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Sample records for kosovo violence exposure

  1. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

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    Bala Labinot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being have not gone. The level of lifetime exposure to violence, the proportion of family members reporting pain and lifetime violence-related injury, and family's financial burden were found to be inter-correlated. The sample confined to one ethnic group in one district

  2. The Challenges Facing Domestic Violence Victims in Kosovo

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    Flutura TAHIRAJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of domestic violence cases that are reported officially in Kosovo does not represent the real situation. The cases that are reported do not get the expected support by the relevant institutions. The concerning situation on the lack of protection for the domestic violence victims keeps being reported by Non-governmental organizations that work on protection of women’s rights. The paper is based on the literature review, statistical data, surveys, and interviews. The results show women hesitate to report the violence against them. The relevant institutions, mainly police and the courts do not implement the dispositions of the applicable laws accordingly to ensure protection of the domestic violence victims. In few cases, the protection order petitions were neglected, and this negligence in one of the cases resulted having the perpetrator kill the victim. It shows that there should be a stricter monitoring of implementation of the applicable laws and not permit the cultural approach toward domestic violence be part of the institutions and have impact in their decisions. That would directly enable Kosovo society change the perception and raise the awareness that the perpetrators of the domestic violence shall get the relevant punishment.

  3. Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: a qualitative study of women's experiences.

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    Kelmendi, Kaltrina

    2015-02-01

    Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo.

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    Bahtijari, M; Vaupotic, J; Gregoric, A; Stegnar, P; Kobal, I

    2008-02-01

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700Bqm(-3) were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000Bqm(-3). Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90min visit is 3.7microSv in summer and 2.5microSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5mSv.

  5. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahtijari, M.; Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P.; Kobal, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m -3 were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m -3 . Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 μSv in summer and 2.5 μSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv

  6. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2008-02-15

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m{sup -3} were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m{sup -3}. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 {mu}Sv in summer and 2.5 {mu}Sv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv.

  7. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  9. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.

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    Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

    2006-07-01

    Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital.

  10. International Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo

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    Valmir Hylenaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo

  11. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

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    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  12. Assessing Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

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    Knutson, John F.; Lawrence, Erika; Taber, Sarah M.; Bank, Lew; DeGarmo, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely acknowledged as a threat to the psycho-social and academic well-being of children. Unfortunately, as reflected in the literature, the specific link between such exposure and childhood outcomes is ambiguous. Based on a review of the literature, this article suggests that this state of…

  13. Kosovo: The Quest for Lasting Internal Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    .... Given the legacy of violence in the region, it is not surprising that the situation in Kosovo is still far from settled and will most likely require long-term engagement from the international community...

  14. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  15. Childrearing Violence and Child Adjustment Following Exposure to Kenyan Post-election Violence.

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    Skinner, Ann T; Oburu, Paul; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bacchini, Dario

    2014-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's exposure to short-term political violence and the relation between childrearing violence and child adjustment following widespread violence that erupted in Kisumu, Kenya after the disputed presidential election in December 2007. Mothers of 100 Luo children (mean age = 8.46 years, 61% female) reported on their own use of childrearing violence at Time 1, approximately 4 months after the disputed election, and again at Times 2 ( n = 95) and 3 ( n = 95), approximately 12 and 24 months later, respectively. At Time 2, mothers reported about post-election violence directed at them and about their children's exposure to post-election violence. Children reported about their own externalizing behaviors at Times 1, 2, and 3. Children's exposure to post-election violence was related to Time 2 externalizing behavior, and childrearing violence at Time 1 predicted child externalizing behavior at Time 2. Exposure to post-election violence was not directly related to either childrearing violence or children's externalizing behavior by Time 3, although children's externalizing at Time 2 predicted more childrearing violence at Time 3. These results support earlier work that links childrearing violence and children's exposure to political violence with increases in child externalizing behavior, but examined these links in the under-studied area of short-term political violence. Even though sudden and severe political violence may subside significantly in weeks or months, increased attention to long-term effects on parenting and child adjustment is warranted.

  16. Depression and exposure to violence among Venda and Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Despite the high levels of violence in South Africa, a lacunae in research exists regarding the influence of violence exposure on children. This study investigated the correlation between children's exposure to violence and the development of psychological problems such as depression. Method: 186 Venda and ...

  17. Youth Exposure to Violence in an Urban Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, David; Nguyen, Annie; Beyer, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    To inform a city-wide youth Violence Prevention Initiative, we explored youth narratives about their exposure to violence to gain insight into their understanding of the causes and effects of violence in their communities. At-risk youth were recruited through street outreach for individual interviews and focus group sessions. Types of experiential violence identified included (1) street, (2) family/interpersonal, (3) school, (4) indirect exposure (e.g., neighborhood crime), and (5) prejudice/...

  18. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

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    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Exposure to Family Violence as a Predictor of Dating Violence and Child-to-Parent Aggression in Spanish Adolescents

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    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may place children on a lifelong trajectory toward violence. The primary aim of this research was to examine the associations between exposure to violence at home and two forms of violence in close relationships in Spanish adolescents: child-to-parent violence (CPV) and dating…

  20. Exposure to violence, typology, and recidivism in a probation sample of domestic violence perpetrators.

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    Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The State’s obligation to protect the individuals lives from the consequences of domestic violence: Kosovo case

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    MSc. Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to treat the important aspects, which deal with State’s obligations to protect individuals’ lives from the consequences of the domestic violence. Thus, domestic violence is a concerning issue, which derives many consequences that sometimes are irreparable. In many cases, the State is obliged to save individuals’ lives from the effects of the domestic violence. The State will not be held responsible in all the cases for the consequences of the domestic violence. Due to the scarcity of the regulation of all the situations in the normative terms, the judicial practice that considers the cases of the right to live has evolved greatly, such that it has set many standards in case of increased institutional responsibility towards the consequences caused by the domestic violence. Due to a practical elaboration, the paper as such will focus in the treatment of cases from the judicial practice in the context of the State’s obligation to save individual’s life, whose life is endangered. Furthermore, there will also be an emphasis in the protection of the right to life and the State’s responsibility in relation to the consequences caused by the actions of the third parties.

  2. Exposure to Violence of Secondary School Children with Visual Impairment.

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    Gür, Kamer; Albayrak, Sevil

    2015-08-19

    Although violence is a serious issue that children face all over the world, there is little known about the extent of the violence children with disabilities experience. This study was conducted to identify the frequency of exposure to violence that students with visual impairment experience in any environment, directly or as a witness, and the factors associated with this exposure. The study was conducted as descriptive research at a Secondary School for the Visually Impaired in 2011-2012 with 84 individuals. A questionnaire on demographics, a Violence Exposure Scale, and face-to-face interviews were used as data collection tools. It was found that the large majority of the children with visual impairment in the study had encountered violence on one occasion or more, recently or in the past. The number of students recently exposed to violence was higher than the number of children encountering violence in the past. The mean scores of the students who had recently experienced violence were higher than the scores for exposure to violence in the past. A large majority of the students with visual impairment in the study, all of the boarding students, and most of the day students had been exposed to violence once or more both recently and in the past. It was found that being male, having a congenital visual impairment, and living as a boarding student were risk factors in terms of violence. It may be recommended that school nurses more closely monitor this group of students for signs of violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Violence Exposure among Children with Disabilities

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    Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…

  4. Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of violence in youngsters

    OpenAIRE

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been exposed to violence by fathers against mothers or by mothers against fathers, with no gender differences. Results are...

  5. Premigration Exposure to Political Violence and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence Among Immigrant Men in Boston

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    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Hemenway, David; Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between premigration political violence exposure and past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant men attending community health centers in Boston. Methods. A convenience sample of immigrant men (N = 379; aged 18–35 years), largely from the Caribbean and Cape Verde, who attend community health centers, completed an anonymous, cross-sectional survey on risk and protective factors for male-perpetrated IPV and respondents’ exposure to political violence. Results. One in 5 (20.1%) immigrant men reported that they were exposed to political violence before arrival in the United States. Men reporting political violence exposure were significantly more likely to report IPV perpetration than were men not reporting such exposure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 5.74). Significant associations with political violence exposure were observed for both physical (AOR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.54) and sexual (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.04, 5.44) IPV perpetration. Conclusions. To our knowledge, our findings document for the first time the significant association between premigration political violence exposure and recent IPV perpetration among immigrant men. Additional work is needed to examine underlying mechanisms to inform culturally appropriate programs. PMID:18703450

  6. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

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    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  7. Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of violence in youngsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,

  8. Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of Violence in youngsters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,

  9. Bridging the Response to Mass Shootings and Urban Violence: Exposure to Violence in New Haven, Connecticut.

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    Santilli, Alycia; O'Connor Duffany, Kathleen; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Thomas, Jordan; Greene, Ann; Arora, Anita; Agnoli, Alicia; Gan, Geliang; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2017-03-01

    We have described self-reported exposure to gun violence in an urban community of color to inform the movement toward a public health approach to gun violence prevention. The Community Alliance for Research and Engagement at Yale School of Public Health conducted community health needs assessments to document chronic disease prevalence and risk, including exposure to gun violence. We conducted surveys with residents in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, using a neighborhood-stratified, population-based sample (n = 1189; weighted sample to represent the neighborhoods, n = 29 675). Exposure to violence is pervasive in these neighborhoods: 73% heard gunshots; many had family members or close friends hurt (29%) or killed (18%) by violent acts. Although all respondents live in low-income neighborhoods, exposure to violence differs by race/ethnicity and social class. Residents of color experienced significantly more violence than did White residents, with a particularly disparate increase among young Black men aged 18 to 34 years. While not ignoring societal costs of horrific mass shootings, we must be clear that a public health approach to gun violence prevention means focusing on the dual epidemic of mass shootings and urban violence.

  10. Children's Exposure to Partner Violence in Homes Where Men Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization.

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    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-05-01

    In the last several decades, the field of family violence has paid increasing attention to children's exposure to partner violence (CEPV). Most of this research has focused on the children of women seeking help for partner violence (PV) victimization. In this paper we examine exposure to PV among children of men who sought help for PV victimization ( n =408), as compared with children of men in a population-based sample ( n =666). We examined children's exposure to psychological, physical, and sexual PV and also examined CEPV that is perpetrated by women, men, or both partners. The results show that CEPV is higher among children of helpseeking men than among children of men from the population-based sample, and that most of that PV is perpetrated by the female partner. We did not find differences in CEPV based in child age or gender. We discuss implications for the field of family violence professionals.

  11. Gender's Role in Exposure to Interparental Violence, Acceptance of Violence, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Teen Dating Violence Among Quebec Adolescents.

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    Ruel, Catherine; Lavoie, Francine; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Despite efforts to prevent physical teen dating violence, it remains a major public health issue with multiple negative consequences. This study aims to investigate gender differences in the relationships between exposure to interparental violence (mother-to-father violence, father-to-mother violence), acceptance of dating violence (perpetrated by boys, perpetrated by girls), and self-efficacy to disclose teen dating violence. Data were drawn from Waves 1 and 2 of the Quebec Youth Romantic Relationships Project, conducted with a representative sample of Quebec high school students. Analyses were conducted on a subsample of 2,564 teenagers who had been in a dating relationship in the past 6 months (63.8% girls, mean age of 15.3 years). Path analyses were conducted to investigate the links among exposure to interparental violence, acceptance of violence, self-efficacy to disclose teen dating violence (measured at Wave 1), and physical teen dating violence (measured at Wave 2). General exposure to interparental violence was linked, through acceptance of girl-perpetrated violence, to victimization among both genders and to girls' perpetration of physical teen dating violence. No significant difference was identified in the impact of the gender of the perpetrating parent when considering exposure to interparental violence. Self-efficacy to disclose personal experiences of violence was not linked to exposure to interparental violence or to experiences of physical teen dating violence. The findings support the intergenerational transmission of violence. Moreover, the findings underline the importance of targeting acceptance of violence, especially girl-perpetrated violence, in prevention programs and of intervening with children and adolescents who have witnessed interparental violence.

  12. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence.

  13. school survey of exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological data specifically documenting PTSD prevalence following violence exposure in children and adolescents in South Africa is lacking. In this preliminary survey, a positive association was found between exposure to violent and multiple traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  14. Importance of Gender and Attitudes about Violence in the Relationship between Exposure to Interparental Violence and the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Wolfe, David A.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence.…

  15. Multitype violence exposures and adolescent antiretroviral nonadherence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Toska, Elona; Orkin, F Mark; Hodes, Rebecca; Sherr, Lorraine

    2018-05-15

    HIV-positive adolescents have low-ART adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity, and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART adherence with adolescent violence victimization by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected. We sampled all 10-19-year olds ever ART-initiated within 53 clinics in 180 South African communities (90.1% reached). Analyses examined associations between nonadherence and nine violence types using sequential multivariate logistic regressions. Interactive and additive effects were tested with regression and marginal effects. Past-week self-reported ART nonadherence was 36%. Nonadherence correlated strongly with virologic failure (OR 2.3, CI 1.4-3.8) and symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis (OR 1.49, CI 1.18-2.05). Four violence types were independently associated with nonadherence: physical abuse by caregivers (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.1); witnessing domestic violence (OR 1.8, CI 1.22-2.66); teacher violence (OR 1.51, CI 1.16-1.96,) and verbal victimization by healthcare staff (OR 2.15, CI 1.59-2.93). Past-week nonadherence rose from 25% with no violence to 73.5% with four types of violence exposure. Violence exposures at home, school, and clinic are major and cumulating risks for adolescent antiretroviral nonadherence. Prevention, mitigation, and protection services may be essential for the health and survival of HIV-positive adolescents.

  16. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms. PMID:21666761

  17. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Youth violence in South Africa: exposure, attitudes, and resilience in Zulu adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A; Devnarain, Bashi

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to violence is common in South Africa. Yet, few studies examine how violence exposure contributes to South African adolescents' participation in youth violence. The aims of this study were to examine effects of different violence exposures on violent attitudes and behavior, to test whether attitudes mediated effects of violence exposures on violent behavior, and to test whether adult involvement had protective or promotive effects. Questionnaires were administered to 424 Zulu adolescents in township high schools around Durban, South Africa. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test associations among violence exposures and both violent attitudes and behavior. Victimization, witnessing violence, and friends' violent behavior contributed directly to violent behavior. Only family conflict and friends' violence influenced violent attitudes. Attitudes mediated effects of friends' violence on violent behavior. Multiple-group SEM indicated that adult involvement fit a protective model of resilience. These findings are discussed regarding their implications for prevention.

  19. Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence in Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between bullying and victimization in school and exposure to interparental violence in a nonclinical sample of Italian youngsters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1059 Italian elementary and middle school

  20. Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence in Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between bullying and victimization in school and exposure to interparental violence in a nonclinical sample of Italian youngsters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1059 Italian elementary and middle school

  1. Depression and exposure to violence among Venda and Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential mediators or moderators of the impact of violence. Concerning being a ... maternal education has been correlated with lower levels of exposure to ... focused coping style that was not only less effective, but ... anhedonia and negative self-esteem. As the CDI ...... The fact that variables such as abuse and parental.

  2. Emotionally Numb: Desensitization to Community Violence Exposure among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Traci M.; Ceballo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) is associated with numerous psychosocial outcomes among youth. Although linear, cumulative effects models have typically been used to describe these relations, emerging evidence suggests the presence of curvilinear associations that may represent a pattern of emotional desensitization among youth exposed to…

  3. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  4. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  5. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm Silke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%, round up raids (82.7%, the witnessing of torture (66.9%, rape (13.3%, and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%, arrests/kidnapping (16.9%, torture (12.9%, and sexual violence (11.6%. Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7, violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8 and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7. Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5. Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.

  6. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…

  7. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatlume Berisha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water. The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U. Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO.

  8. Peacebuilding in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ngadhnjim Brovina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peacebuilding as a definitions has been initiated and studied quite late, while as a concept it begun to be used after the Cold War. The well-known researcher Johan Galtung, was the one who developed and reasoned the notion of peacebuilding as well as its development phasing. For this scientific paper, which deals with peacebuilding, we have chosen as a case study, the case of Kosovo. The main objective of this paper is to present the developments in Kosovo, and its journey towards peacebuilding, starting from 1999, a period when the war ends and peace begins. Materials elaborated in this paper, are mainly articles and scientific papers by foreign authors, because it is worthwhile and important to have an insight into their point of view regarding Kosovo peacebuilding case. The methodology applied in this research paper, is based on the analysis of these materials, using descriptive and historical method, through which we will highlight the case of peacebuilding in Kosovo. The expected outcomes of this paper, aim to present the definition of peacebuilding as a concept as well as its usage in the case of Kosovo, as a case study used in this research paper. It also aims to show the challenges that Kosovo politics have encountered in order to build a sustainable peace. In the conclusions of this paper, we would like to present the case of peacebuilding in Kosovo as a success story, and this case may be used as a model for other international cases where needed.

  9. The effects of Albanian terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Obrad M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The very first ideas about secession of Kosovo and Metohija of the Republic of Serbia and the use of violence in achieving them appeared immediately after the First Balkan War (1912. The key pillars of this, secessionist motivated violence in Kosovo during and after the wars of liberation of Serbia (1912 and 1918. And between the two world wars, were kachach, during and after World War II that were ballistic groups of Albanian extremists. Violence based on their tradition, with unforeseeable serious consequences for vital interests of the Republic of Serbia, escalated in the last decade of the twentieth century, violence Albanian extremist group called the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLÁ, supported by influential members of the international community. In many papers, the analysis of the specific objectives, the holders-active entities, resources, facilities attack - passive subjects and consequences, as constituent elements of that violence, confirmed his terrorist character of the KLÁ as a terrorist profile of its key holder. In this regard, the work is the result of research in which the author, as a consequence of the analysis of the constituent elements of Albanian terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija, the end of the last century and the beginning of this century, identified scientifically described and classified the effects, or levels of achievement of objectives internal and holders Foreign support­ers. In addition to the indisputable proven effects in achieving the goals of the operational and intermediate levels, the work is proven and partial achievement of strategic-political (ethno-separatistic internal target holders of Albanian terrorism in Kosovo and Metohija, defined as secession-the secession of Kosovo and Metohija from the Republic of Serbia. The deployment of international military, security and civilian forces in Kosovo and Metohija, with the tempo­rary transfer of jurisdiction of state authorities of the FRY and Serbia to the

  10. Patterns of Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk in Low-Income, Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808

  11. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  12. Perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence against foreign-born women: a Swedish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Essén, Birgitta; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is an increasing global phenomenon. Little is known about violence against foreign-born women, despite a possible increased concentration of risk factors in this group. This study investigated prevalence of perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence and its relation to country of birth among women (18-64 years) residing in southern Sweden, using data obtained from the 2004 Public Health Survey in Scania, Sweden. Foreign-born women reported significantly higher rates of both perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence compared with Swedish-born women. Foreign-born women exposed to violence originated primarily from middle/low-income countries (versus high-income countries). The risk of perceived threat of violence remained significantly increased among foreign-born even after further adjustment for potential confounders, such as marital status and disposable income. After similar adjustment, increased exposure to physical violence was no longer significantly related to foreign-born status, but instead was largely attributable to marital status and low levels of disposable income. Foreign-born women, however, had a greater risk of physical violence in the home than Swedish-born women, and violence in the home was the most frequently reported setting for violence exposure among foreign-born women. Migration may confer an increased risk of interpersonal violence against women. Although the underlying causes of this increased risk are unknown, a complex set of factors may be involved, including socioeconomic disadvantage. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incorporating Unstructured Socializing Into the Study of Secondary Exposure to Community Violence: Etiological and Empirical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F; Rees, Carter

    2014-07-01

    Secondary exposure to community violence, defined as witnessing or hearing violence in the community, has the potential to profoundly impact long-term development, health, happiness, and security. While research has explored pathways to community violence exposure at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels, prior work has largely neglected situational factors conducive to secondary violence exposure. The present study evaluates "unstructured socializing with peers in the absence of authority figures" as a situational process that has implications for secondary exposure to violence. Results indicate that a measure of unstructured socializing was significantly associated with exposure to violence, net of an array of theoretically relevant covariates of violence exposure. Moreover, the relationships between exposure to violence and three of the most well-established correlates of violence exposure in the literature-age, male, and prior violence-were mediated to varying degrees by unstructured socializing. The results suggest a more nuanced approach to the study of secondary violence exposure that expands the focus of attention beyond individual and neighborhood background factors to include situational opportunities presented by patterns of everyday activities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Kosovo: Unfinished Business

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerardi, Heather J

    2005-01-01

    .... Simultaneously, the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), which has provided provisional civil authority since 1999, has not demonstrated adequate resolve to complete its mission with any sense of urgency...

