maze caves. The comparison shows considerable differences in average values of some parameters between thesettings. Passage network density (the ratio of the cave length to the area of the cave field, km/km2 is one order of magnitudegreater in confined settings than in unconfined (average 167.3 km/km2 versus 16.6 km/km2. Similarly, an order of magnitudedifference is observed in cave porosity (a fraction of the volume of a cave block, occupied by mapped cavities; 5.0 % versus 0.4 %.This illustrates that storage in maturely karstified confined aquifers is generally much greater than in unconfined. The average areal coverage (a fraction of the area of the cave field occupied by passages in a plan view is about 5 times greater in confined settingsthan in unconfined (29.7 % versus 6.4 %. This indicates that conduit permeability in confined aquifers is appreciably easier to targetwith drilling than the widely spaced conduits in unconfined aquifers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leon, V
2006-07-15
Physico-chemical properties of materials can be strongly modified by confinement because of the quantum effects that appear at such small length scales and also because of the effects of the confinement itself. The aim of this thesis is to show that both the nature of the confining material and the size of the pores and cavities have a strong impact on the confined material. We first show the effect of the pore size of the host meso-porous silica on the temperature of the solid-solid phase transition of silver selenide, a semiconducting material with enhanced magnetoresistive properties under non-stoichiometric conditions. Narrowing the pores from 20 nm to 2 nm raises the phase transition temperature from 139 C to 146 C. This result can be explained by considering the interaction between the confining and confined materials as a driving force. The effects of confinement are also studied in the case of hydrogen and deuterium inside cavities of organized carbon nano-structures. The effects that appear in the adsorption/desorption cycles are much stronger with carbon nano-horns as the host material than with C60 pea-pods and single-walled carbon nano-tubes. (author)
Quark confinement potential and color Van der Waals force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yuming; Hua Daping; Liu Zuhua
1985-01-01
The color-analog Van der Waals force between two hadrons is studied by use of the coupling channel resonating group method in the framework of the Gaussian-type quark confinement potential. The problem of the boundary values for the two channel coupling differential equations is changed to the problem of the initial values. The equations are solved numerically by use of the Gear mehtod. The calculated results show that there is no color Van der Waals force between hadrons in the confinement potential model. This indicates that the confinement potential model not only can describe the internal structure of hadrons but also can be used to calculate the hadron-hadron interactions if the quark confinement potential is chosen properly
AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF FALLS IN GAIT-SLIP: A HARNESS LOAD CELL BASED CRITERION
Yang, Feng; Pai, Yi-Chung
2011-01-01
Over-head-harness systems, equipped with load cell sensors, are essential to the participants’ safety and to the outcome assessment in perturbation training. The purpose of this study was to first develop an automatic outcome recognition criterion among young adults for gait-slip training and then verify such criterion among older adults. Each of 39 young and 71 older subjects, all protected by safety harness, experienced 8 unannounced, repeated slips, while walking on a 7-m walkway. Each tri...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyun-Su; Oh, Chang-Kyun [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Inc., 269, Hyeoksin-ro, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk, E-mail: yschang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deokyoungdaero, Giheung, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Probabilistic assessment was performed for axially cracked steam generator tubes. • The threshold crack sizes were determined based on burst pressures of the tubes. • A new repair criterion was suggested as a function of operation time. - Abstract: Steam generator is one of the major components in a nuclear power plant, and it consists of thousands of thin-walled tubes. The operating record of the steam generators has indicated that a number of axial cracks due to stress corrosion have been frequently detected in the tubes. Since the tubes are closely related to the safety and also the efficiency of a nuclear power plant, an establishment of the appropriate repair criterion for the defected tubes and its applications are necessary. The objective of this paper is to develop an accurate repair criterion for the tubes with axial cracks. To do this, a thorough review is performed on the key parameters affecting the tube integrity, and then the probabilistic integrity assessment is carried out by considering the various uncertainties. In addition, the sizes of critical crack are determined by comparing the burst pressure of the cracked tube with the required performance criterion. Based on this result, the new repair criterion for the axially cracked tubes is defined from the reasonably conservative value such that the required performance criterion in terms of the burst pressure is able to be met during the next operating period.
Ductile Crack Initiation Criterion with Mismatched Weld Joints Under Dynamic Loading Conditions.
An, Gyubaek; Jeong, Se-Min; Park, Jeongung
2018-03-01
Brittle failure of high toughness steel structures tends to occur after ductile crack initiation/propagation. Damages to steel structures were reported in the Hanshin Great Earthquake. Several brittle failures were observed in beam-to-column connection zones with geometrical discontinuity. It is widely known that triaxial stresses accelerate the ductile fracture of steels. The study examined the effects of geometrical heterogeneity and strength mismatches (both of which elevate plastic constraints due to heterogeneous plastic straining) and loading rate on critical conditions initiating ductile fracture. This involved applying the two-parameter criterion (involving equivalent plastic strain and stress triaxiality) to estimate ductile cracking for strength mismatched specimens under static and dynamic tensile loading conditions. Ductile crack initiation testing was conducted under static and dynamic loading conditions using circumferentially notched specimens (Charpy type) with/without strength mismatches. The results indicated that the condition for ductile crack initiation using the two parameter criterion was a transferable criterion to evaluate ductile crack initiation independent of the existence of strength mismatches and loading rates.
Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion
Lecoustre, Vivien R.
2014-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
Criterion III: Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity [Chapter 4
G. R. Evans; R. A. Washmgton-Allen; R. D. Child; J. E. Mitchell; B. R. Bobowskl; R. V. Loper; B. H. Allen-Diaz; D. W. Thompson; G. R. Welling; T. B. Reuwsaat
2010-01-01
Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity is one of five criteria established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) to monitor and assess rangeland sustainable management. Within this criterion, six indicators were developed through the Delphi Process and the expert opinions of academicians, rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...
A comparative calculation of the wind turbines capacities on the basis of the L-{sigma} criterion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menet, Jean-Luc; Valdes, Laurent-Charles; Menart, Bruno [Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, Groupe de Recherche Energies et Environnement, Valenciennes, 59 (France)
2001-04-01
Usually, wind sites are equipped with fast-running Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines of the airscrew type, which has a high efficiency. In this article, the argument is put forward that the choice of a wind turbine must not be based only on high efficiency. We propose a comparative criterion adapted to the comparison of a horizontal axis wind turbine with a vertical axis wind turbine: the L-{sigma} criterion. This criterion consists in comparing wind turbines which intercept the same front width of wind, by allocating them a same reference value of the maximal mechanical stress on the blades or the paddles. On the basis of this criterion, a quantitative comparison points to a clear advantage of the Savonius rotors, because of their lower angular velocity, and provides some elements for the improvement of their rotor. (Author)
Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement in tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Shinzaburo
1977-05-01
Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement is treated in the standpoint of design. In the initial breakdown phase before formation of the closed magnetic surfaces, the vertical field properly applied is the most important. Once the magnetic surfaces are formed, the non-axisymmetric error field is important. Effect of the shell gap associated with iron core and with pulsed vertical coils is thus studied. The formation of magnetic islands due to the external non-axisymmetric error field is studied with a simple model. A method of suppressing the islands by choosing the minor periodicity is proposed. (auth.)
Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heung, L.K.
1997-10-20
This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.
Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.
1997-01-01
This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented
Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films
Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.
2017-12-01
The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.
Cluster Analysis of the International Stellarator Confinement Database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kus, A.; Dinklage, A.; Preuss, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Harris, J. H.; Okamura, S.; Yamada, H.; Sano, F.; Stroth, U.; Talmadge, J.
2008-01-01
Heterogeneous structure of collected data is one of the problems that occur during derivation of scalings for energy confinement time, and whose analysis tourns out to be wide and complicated matter. The International Stellarator Confinement Database [1], shortly ISCDB, comprises in its latest version 21 a total of 3647 observations from 8 experimental devices, 2067 therefrom beeing so far completed for upcoming analyses. For confinement scaling studies 1933 observation were chosen as the standard dataset. Here we describe a statistical method of cluster analysis for identification of possible cohesive substructures in ISDCB and present some preliminary results
High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Funahashi, Akimasa
1987-01-01
In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)
Surface-Activated Coupling Reactions Confined on a Surface.
Dong, Lei; Liu, Pei Nian; Lin, Nian
2015-10-20
Chemical reactions may take place in a pure phase of gas or liquid or at the interface of two phases (gas-solid or liquid-solid). Recently, the emerging field of "surface-confined coupling reactions" has attracted intensive attention. In this process, reactants, intermediates, and products of a coupling reaction are adsorbed on a solid-vacuum or a solid-liquid interface. The solid surface restricts all reaction steps on the interface, in other words, the reaction takes place within a lower-dimensional, for example, two-dimensional, space. Surface atoms that are fixed in the surface and adatoms that move on the surface often activate the surface-confined coupling reactions. The synergy of surface morphology and activity allow some reactions that are inefficient or prohibited in the gas or liquid phase to proceed efficiently when the reactions are confined on a surface. Over the past decade, dozens of well-known "textbook" coupling reactions have been shown to proceed as surface-confined coupling reactions. In most cases, the surface-confined coupling reactions were discovered by trial and error, and the reaction pathways are largely unknown. It is thus highly desirable to unravel the mechanisms, mechanisms of surface activation in particular, of the surface-confined coupling reactions. Because the reactions take place on surfaces, advanced surface science techniques can be applied to study the surface-confined coupling reactions. Among them, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are the two most extensively used experimental tools. The former resolves submolecular structures of individual reactants, intermediates, and products in real space, while the latter monitors the chemical states during the reactions in real time. Combination of the two methods provides unprecedented spatial and temporal information on the reaction pathways. The experimental findings are complemented by theoretical modeling. In particular, density
Stability Criterion for a Finned Spinning Projectile
S. D. Naik
2000-01-01
The state-of-the-art in gun projectile technology has been used for the aerodynamic stabilisation.This approach is acceptable for guided and controlled rockets but the free-flight rockets suffer fromunacceptable dispersion. Sabot projectiles with both spin and fms developed during the last decadeneed careful analysis. In this study, the second method of Liapunov has been used to develop stability criterion for a projectile to be designed with small fins and is made to spin in the flight. This...
The Goiania accident: release from hospital criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falcao, R.C.; Hunt, J.
1990-01-01
On the thirteenth of September 1987, a 1357 Ci Cesium source was removed from the 'Instituto de Radiologia de Goiania' - probably two or three days later the source was opened, causing the internal and external contamination of 247 people, and part of the city of Goiania. This paper describes the release from hospital criterion of the contaminated patients, based on radiation protection principles which were developed for this case. The estimate of the biological half-life for cesium is also described. (author) [pt
Waste-acceptance criteria for greater confinement disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.
1987-01-01
A methodology for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a waste disposal site and facility has been developed. The methodology starts from the basic objective of protecting public health and safety by providing assurance that disposal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose to any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. The method is based on an explicit, straight-forward, and quantitative relationship among individual risk, confinement capabilities, and waste characteristics. A key aspect of the methodology is introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular facility and can be used for quantitative assessments of the performance of different disposal sites and facilities, as well as for establishing site-specific waste acceptance criteria. Confinement factors are derived by means of site-specific pathway analyses. They make possible a direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on radionuclides in the waste streams and expressed in quantitative form as a function of parameters that characterize the site, facility design, waste containers, and waste form. Waste acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. 13 references, 7 figures
Waste-acceptance criteria for greater-confinement disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.
1986-01-01
A methodology for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a waste-disposal site and facility has been developed. The methodology starts from the basic objective of protecting public health and safety by providing assurance that dispsoal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose to any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. The method is based on an explicit, straightforward, and quantitative relationship among individual risk, confinement capabilities, and waste characteristics. A key aspect of the methodology is the introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular facility and can be used for quantitative assessments of the performance of different disposal sites and facilities, as well as for establishing site-specific waste-acceptance criteria. Confinement factors are derived by means of site-specific pathway analyses. They make possible a direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on radionuclides in the waste streams and expressed in quantitative form as a function of parameters that characterize the site, facility design, waste containers, and waste form. Waste-acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. 13 refs
Isotope effect on confinement in DT plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1994-03-01
Isotope effect on the energy confinement time is discussed for the DT plasma. The transport theory which is based on the ballooning mode turbulence is applied. When the DT plasma is produced under the condition of β p >1, the energy confinement time of DT plasma (50% mixture) is expected to be about 1.2 times better than the D plasma with the same operation condition. (author)
Signal Detection with Criterion Noise: Applications to Recognition Memory
Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena
2009-01-01
A tacit but fundamental assumption of the theory of signal detection is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This article challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the noisy decision theory of signal detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of…
Valence electron structure of cast iron and graphltization behaviour criterion of elements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘志林; 李志林; 孙振国; 杨晓平; 陈敏
1995-01-01
The valence electron structure of common alloy elements in phases of cast iron is calculated- The relationship between the electron structure of alloy elements and equilibrium, non-equilibrium solidification and graphitization is revealed by defining the bond energy of the strongest bond in a phase as structure formation factor S. A criterion of graphitization behaviour of elements is advanced with the critical value of the structure formation factor of graphite and the n of the strongest covalent bond in cementite. It is found that this theory conforms to practice very well when the criterion is applied to the common alloy elements.
Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes
Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA
2011-12-13
A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.
Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement
Baumgardner, William J.
2013-07-10
Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Static and Dynamic Properties of DNA Confined in Nanochannels
Gupta, Damini
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have considerably reduced the cost of high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, it is challenging to detect large-scale genomic variations by NGS due to short read lengths. Genome mapping can easily detect large-scale structural variations because it operates on extremely large intact molecules of DNA with adequate resolution. One of the promising methods of genome mapping is based on confining large DNA molecules inside a nanochannel whose cross-sectional dimensions are approximately 50 nm. Even though this genome mapping technology has been commercialized, the current understanding of the polymer physics of DNA in nanochannel confinement is based on theories and lacks much needed experimental support. The results of this dissertation are aimed at providing a detailed experimental understanding of equilibrium properties of nanochannel-confined DNA molecules. The results are divided into three parts. In first part, we evaluate the role of channel shape on thermodynamic properties of channel confined DNA molecules using a combination of fluorescence microscopy and simulations. Specifically, we show that high aspect ratio of rectangular channels significantly alters the chain statistics as compared to an equivalent square channel with same cross-sectional area. In the second part, we present experimental evidence that weak excluded volume effects arise in DNA nanochannel confinement, which form the physical basis for the extended de Gennes regime. We also show how confinement spectroscopy and simulations can be combined to reduce molecular weight dispersity effects arising from shearing, photo-cleavage, and nonuniform staining of DNA. Finally, the third part of the thesis concerns the dynamic properties of nanochannel confined DNA. We directly measure the center-of-mass diffusivity of single DNA molecules in confinement and show that that it is necessary to modify the classical results of de Gennes to account for local chain
Confinement studies of ohmically heated plasmas in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efthimion, P.C.; Bretz, N.L.; Bell, M.G.
1985-03-01
Systematic scans of density in large deuterium plasmas (a = 0.83 m) at several values of plasma current and toroidal magnetic field strength indicate that the total energy confinement time, tau/sub E/, is proportional to the line-average density anti n/sub e/ and the limiter q. Confinement times of approx. 0.3 s have been observed for anti n/sub e/ = 2.8 x 10 19 m -3 . Plasma size scaling experiments with plasmas of minor radii a = 0.83, 0.69, 0.55, and 0.41 m at constant limiter q reveal a confinement dependence on minor radius. The major-radius dependence of tau/sub E/, based on a comparison between TFTR and PLT results, is consistent with R 2 scaling. From the power balance, the thermal diffusivity chi/sub e/ is found to be significantly less than the INTOR value. In the a = 0.41 m plasmas, saturation of confinement is due to neoclassical ion conduction (chi/sub i/ neoclassical >> chi/sub e/)
Universal evaporation dynamics of a confined sessile droplet
Bansal, Lalit; Hatte, Sandeep; Basu, Saptarshi; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-09-01
Droplet evaporation under confinement is ubiquitous to multitude of applications such as microfluidics, surface patterning, and ink-jet printing. However, the rich physics governing the universality in the underlying dynamics remains grossly elusive. Here, we bring out hitherto unexplored universal features of the evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet entrapped in a 3D confined fluidic environment. We show, through extensive set of experiments and theoretical formulations, that the evaporation timescale for such a droplet can be represented by a unique function of the initial conditions. Moreover, using same theoretical considerations, we are able to trace and universally merge the volume evolution history of the droplets along with evaporation lifetimes, irrespective of the extent of confinement. We also showcase the internal flow transitions caused by spatio-temporal variation of evaporation flux due to confinement. These findings may be of profound importance in designing functionalized droplet evaporation devices for emerging engineering and biomedical applications.
Core electron-root confinement (CERC) in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, M.; Ida, K.; Maassbcrg, H.
2006-10-01
The improvement of core electron heat confinement has been realized in a wide range of helical devices such as CHS, LHD, TJ-II and W7-AS. Strongly peaked electron temperature profiles and large positive radial electric field, E r , in the core region are common fractures for this improved confinement. Such observations are consistent with a transition to the electron-root' solution of the ambipolarity condition for E r in the context of the neoclassical transport, which is unique to non-axisymmetric configurations. Based on this background, this improved confinement has been collectively dubbed 'core electron-root confinement' (CERC). The electron heat diffusivity is much reduced due to the electron-root E r compared to that with E r =0 assumed, which clearly demonstrates that 1/v ripple diffusion (ν being the collision frequency) in low-collisional helical plasmas could be overcome. The magnetic configuration properties play important roles in this transition, and thresholds are found for the collisionality and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power. (author)
Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2011-01-01
Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.
Confined aquifer vulnerability induced by a pumping well in a leakage area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Meng
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Due to the pollution of shallow groundwater and the rapid development of society and economy which consume more freshwater, the exploitation of confined groundwater is steadily increasing in north China. Therefore, the rapid decline of the confined groundwater head increases the risk of confined aquifer pollution by leaky recharge from shallow aquifers. In this paper, a quantitative method for assessing confined aquifer vulnerability to contamination due to pumping has been developed. This method is based on the shallow and confined groundwater flow model and the advection and dispersion in the aquitard, including sorption. The cumulative time for the pollutant concentration at the top boundary of confined aquifer exceeding the maximum allowable level is defined as the confined aquifer vulnerability index, which can be obtained by numerically solving the solute transport equation. A hypothetical example is chosen as a case study to illustrate the whole process. The results indicate that the proposed method is a practical and reasonable assessment method of confined aquifer vulnerability.
Synthesis of Polyimides in Molecular-Scale Confinement for Low-Density Hybrid Nanocomposites.
Isaacson, Scott G; Fostvedt, Jade I; Koerner, Hilmar; Baur, Jeffery W; Lionti, Krystelle; Volksen, Willi; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H
2017-11-08
In this work, we exploit a confinement-induced molecular synthesis and a resulting bridging mechanism to create confined polyimide thermoset nanocomposites that couple molecular confinement-enhanced toughening with an unprecedented combination of high-temperature properties at low density. We describe a synthesis strategy that involves the infiltration of individual polymer chains through a nanoscale porous network while simultaneous imidization reactions increase the molecular backbone stiffness. In the extreme limit where the confinement length scale is much smaller than the polymer's molecular size, confinement-induced molecular mechanisms give rise to exceptional mechanical properties. We find that polyimide oligomers can undergo cross-linking reactions even in such molecular-scale confinement, increasing the molecular weight of the organic phase and toughening the nanocomposite through a confinement-induced energy dissipation mechanism. This work demonstrates that the confinement-induced molecular bridging mechanism can be extended to thermoset polymers with multifunctional properties, such as excellent thermo-oxidative stability and high service temperatures (>350 °C).
Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.
2012-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.
Park, N.; Huh, H.; Yoon, J. W.
2017-09-01
This paper deals with the prediction of fracture initiation in square cup drawing of DP980 steel sheet with the thickness of 1.2 mm. In an attempt to consider the influence of material anisotropy on the fracture initiation, an uncoupled anisotropic ductile fracture criterion is developed based on the Lou—Huh ductile fracture criterion. Tensile tests are carried out at different loading directions of 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction of the sheet using various specimen geometries including pure shear, dog-bone, and flat grooved specimens so as to calibrate the parameters of the proposed fracture criterion. Equivalent plastic strain distribution on the specimen surface is computed using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method until surface crack initiates. The proposed fracture criterion is implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit by developing the Vectorized User-defined MATerial (VUMAT) subroutine which features the non-associated flow rule. Simulation results of the square cup drawing test clearly show that the proposed fracture criterion is capable of predicting the fracture initiation with sufficient accuracy considering the material anisotropy.
Definition of the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gintibidze, N.; Valishvili, T.
2009-01-01
One of actual problems is the estimation of hygienic and ecological properties of fabrics on the basis of the data on the properties of initial fiber. In the present article, the definition of generalized criterion of the estimation of ecological purity of textile products is discussed. The estimation is based on the International Standard EKO-TEX-100, regulating the contents of inorganic and organic compounds in textile production. The determination of all listed substances is made according to appropriate techniques for each parameter. The quantity of substances is determined and compared with norms. The judgement about ecological purity is made by separate parameters. There is no uniform parameter which could estimate the degree of ecological purity of textile products. For calculating the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products, it is offered to estimate each criterion by the points corresponding to each factor. The textile product is recognized as ecologically pure (environment friendly) if the total estimate is more than 1. (author)
Studies on the quark confinement in a non-relativistic quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfenninger, T.
1988-01-01
In the framework of the non-relativistic quark model we have studied several aspects of the description of the confinement by a confinement potential. A first consideration applied to the effects of the long-range color van-der-Waals forces on the nucleon-nucleon scattering. Regarding color dipole states as an additional closed channel in a dynamical and nonlocal resonating-group calculation we found a strong attraction. Additionally it was possible by means of the RGM kernels to derive an against earlier calculations improved color van-der-Waals potential in adiabatic approximation which regards correctly the internal kinetic and the confinement energy of the color octet states. This potential is not confined to large NN distances and shows asymptotically a 1/R 2 behaviour if it is based on a harmonic confinement. A further study applied to the question how far a possible vector character of the confinement, which is suggested by the elementary quark-gluon vertex, has effects on baryon properties and the NN interaction. Here it resulted that the vector confinement reacts in view of the model parameters very sensitively in the baryon properties whereas the scalar confinement did not show this dependence. In the NN scattering this vector confinement however plays a more secondary role. Because of the difficulties of the usual confinement potential with long-range color van-der-Waals forces we proposed in the last part a new potential and additional orthogonality relations for the quark wave functions in order to accomodate in the potential model to the string degrees of freedom. In scattering calculations we again studied the effects of the modification on the NN interaction. (orig./HSI) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, Clivia M.S.
1998-01-01
Full text: In this work, the exciton is considered as a sensor of the electronic and optical properties of materials such as semiconductors, which have size compared to the exciton De Broglie wavelength, approximately 20 nm, depending on the semiconductor. Examples of electron-phonon, electron-electron, photon-electron, exciton-polariton, phonon-plasmon, are presented, under different confinement conditions such as quantum wells, superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xi, Huan; Li, Ming-Jia; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan
2015-01-01
In the present study, we proposed a graphical criterion called CE diagram by achieving the Pareto optimal solutions of the annual cash flow and exergy efficiency. This new graphical criterion enables both working fluid selection and thermodynamic system comparison for waste heat recovery. It's better than the existing criterion based on single objective optimization because it is graphical and intuitionistic in the form of diagram. The features of CE diagram were illustrated by studying 5 examples with different heat-source temperatures (ranging between 100 °C to 260 °C), 26 chlorine-free working fluids and two typical ORC systems including basic organic Rankine cycle(BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). It is found that the proposed graphical criterion is feasible and can be applied to any closed loop waste heat recovery thermodynamic systems and working fluids. - Highlights: • A graphical method for ORC system comparison/working fluid selection was proposed. • Multi-objectives genetic algorithm (MOGA) was applied for optimizing ORC systems. • Application cases were performed to demonstrate the usage of the proposed method.
Alternative lines with magnetic plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wobig, H.
1981-01-01
Plasma confinement with the aid of a magnetic field is the most common and also the most frequently investigated principle on the way to controlled nuclear fusion. Apart from the Tokamak principle, which is the most advanced principle as far as fusion-relevant plasma parameters are concerned, also other approaches are being investigated, e.g. the mirror device, the bumpy tons, and the stellarator. In principle, all three concepts permit 'stationary' plasma confinement in a stationary fusion reactor. Compared with the pulsed Tokamak reactor, this is a considerable advantage. (orig./GG) [de
Magnetic properties of confined electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felicio, J.R.D. de.
1977-04-01
The effects of confinement by a two or three-dimensional harmonic potential on the magnetic properties of a free electron gas are investigated using the grand-canonical ensemble framework. At high temperatures an extension of Darwin's, Felderhof and Raval's works is made taking into account spin effects at low temperature. A comprehensive description of the magnetic properties of a free electron gas is given. The system is regarded as finite, but the boundary condition psi=0 is not introduced. The limits of weak and strong confinement are also analysed [pt
Surface motion and confinement potential for a microwave confined corona
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ensley, D.L.
1979-07-01
Approximate time dependent solutions for surface velocities and potentials are given for a plane polarized microwave field confining a hot, over-dense plasma corona. Steady state solutions to Poissons' equation can be applied to the time dependent case, provided transit time effects are included. The product of ion pressure and potential wave (surface) velocity gives an average heating rate approx. 7/32 NKT 0 V/sub theta/ directly to the ions
Energy confinement in JT-60 lower hybrid current driven plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ushigusa, K.; Imai, T.; Naito, O.; Ikeda, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Uehara, K.
1990-01-01
The energy confinement in high power lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) plasmas has been studied in the JT-60 tokamak. At a plasma current of 1 MA, the diamagnetically estimated energy confinement time in LHCD plasmas has almost the same value as the confinement time in ohmically heated plasmas at n-bar e ∼ 1.0x10 19 m -3 . The confinement time of high power LHCD plasmas (P LH E varies as to P LH α n e β I p 0 with α + β ∼ -0.3. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 5 figs
Characteristics of confining ohm-heated plasma in TRIAM-IM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatae, Takaki; Yamagajyo, Takashi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Jotaki, Eriko; Fujita, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Ito, Satoshi
1994-01-01
In the initial experiment after the increase of the power of ohm heating power source for the superconducting strong magnetic field tokamak, TRIAM-IM, the measurement of the electron temperature distribution, ion temperature distribution and beam average electron density of ohm-heated plasma was carried out. By analyzing the experimental results, the dependence of the accumulated energy obtained from the temperature distribution and the time of energy confinement of beam average electron density became clear. Especially the time of energy confinement increased in proportion to the increase of beam average electron density when it is 6.5 x 10 12 /m 2 , and it was found that the time of energy confinement conforms to the Neo-Alcator proportional law. Moreover, by solving the heat transport equation for ions, the radial distribution of thermal diffusion coefficient for ions was calculated, and compared with that obtained by the new classic theory. As the result, it was found that the TRIAM-IM has ion confinement characteristics equivalent to those of other medium tokamaks. The experiment of producing ohm-heated plasma, the fitting of electron temperature and ion temperature, the density dependence of temperature, accumulated energy and the time of energy confinement, the time of energy confinement and the Neo-Alcator proportional law, the energy balance of ions and so on are reported. (K.I.)
Impact of hydrogen fuelling on confinement properties in radiative improved mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalupin, D; Dumortier, P; Messiaen, A; Tokar, M Z; Unterberg, B; Verdoolaege, Geert; Wassenhove, G Van; Weynants, R
2003-01-01
The radiative improved (RI) mode at TEXTOR is a high confinement regime, which is obtained by the seeding of neon into deuterium plasmas. Recent experiments were aimed to study the influence of external gas fuelling on the confinement properties of the RI mode. In particular, it was found that a hydrogen puff into such plasmas leads to lower confinement compared with the discharges fuelled with the same amount of deuterium gas. This paper attempts to explain the reduction of confinement in RI plasmas with an external hydrogen puff and its relation to the level of impurity concentration, which is a critical parameter for RI mode confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benzaid R.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Un programme experimental comprenant des essais sur 30 cylindres 160×320 mm a ete mene en vue de determiner le gain de resistance et de ductilite du beton confine par collage externe de tissu de polymere renforce de fibres de carbone (PRFC. Les variables etudiees sont la resistance a la compression du beton non confine f’co, le niveau de confinement, exprime par le nombre de plis de PRFC applique aux eprouvettes. La deformation circonferentielle a la rupture du composite PRF et l’feffet de la pression de confinement laterale effective de l’fenveloppe composite ont ete egalement etudies. Pour l’fensemble des specimens testes, l’faugmentation de la rigidite du confinement entraine a la fois une augmentation significative de la resistance a la compression axiale et de la ductilite des specimens en beton confine avec des PRFC par rapport aux specimens en beton non confine. Base sur les resultats experimentaux, un modele de confinement pratique est propose pour predire la resistance a la compression maximale du beton confine avec des materiaux composites (f’cc et la deformation axiale correspondante (εcc. The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental results, in terms of load carrying capacity and strains, obtained from tests on plain- and reinforced- concrete (RC cylinder, strengthened with external carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The parameters considered are the number of composite layers, the compressive strength of unconfined concrete. The effective circumferential FRP failure strain and the effect of the effective lateral confining pressure were investigated. Totally thirty cylinders (160×320 mm were subjected to axial compression which includes control specimens. All the test specimens were loaded to failure in axial compression and the behaviour of the specimens in the axial and transverse directions was investigated. Test results shown that the CFRP wrap increases the strength and ductility of reinforced
General approach to polymer chains confined by interacting boundaries.
Freed, Karl F; Dudowicz, Jacek; Stukalin, Evgeny B; Douglas, Jack F
2010-09-07
Polymer chains, confined to cavities or polymer layers with dimensions less than the chain radius of gyration, appear in many phenomena, such as gel chromatography, rubber elasticity, viscolelasticity of high molar mass polymer melts, the translocation of polymers through nanopores and nanotubes, polymer adsorption, etc. Thus, the description of how the constraints alter polymer thermodynamic properties is a recurrent theoretical problem. A realistic treatment requires the incorporation of impenetrable interacting (attractive or repulsive) boundaries, a process that introduces significant mathematical complications. The standard approach involves developing the generalized diffusion equation description of the interaction of flexible polymers with impenetrable confining surfaces into a discrete eigenfunction expansion, where the solutions are normally truncated at the first mode (the "ground state dominance" approximation). This approximation is mathematically well justified under conditions of strong confinement, i.e., a confinement length scale much smaller than the chain radius of gyration, but becomes unreliable when the polymers are confined to dimensions comparable to their typically nanoscale size. We extend a general approach to describe polymers under conditions of weak to moderate confinement and apply this semianalytic method specifically to determine the thermodynamics and static structure factor for a flexible polymer confined between impenetrable interacting parallel plate boundaries. The method is first illustrated by analyzing chain partitioning between a pore and a large external reservoir, a model system with application to chromatography. Improved agreement is found for the partition coefficients of a polymer chain in the pore geometry. An expression is derived for the structure factor S(k) in a slit geometry to assist in more accurately estimating chain dimensions from scattering measurements for thin polymer films.
Thermodynamics of partially confined Fermi gases at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toms, David J
2004-01-01
We examine the behaviour of non-interacting Fermi gases at low temperature. If there is a confining potential present the thermodynamic behaviour is altered from the familiar results for the unconfined gas. The role of de Haas-van Alphen type oscillations that are a consequence of the confining potential is considered. Attention is concentrated on the behaviour of the chemical potential and the specific heat. Results are compared and contrasted with those for an unconfined and a totally confined gas
Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement
Baumgardner, William J.; Whitham, Kevin; Hanrath, Tobias
2013-01-01
Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self
CCSD(T) calculations of stabilities and properties of confined systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holka, F.; Urban, M. [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Institute of Materials Science, Bottova 25, SK-917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Melicherčík, M.; Neogrády, P. [Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Paldus, J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1, Ontario (Canada)
2015-01-22
We analyze energies, electron affinities and polarizabilities of small anions exposed to an external confinement. The second electron in free O{sup 2−} and S{sup 2−} anions is unbound. We investigate the stabilizing effect of the spherical harmonic-oscillator confining potential ω. on these anions employing the Hartree-Fock stability analysis as introduced by Čížek and Paldus. With increasing strength of the external harmonic-oscillator confinement potential ω the broken symmetry (BS) solutions are systematically eliminated. For ω larger than 0.1 all BS solutions for O{sup 2−} disappear. For ω larger than 0.13 the CCSD(T) energy of O{sup 2−} becomes more negative than the energy of the singly charged O{sup −} anion. We relate the harmonic-oscillator confining potential to a crystalline environment in which the O{sup 2−} and S{sup 2−} anions are stable. We also present a model allowing calculations of the in-crystal polarizabilities of anions. The model is based on CCSD(T) calculations of static polarizabilities of selected anions exposed to the spherical harmonic-oscillator confining potential ω This artificial confinement potential ω is then related to the ionic radii of the cation in representative crystal lattices. We investigate the polarizability of O{sup 2−} and S{sup 2−} anions in MgO, MgS, CaO, CaS, SrO, SrS, BaO and BaS crystals. We compare our results with alternative models for in-crystal polarizabilities. External confinement also stabilizes the uracil anion U{sup −}, as is shown by calculations with a stepwise micro-hydration of U{sup −}. Upon hydration is the CCSD(T) adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of uracil enhanced by about 250 up to 570 meV in comparison with AEA of the isolated molecule, depending on the geometry of the hydrated uracil anion complex. We tried to find an analogy of the stabilization effect of the external confinement on the otherwise unstable anions. In uracil and its anion is the external
Field reversal experiments (FRX). [Equilibrium, confinement, and stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.
1978-01-01
The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 ..mu..s followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value.
Gate-defined Quantum Confinement in Suspended Bilayer Graphene
Allen, Monica
2013-03-01
Quantum confined devices in carbon-based materials offer unique possibilities for applications ranging from quantum computation to sensing. In particular, nanostructured carbon is a promising candidate for spin-based quantum computation due to the ability to suppress hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins, a dominant source of spin decoherence. Yet graphene lacks an intrinsic bandgap, which poses a serious challenge for the creation of such devices. We present a novel approach to quantum confinement utilizing tunnel barriers defined by local electric fields that break sublattice symmetry in suspended bilayer graphene. This technique electrostatically confines charges via band structure control, thereby eliminating the edge and substrate disorder that hinders on-chip etched nanostructures to date. We report clean single electron tunneling through gate-defined quantum dots in two regimes: at zero magnetic field using the energy gap induced by a perpendicular electric field and at finite magnetic fields using Landau level confinement. The observed Coulomb blockade periodicity agrees with electrostatic simulations based on local top-gate geometry, a direct demonstration of local control over the band structure of graphene. This technology integrates quantum confinement with pristine device quality and access to vibrational modes, enabling wide applications from electromechanical sensors to quantum bits. More broadly, the ability to externally tailor the graphene bandgap over nanometer scales opens a new unexplored avenue for creating quantum devices.
Accuracy of a selection criterion for glass forming ability in the Ni–Nb–Zr system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Déo, L.P.; Oliveira, M.F. de
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We applied a selection in the Ni–Nb–Zr system to find alloys with high GFA. • We used the thermal parameter γ m to evaluate the GFA of alloys. • The correlation between the γ m parameter and R c in the studied system is poor. • The effect of oxygen impurity reduced dramatically the GFA of alloys. • Unknown intermetallic compounds reduced the accuracy of the criterion. - Abstract: Several theories have been developed and applied in metallic systems in order to find the best stoichiometries with high glass forming ability; however there is no universal theory to predict the glass forming ability in metallic systems. Recently a selection criterion was applied in the Zr–Ni–Cu system and it was found some correlation between experimental and theoretical data. This criterion correlates critical cooling rate for glass formation with topological instability of stable crystalline structures; average work function difference and average electron density difference among the constituent elements of the alloy. In the present work, this criterion was applied in the Ni–Nb–Zr system. It was investigated the influence of factors not considered in the calculation and on the accuracy of the criterion, such as unknown intermetallic compounds and oxygen contamination. Bulk amorphous specimens were produced by injection casting. The amorphous nature was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry; oxygen contamination was quantified by the inert gas fusion method
Computer simulation of confined liquid crystal dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webster, R.E.