  15. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized co...

  16. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralúcia Gil da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65, who answered one instrument about exposure to violence and another about well-being. Results indicated greater domestic violence exposure among girls and greater community exposure among boys. The age range from 16 to 18 years old was the most exposed to domestic violence. Boys reported greater well-being and less negative affect. Differences in violence exposure may be related to roles of gender in our society. Well-being promotion is highlighted as a resource for confronting violence among adolescents.

  17. The Situation of Pregnant Women Exposure to Violence by Husband and the Factors Associated With Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Sagkal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was planned to determine the pregnant women living in rural areas exposure the situation to violence by husband and the factors associated with violence. METHODS: This descriptive cross-section research was conducted all of 5 Family Health Center located in the center of Odemis in izmir. The study sample consisted of 230 pregnant women who are willing to participate in the study, which surveyed admitted to Family Health Center between December 2011 - February 2012. Data are collected through a questionnaire prepared by examining the literature. The questionnaire consists of a total of 20 questions which including socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women (8 questions, pregnancy, physical, emotional, economic and sexual violence, to determine (12 questions. Data were collected by face to face interviews by the researchers, were evaluated with number, percentage and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The average age of pregnant women was 25.75 +/- 4.63 (min:15-max:40, who was 83% of willingly got pregnant, 43% of first pregnancy, 79.6% of during pregnancy support of husband, 67% of the support of the family, % 32.6 of her husband doesn and #8217;t use substance but use alcohol, 10.9% of pregnant women reported physical, 52.6% of emotional, 31.7% of economic and 8.3% were exposed to sexual violence. CONCLUSiON: In this study, having pregnant woman and her husband to have graduated from primary school, moderate of the economic situation, unwilling pregnancy, lack of family support were the factors most strongly associated with violence. It is suggested that by health care institutions and health care providers must be routine screenings to determine violence during pregnancy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 381-390

  18. ROMANIAN SOCIAL CARE WORKERS' EXPOSURE TO WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana I. ZIGMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in the social care sector is not a problem that appeared overnight. It was and still is a major concern, and its disastrous effects, on both organization and employees have been largely documented in various papers and studies around the world. This study analyses social care workers’ perceptions and experiences with workplace violence, phenomenon which, until a few years ago, has been largely ignored in the Romanian research field, and is still considered to this day a taboo subject in the organizational environment. Even if most employers recognize its general existence they tend to deny or refuse to accept that their institution or company is affected by it. The present paper will provide information concerning problematic issues in studying the phenomenon and will try to provide an image of the social care workers’ perception and attitude towards risk and workplace violence. The research will try to identify differences in experience, exposure and resistance to violence in the workplace based on various variables like sex or job characteristics.

  19. Longitudinal Trajectory of Exposure to Psychological Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehacker, Stefanie; Phillips, David; Riggs, Jessica; Lauterbach, Dean

    2017-05-01

    Psychological intimate partner violence (P-IPV) refers to verbal abuse from one partner to another and abuse of power or control from one partner to another. To date, no studies have examined the longitudinal course of P-IPV exposure among mothers or the effect that witnessing P-IPV can have on their children. Using latent class growth analysis, the current study identified five trajectory groups with the following intercept and growth characteristics: low stable, low-increasing, moderate-decreasing, high-decreasing, and consistently elevated. Membership in the four groups characterized by higher P-IPV exposure was predicted by maternal race and exposure to physical abuse. The children of mothers in the low-increasing and consistently elevated groups had elevated scores on the Internalizing and Externalizing scales of the Childhood Behavior Checklist. These findings remained after controlling for child sex, race, cumulative trauma exposure, and maternal depression.

  20. The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences. Copyright

  1. Defining Child Exposure to Domestic Violence as Neglect: Minnesota's Difficult Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Gassman-Pines, Jenny; Hill, Marissa B.

    2006-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly focusing on children exposed to domestic violence. The 1999 Minnesota legislature amended the definition of child neglect to include a child's exposure to family violence. What was initially seen as a simple change to bring more attention to children exposed to domestic violence resulted in great turmoil across…

  2. Exposure to Domestic Violence between Parents: A Perspective from Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Meroe; Feizzadeh, Ali; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Feizzadeh, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Women may bear the brunt of domestic violence, but children are also inflicted by the consequences of violence between their parents. We sought to evaluate the lifetime prevalence of exposure to physical violence between parents among some senior secondary school students in Tehran. The study was conducted on senior secondary school students in…

  3. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  4. Exploring violence exposure, stress, protective factors and behavioral problems among inner-city youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric; Weist, Mark D; Albus, Kathleen E

    2003-09-01

    This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11-18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure (witnessing, being a victim, knowing of victims) were correlated with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems for males and females. Total violence exposure predicted behavioral problems among participants, even after controlling for the effects of other risk, demographic and protective factors. Family support and self-concept moderated the influence of life stress and cumulative risk on problem behavior outcomes, but these protective variables did not significantly moderate violence exposure.

  5. Exposure to Violence and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Torres, Mario H; Lynch, Rebekka; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Yunes, Elsa; Monge, Adriana; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Lajous, Martín

    2017-08-17

    Violence against women has become a global public health threat. Data on the potential impact of exposure to violence on cardiovascular disease are scarce. We evaluated the association between exposure to violence and subclinical cardiovascular disease in 634 disease-free women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort who responded to violence-related items from the Life Stressor Checklist and underwent measures of carotid artery intima-media thickness in 2012 and 2013. We defined exposure to violence as having ever been exposed to physical and/or sexual violence. Intima-media thickness was log-transformed, and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as intima-media thickness ≥0.8 mm or plaque. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for several potential confounders. Mean age was 48.9±4.3 years. Close to 40% of women reported past exposure to violence. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 7.1%, and prevalence of physical violence was 23.5% (7.7% reported both sexual and physical violence). Relative to women with no history of violence, exposure to violence was associated with higher intima-media thickness (adjusted mean percentage difference=2.4%; 95% confidence interval 0.5, 4.3) and subclinical atherosclerosis (adjusted odds ratio=1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.10, 2.32). The association was stronger for exposure to physical violence, especially by mugging or physical assault by a stranger (adjusted mean % difference=4.6%; 95% confidence interval 1.8, 7.5, and odds ratio of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis=2.06; 95% confidence interval 1.22, 3.49). Exposure to violence, and in particular assault by a stranger, was strongly associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in Mexican middle-aged women. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...

  7. Political violence exposure, adolescent school violence, and drug use: The mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schiff, Miriam; Benbenishty, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors to cope with the negative psychological impacts resulting from exposure to political violence. Guided by the Deterioration Deterrence Model and General Strain Theory, the present study assessed the mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on two adolescent risk behaviors (i.e., school violence and drug use) among Arab and Jewish Israeli adolescents. We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey that consisted of 4,733 Israeli high school students (54.5% females; 63.2% Jewish) following the Second Lebanon War. Structural equation modeling using weighted data bootstrapped with 2,000 iterations evaluated the mediated effects of school support and PTS. The results showed that both school support and PTS mediated the pathways from political violence exposure to school violence and drug use. However, although school support and PTS fully mediated the relationship between political violence exposure and these risk behaviors for Jewish students, school support and PTS only partially mediated the relationships for Arab students. While school support can help decrease the detrimental effect of exposure to terrorism and war, Israeli adolescents exposed to more political violence may perceive receiving less school support than those experiencing less exposure. Findings of this study provide evidence for the theorized mediated pathways between political violence exposure and adolescent risk behaviors by PTS and school support. The study serves as a basis for future research that can unpack the relationship between exposure to political violence and adolescent risk-taking behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital : a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyus Yosep

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of nurses and declining interest in becoming a mental health nurse are often attributed to workplace distress and violence. These have become global issues and believed that shortage of nurses decreases the quality of health care services. It leads distress among nurses, which is exposure to violence and traumatic experiences. In addition, nurses are also accused of seizing the rights of patients and committing violence against a patient. This paper focuses on the violence that occurred in mental health nurses during working in unpredictable situation. A literature search of systematic review through the CINAHL, Medline, Google scholars and PsycInfo databases, the empirical report using a nursing sample includes data on rates of violence exposure including violence, aggressive behavior, bullying, and sexual harassment. The result, a total of 400 articles provide data on 2742 publications indicates near all of nurses in mental health experienced verbal abuse in the past month, furthermore, most of respondents’ ever experienced psychological abuse, and less of respondents experienced physical violence and sexual harassment. Rates of exposure vary by world region (Developed countries, Asia, Europe and Middle East, with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the USA, Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand region, and the highest rates of psychological violence and bullying in the Middle East. The presence of violence signals an "alarm" that violence against nurses calls for special attention in many countries. Essentially, the world must give a "priority" to handling violence against nurses.

  9. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.

  10. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant

  11. Effects of Violence Prevention Behavior on Exposure to Workplace Violence and Threats: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann; Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie

    2018-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between prevention behaviors, that is, enacted violence prevention policies, and exposure to workplace violence and threats across four different high risk work sectors: psychiatry, special schools, eldercare, and the prison and probation services. Logistic regression analysis of a 1-year follow-up sample of 3.016 employees from these four sectors shows that prevention behaviors are significantly and negatively associated with self-reported exposure to workplace violence and threats-in the prison and probation services, eldercare, and in psychiatry, while no significant associations are found for special schools. The results therefore show clear sector differences with regard to the preventive effect of violence prevention behaviors. Furthermore, this multisector comparison suggests that prevention behaviors are more effective in relation to a moderate frequency of violence and threats, and that only top management prevention behavior can prevent very frequent incidents (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.58). This study contributes to the literature by use of a longitudinal design and acceptable response rates, while also simultaneously investigating several high risk sectors. The results imply that when managing workplace violence in high risk areas of human service work, there should be emphasis on the use of violence prevention behaviors from top management, supervisor, and among coworkers. However, type of sector and the frequency of workplace violence should be analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of prevention behaviors.

  12. Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B; Baldacci, Heidi Bechtoldt; Pasold, Tracie; Baumgardner, Jennifer

    2004-02-01

    It is believed that repeated exposure to real-life and to entertainment violence may alter cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes, possibly leading to desensitization. The goal of the present study was to determine if there are relationships between real-life and media violence exposure and desensitization as reflected in related characteristics. One hundred fifty fourth and fifth graders completed measures of real-life violence exposure, media violence exposure, empathy, and attitudes towards violence. Regression analyses indicated that only exposure to video game violence was associated with (lower) empathy. Both video game and movie violence exposure were associated with stronger proviolence attitudes. The active nature of playing video games, intense engagement, and the tendency to be translated into fantasy play may explain negative impact, though causality was not investigated in the present design. The samples' relatively low exposure to real-life violence may have limited the identification of relationships. Although difficult to quantify, desensitization to violence should be further studied using related characteristics as in the present study. Individual differences and causal relationships should also be examined.

  13. Violence Exposure Subtypes Differentially Mediate the Relation between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Adolescent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberth, Carla; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    Research with children and adolescents has established a link between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and delinquency, as well as a link between violence exposure (witnessing and direct victimization) and diverse negative and antisocial outcomes. Little attention has been paid to investigating the association among CU traits, violence exposure, and various forms of delinquency. Using a sample of 753 adolescents (male =58%; African American =46%), the current study aimed to elucidate the mediating role of violence exposure (measured in grades 7, 8, 10, 11) on the relationship between CU traits measured in grade 7 and later delinquency (i.e., property, violent, drug, and sexual) assessed in grade 12. Total violence exposure (witnessing and direct victimization) mediated the association between CU traits and all forms of delinquency. When looking at witnessing and direct victimization separately, however, only witnessing violence mediated the relationship between CU traits and all forms of delinquency. These results highlight the importance of violence exposure in the CU-delinquency link, and showed the differential roles of indirect and direct forms of violence exposure on the association. Witnessing and direct victimization may involve different underlying mechanisms influencing developmental outcomes in youth. These findings have important implications for understanding developmental models of violence exposure, CU traits, and delinquency, as well as interventions for youth who have experienced both indirect and direct forms of violence.

  14. Association between exposure to political violence and intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Btoush, Rula; Alonso, Alvaro; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

    2010-01-23

    Intimate-partner violence might increase during and after exposure to collective violence. We assessed whether political violence was associated with male-to-female intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was done between Dec 18, 2005, and Jan 18, 2006, by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 4156 households were randomly selected with a multistage random cluster design, from which 3815 ever-married women aged 15-64 years were identified. We restricted our analysis to presently married women (n=3510, 92% participation rate), who completed a short version of the revised conflict tactics scales and exposure to political violence inventory. Exposure to political violence was characterised as the husband's direct exposure, his indirect exposure via his family's experiences, and economic effects of exposure on the household. We used adjusted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for association between political violence and intimate-partner violence. Political violence was significantly related to higher odds of intimate-partner violence. ORs were 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) for physical and 2.23 (1.49-3.35) for sexual intimate-partner violence in respondents whose husbands were directly exposed to political violence compared with those whose husbands were not directly exposed. For women whose husbands were indirectly exposed, ORs were 1.61 (1.25-2.07) for physical and 1.97 (1.49-2-60) for sexual violence, compared with those whose husbands were not indirectly exposed. Economic effects of exposure were associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence in the Gaza Strip only. Because exposure to political violence is associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence, and exposure to many traumas is associated with poor health, a range of violent exposures should be assessed when establishing the need for psychosocial interventions in

  15. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  16. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  17. Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Role of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Holditch Niolon, Phyllis; Ghazarian, Sharon R

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to adult intimate partner violence (IPV) places youth at risk for a range of outcomes, including perpetration of adolescent dating violence (ADV). However, there is variability in the effect of IPV exposure, as many youth who are exposed to IPV do not go on to exhibit problems. Thus, research is needed to examine contextual factors, such as parenting practices, to more fully explain heterogeneity in outcomes and better predict ADV perpetration. The current research draws from a multisite study to investigate the predictive power of IPV exposure and parenting practices on subsequent ADV perpetration. Participants included 417 adolescents (48.7% female) drawn from middle schools in high-risk, urban communities. IPV exposure, two types of parenting practices (positive parenting/involvement and parental knowledge of their child's dating), and five types of ADV perpetration (threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse) were assessed at baseline (2012) and approximately 5 months later (2013) via adolescent report. Analyses (conducted in 2015) used a structural equation modeling approach. Structural models indicated that IPV exposure was positively related only to relational abuse at follow-up. Further, adolescents who reported parents having less knowledge of dating partners were more likely to report perpetrating two types of ADV (physical and verbal/emotional abuse) at follow-up. Analyses did not demonstrate any significant interaction effects. Results fill a critical gap in understanding of important targets to prevent ADV in middle school and highlight the important role that parents may play in ADV prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathol...

  19. Exposure to Violence and Sexual Risk among Early Adolescents in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Guinosso, Stephanie A.; Glassman, Jill R.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Wilson, Helen W.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between exposure to violence, fear of exposure to violence, and sexual risk among a sample of urban middle school youth. The sample included 911 seventh-grade students who completed self-report surveys. Approximately 20% of the sample reported at least one direct threat or injury with a weapon in the past 3…

  20. Relative Impact of Violence Exposure and Immigrant Stressors on Latino Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    Latino youth in a low-income urban community are at high risk of exposure to violence. Given an accumulation of factors before, during, and after migration, immigrant youth might be at increased risk of exposure to violence and other relevant stressors (e.g., acculturation stress, language proficiency, acculturation/enculturation, and parental…

  1. Exposure to Community Violence and Political Socialization among Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of adolescent exposure to cross-community violence, intense paramilitary operations, aggression, and intimidation in Northern Ireland. Using publicly available survey data gathered by agencies in Northern Ireland, the research examines the effects of exposure to political violence with focus upon the manner by…

  2. The Role of Family Conflict in the Relation between Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…

  3. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  4. Violence Exposure in Home and Community: Influence on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the levels and types of violence exposure, levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the relationship among exposure to violence, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and early discharge in U.S. Army recruits at Basic Combat Training (BCT). The study applied a modified ABCX model of family stress adaptation developed by McCubbin,…

  5. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low

  6. Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency

  7. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross-cultural and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Willebrand, Mimmie; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2018-04-01

    The negative effects of community violence exposure on child and adolescent mental health are well documented and exposure to community violence has been linked both to a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate cross-cultural and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure and substance abuse. A self-report survey was conducted among 10,575, 12-18 year old adolescents in three different countries, Czech Republic (N = 4537), Russia (N = 2377) and US (N = 3661). We found that in all three countries both substance use and problem behavior associated with it increased similarly along with severity of violence exposure and this association was not gender-specific. It was concluded that in spite of the differences in the levels of violence exposure and substance use cross-culturally and by gender, the pattern of their association is neither culturally nor gender bound.

  8. Impacts of family and community violence exposure on child coping and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Esror Tamim; Shapiro, Ester R; Wainwright, Laurel D; Carter, Alice S

    2015-02-01

    An ecological stress process model was employed to explore relations between children's exposures to family and community violence and child mental health, and emotionally-regulated coping (ERC) as a protective factor among Latino, European-American, and African-American school-aged children (n = 91; girls, n = 50[54 %]) living in single-parent families who were either homeless and residing in emergency shelters or housed but living in poverty. Mothers reported domestic violence experiences and their child's history of physical/sexual abuse, community violence exposures, and mental health. Children reported on exposure to community violence, internalizing symptoms, and coping. The mental health impacts of multi-level violence exposures and ERC as a moderator of associations between violence exposures and child mental health was tested with structural equation modeling. Family abuse was uniquely associated with PTSD, and community violence with anxiety and aggression. Latent interaction tests revealed that ERC moderated relations between family abuse and anxiety, aggression and PTSD. Emotionally-regulated coping appears to play a protective role for children's mental health in contexts of violence exposure, offering opportunities for intervention and prevention.

  9. Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765

  10. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Şahbal; Özan, Sema; Timbil, Sevgi; Şemin, Semih; Kasapçi, Oya

    2016-12-01

    While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from parents could predict the

  11. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARAS, Şahbal; ÖZAN, Sema; TIMBIL, Sevgi; ŞEMİN, Semih; KASAPÇI, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from

  12. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences.