2001-11-01
Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to determine whether dynamic processes observed in device-scale liquid crystal cells confined between aligning substrates can be simulated in a molecular system using parallel molecular dynamics of the Gay-Berne model. In a nematic cell, on removal of an aligning field, initial near-surface director relaxation can induce flow, termed 'backflow' in the liquid. This, in turn, can cause director rotation, termed 'orientational kickback', in the centre of the cell. Simulations are performed of the relaxation in nematic systems confined between substrates with a common alignment on removal of an aligning field. Results show /that relaxation timescales of medium sized systems are accessible. Following this, simulations are performed of relaxation in hybrid aligned nematic systems, where each surface induces a different alignment. Flow patterns associated with director reorientation are observed. The damped oscillatory nature of the relaxation process suggests that the behaviour of these systems is dominated by orientational elastic forces and that the observed director motion and flow do not correspond to the macroscopic processes of backflow and kickback. Chevron structures can occur in confined smectic cells which develop two domains of equal and opposite layer tilt on cooling. Layer lilting is thought to be caused by a need to reconcile a mismatch between bulk and surface smectic layer spacing. Here, simulations are performed of the formation of structures in confined smectic systems where layer tilt is induced by an imposed surface pretilt. Results show that bookshelf, chevron and tilled layer structures are observable in a confined Gay-Berne system. The formation and stability of the chevron structure are shown to be influenced by surface slip. (author)
A risk-based microbiological criterion that uses the relative risk as the critical limit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit; da Costa Alves Machado, Simone
2015-01-01
A risk-based microbiological criterion is described, that is based on the relative risk associated to the analytical result of a number of samples taken from a food lot. The acceptable limit is a specific level of risk and not a specific number of microorganisms, as in other microbiological...... criteria. The approach requires the availability of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to get risk estimates for food products from sampled food lots. By relating these food lot risk estimates to the mean risk estimate associated to a representative baseline data set, a relative risk...... estimate can be obtained. This relative risk estimate then can be compared with a critical value, defined by the criterion. This microbiological criterion based on a relative risk limit is particularly useful when quantitative enumeration data are available and when the prevalence of the microorganism...
Somersault of Paramecium in extremely confined environments
Jana, Saikat; Eddins, Aja; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan
2015-08-01
We investigate various swimming modes of Paramecium in geometric confinements and a non-swimming self-bending behavior like a somersault, which is quite different from the previously reported behaviors. We observe that Paramecia execute directional sinusoidal trajectories in thick fluid films, whereas Paramecia meander around a localized region and execute frequent turns due to collisions with adjacent walls in thin fluid films. When Paramecia are further constrained in rectangular channels narrower than the length of the cell body, a fraction of meandering Paramecia buckle their body by pushing on the channel walls. The bucking (self-bending) of the cell body allows the Paramecium to reorient its anterior end and explore a completely new direction in extremely confined spaces. Using force deflection method, we quantify the Young’s modulus of the cell and estimate the swimming and bending powers exerted by Paramecium. The analysis shows that Paramecia can utilize a fraction of its swimming power to execute the self-bending maneuver within the confined channel and no extra power may be required for this new kind of self-bending behavior. This investigation sheds light on how micro-organisms can use the flexibility of the body to actively navigate within confined spaces.
Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes.
Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N
2016-08-22
In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.
Status of global energy confinement studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; DeBoo, J.C.; Waltz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Sigmar, D.
1990-02-01
Empirical scaling expressions, reflecting the parametric dependence of the L-mode energy confinement time, have been used not only as benchmarks for tokamak operation and theories of energy transport, but for predicting the performance of proposed tokamak devices. Several scaling expressions based on data from small-and medium-sized devices have done well in predicting performance in larger devices, although great uncertainty exists in extrapolating yet farther, into the ignition regime. Several approaches exist for developing higher confidence scaling expressions. These include reducing the statistical uncertainty by identifying and filling in gaps in the present database, making use of more sophisticated statistical techniques, and developing scalings for confinement regimes within which future devices will operate. Confidence in the scaling expressions will be increased still if the expressions can be more directly tied to transport physics theory. This can be done through the use of dimensionless parameters, better describing the edge and core confinement regimes separately, and by incorporating transport models directly into the scaling expressions. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs
Operational technology for greater confinement disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.
1984-12-01
Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables
A termination criterion for parameter estimation in stochastic models in systems biology.
Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven
2015-11-01
Parameter estimation procedures are a central aspect of modeling approaches in systems biology. They are often computationally expensive, especially when the models take stochasticity into account. Typically parameter estimation involves the iterative optimization of an objective function that describes how well the model fits some measured data with a certain set of parameter values. In order to limit the computational expenses it is therefore important to apply an adequate stopping criterion for the optimization process, so that the optimization continues at least until a reasonable fit is obtained, but not much longer. In the case of stochastic modeling, at least some parameter estimation schemes involve an objective function that is itself a random variable. This means that plain convergence tests are not a priori suitable as stopping criteria. This article suggests a termination criterion suited to optimization problems in parameter estimation arising from stochastic models in systems biology. The termination criterion is developed for optimization algorithms that involve populations of parameter sets, such as particle swarm or evolutionary algorithms. It is based on comparing the variance of the objective function over the whole population of parameter sets with the variance of repeated evaluations of the objective function at the best parameter set. The performance is demonstrated for several different algorithms. To test the termination criterion we choose polynomial test functions as well as systems biology models such as an Immigration-Death model and a bistable genetic toggle switch. The genetic toggle switch is an especially challenging test case as it shows a stochastic switching between two steady states which is qualitatively different from the model behavior in a deterministic model. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawryluk, R.J.
1997-02-01
Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues
Confinement and related transport in Extrap geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tendler, M.
1983-01-01
The properties of the plasma dynamic equilibrium are investigated for the Extrap magnetic confinement geometry. The temperatures achieved so far in the high-#betta# pinches are much lower than the predicted values. Here, it is shown that the particle containment in Extrap may be improved as compared to the other pinches due to the electrostatic confinement. An analytic solution for the profiles of the plasma parameters are found under the assumption that the energy is lost primarily in the radial direction by heat conduction and convection. An estimate of the radial particle confinement time is given, showing favourable scaling with plasma density and temperature. The conventional assumption of a uniform current density is shown to be unjustified in the case of an inhomogeneous electron temperature. An analytical expression is found for the pinch radius at different mechanisms of the heat transport. (orig.)
System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices
Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.
1984-08-30
This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.
Satisfying the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen criterion with massive particles
Peise, J.; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Hammerer, K.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.
2015-01-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology. PMID:26612105
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles.
Peise, J; Kruse, I; Lange, K; Lücke, B; Pezzè, L; Arlt, J; Ertmer, W; Hammerer, K; Santos, L; Smerzi, A; Klempt, C
2015-11-27
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology.
Enhanced ionic liquid mobility induced by confinement in 1D CNT membranes
Berrod, Q.; Ferdeghini, F.; Judeinstein, P.; Genevaz, N.; Ramos, R.; Fournier, A.; Dijon, J.; Ollivier, J.; Rols, S.; Yu, D.; Mole, R. A.; Zanotti, J.-M.
2016-04-01
Water confined within carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibits tremendous enhanced transport properties. Here, we extend this result to ionic liquids (IL) confined in vertically aligned CNT membranes. Under confinement, the IL self-diffusion coefficient is increased by a factor 3 compared to its bulk reference. This could lead to high power battery separators.Water confined within carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibits tremendous enhanced transport properties. Here, we extend this result to ionic liquids (IL) confined in vertically aligned CNT membranes. Under confinement, the IL self-diffusion coefficient is increased by a factor 3 compared to its bulk reference. This could lead to high power battery separators. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01445c
Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Chen, Ching-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Yi
Current evidence suggests that grip strength and usual gait speed (UGS) are important predictors of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability. Knowing the optimum cut points of these tests for discriminating people with and without IADL disability could help clinicians or researchers to better interpret the test results and make medical decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff values of grip strength and UGS for best discriminating community-dwelling older adults with and without IADL disability, separately for men and women, and to investigate their association with IADL disability. We conducted secondary data analysis on a national dataset collected in the Sarcopenia and Translational Aging Research in Taiwan (START). The data used in this study consisted of health data of 2420 community-dwelling older adults 65 years and older with no history of stroke and with complete data. IADL disability was defined as at least 1 IADL item scored as "need help" or "unable to perform." Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to estimate the optimum grip strength and UGS cut points for best discriminating older adults with/without IADL disability. The association between each physical performance (grip strength and UGS) and IADL disability was assessed with odds ratios (ORs). With IADL disability as the criterion, the optimal cutoff values of grip strength were 28.7 kg for men and 16.0 kg for women, and those for UGS were 0.76 m/s for men and 0.66 m/s for women. The grip strength test showed satisfactory discriminant validity (area under the curve > 0.7) in men and a strong association with IADL disability (OR > 4). Our cut points using IADL disability as the criterion were close to those indicating frailty or sarcopenia. Our reported cutoffs can serve as criterion-referenced values, along with those previously determined using different indicators, and provide important landmarks on the performance continua of older adults
Extensions and applications of the Bohm criterion
Baalrud, Scott D.; Scheiner, Brett; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward
2015-04-01
The generalized Bohm criterion is revisited in the context of incorporating kinetic effects of the electron and ion distribution functions into the theory. The underlying assumptions and results of two different approaches are compared: the conventional ‘kinetic Bohm criterion’ and a fluid-moment hierarchy approach. The former is based on the asymptotic limit of an infinitely thin sheath (λD/l = 0), whereas the latter is based on a perturbative expansion of a sheath that is thin compared to the plasma (λD/l ≪ 1). Here λD is the Debye length, which characterizes the sheath length scale, and l is a measure of the plasma or presheath length scale. The consequences of these assumptions are discussed in terms of how they restrict the class of distribution functions to which the resulting criteria can be applied. Two examples are considered to provide concrete comparisons between the two approaches. The first is a Tonks-Langmuir model including a warm ion source (Robertson 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 103503). This highlights a substantial difference between the conventional kinetic theory, which predicts slow ions dominate at the sheath edge, and the fluid moment approach, which predicts slow ions have little influence. The second example considers planar electrostatic probes biased near the plasma potential using model equations and particle-in-cell simulations. This demonstrates a situation where electron kinetic effects alter the Bohm criterion, leading to a subsonic ion flow at the sheath edge.
Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
High strength concrete; confined concrete; stress–strain models; ... One of its advantages is the lessening column cross-sectional areas. It was ..... Ahmad S H, Shah S P 1982 Stress–strain curves of concrete confined by spiral reinforcement.
Effects of confinement in meso-porous silica and carbon nano-structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leon, V.
2006-07-01
Physico-chemical properties of materials can be strongly modified by confinement because of the quantum effects that appear at such small length scales and also because of the effects of the confinement itself. The aim of this thesis is to show that both the nature of the confining material and the size of the pores and cavities have a strong impact on the confined material. We first show the effect of the pore size of the host meso-porous silica on the temperature of the solid-solid phase transition of silver selenide, a semiconducting material with enhanced magnetoresistive properties under non-stoichiometric conditions. Narrowing the pores from 20 nm to 2 nm raises the phase transition temperature from 139 C to 146 C. This result can be explained by considering the interaction between the confining and confined materials as a driving force. The effects of confinement are also studied in the case of hydrogen and deuterium inside cavities of organized carbon nano-structures. The effects that appear in the adsorption/desorption cycles are much stronger with carbon nano-horns as the host material than with C60 pea-pods and single-walled carbon nano-tubes. (author)
Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rad, M. Torabi; Kotas, Petr; Beckermann, C.
2013-01-01
A Rayleigh number-based criterion is developed for predicting the formation of A-segregates in steel castings and ingots. The criterion is calibrated using available experimental data for ingots involving 27 different steel compositions. The critical Rayleigh number above which A-segregates can b......, the primary reason for this over-prediction is persumed to be the presence of a central zone of equiaxed grains in the casting sections. A-segregates do not form when the grain structure is equiaxed. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2013...
Exploring DSM-5 criterion A in Acute Stress Disorder symptoms following natural disaster.
Lavenda, Osnat; Grossman, Ephraim S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hoffman, Yaakov
2017-10-01
The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Confining but chirally symmetric dense and cold matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L. Ya.
2012-01-01
The possibility for existence of cold, dense chirally symmetric matter with confinement is reviewed. The answer to this question crucially depends on the mechanism of mass generation in QCD and interconnection of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. This question can be clarified from spectroscopy of hadrons and their axial properties. Almost systematical parity doubling of highly excited hadrons suggests that their mass is not related to chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and is approximately chirally symmetric. Then there is a possibility for existence of confining but chirally symmetric matter. We clarify a possible mechanism underlying such a phase at low temperatures and large density. Namely, at large density the Pauli blocking prevents the gap equation to generate a solution with broken chiral symmetry. However, the chirally symmetric part of the quark Green function as well as all color non-singlet quantities are still infrared divergent, meaning that the system is with confinement. A possible phase transition to such a matter is most probably of the first order. This is because there are no chiral partners to the lowest lying hadrons.
Molecular modeling in confined polymer and biomembrane systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayeeta Ghosh
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The computational study of soft materials under confinement for bio- and nanotechnology still poses significantchallenges but has come a long way in the last decade. It is possible to realistically model and understand the fundamentalmechanisms which are at play if soft materials are confined to nanometer dimensions. Here, we present several recentexamples of such studies. Thin polymer films are abundantly used as friction modifiers or steric stabilizers. We show howsystematic modeling can shed light on the interplay between entropic and energetic interactions. Thin glassy films arecritical for the success of nanolithography. For that we have to understand the effect of confinement on the glass transitionbehavior in order to guarantee the stability and integrity of the lithographic masks. Simulations aim to understand the fundamental differences in the densities of states of glass formers in bulk and under confinement. With the advent of bionanotechnology the structure and phase behavior of lipid membranes as models for cellular membranes at the nano scale length is of importance due to implications in understanding the role of the lipids in biochemical membrane processes.
Confinement improvement with magnetic levitation of a superconducting dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garnier, D.T.; Mauel, M.E.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.L.; Kesner, J.
2009-01-01
We report the first production of high beta plasma confined in a fully levitated laboratory dipole using neutral gas fuelling and electron cyclotron resonance heating. As compared with previous studies in which the internal coil was supported, levitation results in improved confinement that allows higher-density, higher-beta discharges to be maintained at significantly reduced gas fuelling. Contrary to previous supported dipole plasma results which had the stored energy consisting in a hot electron population, a significant plasma stored energy is shown to reside in the bulk plasma. By eliminating supports used in previous studies, cross-field transport becomes the main loss channel for both the hot and the background species. This leads to a significant improvement in bulk plasma confinement and a dramatic peaking of the density profile. Improved particle confinement assures stability of the hot electron component at reduced neutral pressure.
Behavior of FRP-Confined Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiyan Lu
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the behavior of concrete-filled steel tube columns confined by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. Eleven columns were tested to investigate the effects of the FRP layer number, the thickness of the steel tube and concrete strength on their load capacity and axial deformation capacity. The experimental results indicated that the FRP wrap can effectively confine the concrete expansion and delay the local buckling of the steel tube. Both the load capacity and the axial deformation capacity of concrete-filled steel tube columns can be substantially enhanced with FRP confinement. A model is proposed to predict the load capacity of the FRP-confined concrete-filled steel tube columns. The predicted results are generally in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained in this study and in the literature.
Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.
1997-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...
Shape and 'gap' effects on the behavior of variably confined concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harries, Kent A.; Carey, Shawn A.
2003-01-01
Factors affecting the behavior of variably confined concrete are presented. The effect of debonding the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) jacket to the concrete substrate and providing a gap between the concrete and confining jacket is investigated. A second parameter--the shape of the cross section--is also investigated. An experimental program involving the compression testing of standard cylinders and similarly sized square specimens having external FRP jackets providing passive confinement is presented. Factors affecting jacket efficiency and the appropriateness of factors accounting for specimen shape are determined experimentally and discussed. The provision of a gap affected the axial stress at which the confining jacket was engaged, resulting in a reduced maximum attainable concrete strength. The jacket efficiency was not affected by the provision of the gap. The shape of the specimens was observed to affect the level of confinement generated. Square specimens exhibit lower confinement levels than circular specimens having the same jacket
Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.
Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina
2017-04-01
Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.
Mott glass from localization and confinement
Chou, Yang-Zhi; Nandkishore, Rahul M.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2018-05-01
We study a system of fermions in one spatial dimension with linearly confining interactions and short-range disorder. We focus on the zero-temperature properties of this system, which we characterize using bosonization and the Gaussian variational method. We compute the static compressibility and ac conductivity, and thereby demonstrate that the system is incompressible, but exhibits gapless optical conductivity. This corresponds to a "Mott glass" state, distinct from an Anderson and a fully gapped Mott insulator, arising due to the interplay of disorder and charge confinement. We argue that this Mott glass phenomenology should persist to nonzero temperatures.
Recent results on confinement in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.J.
1992-01-01
The JET device is the world's largest tokamak and has been utilized in plasma heating experiments at total powers of up to 35MW using both neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). At the highest performance, JET plasmas have achieved conditions equivalent to energy ''breakeven''. A principal aim of the JET experiment is the investigation of plasma heating and confinement in plasma regimes relevant to thermonuclear ignition. The central issues in confinement physics involved in these advances are briefly reviewed and the most recent investigations of transport in high performance plasmas are summarized. (Author)
Ushijima, T.; Yeh, W.
2013-12-01
An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provides the maximum information about unknown hydraulic conductivity in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design employs a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. Because that the formulated problem is non-convex and contains integer variables (necessitating a combinatorial search), for a realistically-scaled model, the problem may be difficult, if not impossible, to solve through traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are designed to search out the global optimum; however because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem may still be infeasible to solve. To overcome this, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimension. The information matrix in the full model space can then be searched without solving the full model.
Criterion of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in a nuclear PWR vessel steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bousquet, Amaury
2013-01-01
The purpose of this PhD thesis is to understand physical mechanisms of cleavage crack propagation and arrest in the 16MND5 PWR vessel steel and to propose a robust predicting model based on a brittle fracture experimental campaign of finely instrumented laboratory specimens associated with numerical computations. First, experiments were carried out on thin CT25 specimens at five temperatures (-150 C, -125 C, -100 C, -7 C, -50 C). Two kinds of crack path, straight or branching path, have been observed. To characterize crack propagation and to measure crack speed, a high-speed framing camera system was used, combined with the development of an experimental protocol which allowed to observe CT surface without icing inside the thermal chamber and on the specimen. The framing camera (520 000 fps) has allowed to have a very accurate estimation of crack speed on the complete ligament of CT (∼ 25 mm). Besides, to analyse experiments and to study the impact of viscosity on the mechanical response around the crack tip, the elastic-viscoplastic behavior of the ferritic steel has been studied up to a strain rate of 104 s -1 for the tested temperatures.The extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) was used in CAST3M FE software to model crack propagation. Numerical computations combine a local non linear dynamic approach with a RKR type fracture stress criterion to a characteristic distance. The work carried out has confirmed the form of the criterion proposed by Prabel at -125 C, and has identified the dependencies of the criterion on temperature and strain rate. From numerical analyzes in 2D and 3D, a multi-temperature fracture stress criterion, increasing function of the strain rate, was proposed. Predictive modeling were used to confirm the identified criterion on two specimen geometries (CT and compressive ring) in mode I at different temperatures. SEM observations and 3D analyzes made with optical microscope showed that the fracture mechanism was the cleavage associated
Laser thermonuclear fusion with force confinement of hot plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korobkin, V.V.; Romanovsky, M.Y.
1994-01-01
The possibility of the utilization of laser radiation for plasma heating up to thermonuclear temperatures with its simultaneous confinement by ponderomotive force is investigated. The plasma is located inside a powerful laser beam with a tubelike section or inside a cavity of duct section, formed by several intersecting beams focused by cylindrical lenses. The impact of various physical processes upon plasma confinement is studied and the criteria of plasma confinement and maintaining of plasma temperature are derived. Plasma and laser beam stability is considered. Estimates of laser radiation energy necessary for thermonuclear fusion are presented
Basis note in behalf of the development of a test criterion for the storage of radioactive waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-09-01
Aspects are described which may play a role in the development of a criterion for a final storage of radioactive waste. Such a criterion consists of a set of requirements concerning the quality of environment and public health, with which a proposal for the final storage of the waste has to be compared. The criterion should be able to give decisive answers regarding the acceptibility of a storage but should also be useful for the judgment of risk-analyses which are therefore necessary. 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs
The confining string from the soft dilaton theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Enrique; Gomez, Cesar
2000-01-01
A candidate for the confining string of gauge theories is constructed via a representation of the ultraviolet divergences of quantum field theory by a closed string dilaton insertion, computed through the soft dilaton theorem. The resulting (critical) confining string is conformally invariant, singles out naturally d=4 dimensions, and can not be used to represent theories with Landau poles
Structural behavior of supercritical fluids under confinement
Ghosh, Kanka; Krishnamurthy, C. V.
2018-01-01
The existence of the Frenkel line in the supercritical regime of a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid shown through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations initially and later corroborated by experiments on argon opens up possibilities of understanding the structure and dynamics of supercritical fluids in general and of the Frenkel line in particular. The location of the Frenkel line, which demarcates two distinct physical states, liquidlike and gaslike within the supercritical regime, has been established through MD simulations of the velocity autocorrelation (VACF) and radial distribution function (RDF). We, in this article, explore the changes in the structural features of supercritical LJ fluid under partial confinement using atomistic walls. The study is carried out across the Frenkel line through a series of MD simulations considering a set of thermodynamics states in the supercritical regime (P =5000 bar, 240 K ≤T ≤1500 K ) of argon well above the critical point. Confinement is partial, with atomistic walls located normal to z and extending to "infinity" along the x and y directions. In the "liquidlike" regime of the supercritical phase, particles are found to be distributed in distinct layers along the z axis with layer spacing less than one atomic diameter and the lateral RDF showing amorphous-like structure for specific spacings (packing frustration) and non-amorphous-like structure for other spacings. Increasing the rigidity of the atomistic walls is found to lead to stronger layering and increased structural order. For confinement with reflective walls, layers are found to form with one atomic diameter spacing and the lateral RDF showing close-packed structure for the smaller confinements. Translational order parameter and excess entropy assessment confirms the ordering taking place for atomistic wall and reflective wall confinements. In the "gaslike" regime of the supercritical phase, particle distribution along the spacing and the lateral RDF exhibit features
High-confinement NBI discharges in the W7-AS stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stroth, U.; Baldzuhn, J.; Geiger, J.; Geist, T.; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Kick, M.; Koponen, J.P.; Kuehner, G.; Penningsfeld, F.-P.; Wagner, F.
1998-01-01
In W7-AS, the longest energy confinement times were achieved in neutral beam injection heated (NBI-heated) discharges under low wall-recycling conditions. Low recycling is needed to control the density at line-averaged values of n-bar e approx. 10 20 m -3 . Under these conditions, confinement was improved by a factor of two above the common scaling estimate. The reduction of radial transport is concentrated into a layer at about two-thirds of the plasma radius. In this region steep pressure gradients and a strong gradient in the radial electric field develop. Specific for the discharges is the slow transition to improved confinement, lasting up to three energy confinement times. Since the measured electric field is consistent with the neoclassical ambipolar field, this high-confinement mode could be an example where sheared plasma flow as created by the neoclassical radial electric field leads to a suppression of anomalous transport. (author)
High-confinement NBI discharges in the W7-AS stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stroth, U; Baldzuhn, J; Geiger, J; Geist, T; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H -J; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Kick, M; Koponen, J P; Kuehner, G; Penningsfeld, F -P; Wagner, F [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
1998-08-01
In W7-AS, the longest energy confinement times were achieved in neutral beam injection heated (NBI-heated) discharges under low wall-recycling conditions. Low recycling is needed to control the density at line-averaged values of n-bar{sub e} approx. 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}. Under these conditions, confinement was improved by a factor of two above the common scaling estimate. The reduction of radial transport is concentrated into a layer at about two-thirds of the plasma radius. In this region steep pressure gradients and a strong gradient in the radial electric field develop. Specific for the discharges is the slow transition to improved confinement, lasting up to three energy confinement times. Since the measured electric field is consistent with the neoclassical ambipolar field, this high-confinement mode could be an example where sheared plasma flow as created by the neoclassical radial electric field leads to a suppression of anomalous transport. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grech, M
2007-06-15
Inertial confinement fusion by laser requires smoothed laser beam with well-controlled coherence properties. Such beams are made of many randomly distributed intensity maxima: the so-called speckles. As the laser beam propagates through plasma its temporal and spatial coherence can be reduced. This phenomenon is called plasma induced smoothing. For high laser intensities, instabilities developing independently inside the speckles are responsible for the coherence loss. At lower intensities, only collective effects, involving many speckles, can lead to induced smoothing. This thesis is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of these mechanisms. Accounting for the partially incoherent behavior of the laser beams requires the use of statistical description of the laser-plasma interaction. A model is developed for the multiple scattering of the laser light on the self-induced density perturbations that is responsible for a spreading of the temporal and spatial spectra of the transmitted light. It also serves as a strong seed for the instability of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering that induces both, angular spreading and red-shift of the transmitted light. A statistical model is developed for this instability. A criterion is obtained that gives a laser power (below the critical power for filamentation) above which the instability growth is important. Numerical simulations with the interaction code PARAX and an experiment performed on the ALISE laser facility confirm the importance of these forward scattering mechanisms in the modification of the laser coherence properties. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm
2015-01-01
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hovi, Jon
2001-12-01
The paper asks if the precautionary principle may be seen as a rational decision criterion. Six main questions are discussed. 1. Does the principle basically represent a particular set of political options or is it a genuine decision criterion? 2. If it is the latter, can it be reduced to any of the existing criteria for decision making under uncertainty? 3. In what kinds of situation is the principle applicable? 4. What is the relation between the precautionary principle and other principles for environmental regulation? 5. How plausible is the principle's claim that the burden of proof should be reversed? 6. Do the proponents of environmental regulation carry no burden of proof at all? A main conclusion is that, for now at least, the principle contains too many unclear elements to satisfy the requirements of precision and consistency that should reasonably be satisfied by a rational decision criterion. (author)
Computer simulation of confined liquid crystal dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Webster, R.E
2001-11-01
Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to determine whether dynamic processes observed in device-scale liquid crystal cells confined between aligning substrates can be simulated in a molecular system using parallel molecular dynamics of the Gay-Berne model. In a nematic cell, on removal of an aligning field, initial near-surface director relaxation can induce flow, termed 'backflow' in the liquid. This, in turn, can cause director rotation, termed 'orientational kickback', in the centre of the cell. Simulations are performed of the relaxation in nematic systems confined between substrates with a common alignment on removal of an aligning field. Results show /that relaxation timescales of medium sized systems are accessible. Following this, simulations are performed of relaxation in hybrid aligned nematic systems, where each surface induces a different alignment. Flow patterns associated with director reorientation are observed. The damped oscillatory nature of the relaxation process suggests that the behaviour of these systems is dominated by orientational elastic forces and that the observed director motion and flow do not correspond to the macroscopic processes of backflow and kickback. Chevron structures can occur in confined smectic cells which develop two domains of equal and opposite layer tilt on cooling. Layer lilting is thought to be caused by a need to reconcile a mismatch between bulk and surface smectic layer spacing. Here, simulations are performed of the formation of structures in confined smectic systems where layer tilt is induced by an imposed surface pretilt. Results show that bookshelf, chevron and tilled layer structures are observable in a confined Gay-Berne system. The formation and stability of the chevron structure are shown to be influenced by surface slip. (author)
Monopoles and confinement in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, V.