  13. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  14. Adolescent Conflict as a Developmental Process in the Prospective Pathway from Exposure to Interparental Violence to Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Within a developmental psychopathology framework, the current study examined adolescent conflict (age 16) with families, best friends, and dating partners as mediators in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early childhood (0–64 months) to dating violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood (age 23). Adolescent conflict was predicted to partially mediate EIPV and dating violence with significant direct paths from EIPV to dating violence, given the extant literature on the salience of early childhood EIPV for later maladjustment. Participants (N = 182; 99 males, 83 females; 67% Caucasian, 11% African-American, 18% other, 4% unreported) were drawn from a larger prospective study of high-risk mothers (aged 12–34 years) that followed their children from birth through adulthood. EIPV and adolescent conflict were rated from interviews with mothers and participants, and dating violence (physical perpetration and victimization) was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Path analyses showed that EIPV in early childhood (a) directly predicted dating violence perpetration in early adulthood and (b) predicted conflict with best friends, which in turn predicted dating violence perpetration. Although mediation of best friend conflict was not evident, indirect effects of EIPV to dating violence were found through externalizing behaviors in adolescence and life stress in early adulthood. Findings highlight that conflict with best friends is affected by EIPV and predicts dating violence, suggesting that it may be a promising target for relationship-based interventions for youth with EIPV histories. Furthermore, deleterious early experiences and contemporaneous risk factors are salient predictors of dating violence. PMID:23979004

  15. Media violence exposure and physical aggression in fifth-grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Schwebel, David C; Windle, Michael; Toomey, Sara L; Tortolero, Susan R; Hertz, Marci F; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association of media violence exposure and physical aggression in fifth graders across 3 media types. We analyzed data from a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 5,147 fifth graders and their parents in 3 US metropolitan areas. We used multivariable linear regression and report partial correlation coefficients to examine associations between children's exposure to violence in television/film, video games, and music (reported time spent consuming media and reported frequency of violent content: physical fighting, hurting, shooting, or killing) and the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale. Child-reported media violence exposure was associated with physical aggression after multivariable adjustment for sociodemographics, family and community violence, and child mental health symptoms (partial correlation coefficients: TV, 0.17; video games, 0.15; music, 0.14). This association was significant and independent for television, video games, and music violence exposure in a model including all 3 media types (partial correlation coefficients: TV, 0.11; video games, 0.09; music, 0.09). There was a significant positive interaction between media time and media violence for video games and music but not for television. Effect sizes for the association of media violence exposure and physical aggression were greater in magnitude than for most of the other examined variables. The association between physical aggression and media violence exposure is robust and persistent; the strength of this association of media violence may be at least as important as that of other factors with physical aggression in children, such as neighborhood violence, home violence, child mental health, and male gender. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-Specific Associations Between Violence Exposure and Past 30-Day Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-04-23

    Using data from a cohort study of students at risk for high school dropout, we examined associations between violence exposure and past 30-day alcohol and marijuana use. We used varying-coefficient regression with person-level fixed effects to estimate how those associations changed within-person across ages approximately 14-23. Generally, violence perpetration was most strongly associated with substance use, within-person. Substance use became increasingly associated with both observed violence and violence perpetration during early/middle adolescence; this increase continued longer into development (age 18+) for alcohol use. Across most of the age range studied here, violence victimization was minimally associated with within-person changes in substance use. Results indicate age-specific associations between violence exposure and alcohol and other drug use, which may be useful for informing prevention strategies. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  17. Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth.

  18. Early exposure to media violence and later child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Barnett, Tracie; Pagani, Linda S

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which early childhood exposure to violent media is associated with subsequent adverse child functioning remains disconcerting. In this study, we examine whether preschool child exposure to what parents generally characterize as violent television programming predicts a range of second-grade mental health outcomes. Participants are from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 1786). At 41 and 53 months, parents reported whether the child had viewed television shows and videos consisting of what they judged as violent content. According to parents, children watched on average 1.8 hours of mixed programming per day. Parent-reported child exposure to televised violence was associated with teacher-reported antisocial symptoms (β = 0.180, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.026-0.333), emotional distress (β = 0.224, 95% CI: 0.010-0.438), inattention (β = 0.349, 95% CI: 0.048-0.651), and lower global academic achievement (β = -0.127, 95% CI: -0.237-0.017) in second grade. Violent televiewing was also associated with less child-reported academic self-concept (β = -0.175, 95% CI: -0.296-0.053) and intrinsic motivation (β = -0.162, 95% CI: -0.016-0.307) in second grade. Effects remained significant after adjusting for preexisting child and family characteristics such as baseline child aggression. This prospective study suggests risks associated with early childhood violent media exposure for long-term mental health in children. These findings, suggesting diffusive relationships between early childhood violent media exposure and negative socioemotional and academic outcomes, empirically support the notion that access to early childhood violent television represents a threat to population health and should be discouraged by adult caregivers.

  19. Testing pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna L; Neilands, Torsten B

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to community violence and HIV sexual risks are two major public health concerns among youth. This study tests various pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American adolescents. Using a sample of 563 (61% females) African American youth attending high school we examined whether problematic psychological symptoms, low school engagement, and/or negative perceptions of peer norms about safer sex functioned as pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors. Major findings indicated that, for boys, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début and sexual risk behaviors were linked by aggression. In addition, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual risk behaviors were linked by negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. For girls, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début was linked by aggression and negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. These findings provide support for pathways linking exposure to community violence to sexual behaviors.

  20. Students' personal traits, violence exposure, family factors, school dynamics and the perpetration of violence in Taiwanese elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-02-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.

  1. Developmental Timing and Continuity of Exposure to Interparental Violence and Externalizing Behavior as Prospective Predictors of Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. Findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood. PMID:24229543

  2. Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and the continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. The findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood.

  3. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia ? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was use...

  4. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2008-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...

  5. Violence Tendencies of High School Students: An Examination in Terms of Exposure to Violence, Participation in Sports and Socio-Demographic Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagün, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the violence tendencies of young people studying in high school in terms of their participation in sports, status of exposure to violence and socio-demographic variables. It was also aimed to evaluate whether the identified violence tendency differed significantly by gender, grade, school success,…

  6. Food Insecurity and Violence in the Home: Investigating Exposure to Violence and Victimization Among Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Lynch, Kellie R; Helton, Jesse J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-03-01

    Children experiencing or witnessing violence in the home are at risk of a number of cognitive, social, and behavioral challenges as they age. A handful of recent studies have suggested that food insecurity may be one factor associated with violence against children in the home. The present study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to explore the link between household food insecurity during the first three waves of data collection (i.e., the first few years of life) and witnessing or being the victim of violence in the home among very young children (~ age 4). The results suggest that the predicted probability of early childhood exposure to violence and/or victimization in the home is nearly 6 times more likely in persistently food-insecure households (i.e., households that are food insecure across all three waves) relative to food secure households. Limitations and avenues for future research are noted.

  7. Grjadet novõi krizis v Kosovo?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kosovo elanikud on jäänud kolme jõu - Kremli, Euroopa ja Washingtoni vahele. Kosovo albaanlaste liidrid panevad oma lootused Ameerikale. Kosovo peaministri Agim Cheku seisukohti Kosovo küsimuses. Artiklis leitakse, et Belgradile tuleb esitada ultimaatum: kas tulevik liidus Venemaaga või EL-i ja NATO-ga

  8. Kosovo väljakutsed / Mart Nutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Linnaleht : na russkom jazõke, 20. nov. 2007, lk. 6; Linnaleht : Tartu, 20. nov. 2007, lk. 5. Riigikogu Kosovo-toetusrühma liige peab tõenäoliseks lähitulevikus Kosovo riigi teket. Kosovo albaanlaste ja serblaste diametraalselt erinevast seisukohast Kosovo tuleviku suhtes, selle ajaloolisest taustast

  9. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the Pathologic Adaptation Model of Community Violence Exposure in Male Adolescents of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968

  11. Lifetime Exposure to Family Violence: Implications for the Health Status of Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088

  12. Self-determination after Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . As such, the case of Kosovo has sharpened the focus and intensified the debate on the issue of self-determination conflicts and how they are managed by the international community. This volume contributes to this debate by examining Kosovo in historical and contemporary comparative perspective...... and by reflecting on the legal, ethical and political implications of its successful declaration of independence....

  13. Racial Discrimination: A Continuum of Violence Exposure for Children of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and examines findings on the impact of racial discrimination on the development and functioning of children of color in the US. Based on current definitions of violence and child maltreatment, exposure to racial discrimination should be considered as a form of violence that can significantly impact child outcomes and limit the…

  14. Physician exposure to violence: a study performed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Zeynep; Öktem, İbrahim Suat; Çetinkaya, Fevziye; Naçar, Melis

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Turkey, there has been an increase in the number of violent acts against healthcare workers, towards doctors in particular. This study aimed to investigate the extent of violence, the causes of violence and to evaluate proposed solutions to violence. Out of 597 physicians, 86.4% indicated that they were exposed to at least one type of violence (physical, verbal, sexual) throughout their careers. Among the physicians participating in the study, 27.5% suffered physical threats and 68.6% suffered verbal violence in the past year. Only 40.4% reported the physical violence to their institution. Physicians indicated that the top three causes of violent behavior were excessive demands of patients, the expectation that the issue will be solved immediately and blaming physicians for their problems. To stop violence against themselves, physicians need to raise their voices, along with those of their personal or professional organizations, and should report and follow up incidents.

  15. Exposure of Iranian emergency medical technicians to workplace violence: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Hassankhani, Hadi; Mills, Jane; Dadashzadeh, Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Iran experience concerning levels of workplace violence, although until now there has been no investigation of this phenomenon. The objectives of the present study were to describe the exposure of Iranian EMTs to workplace violence and to identify the importance of related factors from their viewpoint. In this descriptive, exploratory study, 160 EMTs agreed to participate in a survey that collected data regarding their exposure to the following forms of workplace violence: verbal abuse, physical assault, cultural harassment, sexual harassment and sexual assault. A total of 138 questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 86%. The majority of participants 75% (n = 103) experienced at least one form of workplace violence in the 12 months before completing the questionnaire. The most frequently reported form of workplace violence was verbal abuse (71%), followed by physical assault (38%) and cultural harassment (9%). Violence resulting in serious injuries was reported by only 4% of participants, with no more than 8% of participants experiencing workplace violence that included the use of weapons. The most reported response to workplace violence was to 'invite the offender to calm down'. Participants took this approach because they believed that 'follow up of workplace violence is ineffectual' (34%), considered the workplace violence as a common in their job (30%), and did not know whom to report workplace violence to (13%). Iranian EMTs experience a considerable amount of workplace violence. The present study highlights the recommendation for formal training programmes and clearer protocols about how to manage workplace violence, especially verbal abuse in the Iranian prehospital setting. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Chronic violent video game exposure and desensitization to violence: Behavioral end event-related brain potential data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholow, B.D.; Bushman, B.J.; Sestir, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to media violence increases aggression, though the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. One theory posits that repeated exposure to media violence desensitizes viewers to real world violence, increasing aggression by blunting aversive reactions

  17. TV as a factor of children’s exposure to domestic violence in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence and the influence of television to its formation in modern Russia. The fundamental theoretical approaches analysed, which explain the essence and content of TV as mass media, basic mechanisms of TV influence, priming effect and agenda-settings, and the types of children’s exposure to domestic violence. There are the survey results in the article, characterized the level and the types of children’s exposure to the domestic violence, which are widespread in modern russian family. The role of TV and its content in modern parents’ life and the character of its influence on formation different types of children’s exposure to domestic violence are determined.

  18. Family Instability and Exposure to Violence in the Early Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Shannon E; Stritzel, Haley; Smith, Chelsea; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-10-11

    Family instability has been linked with a host of outcomes across the early life course. This study extends this literature by connecting instability with violence in the community by examining the associations among family structure, family structure change, and secondary exposure to violence during adolescence across diverse segments of the population. Using longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study, we found that living with a single parent and experiencing family structure changes were associated with secondary exposure to violence. Multiple group models suggest that partner change translated into more exposure for boys than girls. Findings also suggest that family instability may lead to more secondary exposure to violence for African American youth. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  19. Children's Exposure to Violence: The Underlying Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms on Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R; Perzynski, Adam T

    2016-02-01

    In this study we investigated whether witnessing violence and violence victimization were associated with children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Path analyses were conducted to test direct and indirect effects of violence exposure on behavior problems, using 2,064 children (ages 8-15 years) reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment. Being a victim of violence in the home was directly associated with more internalizing (β = .06, p = .007) and externalizing behavior problems (β = .07, p = .002), whereas witnessing violence was not directly related to either internalizing (β = .04, p = .056) or externalizing behavior problems (β = .03, p = .130). PTS symptoms mediated the effects of witnessing violence and violence victimization on internalizing behavior problems (β = .02, p = .002). Our findings suggest that PTS symptoms may be a mechanism underlying the association between violence exposure and internalizing behavior problems (R(2) = .23), underscoring the potential importance of assessing PTS symptoms and providing targeted trauma-focused interventions for children exposed to violence at home. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. A National Study on Nurses' Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alameddine

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses' exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon.A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1-3, 4-9 and 10+ times and physical violence (never, ever over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively.Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses' exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58-65% and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8-13%. Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76-23.32, depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3-15 and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8-8.3. They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5-6.3. Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males (OR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3, working day and

  1. Paramedic student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Paramedic students are hesitant to formally report exposure to acts of workplace violence as they feel it may jeopardise their chance of getting a job. The objective of this study was to identify the type and number of workplace violence acts experienced by undergraduate paramedic students whilst on an ambulance clinical placement. This was a cross-sectional study using the Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to obtain student exposure to acts of workplace violence which occurred whilst on ambulance clinical placements. The survey response rate was 29.8%. The students' average age was 24.1 years, median age of 23 years, range 18-47 years. There were 32.6% of students who were exposed to at least one act of workplace violence with 56% of these being females. Verbal abuse 18%, and intimidation 17% were the common acts of workplace violence students were exposed to. One female, a nursing/paramedic student, was exposed to sexual harassment on more than one occasion. The findings from this study suggest that paramedic students are exposed to similar rates of workplace violence as full time practising paramedics. Further research is required into workplace violence against students from all professions and what detrimental effect this may have on them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Kersten; Noortje Vriends; Martin Steppan; Nora M. Raschle; Martin Praetzlich; Helena Oldenhof; Robert Vermeiren; Lucres Jansen; Katharina Ackermann; Anka Bernhard; Anne Martinelli; Karen Gonzalez-Madruga; Ignazio Puzzo; Amy Wells; Jack C. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also te...

  3. Exposure to violence and mental health of adolescents: South African Health and Well-being Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Rothon, Catherine; Das-Munshi, Jayati; Mathews, Cathy; Adams, Arlene; Clark, Charlotte; Lund, Crick

    2017-01-01

    Background Material and social environmental stressors affect mental health in adolescence. Protective factors such as social support from family and friends may help to buffer the effects of adversity. Aims The association of violence exposure and emotional disorders was examined in Cape Town adolescents. Method A total of 1034 Grade 8 high school students participated from seven government co-educational schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Exposure to violence in the past 12 months and post...

  4. Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Hensels, I S; Skeen, S; Tomlinson, M; Roberts, K J; Macedo, A

    2016-01-01

    Violence during childhood may affect short and long-term educational factors. There is scant literature on younger children from resource poor settings. This study assessed child violence experiences (harsh punishment and exposure to domestic or community violence) and school enrolment, progress and attendance in children attending community-based organisations in South Africa and Malawi (n=989) at baseline and at 15 months' follow-up, examining differential experience of HIV positive, HIV affected and HIV unaffected children. Violence exposure was high: 45.4% experienced some form of psychological violence, 47.8% physical violence, 46.7% domestic violence and 41.8% community violence. Primary school enrolment was 96%. Violence was not associated with school enrolment at baseline but, controlling for baseline, children exposed to psychological violence for discipline were more than ten times less likely to be enrolled at follow-up (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.57). Harsh discipline was associated with poor school progress. For children HIV positive a detrimental effect of harsh physical discipline was found on school performance (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.61). Violence experiences were associated with a number of educational outcomes, which may have long-term consequences. Community-based organisations may be well placed to address such violence, with a particular emphasis on the challenges faced by children who are HIV positive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and academic problems develop in parallel. Timing of violence exposure and the developmental stage of the child during exposure complicate our understanding of the underlying mechanism. A model is presented that explores pathways linking violence exposure to aspects of school-related functioning, both academically and behaviorally. Early life stress, in the form of violence exposure, is related to neurocognitive deficits, including executive functioning and problems in self-regulation. Deficits in self-regulation at the level of behavior, and cognitive control and executive functioning, at the level of brain processing, are related to both academic and mental health problems, suggesting a possible psychological mechanism. Biological mechanisms are also included in the model to illustrate the contribution of the stress response, neuroendocrine system response, and neuroanatomical structural and functional impairments associated with violence exposure.

  6. Type of alcohol drink and exposure to violence: an emergency department study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavira, Cynthia; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lin, Johnny; del Pino, Homero E; Bazargan, Mohsen

    2011-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of exposure to violence across different types of alcohol consumed and the association between the type of alcohol consumed and exposure to violence. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a sample of 295 Emergency Department (ED) patients identified as having an alcohol problem. Outcome measure include exposure to violence, and the main study predictor was "type of alcoholic drink" including: malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, wine cooler, wine, fortified wine or hard liquor. Using logistic regression analysis, ED patients who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol increased their odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 8.5 compared to ED patients who drank other types of alcohol. Being female increased the odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 2.5 and using illicit drugs increased the odds by 3.8. Analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means revealed that ED patients who only drank MLB had a higher exposure to violence compared to non-MLB drinkers, and that female illicit drug users who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol had the highest exposure to violence. MLB was identified as a predictor of the amount of exposure to violence and in particular, that the use of malt liquor beer in combination with other types of alcohol increased the risk of being both threatened and physically attacked. Implications for ED and community interventions are suggested.

  7. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and academic problems develop in parallel. Timing of violence exposure and the developmental stage of the child during exposure complicate our understanding of the underlying mechanism. A model is presented that explores pathways linking violence exposure to aspects of school-related functioning, both academically and behaviorally. Early life stress, in the form of violence exposure, is related to neurocognitive deficits, including executive functioning and problems in self-regulation. Deficits in self-regulation at the level of behavior, and cognitive control and executive functioning, at the level of brain processing, are related to both academic and mental health problems, suggesting a possible psychological mechanism. Biological mechanisms are also included in the model to illustrate the contribution of the stress response, neuroendocrine system response, and neuroanatomical structural and functional impairments associated with violence exposure. PMID:22837647

  8. Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Miller, Elizabeth; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-04-24

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Serious physical violence among Arab-Palestinian adolescents: The role of exposure to neighborhood violence, perceived ethnic discrimination, normative beliefs, and, parental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A moderation-mediation model was tested, and 28.4% of the adolescents reported that they had perpetrated serious physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings also show that exposure of youth to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with their perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A similar trend was revealed with respect to personal perceptions of ethnic discrimination. These correlations were mediated by the adolescents' normative beliefs about violence. Furthermore, the correlation of direct exposure to violence in the neighborhood and normative beliefs about violence with perpetration of serious physical violence against others was stronger among adolescents who have poor communication with their parents than among those who have strong parental communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Youth´s Exposure to Community Violence: The MORE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cooley-Strickland

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and crime-ridden communities while treatment and prevention focuses on the perpetrators of the violence, not on the youth who are its direct or indirect victims. School-based treatment and preventive interventions are needed for children at elevated risk for exposure to community violence. This paper describes The Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence (MORE Project, a longitudinal, community epidemiological study currently being fielded to better understand the impact of children´s chronic exposure to community violence on their emotional, behavioral, substance use, and academic functioning with an overarching goal to identify malleable risk and protective factors which can be targeted in preventive and intervention programs.

  11. Consequences of Exposure to Domestic Violence for Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelio Moura Lourenco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature on the consequences of exposure to domestic violence – DV for children. The period 2005-2011 was searched in Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, Dialnet, Redalyc, Google Scholar and PsycInfo, using the following descriptors: intimate partner violence , domestic violence , violence descriptors ( physical , sexual, psychological , and child , exposure or witness . The author, country, methodology, journal and the consequences of exposure to DV were considered. 122 articles were selected. The United States and Brazil accounted for 78.7% of the publications, with children being the main victims (51.6%. The major impacts upon children´s health were posttraumatic stress and insecurity (75.8%.

  12. Gender differences in the effects of exposure to violence on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence-substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence-direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)-independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences.

  13. Nurses exposure to workplace violence in a large teaching hospital in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa

    2014-11-01

    Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses' exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the International Health Organization (IHO), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Public Services International (PSI). Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%). Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%), bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34%) and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16%) at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate.

  14. Nurses Exposure to Workplace Violence in a Large Teaching Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Teymourzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO, the International Health Organization (IHO, the International Council of Nurses (ICN, and the Public Services International (PSI. Finally, in order to analyze the relationships among different variables in the study, T-test and Chi-Square test were used. Results Three hundred and one nurses responded to the questionnaire (a response rate of 73%. Over 70% of the nurses felt worried about workplace violence. The participants reported exposure to verbal abuse (64% CI: 59-70%, bullying-mobbing (29% CI: 24-34% and physical violence (12% CI: 9-16% at least once during the previous year. Relatives of hospital patients were responsible for most of the violence. Nurses working in the emergency department and outpatient clinics were more likely to report having experienced violence. Nurses were unlikely to report violence to hospital managers, and 40% of nurses were unaware of any existing policies within the hospital for reducing violence. Conclusion We observed a considerable level of nurse exposure to workplace violence. The high rate of reported workplace violence demonstrates that the existing safeguards that aim to protect the staff from abusive patients and relatives are inadequate.

  15. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...

  16. Examining Patterns of Exposure to Family Violence in Preschool Children: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Petitclerc, Amélie; Henry, David B; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    Young children can experience violence directly or indirectly in the home, with some children exposed to multiple forms of violence. These polyvictims often experience violence that is severe, chronic, and multifaceted. The current study used latent class analysis to identify and examine the pattern of profiles of exposure to family violence (i.e., violence directed towards the child and between caregivers) among a sample of 474 children ages 3-6 year who were drawn from the Multidimensional Assessment of Preschoolers Study (Wakschlag et al., 2014). The data yielded 3 classes: a polyvictimized class (n = 72; 15.2%) with high probability of exposure to all forms of violence, a harsh parenting class (n = 235; 49.5%), distinguished mainly by child-directed physical discipline in the absence of more severe forms of violence, and a low-exposure class (n = 167; 35.2%). Classes were differentiated by contextual factors, maternal characteristics, and mother-reported and observational indicators of parenting and child functioning with most effect sizes between medium and large. These findings add to emerging evidence linking polyvictimization to impaired caregiving and adverse psychological outcomes for children and offer important insight for prevention and intervention for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  18. Traffic Accidents in Kosovo – A Major Concern for Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Muharremi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of traffic c accidents in Kosovo is increasing rapidly from year to year. As a result of traffi c accidents the number of injured and deaths has increased. During the period of January-December 2016 there were 18541 accidents, which resulted in 110 casualties (Kosovo Police Annual Reports. Campaigns undertaken by the Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport and the Kosovo Police, as well as various video-spots intended to raise awareness of the dangers of traffic c accidents have not accomplished the expected results and did not reduce the number of accidents. Therefore, we can conclude that the number of accidents taking place in Kosovo is concerning. Despite the best efforts of relevant institutions, despite the increased engagement to pass legislation, which would be in line with the European standards, and despite substantial improvements and major investments on the infrastructure, and despite all the measures taken, reducing the number of road accidents remains a significant challenge. With this paper, I will try to draw attention to the actions, measures and activities that I consider the relevant institutions of Kosovo should focus on in order to prevent and to reduce the high number of traffic accidents.

  19. The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on Adolescent Substance Use and Violence Following Exposure to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to violence can result in many negative consequences for youth, but the degree to which neighborhood conditions may foster resiliency among victims is not well understood. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood collective efficacy attenuates the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence, substance use, and violence. Data were collected from 1,661–1,718 adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), who were diverse in terms of sex (51% male, 49% female), race/ethnicity (48% Hispanic, 34% African American, 14% Caucasian, and 4% other race/ethnicity), and age (mean age 12 years; range: 8–16). Information on neighborhood collective efficacy was obtained from adult residents, and data from the 1990 U.S. Census were used to control for neighborhood disadvantage. Based on hierarchical modeling techniques to adjust for the clustered data, Bernoulli models indicated that more exposure to violence was associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and perpetration of violence. Poisson models suggested that victimization was also related to a greater variety of substance use and violent behaviors. A moderating effect of collective efficacy was found in models assessing the variety of substance use; the relationship between victimization and substance use was weaker for youth in neighborhoods with higher versus lower levels of collective efficacy. These findings are consistent with literature indicating that social support can ameliorate the negative impact of victimization. This investigation extends this research to show that neighborhood social support can also help to promote resiliency among adolescents. PMID:24170438

  20. Exposure to Community Violence and Sexual Behaviors Among African American Youth: Testing Multiple Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna; Neilands, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    African American youth bear a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections. A growing number of studies document that youth exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors are highly correlated. Despite such growing evidence, only a few studies have empirically tested conceptually driven pathways that may account for such relationships. This study seeks to address that gap by exploring multiple pathways linking exposure to community violence and youth sexual behaviors. Using an existing sample of 563 African American youth attending high school, we examined whether possible links between exposure to community violence and sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors were mediated by aggression, low student-teacher connectedness, and negative peer norms. Major findings indicated indirect relationships between exposures to community violence and both sexual activity and risky sex, mediated by aggression and negative peer norms with no significant differences based on gender or socioeconomic status. Overall findings also indicated a significant indirect effect of aggression to risky sex via negative peer norms and from community violence to risky peer norms via aggression. By illuminating ways that community violence, aggression, peer norms, and sexual behaviors are dynamically interrelated, these findings have significant implications for future research and intervention initiatives aimed at addressing the different pathways.

  1. CSF 5-HIAA and exposure to and expression of interpersonal violence in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, T; Nordström, P; Forslund, K; Kristiansson, M; Asberg, M; Jokinen, J

    2011-07-01

    Serotonin is implicated in impaired impulse control, aggression and suicidal behaviour. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) have been found in violent suicide attempters, suicide victims and in violent offenders. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations have both genetic and environmental determinants. Childhood trauma may have an effect on central monoamine function as an adult. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of CSF 5-HIAA and the exposure to and the expression of violence in childhood and during adult life measured with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS). 42 medication free suicide attempters underwent lumbar puncture and were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) to assess history of childhood exposure to violence and lifetime expressed violent behaviour. In women, but not in men, CSF 5-HIAA showed a significant negative correlation to exposure to violence during childhood. Furthermore, suicide attempters with low CSF 5-HIAA were more prone to commit violent acts as an adult if exposed to violence as a child compared to suicide attempters with high CSF 5-HIAA. In the non-traumatized group, CSF 5-HIAA showed a significant negative correlation to expressed violent behaviour in childhood. Although central serotonergic function has important genetic determinants, exposure to childhood trauma may also affect serotonergic function. Low serotonergic function may facilitate impaired aggression control in traumatized suicide attempters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  3. Effects of exposure to community violence and family violence on school functioning problems among urban youth: The potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia eMcGill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Sri Lankan University Students as a Consequence of Their Exposure to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Tishby, Orya; de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the association between exposure to family violence (i.e., witnessing interparental violence and experiencing parental violence) during childhood and adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted among a self-selected convenience sample of 476 students from Sri…

  5. Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Moise-Titus, Jessica; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Eron, Leonard D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between TV-violence viewing at ages 6 to 10 and adult aggression about 15 years later for sample growing up in the 1970s and 1980s. Found that childhood exposure to media violence predicted young adult aggression for males and females. Identification with aggressive TV characters and perceived realism of TV violence predicted…

  6. Exposure to gun violence and asthma among children in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramratnam, Sima K; Han, Yueh-Ying; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Forno, Erick; Brehm, John M; Rosser, Franziska; Marsland, Anna L; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Miller, Gregory E; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    Although community violence may influence asthma morbidity by increasing stress, no study has assessed exposure to gun violence and childhood asthma. We examined whether exposure to gun violence is associated with asthma in children, particularly in those reporting fear of leaving their home. Case-control study of 466 children aged 9-14 years with (n = 234) and without (n = 232) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Lifetime exposure to gun violence was defined as hearing a gunshot more than once. We also assessed whether the child was afraid to leave his/her home because of violence. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for the statistical analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, gender, household income, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke, prematurity and residential distance from a major road. Cases were more likely to have heard a gunshot more than once than control subjects (n = 156 or 67.2% vs. n = 122 or 52.1%, P violence, those who had heard a gunshot more than once and were afraid to leave their home due to violence had 3.2 times greater odds of asthma (95% CI for OR = 2.2-4.4, P violence is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children, particularly in those afraid to leave their home. Stress from such violence may contribute to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Ricans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rates and Psychological Effects of Exposure to Family Violence among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…

  8. Exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment among urban school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Oscar H; Stein, Ruth E K; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Benenson, Blanch S

    2003-12-01

    This study determines the relationship between psychosocial adjustment in school-aged children and one aspect of exposure to violence, the proximity of exposure, in terms of (1) "physical" proximity and (2) "emotional" proximity to the victims of violence. A convenience sample of 175 children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary care clinic of a large urban hospital were interviewed about their exposure to violence using the Children's Report of Exposure to Violence. Psychosocial adjustment was measured through maternal reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Personal Adjustment and Role Skills Scale (PARS III). Children were categorized into three groups according to their closest proximity to exposure to violence ("victim" > "witness" > exposure through other people's "report") and two groups according to emotional proximity (victim was a "familiar person" or "stranger"). All children (23/175) who scored above the CBCL clinical cutoff (T score > 63) were witnesses or victims of violence. The CBCL total T scores (higher score = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 52.4) scored significantly higher than the "witness" group (mean 50.0) and "report" group (mean 47.4). The PARS III total scores (lower scores = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 87.5) scored significantly lower than the "witness" group (mean 93.1) and "report" group (mean 98.2). The relationship of the child to the victim was not associated with significantly different CBCL and PARS III scores. Children exposed to more proximal forms of violence as victims or witnesses exhibited more psychosocial maladjustment.

  9. Mental Health Nurse's Exposure to Workplace Violence Leads to Job Stress, Which Leads to Reduced Professional Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Michal; Bluvstein, Irit; Peles Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Bar Noy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Theilla, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    Professional quality of life (ProQOL) reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F) who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6%) experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1%) experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV). Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a) factors affecting ProQOL and (b) the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.

  10. Kosovo majandus komberdab karkudel / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Sõjast räsitud Kosovo majanduslikku seisu iseloomustavad sagedased elektrikatkestused, suur vaesus ja tööpuudus. Vt. samas: Kaart; Kosovo elanikud; Majandus; Diplomaat: ei kujuta Eesti ärimehi seal ette

  11. IDPs from Kosovo still awaiting durable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Krstic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Balkans anxiously await delayed UN recommendations on the final status of the Serbian province of Kosovo, displaced persons from Kosovo remain torn between uncertain return prospects and denial of local integration.

  12. Long-term exposure to political violence: The particular injury of persistent humiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; McNeely, Clea; Olsen, Joseph A; Belli, Robert F; Doty, Samuel Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the association between exposure to political violence over a 25-year period and adult functioning among a population that has experienced protracted and severe political conflict. Instead of aggregating exposure to political violence across time and type of exposure, as is commonly done, the event history calendar pioneered in this study assessed exposure to five forms of political violence annually from 1987 to 2011 in a representative sample of 1788 adults, aged 37 on average, in the occupied Palestinian territories (West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip). This method allowed for the identification of trajectories of exposure to political violence from childhood to adulthood using latent profile analysis. We then correlated the trajectories of exposure to measures of economic, political, community, family, psychological, and health functioning. As expected, being shot at, having one's home raided, being hit or kicked, being verbally abused, and witnessing someone close being humiliated were all elevated during periods of heightened political conflict (the first intifada (1987-1993) and, less so, the second intifada (2000-2005)). In addition, 12% of women and men reported high and persistent levels of exposure to humiliation (being verbally abused and/or witnessing someone close being humiliated) across the entire 25-year period. These individuals lived predominantly in neighborhoods with a high Israeli military presence. Compared to those who experienced periodic exposure to political violence, persistently humiliated men and women reported significantly lower health, economic, political, and psychological functioning, as well as higher social cohesion and political expression. Relevant literatures are reviewed when concluding that persistent humiliation is a neglected form of political violence that is best represented as a direct (versus structural), acute (versus chronic), macro (versus micro), and high-grade (versus low

  13. Nurses exposure to workplace violence in a large teaching hospital in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Seyyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace violence is one of the factors which can strongly reduce job satisfaction and the quality of working life of nurses. The aim of this study was to measure nurses’ exposure to workplace violence in one of the major teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2010. Methods We surveyed the nurses in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire was adapted from a standardized questionnaire designed collaboratively by the International Labor Office (ILO), the Inter...

  14. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and acade...

  15. Exposure to and recall of violence reduce short-term memory and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliacino, Francesco; Grimalda, Gianluca; Ortoleva, Pietro; Ring, Patrick

    2017-08-08

    Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive control is the capacity to exert inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Both have been shown to affect positively individual well-being and societal development. We sampled Colombian civilians who were exposed either to urban violence or to warfare more than a decade earlier. We assessed exposure to violence through either the urban district-level homicide rate or self-reported measures. Before undertaking cognitive tests, a randomly selected subset of our sample was asked to recall emotions of anxiety and fear connected to experiences of violence, whereas the rest recalled joyful or emotionally neutral experiences. We found that higher exposure to violence was associated with lower short-term memory abilities and lower cognitive control in the group recalling experiences of violence, whereas it had no effect in the other group. This finding demonstrates that exposure to violence, even if a decade earlier, can hamper cognitive functions, but only among individuals actively recalling emotional states linked with such experiences. A laboratory experiment conducted in Germany aimed to separate the effect of recalling violent events from the effect of emotions of fear and anxiety. Both factors had significant negative effects on cognitive functions and appeared to be independent from each other.

  16. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-12-11

      The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%.  There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t (134) =-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t (134) =2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students' exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies.

  17. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Doralúcia Gil da; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65), who answered one instrument about exposu...

  18. Violence Exposure as a Mediator Between Parenting and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H

    2017-04-01

    For youth exposed to community violence, parenting has been found to play a significant role in protecting adolescents from associated mental health symptoms. Yet little is known about the potential of parenting to prevent such exposure in the first place and thereby reduce the likelihood of adolescents' mental health symptoms. This study examined two parental practices that have often been examined as moderators, but not yet as predictors, of youth exposure to community violence associations with adolescent mental health, namely parental control and parental harshness. Analyses of self-reported data from 908 adolescents (M age  = 16.5, SD = 1.71; 52 % girls; 13 % non-Hispanic White) revealed that harsh parenting was indirectly associated with youth mental health symptoms through higher levels of exposure to community violence, whereas links between controlling parenting and mental health symptoms were either non-significant or mediated through lower levels of adolescent violence exposure. These findings highlight the potential positive role parental control may play by preventing adolescents from exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Conversely, our results suggest that harsh parenting appears to pose a risk for adolescents by driving youth away from the home environment and potentially into places where violence may be more prevalent.

  19. Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Hillary H.; Eisenhower, Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least one type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically-relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

  20. Exposure to Violence during Adolescence as a Predictor of Perceived Stress Trajectories in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Aiyer, Sophie M; Eisman, Andria B; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Early exposure to violence during adolescence is related to negative psycho-social outcomes later in life. In the present study, we examined the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and trajectories of perceived stress in emerging adulthood in a sample of at-risk urban youth ( N = 850; 80.1% African American; 50% female). Growth curve modeling indicated an overall decrease in reported stress as individuals aged. Baseline levels of violence exposure ( M age = 14.9) were associated with higher perceived stress levels in emerging adulthood ( M age = 20.1), but also slightly more negative perceived stress slopes from adolescence into emerging adulthood ( M age = 15.9-22.1). Individuals reporting increased violence exposure over time during adolescence also reported higher perceived stress levels in emerging adulthood ( M age = 20.1). Associations held after controlling for demographics and baseline functioning variables. The results suggest that violence exposure may disrupt normative adaptation to daily stressors in emerging adulthood.

  1. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294

  2. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  3. Kosovo sõlm / Vladislav B. Sotirovic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sotirovic, Vladislav B.

    2007-01-01

    Serbia ja Kosovo ei leia ühist keelt piirkonna tuleviku ja Kosovo iseseisvuse küsimuses, sest Serbia peab Kosovo iseseisvumist ohtlikuks, kuna loodud riik võiks hakata püüdlema albaanlaste aladega ühinemise poole

  4. Kosovo kõnelused ummikseisus / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    ÜRO erisaadik Martti Ahtisaari tõdes Viinis, et Kosovo ja Serbia juhtide läbirääkimised on ammendunud ja pooled ei jõudnud kokkuleppele enam kui aasta kestnud kõneluste tulemusel Kosovo provintsi saatuse üle. Lisa: Kosovo

  5. The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

  6. Seeking asylum in Denmark: Refugee children's mental health and exposure to violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark......, the parents of 311 Middle-Eastern children answered a structured interview on their children’s exposure to organized violence and their mental health. The families were followed-up as concerns receipt of a residence permit. Results: At arrival in Denmark, the children’s patterns of previous exposure...... to violence and present mental health was generally similar irrespective of the family getting a residence permit, as was the case for 90 families (60.4%) with 190 children (61.1%). In both groups an overwhelming majority, eight to nine out of 10 children, had been exposed to conditions of war and had stayed...

  7. Creation of a community violence exposure scale: accounting for what, who, where, and how often.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Wright, Rosalind J

    2008-10-01

    Previous research has used the Rasch model, a method for obtaining a continuous scale from dichotomous survey items measuring a single latent construct, to create a scale of community violence exposure. The authors build upon previous work and describe the application of a Rasch model using the continuation ratio model to create an exposure to community violence (ETV) scale including event circumstance information previously shown to modify the impact of experienced events. They compare the Rasch ETV scale to a simpler sum ETV score, and estimate the effect of ETV on child posttraumatic stress symptoms. Incorporating detailed event circumstance information that is grounded in traumatic stress theory may reduce measurement error in the assessment of children's community violence exposure.

  8. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  9. Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Fitzpatrick; Michael J Oghia; Jad Melki; Linda S Pagani

    2016-01-01

    We review the state of evidence supporting a link between violent media exposure in preschool- aged children and subsequent well-being outcomes. We searched through four decades (1971–2011) of literature for enlightening details on the relationship between early exposure to media violence and health outcomes in later childhood and adolescence. Evidence suggests that preschool exposure may be linked to increased aggression and self-regulation problems. Results are discussed in the context of d...

  10. Perceived childhood exposure to domestic violence: The risk for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Exposure to Violence During Ferguson Protests: Mental Health Effects for Law Enforcement and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D; Beagley, Marin C; Strasshofer, David R; Held, Philip; Fletcher, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    There is little information available on the mental health effects of exposure to shared community violence such as the August 2014 violence that occurred in Ferguson, Missouri. This study sought to examine the relationship between proximity to community violence and mental health in both community members and police officers. We recruited 565 adults (community, n = 304, and police, n = 261) exposed to the violence in Ferguson to complete measures of proximity to violence, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anger. Using structural equation modeling, we assessed aspects of proximity to violence-connectedness, direct exposure, fear from exposure, media exposure, reactions to media, and life interruption-as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and anger. The final model yielded (n = 432), χ(2) (d = 12) = 7.4, p = .830; comparative fit index = 1.0, root mean square error of approximation = 0 [0, .04]. All aspects of proximity except direct exposure were associated with mental health outcomes. There was no moderation as a function of community versus police. Race moderated the relationship between life interruptions and negative outcomes; interruption was related to distress for White, but not Black community members. Based on group comparisons, community members reported more symptoms of PTSD and depression than law enforcement (ηp (2) = .06 and .02, respectively). Black community members reported more PTSD and depression than White community members (ηp (2) = .05 and .02, respectively). Overall, distress was high, and mental health interventions are likely indicated for some individuals exposed to the Ferguson events. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Latino Youth: The Moderating Role of Active and Avoidant Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G; Stiles, Allison A; Diaz, Kathleen I

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of exposure to community violence among Latino youth in urban communities, there is considerable variability in individual outcomes. This study examined (a) associations between coping and indices of Latino culture, (b) main effects of active/avoidant coping on psychopathology, and (c) whether coping moderates the impact of violence exposure on mental health in Latino youth. Participants included 168 Latino youth (56% female; ages 11-14) that took part in a short-term longitudinal study. Results indicate that youth acculturation was positively associated with active coping, but enculturation level and immigrant status were not associated with coping. Structural equation models suggested that active coping was negatively associated with internalizing problems (p = .046) while avoidant coping was positively associated with internalizing problems (p = .013) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (p = .024). Moderation analyses revealed that violence exposure was more strongly associated with internalizing problems as reliance on avoidance coping increased. However, at high levels of violence exposure, a greater reliance on active coping was related to increased posttraumatic stress problems. Findings suggest that consideration of the specific stressor, level of stress exposure, and mental health problem-type may be crucial in determining the effectiveness of a coping strategy. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  14. A National Study on Nurses’ Exposure to Occupational Violence in Lebanon: Prevalence, Consequences and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Mourad, Yara; Dimassi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions have commonly reported exposure of employees, particularly nurses, to high levels of occupational violence. Despite such evidence in the Middle East Region, there is a dearth of national studies that have systematically investigated this phenomenon. This study investigates the prevalence, characteristics, consequences and factors associated with nurses’ exposure to occupational violence in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey a nationally representative sample of 915 nurses registered with the Order of Nurses in Lebanon. Stratified random sampling by governorate was utilized. Individually-mailed questionnaires collected information on exposure to violence, degree of burnout and demographic/professional background. The main outcome variables were exposure to verbal abuse (never, 1–3, 4–9 and 10+ times) and physical violence (never, ever) over the past 12-months. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence of violence. Multivariable, binomial and multinomial regression models were carried out to investigate the correlates of exposure to verbal abuse and physical violence, respectively. Results Response rate was 64.8%. Over the last year, prevalence of nurses’ exposure to verbal abuse was 62%, (CI: 58–65%) and physical violence was 10%, (CI: 8–13%). Among respondents, 31.7% of nurses indicated likelihood to quit their jobs and 22.3% were undetermined. Furthermore, 54.1% reported high levels of emotional exhaustion and 28.8% reported high levels of depersonalization. Compared to nurses with no exposure to verbal abuse, nurses reporting high exposure had high levels of emotional exhaustion (OR:6.4; CI:1.76–23.32), depersonalization (OR:6.8; CI: 3–15) and intention to quit job (OR:3.9; CI: 1.8–8.3). They further reported absence of anti-violence policies at their institutions (OR: 3; CI: 1.5–6.3). Nurses that were ever exposed to physical violence were more likely to be males

  15. Exposure to Family Violence and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may have devastating consequences on children's development. The aim of this research was to examine the predictive associations between exposure to violence at home (witnessing violence against the mother and/or direct victimization by the parents) and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 613 Spanish adolescents (13-18 years) took part in this study. Results indicate that psychological victimization by the parents predicted an increase in anxious/depressive symptoms, aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse at Time 2. In addition, rule-breaking behavior predicted an increase in adolescents' substance abuse at Time 2. Concerning gender, psychological victimization predicted an increase in anxiety/depression, aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse in boys; whereas in girls, psychological victimization only predicted an increase in anxiety/depression.

  16. Kosovo and Metohija: Serbia’s troublesome province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo and Metohija, the heartland of medieval Serbia, of her culture politics and economy (1204-1455, experienced continuous waves of spiralling violence, forced migration and colonization under centuries-long Ottoman rule (1455-1912. A region which symbolizes the national and cultural identity of the Serbian nation as a whole now has an Albanian majority population, who consider it an ancient Albanian land, claiming continuity with ancient Illyrians. Kosovo was reincorporated into Serbia (1912 and Yugoslavia (1918 as a region lacking tradition of interethnic and interreligious tolerance and cooperation. The two rivalling Kosovo nations, Albanians and Serbs, remained distant, maintaining limited interethnic communication throughout the twentieth century. The mounting national and ideological conflicts, reinforced by the communist ideology made coexistence almost impossible, even after the 1999 NATO bombing campaign and establishment of KFOR-secured UN administration. Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence in February 2008 is a dangerous attempt to establish a second Albanian state extended into the heartland of Serbia, a failed state cleansed of both Serbs and other major non-Albanian communities.

  17. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  18. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  19. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  20. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  1. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross‑cultural and gender perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löfving‑Gupta, S.; Willebrand, M.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab‑Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : community violence exposure * substance use * gender * adolescents Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00787-017-1097-5

  2. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  3. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  4. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  5. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  6. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  7. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross‑cultural and gender perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löfving‑Gupta, S.; Willebrand, M.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab‑Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : community violence exposure * substance use * gender * adolescents Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry , Sexuology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00787-017-1097-5

  8. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.

  9. Exposure to violence and mental health of adolescents: South African Health and Well-being Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothon, Catherine; Das-Munshi, Jayati; Mathews, Cathy; Adams, Arlene; Clark, Charlotte; Lund, Crick

    2017-01-01

    Background Material and social environmental stressors affect mental health in adolescence. Protective factors such as social support from family and friends may help to buffer the effects of adversity. Aims The association of violence exposure and emotional disorders was examined in Cape Town adolescents. Method A total of 1034 Grade 8 high school students participated from seven government co-educational schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Exposure to violence in the past 12 months and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, depressive and anxiety symptoms by the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Results Exposure to violence was associated with high scores on depressive (odds ratio (OR)=6.23, 95% CI 4.2–9.2), anxiety (OR=5.40, 95% CI 2.4–12.4) and PTSD symptoms (OR=8.93, 95% CI 2.9–27.2) and increased risk of self-harm (OR=5.72, 95% CI 1.2–25.9) adjusting for gender and social support. Conclusions We found that high exposure to violence was associated with high levels of emotional disorders in adolescents that was not buffered by social support. There is an urgent need for interventions to reduce exposure to violence in young people in this setting. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:29093828

  10. Examining the Contemporaneous, Short-Term, and Long-Term Effects of Secondary Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Kushner, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between secondary exposure to violence-defined as witnessing violence in the home, community, or school-and adolescent substance use is well-documented. Yet, multi-wave empirical studies examining this relationship are sparse. In addition, studies have only begun to examine whether this relationship varies by the situational components of the violent event. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this study examines the contemporaneous, short-term, and long-term effects of secondary exposure to violence on substance use, and whether witnessing violence in which a weapon is present has a different impact on adolescent substance use than does witnessing violence without a weapon. Hierarchical logistic regression models on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 1670 youth (51.5% female) residing in 79 neighborhoods indicated that: (1) the effects of secondary exposure to violence on alcohol and marijuana use were enduring, albeit attenuated, over time; (2) the effect of secondary exposure to violence on illicit drug use was suppressed in the short-term but significant in the long-term; (3) witnessing violence without a weapon was salient for alcohol and marijuana use at all time points; and (4) witnessing violence with a weapon impacted illicit drug use in the long-term. The results suggest that addressing the consequences of secondary exposure to violence requires prolonged intervention efforts and that the study of secondary exposure to violence requires a more nuanced approach that accounts for situational aspects of the violent event.

  11. Minority and Immigrant Youth Exposure to Community Violence: The Differential Effects of Family Management and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Maria João Lobo; Ahlin, Eileen M

    2018-02-01

    Experiences with neighborhood violence can produce negative consequences in youth, including stress, anxiety, and deviant behavior. Studies report that immigrant and minority youth are more likely to be exposed to violence but less likely to perpetrate it. Similarly, research shows parenting practices are differentially adopted by Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Although family management strategies can often act as a barrier to the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence (ETV-C), there is a paucity of investigation on how Hispanic subgroups (e.g., Puerto Rican, Mexican) and immigrant families employ such practices in protecting their children against victimization and violence in the community. Applying an ecological framework, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the role of parenting and peer relationships on youth ETV-C, across race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our sample is drawn from Cohorts 9, 12, and 15, and is over 40% Hispanic-Latino. We investigate the differences in within and outside the home family management strategies in terms of both race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our work also seeks to determine the effects of race/ethnicity and immigrant status on youth ETV-C, while examining the influence of family management and peer relations. Results indicate that the adoption of family management practices is not homogeneous across Hispanic subgroups or immigrant generational status, and parenting practices seem to mediate the relationship between these characteristics and exposure to violence. Variations in parenting practices underscore the need to disentangle the cultural plurality of racial/ethnic grouping and how immigrant generational status influences parenting choices that protect children from exposure to violence in the community.

  12. POLITICS OF ECONOMIC PRESSURE TO THE ALBANIAN POPULATION OF KOSOVO FROM THE SERBO-CROAT-SLOVENE KINGDOM DURING THE YEARS 1918-1929

    OpenAIRE

    Parim Kosova

    2017-01-01

    To remedy historic injustices against the Albanian borders and stop the violence and Serbian military repression against Kosovo Albanians, the delegates of Albania at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919-1920, demanded the revision of Albania's borders of 1913. They made efforts to include Kosovo and other Albanian territories within the Albanian state.[1] But even after the intense talks that took place in Paris and in its circumstances that resulted in the signing of the Peace Agreements in V...

  13. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Seeking asylum in Denmark: Refugee children's mental health and exposure to violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark, the pare......Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark...... in a refugee camp, and seven out of 10 had witnessed violence. Half of the children had a tortured parent. Considerably more children of families who did not get a residence permit had lost a parent (30.6% versus 13.7%; P , 0.001). In both groups about two-thirds suffered from anxiety and about 30% from sleep...... exposure to violence and their present mental health. There seems to be good reason to systematically integrate evidence on the children of refugee families in the treatment of applications for permission to stay....

  15. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Double disadvantage: the influence of childhood maltreatment and community violence exposure on adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Viding, Essi; Barker, Edward D; Guiney, Jo; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-07-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for maladjustment and psychopathology. Although maltreated youth are more likely to experience community violence, both forms of adversity are generally examined separately. Consequently, little is known about the unique and interactive effects that characterize maltreatment and community violence exposure (CVE) on mental health. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was applied to data from a community sample of high-risk adolescents and young adults (n = 204, M = 18.85) to categorize groups of participants with similar patterns of childhood (i.e. past) maltreatment exposure. Associations between childhood maltreatment, CVE and mental health outcomes were then explored using multivariate regression and moderation analyses. Latent Profile Analysis identified three groups of individuals with low, moderate and severe levels of childhood maltreatment. Maltreatment was associated with more internalizing, externalizing, and trauma-related symptoms. By contrast, CVE showed independent associations with only externalizing and trauma-related symptoms. Typically, childhood maltreatment and CVE exerted additive effects; however, these forms of adversity interacted to predict levels of anger. Exposure to maltreatment and community violence is associated with increased levels of clinical symptoms. However, while maltreatment is associated with increased symptoms across a broad range of mental health domains, the impact of community violence is more constrained, suggesting that these environmental risk factors differentially impact mental health functioning. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Exposure To Violence And Occupational Satisfaction Of Health Personnal In A Health Group Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcin Balci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, it evaluted that exposure to violence and effect of this exposure to occupational satisfaction of health personel in Melikgazi Health Group Area. Materials And Methods: This cross sectional and descriptive study was performed in April-May 2006. Sampling not planned, it assumed to reach all of health personel. Data were analysed using computer and chi square test were used for statistical analyses. Lesser than 0,05 values were accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the research group 66,7 % were female and 33,3 % were male. Mean age was 34,48 ± 5,73 years. Of the study participants were working in health center, 80,4 % day time and 19,6 % in night time and mean duration of working was 11,99 ± 5,3 years. Of the study group 57,1 % were chosen profession willingly and 65,5 % of them didn’t want to their children chose same profession. Of the study group 68,2 % were thought their fare were not enough. Of the study group, 50,3 % were experinced verbal and/or physical violence with different degrees. Of the violence victims 63,6 % were working in night shift of health centers and most of them doctors. Conclusion: Exposure to violence during work effects the satisfaction negativeley. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 13-18

  18. The banking system of liquidity risk management in commercial banks in Kosovo for 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Berisha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial system in general and banking system in particular in Kosovo, is one of the most stable sectors, even though the Kosovo Economy is not in any enviable position and a stable financial system which would have an impact on greater economic growth. The focus of this research will be in the structure and organization of the financial system in Kosovo with particular emphasis on Kosovo's banking system for 2015. In this research we are focused on the Commercial Banks operating in the framework of the banking sector in Kosovo, what is their capital, how many banks have local- and how many have foreign capital, by whom are licensed and supervised, how is the loans potential of commercial banks in Kosovo, how much and how was the variation of interest rates on loans and deposits for 2015 and their comparison with the previous year, what is capital sufficiency and how many commercial banks do have liquidity in Kosovo? Kosovo banking sector exposure to risk will also have a special attention where it is known that there are several types of financial risk and they are: crediting risk, liquidity risk, market risk, operational risk, etc. Our interest in this research will be focused on liquidity risk and the analysis about the management of each bank including some specific regulative frameworks such as: framework of the Basel Committee known as Basel I, Basel II and more recently Basel III, which have strict rules and which change from time to time depending on financial flows or potential crises.

  19. Exposure to Different Types of Violence and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior among Female STD Clinic Patients: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diverse forms of violence, including childhood maltreatment (CM), intimate partner violence (IPV), and exposure to community violence (ECV), have been linked separately with sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored multiple experiences of violence simultaneously in relation to sexual risk-taking, especially in women who are most vulnerable to violent experiences. Methods Participants were 481 women (66% African American, Mage = 27 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported on their past and current experiences with violence and their current sexual risk behavior. We identified patterns of experience with violence using latent class analysis (LCA) and investigated which combinations of experiences were associated with the riskiest sexual outcomes. Results Four classes of women with different experiences of violence were identified: Low Violence (39%), Predominantly ECV (20%), Predominantly CM (23%), and Multiply Victimized (18%). Women in the Multiply Victimized and Predominantly ECV classes reported the highest levels of sexual risk behavior, including more lifetime sexual partners and a greater likelihood of receiving STD treatment and using substances before sex. Conclusions Women with different patterns of violent experiences differed in their sexual risk behavior. Interventions to reduce sexual risk should address violence against women, focusing on experiences with multiple types of violence and experiences specifically with ECV. Additional research is needed to determine the best ways to address violence in sexual risk reduction interventions. PMID:23626921

  20. Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Deborah A; Roberts, William C; Schwab-Stone, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the relations among violence exposure, parental warmth, positive school climate, and post-traumatic stress reactions among youth in The Republic of The Gambia, Africa. A school-based survey of youth behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions was administered to 653 students at senior secondary schools in four Gambian communities. Students reported high levels of exposure to violence. Over half of students reported witnessing someone threatened with serious physical harm, beaten up or mugged, attacked or stabbed with a knife/piece of glass, or seriously wounded in an incident of violence. Nearly half of students reported being beaten up or mugged during the past year, and nearly a quarter reported being threatened with serious physical harm. There were no sex differences in levels of exposure. Traumatic stress symptoms were common, especially among females. Both violence witnessing and violent victimization significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms, and positive school climate moderated the relationship. Among youth victimized by violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at low levels of exposure. Among youth who had witnessed violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at high levels of exposure. Community-based programs that bring together parents, schools, and youth may play an important role in combating the negative effects of some types of violence exposure among Gambian youth. Youth experiencing high levels of violent victimization

  1. Knowledge Management Experience in Kosovo Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Drita Kacandolli-Gjonbalaj; MSc. Anera Alishani; MSc. Arber Reci

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an empirical study, the findings of which reflect the experience gathered in knowledge management in Kosovo organizations. The main goal of this paper was to identify the realistic situation, and recommend instruments for a more effective knowledge management in Kosovo organizations. The findings of the empirical study have found inefficiency in knowledge management by organizations in Kosovo. A research was undertaken for this study, thereby directly interviewing representative...

  2. Kosovo voshlo v sostav Serbskoi konstitutsii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Serbia valijad hääletasid referendumil uue põhiseaduse vastuvõtmise poolt, millega kinnitati riigi suveräänsust peamiselt albaanlastest koosneva provintsi Kosovo üle, Kosovo aga soovib iseseisvust. Autor leiab, et referendumi tulemus on enne parlamendivalimisi väga tähtis peaminister Vojislav Kostunicale, kelle enamus lubadusi pole täitunud. Kosovo küsimuses loodab Serbia ka Venemaa toetusele

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE CODE EXPOSURE TOWARD PARENTS’ COGNITION ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmiati D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Messages and sign have certain influence toward humans’ cognition, yet different person might perceive them differently. Persuasive message appears to be one type of messages which has the strongest potential in modifying ones’ behavior. Children and anything about them are parents’ biggest proximity. Regarding to the massive exposure of sexual violence cases happened to children, parents demand access to know more information on this issue. This research is intended to see the effect of the exposure on news about sexual violence in children toward cognition route of parents who have daughters, and to see if there is any different cognition route between fathers and mothers in perceiving news related to sexual violence on children. This research employed an experimental method using the one group pre-post test design. This research involved 15 parents who have daughters who were chosen using an accidental sampling method. This reseach was conducted in the computer laboratory of FISIP UB. Sexual violence codes were displayed in some videos which showed some news on sexual violence happened to children. After that, an instrument in the form of central code and peripheral cognition route scale which was developed from the elaboration likegood model (ELM was given to the samples in the form of questionnaires after they watched some persuasive messages. The results of the data were analyzed using t-test of SPSS 22.0 program. The result of this reseach shows that there is an effect of sexual violence news toward parents’ congition route at 0.820 in a level of significance 0.000, while the congiton route of mothers shows higher mean value at 104.66 than fathers at 91.73.

  4. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  5. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  6. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  7. The Relationship between Violence Exposure and Academic Achievement in African American Adolescents Is Moderated by Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Vinetra L.; Mrug, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Compared with other ethnic groups, African American adolescents are exposed to higher levels of family and community violence, which contribute to poorer academic achievement. This study examines whether emotion regulation moderates the effects of exposure to family and community violence on academic achievement among low-income African American…

  8. Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fitzpatrick

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the state of evidence supporting a link between violent media exposure in preschool- aged children and subsequent well-being outcomes. We searched through four decades (1971–2011 of literature for enlightening details on the relationship between early exposure to media violence and health outcomes in later childhood and adolescence. Evidence suggests that preschool exposure may be linked to increased aggression and self-regulation problems. Results are discussed in the context of displacement, social cognitive and overstimulation theories. We recommend increasing efforts towards developing guidelines for families and professionals concerned with the well-being of children.

  9. [Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Allroggen, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence In international research, many papers exist about the issue of disclosure after having experienced sexual violence. However, specific research regarding disclosure processes of children and adolescents in institutional care are missing, even though those are particularly often affected by sexual violence. In the Germany-wide study "Sprich mit!", adolescents from the age of 15 up (n = 322; average age 16,69 (SD = 1,3); 57,1 % males) who live in residential care or boarding schools were asked for experiences of sexual violence and their consequences by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of the adolescents (82 %) entrusted themselves to someone, mostly towards peers (56 %) and less frequent towards adults (24 %). Boys and girls opened up equally often, regardless of the severity of the experienced violence. Adolescents who entrusted themselves towards their peers indicated retrospectively more satisfaction than those entrusting themselves towards adults, even if there were no consequences following the disclosure. Considering that the disclosure towards peers did not initiate a process of help, adolescents in institutional care should be better informed about relevant possibilities to entrust themselves and receive support.

  10. Troubled or Traumatized Youth? The Relations Between Psychopathy, Violence Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Antisocial Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined how psychopathy, exposure to violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with antisocial behavior among 1,354 serious delinquent adolescents from the Pathways to Desistance study. Results showed that psychopathy, violence exposure, and PTSD are independently linked to self-reported involvement of delinquency, even after controlling for respondents' demographic characteristics. However, the effect of PTSD on antisocial behavior was small. Differential associations were observed between the 2 factors of psychopathy, interpersonal/affective and social deviance, and PTSD symptoms. Specifically, the effect of social deviance characteristics on delinquency was above and beyond that of interpersonal/affective features. In addition, exposure to violence as a victim or witness were uniquely associated with increased delinquent behavior. Findings clarified the relations among psychopathy, violence exposure, PTSD, and antisocial behavior, and highlighted the differential links between psychopathy factors and delinquency.

  11. The Role of Psychopathy and Exposure to Violence in Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt , Christopher R.; Bartholow , Bruce D.; Kerr , Geoffrey T.; Bushman , Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  13. Childhood Violence Exposure: Cumulative and Specific Effects on Adult Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Carole; Nurius, Paula S.; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to violence and victimization is a significant public health problem, with potentially long-lasting, deleterious effects on adult mental health. Using a longitudinal study design, 123 young adults—identified in adolescence as at-risk for high school dropout—were examined for the effects of multi-domain childhood victimization on emotional distress and suicide risk, net of adolescent risk and protective factors, including family dysfunction. The hypothesis that higher levels...

  14. Etiological Aspects of Human Trafficking in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Abdyli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is considered one of the most serious criminal offences, which is presented as a contemporary form of slavery and which implies the most brutal violation of basic human rights, which are guaranteed by international and law and national law. The phenomenon of human trafficking is present in many countries in transition (such as Kosovo, namely in those countries which were affected by internal political, economic, social, educational, etc. changes, and in such situations the perpetrators of this offense are in a very favorable position to victimize society. Therefore, this paper will focus on external criminogenic factors that influence the growth of this negative phenomenon, including the difficult economic situation, poverty and unemployment, poor housing, migration of people, domestic violence, the impact of mass media in society, lack of border control and insufficient effectiveness of institutions to deal with law enforcement. The paper is based on literature review, statistical data and interviews by treating the subject theoretically, legislatively and practically. To successfully fight against human trafficking, relevant authorities should more closely approach the etiological treatment of this negative phenomenon.

  15. Lifetime and past-year prevalence of children's exposure to violence in 9 Balkan countries: the BECAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, George; Petroulaki, Kiki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Tsirigoti, Antonia; Hazizaj, Altin; Cenko, Enila; Brkic-Smigoc, Jelena; Vajzovic, Emir; Stancheva, Vaska; Chincheva, Stefka; Ajdukovic, Marina; Rajter, Miro; Raleva, Marija; Trpcevska, Liljana; Roth, Maria; Antal, Imola; Ispanovic, Veronika; Hanak, Natasha; Olmezoglu-Sofuoglu, Zeynep; Umit-Bal, Ismail; Bianchi, Donata; Meinck, Franziska; Browne, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Children's exposure to violence is a major public health issue. The Balkan epidemiological study on Child Abuse and Neglect project aimed to collect internationally comparable data on violence exposures in childhood. A three stage stratified random sample of 42,194 school-attending children (response rate: 66.7%) in three grades (aged 11, 13 and 16 years) was drawn from schools in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Greece, Romania, Serbia and Turkey. Children completed the ICAST-C questionnaire, which measures children's exposure to violence by any perpetrator. Exposure rates for psychological violence were between 64.6% (FYROM) and 83.2% (Greece) for lifetime and 59.62% (Serbia) and 70.0% (Greece) for past-year prevalence. Physical violence exposure varied between 50.6% (FYROM) and 76.3% (Greece) for lifetime and 42.5% (FYROM) and 51.0% (Bosnia) for past-year prevalence. Sexual violence figures were highest for lifetime prevalence in Bosnia (18.6%) and lowest in FYROM (7.6%). Lifetime contact sexual violence was highest in Bosnia (9.8%) and lowest in Romania (3.6%). Past-year sexual violence and contact sexual violence prevalence was lowest in Romania (5.0 and 2.1%) and highest in Bosnia (13.6 and 7.7% respectively). Self-reported neglect was highest for both past-year and lifetime prevalence in Bosnia (48.0 and 20.3%) and lowest in Romania (22.6 and 16.7%). Experiences of positive parental practices were reported by most participating children in all countries. Where significant differences in violence exposure by sex were observed, males reported higher exposure to past-year and lifetime sexual violence and females higher exposure to neglect. Children in Balkan countries experience a high burden of violence victimization and national-level programming and child protection policy making is urgently needed to address this.

  16. Mental health problems due to community violence exposure in a small urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies conducted in large metropolitan inner-city communities with high violent crime rates have demonstrated an association between exposure to violence and mental health problems; therefore the purpose of this study was to determine if similar trends exist in smaller inner-city communities with substantially lower violent crime rates. Methods: One hundred twenty-six children and young adults living in inner-city Omaha, Nebraska, were screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms and assessed for community violence exposure (CVE. Pearson’s correlation and analysis of variance were used to determine the relationship between PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms and CVE. Results: A statistically significant relationship was found between CVE and PTSD and anxiety symptoms among participants despite their having lower rates of exposure to violent events in comparison with other studies. No association was found between violence and depression symptoms. Additionally, the presence of anxiety and depression, as well as increased age of participants, was associated with higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: We recommend that health care providers in smaller cities, where the effects of violent crime may be underestimated or overlooked, be informed of the existence of this public health problem within their community and that they screen at-risk patients for mental health problems.

  17. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood among women with borderline personality disorder

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    Cave Sinai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between exposure to sexual violence and thyroid hormone alterations has been observed among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Women with borderline personality disorder (BPD report a high estimate of childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess relationships between thyroid hormone measures and exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Method: A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD (53% with comorbid PTSD diagnosis and at least two prior suicide attempts were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS. The KIVS contains four subscales with concrete examples of exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (aged 6–14 years and during adult life (15 years or older. Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3, thyroxine (FT4 and T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH with immunoassays. The FT3/FT4 ratio was used to estimate peripheral deiodination. Plasma cortisol was also assessed. Results: Sixty-seven percent of patients reported medium high or high level of exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant negative correlation with exposure to violence as a child. Patients with PTSD had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels. An ad hoc analysis revealed that the correlation between KIVS exposure to interpersonal violence as a child and FT3/FT4 ratio was significant only in patients with comorbid PTSD. Altered thyroid activity, especially FT3/FT4, levels was associated with exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Conclusion: Severe childhood trauma-related stress may promote lasting altered thyroid levels and/or contribute to the development of psychopathology associated with BPD traits or PTSD.

  19. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  20. Violence Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress, and Subjective Well-Being in a Sample of Russian Adults: A Facebook-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Tikhonov, Roman; Ivanov, Victor; Panicheva, Polina; Ledovaya, Yanina

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to violence has been shown to negatively affect mental health and well-being. The goal of this Facebook-based study was to describe the rates of exposure to violence in a sample of Russian adults and to assess the impact of these experiences on subjective well-being and victimization-related psychological distress. Three types of victimization were assessed: physical assault by a stranger, physical assault by someone known to victim, and nonconsensual sexual experiences. The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess subjective well-being, and Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) was employed as an indicator of victimization-related psychological distress. Data were obtained from 6,724 Russian-speaking Facebook users. Significant levels of lifetime victimization were reported by the study participants. Lifetime physical assault by a stranger, physical assault by someone known to victim, and sexual assault were reported by 56.9%, 64.2%, and 54.1% of respondents, respectively. Respondents exposed to violence were more likely to report posttraumatic stress symptoms and lower levels of subjective well-being. Participants who were exposed to at least one type of violence were more likely to experience symptoms of traumatic stress ( U = 1,794,250.50, p violence was associated with more severe traumatic stress symptoms ( r s = .257, p violence ( t = 8.37, p violence exposure is associated with reduced well-being among Russian adults. Our findings highlight the negative impact of violence exposure on subjective well-being and underscore the necessity to develop programs addressing violence exposure in Russian populations.

  1. Men’s and women’s exposure and perpetration of partner violence: an epidemiological study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lövestad Solveig

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past 30 years, intimate partner violence (IPV against women and its health consequences has become a well established research area and is recognized worldwide as a significant public health issue. Studies on IPV directed at men are less explored, however recently women’s use of IPV and men’s victimization is gaining growing attention. Earlier population-based studies performed in Sweden have primarily investigated men’s violence against women, while women’s use of violence and men’s exposure as well as the existence of controlling behaviours have been neglected research areas This explorative study investigated the exposure to and perpetration of intimate partner violence, the use of control behaviours and the associated risk factors among a sample of Swedish men and women. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 173 men and 251 women of age 18–65 randomly selected among the Swedish population. A questionnaire based on the revised Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2 and the subscale ‘isolating control’ from the Controlling Behaviour Scale (CBS was used to collect data on violence exposure and perpetration. Regression analyses were used for risk factor assessment. Results More men (11% than women (8% reported exposure to physical assault in the past year, while more women reported exposure to sexual coercion. Duration of present relationship ≤ 3 years was identified as a significant risk factor for men’s exposure. Young age, lack of social support and being single, constituted risk factors for women’s exposure. Surprisingly many men (37% and women (41% also reported exposure to controlling behaviours. Conclusions In partner violence research, both men’s and women’s exposure should be explored however findings need to be interpreted with caution. This first study in a Swedish sample establishes the basis for future investigations on partner violence and coercive control tactics.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder and exposure to violence among Venda and northern Sotho adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K GF Esterhuyse

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two research questions were posed. In the first place, this study investigated the levels of exposure to violence among the adolescents as a total group (Venda- and Northern Sotho-speaking, as well as the exposure levels of the two ethnic groups. Opsomming Twee navorsingsvrae is in hierdie studie gestel. Eerstens het hierdie studie ondersoek ingestel na die vlakke van blootstelling aan geweld onder die groep adolessente as geheel (Venda- en Noord-Sotho-sprekers, asook na die blootstellingsvlakke van die twee etniese groepe. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  3. Typologies of intimate partner violence-maternal parenting and children's externalizing problems: The moderating effect of the exposure to other forms of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Pinto, Ricardo; Levendosky, Alytia

    2018-07-01

    Typologies of IPV and parenting practices in mothers who experienced police-reported IPV remain surprisingly unexplored, in addition to how those typologies are linked with children's externalizing problems. Using data from 162 Portuguese mother-child dyads with a police or child protection services referral of IPV, this study aimed to: (a) identify IPV-parenting typologies; (b) test the associations between typologies and children's externalizing problems, and (c) examine the moderating effect of children's exposure to other forms of family violence in those associations. Using a person-centered approach, two IPV-parenting typologies were found: a spillover typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and high levels of harsh and inconsistent parenting practices; and a compartmentalized typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and lower ineffective parenting practices. Results also showed that externalizing symptoms (reported by mothers and teachers) were significantly lower in children of mothers in the compartmentalized typology compared to those in the spillover typology. Children's direct exposure to other forms of family violence moderated this association. Findings suggested that children with a high exposure to other forms of family violence showed the highest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified into the spillover typology, and they exhibited the lowest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified in the compartmentalized typology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure of mental health nurses to violence associated with job stress, life satisfaction, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Michal; Peles-Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Barnoy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Bluvstein, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Workplace violence towards health workers in hospitals and in mental health units in particular is increasing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to violence, job stress, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) on the life satisfaction of mental health nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of mental health nurses (n = 118) working in a large mental health centre in Israel. Verbal violence by patients was reported by 88.1% of the nurses, and 58.4% experienced physical violence in the past year. Physical and verbal violence towards nurses was correlated with job stress, and life satisfaction was correlated with PTG and staff resilience. Linear regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction was mainly affected by PTG, staff resilience, and job stress, and less by exposure to verbal and physical violence. The present study is the first to show that, although mental health nurses are frequently exposed to violence, their life satisfaction is affected more by staff resilience, PTG, and job stress than by workplace violence. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention programmes that contribute to PTG and staff resilience, as well as those that reduce job stress among mental health nurses, be explored and implemented. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  6. Exposure to violence: associations with psychiatric disorders in Brazilian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Fidalgo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of exposure to violent events in adolescence have not been sufficiently studied in middle-income countries such as Brazil. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 12-year-olds in two neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status (SES levels in São Paulo and to examine the influence of previous violent events and SES on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Methods: Students from nine public schools in two neighborhoods of São Paulo were recruited. Students and parents answered questions about demographic characteristics, SES, urbanicity and violent experiences. All participants completed the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses. The data were analyzed using weighted logistic regression with neighborhood stratification after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics, gender, SES and previous traumatic events. Results: The sample included 180 individuals, of whom 61.3% were from low SES and 39.3% had experienced a traumatic event. The weighted prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 21.7%. Having experienced a traumatic event and having low SES were associated with having an internalizing (adjusted OR = 5.46; 2.17-13.74 or externalizing disorder (adjusted OR = 4.33; 1.85-10.15. Conclusions: Investment in reducing SES inequalities and preventing violent events during childhood may improve the mental health of youths from low SES backgrounds.

  7. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Buçaj, Emine; Puca, Edmond; Namani, Sadie; Bajrami, Muharem; Krasniqi, Valbon; Berisha, Lindita; Jakupi, Xhevat; Halili, Bahrie; Kraja, Dhimiter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about pidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo.Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, cl...

  8. Knowledge Management Experience in Kosovo Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Drita Kacandolli-Gjonbalaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an empirical study, the findings of which reflect the experience gathered in knowledge management in Kosovo organizations. The main goal of this paper was to identify the realistic situation, and recommend instruments for a more effective knowledge management in Kosovo organizations. The findings of the empirical study have found inefficiency in knowledge management by organizations in Kosovo. A research was undertaken for this study, thereby directly interviewing representatives of 102 organizations in Kosovo.The research was undertaken during the period January-February 2013. Findings of the research show that most of the organizations in Kosovo are dominated by a random approach to knowledge assessment in personnel. This is the opinion of 83,3% of respondents in foreign organizations and institutions, 58,3% of respondents in education institutions, 53,8% of interviewees in state institutions, 47,4% of respondents in business organizations, and 34,8% of interviewees in the Privatization Agency of Kosovo (regional units and other operational units. The main statistical model used in this study was the ChiSquare, Asymp. Sig test (2 single-way and V. Cramer’s. Records were processed with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The main recommendation of this paper is the following: essential changes are required in managers’ behaviour in terms of knowledge management, thereby fostering and motivating their subordinates to engage in change and new approaches in Kosovo organizations.

  9. Exposure to family violence and attachment styles as predictors of dating violence perpetration among men and women: a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. Exposure to Violence, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Borderline Personality Pathology Among Adolescents in Residential Psychiatric Treatment: The Influence of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholdt, Kelly E; Weiss, Nicole H; Young, John; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to violence during adolescence is a highly prevalent phenomenon associated with a range of deleterious outcomes. Theoretical literature suggests that emotion dysregulation is one consequence of exposure to violence associated with the manifestation of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and borderline personality (BP) pathology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology in a sample of 144 adolescents (age 10- to 17-years; 51% male; 55% African American) admitted to a psychiatric residential treatment center. Exposure to violence was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, was associated with greater PTSS and BP pathology. Furthermore, emotion dysregulation mediated the associations between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology. Findings suggest the importance of assessing and treating emotion dysregulation among violence-exposed adolescents in psychiatric residential treatment.

  11. Smuggling of migrants in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albulena Hajdari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smuggling of migrants, as a serious type of criminality, takes an important place in legal science and criminal legislation. This is due to the fact that actions creating the image of these criminal offences also cause numerous individual, family and societal consequences. Smuggling migrants, with all its consequences, attracts the attention not only of the state authorities, but also the wider public, and numerous researchers and scholars. Nevertheless, despite this fact, this phenomenon has not been studied thoroughly. There is a dire lack of such research in recent years, specifically because of the presence of such crimes in a relatively higher number. This circumstance, specifically the fact that in Kosovo, smuggling migrants is a frequent occurrence, made me engage in studying this type of criminality. The aim of this paper is to research on criminal offences of migrant smuggling in Kosovo, and especially their causes. The causes of these criminal offences may be of numerous natures, but the main causes may be sought in social and economic circumstances, and other conditions related to the unstable political setting, weaknesses in operations of justice authorities, lack of implementation of criminal legislation, etc. In researching the criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have used the method of historical materialism, legal-dogmatic method, statistical method, complaint method and interviews, and the method of studying individual cases. In the case of addressing criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have concluded that these offences represent a serious type of crime, thereby resulting in dire individual, family and societal consequences. They are found in all modern societies, including Kosovo.

  12. Mental Health Nurse’s Exposure to Workplace Violence Leads to Job Stress, Which Leads to Reduced Professional Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Itzhaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Professional quality of life (ProQOL reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6% experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1% experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV. Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a factors affecting ProQOL and (b the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.

  13. Caregiver Insightfulness and Young Children’s Violence Exposure: Testing a Relational Model of Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Forbes, Danielle; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a relational post-traumatic stress frame to explore the co-contribution of young children’s exposure to violence and caregiver insightfulness on child behavioral outcomes in a high-risk, non-referred sample of caregivers and preschoolers (n = 64; mean age 3.83 years, SD = .77). Caregiver insightfulness did not have a main effect on child outcomes but did moderate the relation between violence exposure and child behavior across all observed outcomes. Violence-exposed children with non-insightful caregivers demonstrated higher caregiver-rated internalizing and externalizing behaviors and observer-rated negative affect than all other groups. Among children not exposed to violence, insightfulness was not related to children’s behavior problems or negative affect, suggesting violence-specific processes. Though cross-sectional, results suggest that the effects of violence and caregiver insightfulness on child outcomes are contingent on one another and that caregiver insightfulness may play a protective role in contexts of violence. PMID:26503175

  14. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W.; Roffman, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual’s decision to use abusive behavior. Participan...

  15. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. Results The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%. There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t(134)=-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t(134)=2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. Conclusions This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students’ exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies. PMID:27941182

  16. Multiple Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence and Values: Unique and Interactive Relationships With Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Affuso, Gaetana; Aquilar, Serena

    2015-10-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between multiple forms and settings of exposure to violence (ETV) as well as personal values and antisocial behavior (ASB) in adolescence. The association of ETV as witness or victim in different contexts (family, school, or neighborhood) and the association of the selected values of power, universalism, and conformity with ASB were analyzed. In addition, the role of ETV in moderating the relationship between values and ASB was tested. A total of 369 adolescents participated in the study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Results revealed that ASB was independently affected by exposure to family violence as a victim, exposure to school violence as a witness, exposure to neighborhood violence as a witness, and by all three selected values. The associations of ASB with universalism and conformity were negative. Conversely, the association of ASB with power was positive. One interaction had statistically significant effects. Results revealed that exposure to school violence as a witness moderates the relationship between universalism and ASB. The results highlight a high percentage of explained variance by ETV and values on ASB and suggest the importance of adopting a socio-ecological framework in interpreting adolescent behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Comorbidity Among Depression, Conduct Disorder, and Drug Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Examining the Role of Violence Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    We assessed relations among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use from adolescence to young adulthood, and evaluated whether exposure to violence contributed to disorder co-occurrence. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Respondents were 12–15 years old in 1995–1997 (N = 1,517), and were reinterviewed in 1997–2000 (n = 1,315), and 2000–2002 (n = 1,210). We examined exposure to violence at ages 12–15 and 14–17, and depression, conduct disorder, and drug use at ages 14–17 and 17–20. Multivariate transition models revealed an association between prior conduct disorder and drug use, as well as a relationship between prior depression and conduct disorder. Adolescent exposure to violence was associated with higher odds of conduct disorder and drug use but not depression. Comorbid relations between conduct disorder and drug use were independent of prior exposure to violence. Although preventing adolescent exposure to violence may reduce the risk of conduct disorder and drug use by young adulthood, future research needs to investigate alternative determinants of sequential comorbidity among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22147426

  18. Students' Personal Traits, Violence Exposure, Family Factors, School Dynamics and the Perpetration of Violence in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…

  19. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-11-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people.

  1. Baltics support Kosovo independence / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Balti riigid teatasid päev pärast Kosovo iseseisvuse väljakuulutamist, et toetavad riigi iseseisvust. Eriarvamusi pretsedendi suhtes on venelaste esindajate hulgas ning Euroopa riikide vahel. Baltimaade liidrite põhjendused

  2. Kosovo - Labor Force & Time Use Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC Kosovo LFTUS is designed to answer nine research questions. The first five were identified in the RFQ, whereas the remaining four were added after MCC held...

  3. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF EURIZATION IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Myrvete BADIVUKU PANTINA; Mihane BERISHA NAMANI

    2009-01-01

    One of the many challenges that Kosovo faced after the conflict of 1999 was the selection of a monetary structure. At the time when the United Nations undertook the administration of Kosovo (UNMIK), adoption of the monetary structure based on the utilization of the German Mark appeared as a natural solution. Utilization of a sustainable currency was important in maintaining macroeconomic stability and played a key role in the reestablishment of people’s trust in the financial sector. There wa...

  4. Exposure to physical and sexual violence and suicidal ideation among schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Luiza Schäfer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to physical and sexual violence, and suicidal ideation in Brazilian Schoolchildren, accounting for confounding variables of religious practice, and problems with alcohol and other drugs. Methods This study consists of a cross-sectional analytical approach of a larger school-based study conducted in 2012 in two medium-sized municipalities in south of Brazil. Participants were 3,547 students aging 12 to 17 years old who answered an assembled questionnaire. Descriptive and Logistic Regression analyses were conducted with suicide ideation outcome testing prediction models stratified by sex. Results Suicide ideation prevalence in the sample was of 21.7%, and regression analysis indicated that girls and boys exposed to physical or sexual violence had 3.42 and 3.14 times more probability of referring suicidal ideation in the past 30 days. Adjusted analyses showed little interference of religious practice, while problems with alcohol and other drugs seemed to also explain suicidal ideation in the sample. Conclusion We highlight the importance of future longitudinal studies to investigate the mechanisms through which exposure to physical or sexual abuse influence suicidal ideation among boys and girls, as well as mediation studies that could enlighten the role of drug and alcohol use in this relationship.

  5. Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression.

  6. Assessing exposure to violence using multiple informants: application of hierarchical linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, M; Mohler, B; Raudenbush, S L; Earls, F J

    2000-11-01

    The present study assesses the effects of demographic risk factors on children's exposure to violence (ETV) and how these effects vary by informants. Data on exposure to violence of 9-, 12-, and 15-year-olds were collected from both child participants (N = 1880) and parents (N = 1776), as part of the assessment of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). A two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) with multivariate outcomes was employed to analyze information obtained from these two different groups of informants. The findings indicate that parents generally report less ETV than do their children and that associations of age, gender, and parent education with ETV are stronger in the self-reports than in the parent reports. The findings support a multivariate approach when information obtained from different sources is being integrated. The application of HLM allows an assessment of interactions between risk factors and informants and uses all available data, including data from one informant when data from the other informant is missing.

  7. Does self-complexity moderate the effects of exposure to political violence for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Roziner, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of self-complexity (SC) on well-being (WB) and psychopathology among Israeli adolescents exposed to the Second Lebanon War (2006). Adolescents (N=584, mean age 16.41) completed a SC measure, Political and Negative Life Events (NLE) scales, Brief Symptom Inventory and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The theoretical model analyzed the function of SC as a moderator of exposure effects to political life events (PLE), while controlling for general NLE. Results corroborated the model with SC moderating the effects of the war-related PLE. Adolescents with low SC are at risk for damaged WB and psychiatric consequences from political violence exposure. This opens a diagnostic avenue for identification of at-risk adolescents in this socio-political context toward whom clinical programs should be directed.

  8. Effects of Cognitive Distortions on the Link Between Dating Violence Exposure and Substance Problems in Clinically Hospitalized Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Williams, Caitlin; Day, Catherine; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether cognitive distortions (e.g., cognitive errors; negative views of self, world, and future) influence the association between dating violence and problematic substance use behaviors in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants included 155 adolescents, aged 13-17 years, who had initiated dating. Adolescents completed measures of dating violence, substance-related problems (alcohol and marijuana), and cognitive distortions. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the direct and interactive effects of dating violence exposure and cognitive distortions on likelihood of recent problematic substance use. Results suggested a main effect of dating violence on problematic alcohol and other drug use as well as an interactive effect of dating violence and cognitive distortions. Specifically, the relationship between dating violence and odds of substance-related problems was higher among those with greater (vs. fewer) cognitive distortions. Study results suggest the need for careful screening of cognitive distortions among adolescent dating violence victims, particularly those in mental health treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comorbidity Among Depression, Conduct Disorder, and Drug Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Examining the Role of Violence Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    We assessed relations among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use from adolescence to young adulthood, and evaluated whether exposure to violence contributed to disorder co-occurrence. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Respondents were 12–15 years old in 1995–1997 (N = 1,517), and were reinterviewed in 1997–2000 (n = 1,315), and 2000–2002 (n = 1,210). We examined exposure to violence at ages 12–15 and 14–17, and depression, conduct disorder, and...

  10. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements 238 U and 226 Ra, as a precursor of 222 Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg -1 ) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m -3 ) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for 226 Ra, 22-160 for 238 U and 0.295-32 for 222 Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for 238 U and 226 Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for 222 Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    This study examines patterns of lifetime victimization within the family, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a sample of 198 high-risk young women who are pregnant or parenting. We used cluster analysis to identify 5 profiles of cumulative victimization, based on participants' levels of witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), physical abuse by an adult caregiver, and sexual victimization, all beginning by age 12. Hierarchical regression was used to examine these 5 clusters (ranging from a High All Victimization cluster characterized by high levels of all 3 forms of violence, to a Low All Victimization cluster characterized by low levels of all 3 forms), along with community violence exposure and stigma, as predictors of PTSD symptoms. We found that 3 of the cumulative victimization clusters, in comparison with Low All Victimization, were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms, as was stigma, while community violence exposure was not a significant predictor. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  13. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  14. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-01-01

    The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and also supported by European Union (EU) presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European U...

  15. Kosovo ootab riikide toetust oma iseseisvusele / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 11. dets. 2007, lk. 7. Kosovo albaanlastest liidrid soovivad alustada iseseisvusdeklaratsiooni väljakuulutamise osas rahvusvaheliste partneritega läbirääkimisi, Eurooopa Liidu välisministrid otsivad ühtset seisukohta Kosovo tuleviku küsimuses. Kaart: Kosovo. Lisa: Keeruline saatus

  16. Kosovo alustas vereta lahingut oma riigi nimel / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu kuulutas ametlikult avatuks läbirääkimised Kosovo lõpliku saatuse üle ja määras oma eriesindajaks Kosovo küsimuses Soome endise presidendi Marti Ahtisaari. Lisa, kaart: Kosovo

  17. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W; Roffman, Roger A

    2013-02-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual's decision to use abusive behavior. Participants included 124 men who had engaged in abusive behavior toward an intimate partner. Results provided reasonable support for the proposed model and stronger support for a revised model suggesting that controlled orientation, rather than autonomy orientation, appears to play a stronger role in the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and cognitive biases associated with abusive behavior.

  18. Exposure to violence in the families-of-origin among wife-abusers and maritally nonviolent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, P L

    1988-01-01

    This study examined violence in the families-of-origin among wife assaulters and maritally nonviolent men. Participants were 26 wife abusers and 18 nonviolent men in therapy. Early exposure to marital violence and child abuse was assessed through interviews that were coded both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that batterers were more likely than comparison subjects to have been abused as children, to have witnessed their father beating their mother, and to have been disciplined as children with corporal punishment. Fathers were no more likely than mothers to have abused the men. There were no differences between groups in reports of parental child abuse toward siblings of the men. Differences between groups in exposure to violence were studied to explain why men who grew up in violent homes were not abusive toward their spouses. Socioeconomic status and family dynamics were examined to explain the results.

  19. Lifetime intimate partner violence exposure, attitudes and comfort among Canadian health professions students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Megan R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread public health problem and training of health professions students has become common. Understanding students' prior knowledge, attitudes and personal exposure to IPV will aid educators in designing more effective curriculum. As interprofessional educational efforts proliferate, understanding differences across disciplines will be critical. Findings Students in the schools of Medicine, Nursing and Rehabilitation at a university in Ontario attend an annual daylong interprofessional IPV training. To measure perceived role and comfort with IPV and prior personal exposure, we administered a brief Likert scale survey to a convenience sample of students over three years. 552 students completed the survey; the overall response rate was 73%. The majority (82% agreed that it was their role to intervene in cases of IPV; however Rehabilitation students expressed lower overall comfort levels than did their peers in other schools (p Conclusion While the majority of professional students believe it is their role to address IPV in clinical practice, comfort level varied significantly by field of study. More than one fifth of the students reported some personal exposure to IPV. However this did not impact their level of comfort in addressing this issue. Educators need to take students' preexisting attitudes and personal exposure into account when planning curriculum initiatives in this area.

  20. The Longitudinal Effects of Chronic Mediated Exposure to Political Violence on Ideological Beliefs About Political Conflicts Among Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Boxer, Paul; Shikaki, Khalil

    This study examines the effects of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence on ideological beliefs regarding political conflict. It centers on these effects on young viewers, from preadolescents to adolescents. Ideological beliefs refers here to support of war, perception of threat to one's nation, and normative beliefs concerning aggression toward the out-group. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of Israeli and Palestinian youths who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand ( N = 1,207). Two alternative hypotheses were tested: that chronic exposure via the media increases support for war and aggression and elevates feeling of threat, or that chronic exposure via the media strengthens preexisting beliefs. Results demonstrated that higher levels of exposure were longitudinally related to stronger support for war. Regarding normative beliefs about aggression and threat to one's nation, mediated exposure reinforced initial beliefs, rendering the youths more extreme in their attitudes. These results mostly support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as "reciprocally determined" or "reinforcing spirals." The results are also discussed in light of the differences found between the effect of exposure to political violence firsthand and exposure via the media.

  1. How much does "how much" matter? Assessing the relationship between children's lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Setodji, Claude M; Kofner, Aaron; Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Harris, Racine

    2013-04-01

    The study explores whether and how lifetime violence exposure is related to a set of negative symptoms: child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, and parenting stress. Using a large sample of violence-exposed children recruited to participate in intervention research, the study employs different methods of measuring that exposure. These include total frequency of all lifetime exposure, total frequency of lifetime exposure by broad category (i.e., assault, maltreatment, sexual abuse, and witnessing violence), and polyvictimization defined as exposure to multiple violence categories. The results indicate that only polyvictimization, constructed as a dichotomous variable indicating two or more categories of lifetime exposure, emerged as a consistent predictor of negative symptoms. The total lifetime frequency of all violence exposure was not associated with negative symptoms, after controlling for the influence of polyvictimization. Likewise, in the presence of a dichotomous polyvictimization indicator the total lifetime frequency of exposure to a particular violence category was unrelated to symptoms overall, with the exception of trauma symptoms and experiences of sexual abuse. Taken together, these findings suggest that total lifetime exposure is not particularly important to negative symptoms, nor is any particular category of exposure after controlling for polyvictimization, with the single exception of sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. Instead, it is the mix of exposure experiences that predict negative impacts on children in this sample. Further research is needed to continue to explore and test these issues.

  2. The Sleeper Effect of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure: Long-Term Consequences on Young Children's Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience a wide variety of short-term social adjustment and emotional difficulties, including externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression. While children are affected by IPV at all ages, little is known about the long-term consequences of IPV exposure at…

  3. Research Review: The Relationship between Childhood Violence Exposure and Juvenile Antisocial Behavior--A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Stover, Carla Smith; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The connection between childhood violence exposure and antisocial behavior in adolescence has received much attention and has important implications for understanding and preventing criminal behavior. However, there are a limited number of well-designed prospective studies that can suggest a causal relationship, and little is known…

  4. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  5. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  6. Controlling for Selection Effects in the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2011-01-01

    This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…

  7. Adolescent Callous-Unemotional Traits Mediates the Longitudinal Association between Conduct Problems and Media Violence Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas. A. Fanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the bidirectional longitudinal association between conduct problems (CPs and media violence exposure (MVE, with callous-unemotional (CU traits as a potential mediator of this association. The sample consisted of 1,451 (49.9% boys Greek Cypriot adolescents. CPs and MVE were measured at Year 1 and Year 3 and CU traits were measured at Year 2, enabling the examination of longitudinal associations and indirect effects between these variables. A bidirectional association between CPs and MVE was identified. Further, both CPs and MVE at Year 1 were positively associated with Year 2 CU traits, and youth high on CU traits at Year 2 were more likely to exhibit CP behaviors and to be exposed to media violence at Year 3. Finally, two indirect pathways were identified, suggesting that the longitudinal bidirectional association between CPs and MVE was partially mediated by CU traits. These findings suggest that CU traits constitute an underlying mechanism explaining the longitudinal association between CPs and MVE.

  8. Lifetime Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels Across the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson Blackmore, Emma; Mittal, Mona; Cai, Xueya; Moynihan, Jan A; Matthieu, Monica M; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health concern, affecting one-third of US women. Prior research suggests an association between exposure to IPV and poor maternal perinatal health, but the underlying biological correlates are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between exposure to IPV and proinflammatory cytokine levels, a candidate mechanism accounting for poor psychiatric and obstetric outcomes, across the perinatal period. Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 171 women receiving obstetrical care from a hospital-based practice serving a predominantly low-income minority population. Participants completed questionnaires on IPV exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial and obstetric factors and provided blood samples at 18 and 32 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were assayed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-five (20.5%) women reported lifetime exposure to IPV and 7 (4.1%) reported being physically hurt in the preceding 12 months (4 while pregnant). Lifetime exposure to IPV was associated with increased likelihood of experiencing perinatal depression and smoking during pregnancy. Women with a history of IPV had significantly higher levels of TNF-α at 18 weeks (z = -2.29, p < 0.05), but significantly smaller changes in levels of IL-6 (β = -0.36, p = 0.04) across time. Lifetime exposure to IPV was associated with a range of adverse mental health outcomes and may affect proinflammatory cytokine levels in pregnancy.

  9. Socioemotional Adjustment as a Mediator of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Performance in Low-Income Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether exposure to community violence is indirectly related to academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Three hundred eighteen mothers and adolescents who participated in a longitudinal investigation were interviewed when adolescents were age 10, 14, and 16. Community violence exposure at age 14 was significantly related to anxious/depressed symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Delinquent behaviors (but not anxious/depressed symptoms) were significantly associated with academic performance at age 16. Exposure to community violence was indirectly related to academic performance through delinquent behaviors. There was no significant indirect effect of exposure to community violence on academic performance through anxious/depressed symptoms. Covariates included sociodemographics and exposure to child abuse. Age 10 anxious/depressed symptoms, age 10 delinquent behaviors, and age 14 academic performance were also included in the model to control for preexisting differences in socioemotional adjustment and academic performance. Results suggest that exposure to community violence may initiate a cascade of problems that spread from behavior problems to declines in academic performance. Our results highlight the need for schools to consider exposure to community violence as one form of trauma and to transform in ways that make them more trauma-sensitive. The use of trauma-sensitive practices that address the effects of violence exposure on youth may help limit the progression of adverse effects from delinquent behavior to other domains of functioning.

  10. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  11. Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: a 26–year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Niclas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence victimization represents a serious risk factor for health related symptoms, for both men and women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of violence exposure in late adolescence and early adulthood on adult health, physical as well as mental, using a long-term prospective population-based study, with a follow up of 9, 19, and 26 years. Methods The primary data source is a longitudinal panel from one of the longest running social science surveys in the world, the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU. We analyzed three cohorts, individuals aged 15–19 in 1974 and 1981, and individuals aged 18–19 in 1991 which were followed up 2000. Structured interviews on childhood, family relationships, life-events, living conditions, health history and status, working conditions, behavioral, psychosocial, and demographic variables were repeatedly used in all cohorts. Results Multivariate models of violence exposures in adolescence in the 1974–91 cohorts as predictors of adult health in 2000 are reported for both men and women. Women exposed to violence had raised odds ratios for ill health, measured as heavy illness burden, and poor self rated health, after controlling for possible confounders. No such associations were found for men. Conclusions This study’s findings provide additional empirical support for the importance of policies and practices to identify and prevent violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood and to supply treatments for adolescence exposed to violence and above all the young women.

  12. The impact of family and community violence on children's depression trajectories: examining the interactions of violence exposure, family social support, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Greeson, Megan

    2010-04-01

    This longitudinal study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationships between witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), community and school violence exposure (CSVE), family social support, gender, and depression over 2 years within a sample of 100 school-aged children. We found significant between-child differences in both the initial levels of depression and the trajectories of depression; depression over time was positively associated with change in witnessing IPV and CSVE and negatively associated with change in support. Two significant 3-way interactions were found: Gender and initial support, as well as gender and initial witnessing IPV, both significantly moderated the effect of change in witnessing IPV on the children's depression over time. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Privatization of POEs in Kosovo – Case Study: Post and Telecom of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Agron Mustafa; Afrim Loku

    2017-01-01

    The Republic of Kosovo is Europe’s youngest country – and one of its poorest – but it has maintained positive economic growth rates, most recently 3.6 percent in 2016. Kosovo is working to improve the investment climate by strengthening the legal environment necessary to attract and retain foreign investment. Kosovo is comparatively small country located in the South-East Europe. It has a population of approximately 1.8 million, with 49.53 percent male and 50.47 percent female, and percentage...

  14. Exposure to violence among women with unwanted pregnancies and the association with post-traumatic stress disorder, symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinglöf, Soile; Högberg, Ulf; Lundell, Inger Wallin; Svanberg, Agneta Skoog

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to examine lifetime exposure to violence, physical and sexual, among women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) and its association with socio-demographic factors, PTSD, symptoms of anxiety and depression. The design of the study was a Swedish multi-centre study targeting women requesting TOP. All women requesting TOP with a gestational length less than 12 pregnancy weeks were approached for participation in the study. The questionnaire comprised the following research instruments: Screen Questionnaire-Post traumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The response rate was 57% and the final sample was 1514 women. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied. Lifetime exposure to violence was common among women seeking abortion. Exposure to violence was associated with low education, single marital status, smoking and high alcohol consumption. Exposure to violence was associated with the occurrence of signs of PTSD and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Among those having PTSD, all had been exposed to sexual violence and almost all had been exposed to physical violence, while for those with symptoms of anxiety and depression almost half had been exposed to either physical or sexual violence. Exposure to physical and sexual abuse was common among women requesting TOP, and was strongly associated with the occurrence of PTSD, symptoms of anxiety and depression. This underscores the importance for health professionals to recognize and offer support to those women exposed to violence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Learners' self-reports of exposure to violence in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pervasive worldwide phenomenon of gender-based violence in schools poses ... aged between 13 and 17 years who were perpetrators or victims of violence. ... gendered comments, sexualised gestures, sexual harassment and bullying.

  16. Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-05-15

    Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy potential of agricultural crops in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahiti, Naser; Sfishta, Avni; Gramatikov, Plamen

    2015-01-01

    Primary energy mix in Kosovo with 98 % consisting of lignite and only 2 % of water is far from portfolio of primary energy sources which could contribute to a sustainable and environmental friendly energy supply of the country. In order to improve the situation, government is supporting activities in favor of upgrading of electricity production capacities based on Renewable Energy Sources. Corresponding action plans and feed in tariffs are already in place. However, prior to any investment, one needs specific results on available potential. Current study provides results of the analysis of Kosovo potential for energy production by using of agricultural crops. Study is based on national statistics on available agricultural crops in Kosovo and provides results on biomass potential of crops, corresponding energy potential and an assessment of financial cost of energy produced.

  18. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. From Family Violence Exposure to Violent Offending: Examining Effects of Race and Mental Health in a Moderated Mediation Model Among Confined Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Alexander, Apryl A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-09-01

    Depression, substance use, and impulsivity have been linked to family violence exposure and to the development of violent offending during adolescence. Additionally, the indirect effects associated with these factors may not generalize across different racial/ethnic adolescent populations. The present study tested whether race/ethnicity moderated the mediated relationship between family violence exposure and violent offending, with depression, substance use, and impulsivity as mediators. A sample of 1,359 male adolescents was obtained from a juvenile correctional program. Between-racial/ethnic group comparisons were generally consistent with previous findings. The overall moderated mediation model was significant in predicting violence for both racial/ethnic groups. Different factors influenced violent offending among African Americans and European Americans in the tested model. Furthermore, race/ethnicity moderated the relationship between family violence exposure and impulsivity and substance use. Implications and future directions resolving issues are discussed concerning whether race/ethnicity should be included as a moderator in models of violence.

  20. Critical analysis of press reporting on the March riots in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Jahiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The March 2004 riots were considered the worst inter-ethnic event in Kosovo, where dozens of citizens lost their lives, and thousands were injured. The media, from various domestic and international reports, were generally criticized for boosting interethnic tensions, but in the scientific and professional sphere, no one made a thorough analysis. In this paper, I will analyze the daily press reporting for the March 2004 riots in Kosovo, dated March 17, when the outbreak of violence occurred. Media in democratic societies have an important role, so those during reporting, and especially in such tense and emotional situations, should be cautious in reporting. Through text analysis, it can be concluded that some of the daily newspapers have also expressed emotional status in the way of reporting, through the persons involved in the story. However, in this case, should not be overlooked the international mission of UNMIK, which did not do enough work to keep the public opinion informed about the event and the general tension created in Kosovo.

  1. The Effects of Community and Family Violence Exposure on Anxiety Trajectories during Middle Childhood: The Role of Family Social Support as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Greeson, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study investigated the relations between community and school violence exposure, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), family social support, and anxiety, within a sample of 100 school-age children (39% female, M age = 9.90 years). Using multilevel modeling, we found heterogeneity across children in terms of their…

  2. Kosovo ootab nüüd iseseisvuse väljakuulutamist tuleval aastal / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Kosovo valimised võitis Kosovo Vabastusarmee (UCK) poliitilise tiiva juhi Hashim Thaci Kosovo Demokraatlik Partei. Kosovlaste lootusest EL-i ja USA abile iseseisvuse saavutamisel. Lisa: Verine ajalugu

  3. Kosovo tuleviku kõnelustel jäi kokkulepe sündimata / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Austrias Badenis toimunud Kosovo kõnelustel ei taganenud Serbia ega Kosovo oma seisukohtadest. Kui EL ja USA kalduvad olukorra ainsaks lahenduseks pidama Kosovo iseseisvumist, siis Venemaa on selle vastu. Lisa: Konfliktil on pikk ajalugu

  4. Sexual media exposure, sexual behavior, and sexual violence victimization in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Strasburger, Victor C; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2014-11-01

    Emerging research suggests sexual media affects sexual behavior, but most studies are based on regional samples and few include measures of newer mediums. Furthermore, little is known about how sexual media relates to sexual violence victimization. Data are from 1058 youth 14 to 21 years of age in the national, online Growing up with Media study. Forty-seven percent reported that many or almost all/all of at least one type of media they consumed depicted sexual situations. Exposure to sexual media in television and movies, and music was greater than online and in games. All other things equal, more frequent exposure to sexual media was related to ever having had sex, coercive sex victimization, and attempted/completed rape but not risky sexual behavior. Longer standing mediums such as television and movies appear to be associated with greater amounts of sexual media consumption than newer ones, such as the Internet. A nuanced view of how sexual media content may and may not be affecting today's youth is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  6. Lasting effect of intimate partner violence exposure during preschool on aggressive behavior and prosocial skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Voith, Laura A; Gromoske, Andrea N

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure can negatively affect children's social behavior. However, it is unknown if the negative effects of IPV exposure during the preschool years are sustained through the early school years, if maladaptive behavior in one domain (e.g., aggressive behavior) is linked to subsequent maladaptive behavior in a different developmental domain (e.g., prosocial skill deficits), and if these relations differ by gender. This study addresses these gaps by using data from a sample of 1,125 children aged 3 to 4 at Time 1 and aged 5 to 7 at Time 2 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. A series of nested longitudinal structural equation models were tested. Aggressive behavior and prosocial skills were stable across time. Time 1 IPV was associated with increased aggressive behavior at Time 1, which in turn was related to increased Time 2 aggressive behavior. Gender differences emerged; Time 2 IPV was associated with prosocial skills deficits for girls but not boys. A cross-domain relation existed between Time 1 aggressive behavior and Time 2 prosocial skills deficits for boys but not girls. These findings support that behavioral problems demonstrated later in childhood may emerge from earlier adverse developmental experiences and that difficulties in one domain may spill over into other developmental domains. Gender-specific interventions to promote competence in children may contribute to diverting children from maladaptive developmental outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Derr, Amelia S

    2011-06-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental "acceptance" of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes.

  8. A Life Course Model of Self-Reported Violence Exposure and Ill-health with A Public Health Problem Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Niclas

    2014-01-01

    Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution, declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course - deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse - but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society. There is considerable evidence that stressful early life events influence a variety of physical and/or psychological health problems later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from number of chronic diseases. A model outlining potential biobehavioural pathways is put forward that may be a potential explanation of how exposure to violence among both men and women work as an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work.

  9. The association between child exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and perpetration of IPV in adulthood-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Adham, Sami; Gill, Sana; McTavish, Jill; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-02-01

    Increasingly recognized as a distinct form of childhood maltreatment, children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with an array of negative psychosocial outcomes, including elevated risk for additional violence over the life course. Although studies have identified child exposure to IPV as a predictor of IPV perpetration in adulthood, no review has critically evaluated the methodology of this quantitative work. The present study examines the association between childhood exposure to IPV and the perpetration of IPV in adulthood based on a systematic review of the literature from inception to January 4, 2016. Databases searched included Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sociological Abstracts and ERIC. Database searches were complemented with backward and forward citation chaining. Studies were critically appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Of 5601 articles identified by the search, 19 studies were included for data extraction. Sixteen of these studies found that child exposure to IPV was significantly and positively associated with adult IPV perpetration; three studies reported null findings. The methodological quality of the studies was low. Work thus far has tended to focus on child exposure to physical IPV and the perpetration of physical IPV within heterosexual contexts. In addition, measures of child exposure to IPV vary in their classification of what exposure entails. We critically discuss the strengths and limitations of the existing evidence and the theoretical frameworks informing this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bosnia ja Kosovo riigiloomise õppetunnid / Karin Maandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maandi, Karin

    2005-01-01

    OSCE missiooni koosseisus Kosovos ning Bosnias ja Hertsegoviinas viibinud Karin Maandi kirjeldab aspekte, mis on olnud olulised stabiilsuse tagamisel Balkanil ja Afganistanis. Autori sõnul ei võta välismaailm konflikti sekkudes tihti arvesse, et konfliktist on puudutatud paljud valdkonnad ja et pakutud lahendused peavad sobima kohalikesse oludesse. Lisa: Õppetunnid

  11. Characteristics of Tularemia in Kosovo 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Izet Sadiku

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: In this late decade in our country, tularemia continues to be a disease that represents a healthcare problem. Glandular forms of tularemia dominate in Kosovo. Treatment with gentamicin has had good effects. Incision and drainage of the inflamed glands has shown to be a good method in accelerating the recovery of patient. Prophylaxis has to be applied for prevention of the disease.

  12. Digital Marketing Insights and Opportunities in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBA. Besfort Ahmeti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, we have witnessed an ever increasing concentration of companies towards the consumer. This has come as a result of various factors, of which an important one has been the digital revolution, which has empowered consumers by giving them access to information and access to one another on a global scale. In an attempt by companies to adapt to this customer empowerment in order to achieve a greater profitability by better serving customers, digital marketing was born. Digital marketing includes various methods of achieving marketing goals by using digital tools, including: search marketing, social media marketing, email marketing, mobile marketing, content marketing, etc. While digital marketing has proven to be very successful in developed countries around the world, in Kosovo it does not have a significant presence. Either way, the development opportunities of this field in Kosovo are plenty. In Kosovo, the percentage of internet users is quite large. This means that there is an almost unexploited market online. The main reasons why digital marketing can succeed in Kosovo are: low cost compared to traditional marketing (TV, radio, billboard, etc., a positive attitude of businesses towards digitalization, a large number of potential customers, and an emphasized need for professionals in this field.

  13. National policies. Kosovo. Starting from scratch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truijen, A.

    2008-05-15

    With one of Europe's largest reserves of brown coal and a treasure trove of various minerals, Kosovo should be heading for a bright future. However, the energy and mining industries have been neglected and the infrastructure is outdated. Reactivating these industries will take foreign investors, good management and large amounts of money.

  14. The case of Kosovo and international law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2009 (2010), s. 51-65 ISSN 0554-498X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : public international law * independence of the Kosovo * International Court of Justice Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  15. Coping zone construction and mapping: an exploratory study of contextual coping, PTSD, and childhood violence exposure in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan-Power, Elizabeth M; Boxer, Paul; McGuirl, Colleen; Church, Ruslana

    2013-06-01

    This mixed-method study explored how urban children aged 11 to 14 cope with multicontextual violence exposures simultaneously and analyzed the immediate action steps these children took when faced with such violence over time. Participants' (N = 12) narratives were initially analyzed utilizing a grounded theory framework as 68 violent incidents were coded for perceived threat and coping levels. Coping strategies were examined from a Transactional Model of Stress and Coping perspective taking into account the context and severity of each violent exposure itself. A comprehensive assessment map was developed to plot and visually reveal participants (N = 12) overall contextualized coping responses. Overall "coping zone" scores were generated to index perceived threat and coping responses associated with each violent incident described. These scores were then correlated with indicators of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that urban children with less optimal coping zone scores across context have a greater likelihood of PTSD than do children who do not.

  16. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  17. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, TE; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, RM; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children’s exposure to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare ...

  18. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Measuring attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to intimate partner violence: the ATT-RECOURSE scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Minh, Tran Hung; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2014-06-01

    Attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women are widely surveyed, but attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to IPV are understudied, despite their importance for intervention. Designed through qualitative research and administered in a probability sample of 1,054 married men and women 18 to 50 years in My Hao District, Vietnam, the ATT-RECOURSE scale measures men's and women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after exposure to physical IPV. Data were initially collected for nine items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with one random split-half sample (N 1 = 526) revealed a one-factor model with significant loadings (0.316-0.686) for six items capturing a wife's silence, informal recourse, and formal recourse. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the other random split-half sample (N 2 = 528) showed adequate fit for the six-item model and significant factor loadings of similar magnitude to the EFA results (0.412-0.669). For the six items retained, men consistently favored recourse more often than did women (52.4%-66.0% of men vs. 41.9%-55.2% of women). Tests for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender revealed one item with significant uniform DIF, and adjusting for this revealed an even larger gap in men's and women's attitudes, with men favoring recourse, on average, more than women. The six-item ATT-RECOURSE scale is reliable across independent samples and exhibits little uniform DIF by gender, supporting its use in surveys of men and women. Further methodological research is discussed. Research is needed in Vietnam about why women report less favorable attitudes than men regarding women's recourse after physical IPV.

  20. Maternal intimate partner violence exposure, child cortisol reactivity and child asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Voegtline, Kristin; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Granger, Douglas A; Blair, Clancy; Johnson, Sara B

    2015-10-01

    Psychosocial stressors like intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure are associated with increased risk of childhood asthma. Longitudinal studies have not investigated the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (and associated alterations in cortisol release) in the child IPV exposure-asthma association. We sought to investigate this association, and to assess whether this relationship differs by child HPA reactivity. This secondary analysis used longitudinal cohort data from the Family Life Project. Participants included 1,292 low-income children and mothers; maternal interview and child biomarker data, including maternal report of IPV and child asthma, and child salivary cortisol obtained with validated stress reactivity paradigms, were collected when the child was 7, 15, 24, 35, and 48 months. Using structural equation modeling, maternal IPV when the child was 7 months of age predicted subsequent reports of childhood asthma (B=0.18, p=.002). This association differed according to the child's HPA reactivity status, with IPV exposed children who were HPA reactors at 7 and 15 months of age--defined as a ≥10% increase in cortisol level twenty minutes post peak arousal during the challenge tasks and a raw increase of at least .02μg/dl--being significantly at risk for asthma (7 months: B=0.17, p=.02; 15 months: B=0.17, p=.02). Our findings provide support that children who are physiologically reactive are the most vulnerable to adverse health outcomes when faced with environmental stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kosovo valmistub aasta lõpus iseseisvuma / Triin Oppi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 29. aug. 2007, lk. 7. Serbiast lahku lüüa sooviva Kosovo iseseisvuse küsimuses peetavad EL-i, USA ja Venemaa kõnelused lõpevad 10. detsembril, mille järel soovib provints välja kuulutada iseseisvuse. Ekspertide hinnangul võivad Kosovo albaanlased kannustada Bosnia serblasi ja Makedoonia albaanlasi samuti iseseisvust taotlema. Eesti toetusest ÜRO erisaadiku Martti Ahtisaari ettepanekule Kosovo staatuse suhtes

  2. Learners' self-reports of exposure to violence in South African schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    The high levels of violence in South African and other communities have ... the widespread violence in the school context is an area of concern, because it impacts on .... in delinquency based on the power play going on in the family structure, ...

  3. Population as an Economic Development Factor: the Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmije MUSTAFA-TOPXHIU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo's population is a young population and is gradually entering the final stage of demographic transition, that is characterized by considerable decline in fertility, natality, mortality and natural growth. Despite demographic disturbances caused by numerous social and economic factors, the long period under Serbian occupation, major population displacement and the War of 1999, the population of Kosovo over the last hundred years have continued to increase, with high and low fluctuations. Kosovo population remains one of the populations with the highest growth in the region and broader. The objective of this study is to present and analyse the main charachteristics and trends of population of Kosovo.

  4. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK and also supported by European Union (EU presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European Union Rule of Law Mission known as EULEX. In the course of implementation of their mandates transitional justice processes were not a priority for UNMIK and EU presences. With the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA the EU made transitional justice part of the Kosovo accession demands. In December 2015, the Government of Kosovo approved its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (NAPISAA. The General Principles of the SAA, included within the NAPISAA oblige Kosovo Government to approve a National Transitional Justice Strategy. This paper analyses EU peace and institution-building support and their impact in transitional justice processes in Kosovo. Through analysing the mandate and actions on the ground it draws conclusions if EU is an active participant in transitional justice process in Kosovo or transitional justice policies are promoted by EU only as part of its enlargement strategy. Finally, the paper gives recommendations as a basis for future elaboration of an EU approach to transitional justice.

  5. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  6. Prevalence of Exposure to Risk Factors for Violence among Young Adults Seen in an Inner-City Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Hankin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess the prevalence of risk factors for violent injury among young adults treated at an urban emergency department (ED.Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of a longitudinal study. Enrollment took place in an urban ED in a Level 1 trauma center, June through December 2010. All patients aged 18–24 years were eligible. Patients were excluded if they were incarcerated, critically ill, or unable to read English. Study participants completed a 10-minute multiple-choice questionnaire using previously validated scales: a aggression, b perceived likelihood of violence, c recent violent behavior, d peer behavior, and e community exposure to violence.Results: 403 eligible patients were approached, of whom 365 (90.1% consented to participate. Average age was 21.1 (95% confidence interval: 20.9, 21.3 years, and participants were 57.2% female, 85.7% African American, and 82.2% were educated at the high school level or beyond. Among study participants, rates of high-risk exposure to individual risk factors ranged from 7.4% (recent violent behavior to 24.5% (exposure to community violence, with 32.3% of patients showing high exposure to at least one risk factor. When comparing participants by ethnicity, no significant differences were found between White, African-American, and Hispanic participants. Males and females differed significantly only on 1 of the scales – community violence, (20.4% of males vs. 30.3% of females, p¼0.03. Selfreported hostile/aggressive feelings were independently associated with initial presentation for injury associated complaint after controlling for age, sex, and race (odds ratio 3.48 (1.49-8.13.Conclusion: Over 30% of young adults presenting to an urban ED reported high exposure to risk factors for violent injury. The high prevalence of these risk factors among ED patients highlights the potential benefit of a survey instrument to identify youth who might benefit from

  7. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence: A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2017-01-01

    In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself. We cross-examined 8 national data sources and extracted data about children's demographics and circumstances prior to, and during the homicide. Our primary outcomes were prior violence at home (child maltreatment, neglect or domestic violence) and homicide witness status (ranging from being at a different location altogether to being present at the scene). During the decade under study, 256 children lost a biological parent due to 137 cases of intimate partner homicide. On average, the children were 7.4 years old at the time of the homicide (51.1% were boys; 95% CI 47.3-54.7) and most lost their mother (87.1%; full population data). Immigrant children were overrepresented (59.4%; 95% CI 52.8-66.0). Of the children for whom information about previous violence at home was gathered, 67.7% (95% CI 59.7-73.7) were certainly exposed and 16.7% (95% CI 11.3-22.2) probably. Of the children who had certainly been exposed, 43.1% (95% CI 41.1-60.9) had not received social services or mental health care. The majority of the children (58.7%; 95% CI 52.1-65.3) were present at the location of the homicide when the killing took place, with varying levels of exposure. Homicide weapons mostly involved cutting weapons and firearms, leading to graphic crime scenes. Care providers need capacity not only to help children cope with the sudden loss of a parent but also with unaddressed histories of domestic violence and exposure to graphic homicide scenes, in a culture

  8. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence: A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alisic

    Full Text Available In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself.We cross-examined 8 national data sources and extracted data about children's demographics and circumstances prior to, and during the homicide. Our primary outcomes were prior violence at home (child maltreatment, neglect or domestic violence and homicide witness status (ranging from being at a different location altogether to being present at the scene. During the decade under study, 256 children lost a biological parent due to 137 cases of intimate partner homicide. On average, the children were 7.4 years old at the time of the homicide (51.1% were boys; 95% CI 47.3-54.7 and most lost their mother (87.1%; full population data. Immigrant children were overrepresented (59.4%; 95% CI 52.8-66.0. Of the children for whom information about previous violence at home was gathered, 67.7% (95% CI 59.7-73.7 were certainly exposed and