1992-01-01
The mechanism by which quarks, believed to be the fundamental constituents of matter, are prevented from existing in the free state is fundamental problems in physics. One of the most viable candidates for a hypothesis of confinement is the dual superconductor mechanism that likens quark confinement to the Meissner effect in superconductors. The peculiarities of quark interactions make a numerical approach to the subject a necessity, and therefore, much of the work in this area has been done through the methods of lattice gauge theory, with the simplicities afforded by putting spacetime on a four-dimensional grid. Over the years a large amount of indirect evidence has accumulated that the dual superconductor hypothesis does indeed lead to quark confinement but unambiguous evidence has eluded research efforts until recently. This work presents the first direct proof of a Meissner-like effect that leads to confinement, using the numerical techniques of lattice gauge theory. It is shown that for a U(1) lattice gauge theory, that serves as a toy model of the real world of quarks, a dual London relation and an electric fluxoid qauntization condition is satisfied, allowing the author to conclude that the vacuum in this case acts like an extreme type-II superconductor, and that quarks are confined. The author also shows that SU(2) lattice gauge theory, which is qualitatively different and another step closer to reality, shows a Meissner-like effect. In contrast to the U(1) case, the author's results are found consistent with a dual version of the Ginsburg-Landau theory of superconductor on the borderline between type-I and type-II. This approach paves the wave for a study of the more complicated theory, quantum chromodynamics, that is believed to describe quarks
Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions.
Hiejima, Toshihiko
2014-05-01
The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration.
The ''Kinetic Stabilizer'': A Simpler Tandem Mirror Confinement?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, R.F.
2000-01-01
In the search for better approaches to magnetic fusion it is important to keep in mind the lessons learned in the 50 years that fusion plasma confinement has been studied. One of the lessons learned is that ''closed'' and ''open'' fusion devices differ fundamentally with respect to an important property of their confinement, as follows: Without known exception closed systems such as the tokamak, the stellarator, or the reversed-field pinch, have been found to have their confinement times limited by non-classical, i.e., turbulence-related, processes, leading to the requirement that such systems must be scaled-up in dimensions to sizes much larger than would be the case in the absence of turbulence. By contrast, from the earliest days of fusion research, it has been demonstrated that open magnetic systems of the mirror variety can achieve confinement times close to that associated with classical, i.e., collisional, processes. While these good results have been obtained in both axially symmetric fields and in non-axisymmetric fields, the clearest cases have been those in which the confining fields are solenoidal and axially symmetric. These observations, i.e., of confinement not enhanced by turbulence, can be traced theoretically to such factors as the absence of parallel currents in the plasma, and to the constraints on particle drifts imposed by the adiabatic invariants governing particle confinement in axisymmetric open systems. In the past the MHD instability of axially symmetric open systems has been seen as a barrier to their use. However, theory predicts MHD-stable confinement is achievable if sufficient plasma is present in the ''good curvature'' regions outside the mirrors. This theory has been confirmed by experiments on the Gas Dynamic Trap mirror-based experiment at Novosibirsk, In this paper a new way of exploiting this stabilizing principle, involving creating a localized ''stabilizer plasma'' outside a mirror, will be discussed. To create this plasma
A practical criterion of irreducibility of multi-loop Feynman integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baikov, P.A.
2006-01-01
A practical criterion for the irreducibility (with respect to integration by part identities) of a particular Feynman integral to a given set of integrals is presented. The irreducibility is shown to be related to the existence of stable (with zero gradient) points of a specially constructed polynomial
Definition of a critical confining zone using surface geophysical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hoekstra, P.; Harthill, N.; Blohm, M.; Phillips, D.R.
1997-01-01
Definition of the hydrologic framework in layered sediments of fluvial and deltaic origin is a difficult challenge for environmental characterization and remediation programs due to the lithologic and stratigraphic heterogeneities inherent in these settings. The authors set out to use complementary geophysical surveys to determine the nature and extent of a deep confining unit at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings were used to define the electrical conductance of the clayey confining unit (aquitard), and shear-wave reflection seismic was used to define the stratigraphic framework. Based on correlations with borehole geophysical logs and sieve data, the shear-wave seismic proved capable of defining relatively fine layering in the coastal plain sediments, the upper and lower surfaces of a critical confining unit, and erosional features on the surface of the confining unit. The TDEM surveys defined the presence or absence of the clay facies of the confining unit. Moreover, by constraining the interpretation of the TDEM data with the thickness of the confining unit derived from the seismic data, the authors mapped the extent of the unit, showing where the clay is thicker, where it probably was never deposited, and where it was eroded by downcutting channels. These results have significant implications on the design and optimization of remedial systems
Structural and mechanical properties of glassy water in nanoscale confinement.
Lombardo, Thomas G; Giovambattista, Nicolás; Debenedetti, Pablo G
2009-01-01
We investigate the structure and mechanical properties of glassy water confined between silica-based surfaces with continuously tunable hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity by computing and analyzing minimum energy, mechanically stable configurations (inherent structures). The structured silica substrate imposes long-range order on the first layer of water molecules under hydrophobic confinement at high density (p > or = 1.0 g cm(-3)). This proximal layer is also structured in hydrophilic confinement at very low density (p approximately 0.4 g cm(-3)). The ordering of water next to the hydrophobic surface greatly enhances the mechanical strength of thin films (0.8 nm). This leads to a substantial stress anisotropy; the transverse strength of the film exceeds the normal strength by 500 MPa. The large transverse strength results in a minimum in the equation of state of the energy landscape that does not correspond to a mechanical instability, but represents disruption of the ordered layer of water next to the wall. In addition, we find that the mode of mechanical failure is dependent on the type of confinement. Under large lateral strain, water confined by hydrophilic surfaces preferentially forms voids in the middle of the film and fails cohesively. In contrast, water under hydrophobic confinement tends to form voids near the walls and fails by loss of adhesion.
Shearing Nanometer-Thick Confined Hydrocarbon Films: Friction and Adhesion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivebæk, I. M.; Persson, B. N. J.
2016-01-01
We present molecular dynamics (MD) friction and adhesion calculations for nanometer-thick confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths 20, 100 and 1400 carbon atoms. We study the dependency of the frictional shear stress on the confining pressure and sliding speed. We present results...
Enhanced confinement phenomenology in magnetic fusion plasmas: Is it unique in physics?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dendy, R.O.
2002-01-01
There is substantial experimental evidence that simple diffusive models for turbulent transport are insufficient to produce all the confinement phenomena observed in tokamaks. This paper reports on the emerging linkage between rapid, nonlocal, nondiffusive transport and overall confinement phenomenology including edge pedestals, enhanced confinement, ELMs, and internal transport barriers. Modern statistical physics techniques are used to construct simple models that generate many of the distinctive elements of global tokamak confinement phenomenology. The similarities are deep and are quantified. These results imply that current observations of avalanching transport in tokamaks may be deeply linked to the fundamental global features of tokamak plasma confinement. (author)
The effect of ELMs on energy confinement in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, W.; Tubbing, B.J.D.; Ward, D.J.
1998-01-01
The effect of ELMs on energy confinement in JET has been analysed. ELMs are characterized using D α emission which is decomposed into two components, a baseline level with superimposed pulses due to the ELMs. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the D α baseline, which reflects the neutral pressure at the plasma edge, is an important parameter in determining the energy confinement deterioration. The origin of the D α baseline is either from the neutralization of plasma particles which are expelled by the ELM pulses, or from external gas puffing. An ELM severity parameter, taking into account both the D α baseline and the ELM pulses, is defined. The energy confinement time normalized to the energy confinement time of ELM free phase, τ B /τ H , decreases linearly as the ELM severity increases. The results are independent of divertor configurations. (author)
Dynamics of water confined in clay minerals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Caer, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph.; Lima, M.; Righini, R.; Gosset, D.; Simeone, D.; Bergaya, F.
2012-01-01
Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O-D stretching mode of dilute HOD in H 2 O probes the local environment and the hydrogen bond network of confined water. The dynamics of water molecules confined in the interlayer space of montmorillonites (Mt) and in interaction with two types of cations (Li + and Ca 2+ ) but also with the negatively charged siloxane surface are studied. The results evidence that the OD vibrational dynamics is significantly slowed down in confined media: it goes from 1.7 ps in neat water to 2.6 Ps in the case of Li + cations with two water pseudo-layers (2.2-2.3 ps in the case of Ca 2+ cations) and to 4.7 ps in the case of Li + cations with one water pseudo-layer. No significant difference between the two cations is noticed. In this 2D confined geometry (the interlayer space being about 0.6 nm for two water pseudo-layers), the relaxation time constants obtained are comparable to the ones measured in analogous concentrated salt solutions. Nevertheless, and in strong opposition to the observations performed in the liquid phase, anisotropy experiments evidence the absence of rotational motions on a 5 ps time scale, proving that the hydrogen bond network in the interlayer space of the clay mineral is locked at this time scale. (authors)
Novel criterion for formation of metastable phase from undercooled melt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko; Nagashio, Kosuke; Niwata, Kenji; Kumar, M.S. Vijaya; Hibiya, Taketoshi
2007-01-01
Undercooling a melt facilitates the preferential nucleation of a metastable phase. In the present study, the formation of metastable phases from undercooled melts was considered from the viewpoint of the competitive nucleation criterion. The classical nucleation theory shows us that the most critical factor for forming a critical nucleus is the interface free energy σ. Furthermore, Spaepen's negentropic model on σ generated the role of the scaling factor α that depends on the polyhedral order in the liquid and solid phases prominent in simple liquids such as the melt of monoatomic metals. In ionic materials such as oxides, however, in which oxygen polyhedrons including a cation at their center are the structural units both in the solid and liquid phases, the entropy of fusion, rather than α, can be expected to become dominant in the determination of σ. In accordance with this idea, using REFeO 3 as the model material (where RE denotes rare-earth elements) the entropy-undercooling regime criterion was proposed and verified
A new diagnostic accuracy measure and cut-point selection criterion.
Dong, Tuochuan; Attwood, Kristopher; Hutson, Alan; Liu, Song; Tian, Lili
2017-12-01
Most diagnostic accuracy measures and criteria for selecting optimal cut-points are only applicable to diseases with binary or three stages. Currently, there exist two diagnostic measures for diseases with general k stages: the hypervolume under the manifold and the generalized Youden index. While hypervolume under the manifold cannot be used for cut-points selection, generalized Youden index is only defined upon correct classification rates. This paper proposes a new measure named maximum absolute determinant for diseases with k stages ([Formula: see text]). This comprehensive new measure utilizes all the available classification information and serves as a cut-points selection criterion as well. Both the geometric and probabilistic interpretations for the new measure are examined. Power and simulation studies are carried out to investigate its performance as a measure of diagnostic accuracy as well as cut-points selection criterion. A real data set from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative is analyzed using the proposed maximum absolute determinant.
Biesbroek, J Matthijs; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kappelle, L Jaap; Schoo, Linda; Kuijf, Hugo J; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Biessels, Geert Jan; Postma, Albert
2014-01-01
Recognition memory, that is, the ability to judge whether an item has been previously encountered in a particular context, depends on two factors: discriminability and criterion setting. Discriminability draws on memory processes while criterion setting (i.e., the application of a threshold
Biesbroek, J. Matthijs; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Schoo, Linda; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Velthuis, BK; Biessels, Geert Jan; Postma, Albert
2015-01-01
Recognition memory, that is, the ability to judge whether an item has been previously encountered in a particular context, depends on two factors: discriminability and criterion setting. Discriminability draws on memory processes while criterion setting (i.e., the application of a threshold
Matter confinement in light of the Gribov horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palhares, Leticia F.
2016-01-01
The procedure of quantization of Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theories that takes into account the presence of Gribov copies has led to the construction of a scenario of gluon confinement via an infrared effective action, the (refined) Gribov-Zwanziger theory. Here we briefly review and discuss a possible extension of this picture to the matter sector of confining Yang-Mills theories. (paper)
Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Karadayi, E; Saito, M
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O(1/√n). Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O(1/√(mn)). In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O(1/n)
Roles of electric field on toroidal magnetic confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Sanuki, Heiji; Fukuyama, Atsushi.
1992-11-01
Theoretical research on the influence of the electric field on the toroidal magnetic confinement is surveyed. The static electric field is first described. Physics pictures on the generation of the radial electric field and the influence on the confinement are shown. Neoclassical effects as well as the nonclassical processes are discussed. Emphasis is made on the connection with the improved confinement. Convective cell, i.e. the nonuniform potential on the magnetic surface is also discussed. The roles of the fluctuating electric field are then reviewed. The progress in the recent theories on the anomalous transport is addressed. Through these surveys, the impact of the experiments using the heavy ion beam probes on the modern plasma physics is illustrated. (author) 66 refs
[GSH fermentation process modeling using entropy-criterion based RBF neural network model].
Tan, Zuoping; Wang, Shitong; Deng, Zhaohong; Du, Guocheng
2008-05-01
The prediction accuracy and generalization of GSH fermentation process modeling are often deteriorated by noise existing in the corresponding experimental data. In order to avoid this problem, we present a novel RBF neural network modeling approach based on entropy criterion. It considers the whole distribution structure of the training data set in the parameter learning process compared with the traditional MSE-criterion based parameter learning, and thus effectively avoids the weak generalization and over-learning. Then the proposed approach is applied to the GSH fermentation process modeling. Our results demonstrate that this proposed method has better prediction accuracy, generalization and robustness such that it offers a potential application merit for the GSH fermentation process modeling.
Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion
Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose
2013-11-01
As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.
A transport model with color confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loh, S.
1997-01-01
First the mostly important properties of QCD are dealt with. It is made plausible, how the QCD vacuum generates a screening of color charges and is by this responsible for the quark confinement in color singlets. in the following the behaviour of classical color charges and color fields is studied and it is concluded that by this approximation, the neglection of quantum-mechanical fluctuation, the quark confinement cannot be explained, because the mean-field approximation leads to a screening of the color charges. Motivated by this result the Friedberg-Lee soliton model is presented, in which the the color confinement and all further nonperturbative QCD effects are phenomenologically modelled by means of a scalar field. Thereafter a derivation of the transport equations for quarks in the framework of the Wigner-function is presented. An extension of the equation to the Friedberg-Lee model is explained. As results the ground-state properties of the model are studied. Mesonic and baryonic ground-state solutions (soliton solutions) of the equations are constructed, whereby the constituents are both light quarks and heavy quarks. Furthermore the color coupling constant of QCD is fixed by means of the string tension by dynamical separation of the quarks of the meson. The flux tubes formed dynamically in this way are applied, in order to study the interaction of two strings and to calculate a string-string potential. Excited states of the meson (isovectorial modes) are presented as well as the influence of the color confinement on the quark motion. Finally the dynamical formation and the break-up of a string by the production of light and heavy quark pairs is described
Predictions of a theory of quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1980-03-01
We propose a theory of quark confinement which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) resp. Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement. (orig.)
Magnetic confinement in plasmas in nuclear devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tull, C.G.
1979-01-01
The main emphasis of the magnetic fusion energy research program today lies in the development of two types of confinement schemes: magnetic mirrors and tokamaks. Experimental programs for both of these confinement schemes have shown steady progress toward achieving fusion power breakeven. The scaling of the current machines to a reactor operating regime and newly developed methods for plasma heating will very likely produce power breakeven within the next decade. Predictions are that the efficiency in a fusion power plant should exceed 32%
Predictions of a theory of quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1980-01-01
A theory of quark confinement is proposed which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang-Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) and Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement
Favre, Julien; Fabrègue, Damien; Chiba, Akihiko; Bréchet, Yves
2013-11-01
A new criterion for nucleation in the case of dynamic recrystallization is proposed in order to include the contribution of the grain boundary energy stored in the microstructure in the energy balance. Due to the nucleation events, the total surface area of pre-existing grain boundaries decreases, leading to a nucleus size smaller than expected by conventional nucleation criteria. The new model provides a better prediction of the nucleus size during recrystallization of pure copper compared with the conventional nucleation criterion.
Initial assessment of MHTGR confinement releases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maneke, J.L.; Lanning, D.D.; Lidsky, L.M.
1986-01-01
Initial investigation of Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) designs suggest that source terms during postulated accidents will be considerably lower than Light Water Reactor (LWR) source term estimates. These lower postulated accident releases are not only a safety incentive, but also an economic incentive for the development of this reactor type. For example, it is hoped that a filtered confinement building, rather than a more expensive LWR-like containment building, would adequately protect the public from radiological releases. The ability of a confinement building to satisfy safety requirements for the MHTGR depends on several reactor parameters, such as fuel quality, reactor design, and the design of the reactor building. SCIMCA, a Simple Code for Initial MHTGR Confinement Assessment has been developed for preliminary MHTGR building requirement calculations. The code is capable of modeling a decay chain with a maximum of five regions. Phenomena such as fission product decay and buildup, natural deposition, building filtration, and intercompartmental transport are incorporated. SCIMCA models reduction mechanisms, such as dispersion and decay, occurring as radioactivity is transported through the environment. A subroutine for calculating doses at specified distances has also been included
Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad
2016-01-01
We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters. (paper)
Optimized confinement discharges in the stellarator W7-AS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldzuhn, J.; Giannone, L.; Kick, M.; McCormick, K. J.
2000-01-01
In addition to the well known H-mode, other types of discharges with enhanced core energy confinement can be observed in the stellarator W7-AS. In this contribution, the properties of some particular examples of those optimized confinement (OC) discharges are presented. These are characterized, besides improved core energy confinement, by strong negative radial electric fields and high ion temperatures in the gradient region, steep density profile gradients and a high penetration depth of neutrals, and small edge electron densities. The role of these plasma parameters for the OC discharges is investigated quantitatively by a numerical model. (author)
Scaling laws for trace impurity confinement: a variational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F.A.
1990-01-01
A variational approach is outlined for the deduction of impurity confinement scaling laws. Given the forms of the diffusive and convective components to the impurity particle flux, we present a variational principle for the impurity confinement time in terms of the diffusion time scale and the convection parameter, which is a non-dimensional measure of the size of the convective flux relative to the diffusive flux. These results are very general and apply irrespective of whether the transport fluxes are of theoretical or empirical origin. The impurity confinement time scales exponentially with the convection parameter in cases of practical interest. (orig.)
Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. G. Delalibera
Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.
Total curvature and total torsion of knotted random polygons in confinement
Diao, Yuanan; Ernst, Claus; Rawdon, Eric J.; Ziegler, Uta
2018-04-01
Knots in nature are typically confined spatially. The confinement affects the possible configurations, which in turn affects the spectrum of possible knot types as well as the geometry of the configurations within each knot type. The goal of this paper is to determine how confinement, length, and knotting affect the total curvature and total torsion of random polygons. Previously published papers have investigated these effects in the unconstrained case. In particular, we analyze how the total curvature and total torsion are affected by (1) varying the length of polygons within a fixed confinement radius and (2) varying the confinement radius of polygons with a fixed length. We also compare the total curvature and total torsion of groups of knots with similar complexity (measured as crossing number). While some of our results fall in line with what has been observed in the studies of the unconfined random polygons, a few surprising results emerge from our study, showing some properties that are unique due to the effect of knotting in confinement.
High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaeyoung Park
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad’s work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β. This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.
Impact of confinement physics on reactor design and economics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeFreece, D.A.; Campbell, R.B.; Waganer, L.M.
1977-01-01
A variety of confinement laws were employed in a transient, zero dimensional plasma code, which was coupled to the TOCOMO systems code. The purpose was to determine the impact of the confinement laws on reactor design, power costs and changes in the utility interface. A satisfactory reactor and power plant has been defined for the large majority of combinations of confinement law, power plant size and plasma shape. Trapped ion mode (TIM) has been the easiest to work with, since the plasma is thermally stable with a good power density and minimal alpha particle build up. Neoclassical and pseudoclassical along with TEMII result in satisfactory reactor performance, but require active feedback control (by injecting impurities) to prevent plasma temperature excursions. These laws also require some form and degree of confinement time spoiling to allow long burn times, otherwise, alpha particles build up to an unacceptable level. TEM I results in thermal equilibrium at 5 keV and must be driven to provide a reactor quality plasma. The continuous injected power required for a 4300 MW thermal reactor is 540 MW. This added to the other circulating loads results in a net power output of 600 MWe at a very high relative cost. Daughney (empirical) confinement results in a satisfactory, competitive reactor
An adaptive pruning algorithm for the discrete L-curve criterion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Rodriguez, Giuseppe
2007-01-01
We describe a robust and adaptive implementation of the L-curve criterion, i.e., for locating the corner of a discrete L-curve consisting of a log-log plot of corresponding residual and solution norms of regularized solutions from a method with a discrete regularization parameter (such as truncated...
Numerical and Experimental Validation of a New Damage Initiation Criterion
Sadhinoch, M.; Atzema, E.H.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Van Den Boogaard, A.H.
2017-01-01
Most commercial finite element software packages, like Abaqus, have a built-in coupled damage model where a damage evolution needs to be defined in terms of a single fracture energy value for all stress states. The Johnson-Cook criterion has been modified to be Lode parameter dependent and this
Failure criterion effect on solid production prediction and selection of completion solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dariush Javani
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Production of fines together with reservoir fluid is called solid production. It varies from a few grams or less per ton of reservoir fluid posing only minor problems, to catastrophic amount possibly leading to erosion and complete filling of the borehole. This paper assesses solid production potential in a carbonate gas reservoir located in the south of Iran. Petrophysical logs obtained from the vertical well were employed to construct mechanical earth model. Then, two failure criteria, i.e. Mohr–Coulomb and Mogi–Coulomb, were used to investigate the potential of solid production of the well in the initial and depleted conditions of the reservoir. Using these two criteria, we estimated critical collapse pressure and compared them to the reservoir pressure. Solid production occurs if collapse pressure is greater than pore pressure. Results indicate that the two failure criteria show different estimations of solid production potential of the studied reservoir. Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion estimated solid production in both initial and depleted conditions, where Mogi–Coulomb criterion predicted no solid production in the initial condition of reservoir. Based on Mogi–Coulomb criterion, the well may not require completion solutions like perforated liner, until at least 60% of reservoir pressure was depleted which leads to decrease in operation cost and time.
Study of neutral particle behavior and particle confinement in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takenaga, Hidenobu; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Shimada, Michiya; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori.
1995-07-01
In order to understand the particle confinement properties in JT-60U, the particle confinement time was estimated through analyses of the neutral particle behavior. First, the neutral particle transport simulation code DEGAS using a Monte-Carlo technique was combined with the simple divertor code for calculating the edge plasma parameters, and was developed to calculate under the experimental conditions in JT-60U. Then, the charged particle source in the main plasma due to the ionization of the neutral particles was evaluated from the analyses of the neutral particle penetration to the main plasma based on results of the simulation code and measurements of D α emission intensities. Finally, the particle confinement time was estimated from the analysis of particle balance. The analyses were performed systematically for the L-mode plasma and H-mode plasma of JT-60U, and a data base of the particle confinement time was obtained. The dependence of the particle confinement time on the plasma parameters and the relationship between the properties of the particle confinement and the energy confinement were examined. (author)
Effects of Predamaged Level on Confined HSC Columns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Chau-Khun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the design of repair works for damaged concrete, an accurate and representative stress-strain model is of important. The stress-strain model for damaged high strength concrete (HSC repaired with post-tensioning steel straps confinement yet available, although the confining method has been proven to be effective in improving the performance of non-damaged HSC. A series of experimental test was carried out to investigate the stress-strain relationships of such concrete. A total of 24 HSC cylinders were compressed until certain damaged levels, then repaired by using steel straps. Two important parameters have been identified to have significant effects on the stress-strain relationship of such repaired concrete, namely the confining volumetric ratio and damaged levels. These parameters were incorporated into the development of stressstrain model, which later was shown to correlate well with the experimental results. This paper also has evidenced that existing stressstrain models of damaged concrete are not suitable to be directly applied to the design of repair works using post-tensioning steel straps confinement that produce external lateral stress on damaged columns before subsequent loading applied.
Confinement of a neutral plasma using nested electric potential wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ordonez, C.A.
1997-01-01
A self-consistent, two-dimensional analysis is presented on confining a region of neutral plasma with a Penning/Malmberg type plasma trap using a nested well configuration. It is found that a neutral plasma region having disparate electron and ion temperatures or having high charge state ions can be confined with static fields. For confining a neutral region comprised of electrons and equal temperature low charge state ions, a quasistatic approach appears promising. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Possible retardation effects of quark confinement on the meson spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiao, C.; Huang, H.; Chao, K.
1996-01-01
The reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation with scalar confinement and vector gluon exchange is applied to quark-antiquark bound states. The so-called intrinsic flaw of the Salpeter equation with static scalar confinement is investigated. The notorious problem of narrow level spacings is found to be remedied by taking into consideration the retardation effect of scalar confinement. A good fit for the mass spectrum of both heavy and light quarkonium states is then obtained. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.
1980-01-01
Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements
New Quality Assessment Criterion of AlSi5Cu1 Alloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Wierzbińska
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the discussion of the results of mechanical testing for aluminium foundry alloy AlSi5Cu1Mg for high-loaded machine elements. Values of yield strength (Rp0.2, tensile strength (Rm, elongation(A5 and hardness (HB are usually considered as the primary quality assessment criterion for a manufacturing process. It was concluded, that this criterion, A5 index particularly, is unsatisfactory to estimate the plasticity of the alloy and its crack resistance in the presence of sharp-pointed stress concentrators or microcracks. More adequate parameter is plane strain fracture toughness KIc. However, size of the samples appeared to be twice as large as would be needed to fulfill requirements of test conditions, and the test itself is laborious and time-consuming that it becomes impractical as a acceptance test. Therefore, substitute test for quality assessment – determination of tensile strength in the presence of a sharp notch kmR was applied. The comparative analysis of kmR/Rp0.2 ratio, as a more enhanced fatigue resistance criterion than kmR and plane strain fracture toughness KIc of the alloy was performed. It was assumed that kmR/Rp0.2 parameter has good correlation with the critical stress intensity factor KIc Thus, under manufacturing process conditions, being unable to carry out KIc test, it may be successfully replaced by kmR test.
Confined compressive strength model of rock for drilling optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangchao Shi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The confined compressive strength (CCS plays a vital role in drilling optimization. On the basis of Jizba's experimental results, a new CCS model considering the effects of the porosity and nonlinear characteristics with increasing confining pressure has been developed. Because the confining pressure plays a fundamental role in determining the CCS of bottom-hole rock and because the theory of Terzaghi's effective stress principle is founded upon soil mechanics, which is not suitable for calculating the confining pressure in rock mechanics, the double effective stress theory, which treats the porosity as a weighting factor of the formation pore pressure, is adopted in this study. The new CCS model combined with the mechanical specific energy equation is employed to optimize the drilling parameters in two practical wells located in Sichuan basin, China, and the calculated results show that they can be used to identify the inefficient drilling situations of underbalanced drilling (UBD and overbalanced drilling (OBD.
Vortices and quark confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1976-01-01
Non-Abelian vortices of the type proposed by Nielsen and Olesen are discussed. It is shown that the vortices must contain a single unit of quantized flux absorbed by a Dirac monopole at each end. The monopoles satisfy a confinement condition; if quark numbers are assigned to the monopoles, is is found that the model contains a natural explanation of quark confinement. The I-spin variables associated with the non-Abelian gauge field correspond to the colour degree freedom. An alternative model in which (colour) charges and monopoles are interchanged is also suggested. The Higgs field which breaks the degeneracy of the vacuum is replaced by an operator which creates monopoles of the type suggested by 't Hooft. In such a model colour might be confined. The investigations are at a very preliminary stage, but the model appears to offer a natural explanation of confinement without the explicit introduction of monopole fields. (Auth.)
Dynamical behavior of a single polymer chain under nanometric confinement
Lagrené, K.; Zanotti, J.-M.; Daoud, M.; Farago, B.; Judeinstein, P.
2010-10-01
We address the dynamical behavior of a single polymer chain under nanometric confinement. We consider a polymer melt made of a mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated high molecular mass Poly(Ethylene Oxide) (PEO). The confining material is a membrane of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO), a macroscopically highly ordered confining system made of parallel cylindrical channels. We use Neutron Spin-Echo (NSE) under the Zero Average Contrast (ZAC) condition to, all at once, i) match the intense porous AAO detrimental elastic SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering) contribution to the total intermediate scattering function I(Q,t) and ii) measure the Q dependence of the dynamical modes of a single chain under confinement. The polymer dynamics is probed on an extremely broad spacial ([2.2 10-2 Å-1, 0.2 Å-1]) and temporal ([0.1 ns, 600 ns]) ranges. We do not detect any influence of confinement on the polymer dynamics. This result is discussed in the framework of the debate on the existence of a "corset effect" recently suggested by NMR relaxometry data.
The limits of the Bohm criterion in collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentini, H.-B.; Kaiser, D.
2015-01-01
The sheath formation within a low-pressure collisional plasma is analysed by means of a two-fluid model. The Bohm criterion takes into account the effects of the electric field and the inertia of the ions. Numerical results yield that these effects contribute to the space charge formation, only, if the collisionality is lower than a relatively small threshold. It follows that a lower and an upper limit of the drift speed of the ions exist where the effects treated by Bohm can form a sheath. This interval becomes narrower as the collisionality increases and vanishes at the mentioned threshold. Above the threshold, the sheath is mainly created by collisions and the ionisation. Under these conditions, the sheath formation cannot be described by means of Bohm like criteria. In a few references, a so-called upper limit of the Bohm criterion is stated for collisional plasmas where the momentum equation of the ions is taken into account, only. However, the present paper shows that this limit results in an unrealistically steep increase of the space charge density towards the wall, and, therefore, it yields no useful limit of the Bohm velocity
Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.
Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C
2015-05-01
This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Geometric steering criterion for two-qubit states
Yu, Bai-Chu; Jia, Zhih-Ahn; Wu, Yu-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can
2018-01-01
According to the geometric characterization of measurement assemblages and local hidden state (LHS) models, we propose a steering criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for two-qubit states under arbitrary measurement sets. A quantity is introduced to describe the required local resources to reconstruct a measurement assemblage for two-qubit states. We show that the quantity can be regarded as a quantification of steerability and be used to find out optimal LHS models. Finally we propose a method to generate unsteerable states, and construct some two-qubit states which are entangled but unsteerable under all projective measurements.
The bound state problem and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A.P.; Nelipa, N.F.
1980-01-01
A quantum field-theoretic model in which quark is confined is considered. System of equations for the Green functions of colour singlet and octet bound states is obtained. The method is based on the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations with the use of Slavnov-Taylor identities. It is shown that in the framework of the model if there exist singlet, then also exist octet bound states of the quark-antiquark system. Thus in general, confinement of free quarks does not mean absence of their coloured bound states. (author)
Ductile failure analysis of API X65 pipes with notch-type defects using a local fracture criterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang-Kyun; Kim, Yun-Jae; Baek, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Woo-Sik
2007-01-01
A local failure criterion for API X65 steel is applied to predict ductile failure of full-scale API X65 pipes with simulated corrosion and gouge defects under internal pressure. The local failure criterion is the stress-modified fracture strain as a function of the stress triaxiality (defined by the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the effective stress). Based on detailed finite element (FE) analyses with the proposed local failure criterion, burst pressures of defective pipes are estimated and compared with experimental data. For pipes with simulated corrosion defects, FE analysis with the proposed local fracture criterion indicates that predicted failure takes place after the defective pipes attain maximum loads for all cases, possibly due to the fact that the material has sufficient ductility. For pipes with simulated gouge defects, on the other hand, it is found that predicted failure takes place before global instability, and the predicted burst pressures are in good agreement with experimental data, providing confidence in the present approach
Yang, Lei; Guo, Yanjie; Diao, Dongfeng
2017-05-31
Recently, water flow confined in nanochannels has become an interesting topic due to its unique properties and potential applications in nanofluidic devices. The trapped water is predicted to experience high pressure in the gigapascal regime. Theoretical and experimental studies have reported various novel structures of the confined water under high pressure. However, the role of this high pressure on the dynamic properties of water has not been elucidated to date. In the present study, the structure evolution and interfacial friction behavior of water constrained in a graphene nanochannel were investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. Transitions of the confined water to different ice phases at room temperature were observed in the presence of lateral pressure at the gigapascal level. The friction coefficient at the water/graphene interface was found to be dependent on the lateral pressure and nanochannel height. Further theoretical analyses indicate that the pressure dependence of friction is related to the pressure-induced change in the structure of water and the confinement dependence results from the variation in the water/graphene interaction energy barrier. These findings provide a basic understanding of the dynamics of the nanoconfined water, which is crucial in both fundamental and applied science.
Cue quality and criterion setting in recognition memory.
Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen; Patton, Richard
2018-02-02
Previous studies on how people set and modify decision criteria in old-new recognition tasks (in which they have to decide whether or not a stimulus was seen in a study phase) have almost exclusively focused on properties of the study items, such as presentation frequency or study list length. In contrast, in the three studies reported here, we manipulated the quality of the test cues in a scene-recognition task, either by degrading through Gaussian blurring (Experiment 1) or by limiting presentation duration (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiments 1 and 2, degradation of the test cue led to worse old-new discrimination. Most importantly, however, participants were more liberal in their responses to degraded cues (i.e., more likely to call the cue "old"), demonstrating strong within-list, item-by-item, criterion shifts. This liberal response bias toward degraded stimuli came at the cost of increasing the false alarm rate while maintaining a constant hit rate. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 with additional stimulus types (words and faces) but did not provide accuracy feedback to participants. The criterion shifts in Experiment 3 were smaller in magnitude than Experiments 1 and 2 and varied in consistency across stimulus type, suggesting, in line with previous studies, that feedback is important for participants to shift their criteria.
Disorder parameter of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.
1996-01-01
The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)
Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus
Fowler, T. Kenneth
1978-11-14
Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.
Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma
Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl
2013-06-11
An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.
Linking of uniform random polygons in confined spaces
Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.
2007-03-01
In this paper, we study the topological entanglement of uniform random polygons in a confined space. We derive the formula for the mean squared linking number of such polygons. For a fixed simple closed curve in the confined space, we rigorously show that the linking probability between this curve and a uniform random polygon of n vertices is at least 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{n}}\\big) . Our numerical study also indicates that the linking probability between two uniform random polygons (in a confined space), of m and n vertices respectively, is bounded below by 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{mn}}\\big) . In particular, the linking probability between two uniform random polygons, both of n vertices, is bounded below by 1-O\\big(\\frac{1}{n}\\big) .
Global energy confinement in JT-60 neutral beam heated L-mode discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naito, O.; Hosogane, N.; Tsuji, S.; Ushigusa, K.; Yoshida, H.
1990-01-01
The global energy confinement characteristics of neutral beam heated JT-60 discharges are presented. There is a difference in the dependence of the energy confinement time on the plasma current between limiter and divertor discharges. For limiter discharges, the energy confinement increases with plasma current up to 3.2 MA, whereas for divertor discharges this improvement saturates when the safety factor drops below 3, independent of the location of the X-point. The JT-60 L-mode results indicate that the deterioration in energy confinement for q < 3, which is also found in H-mode regimes of other devices, may be a universal characteristic of divertor discharges. Regarding the scaling with plasma size, it is shown that the global/incremental confinement time increases with plasma minor radius. For sufficiently large plasmas, however, the global/incremental confinement time is no longer a function of minor radius. (author). 13 refs, 14 figs
Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.
1994-01-01
Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented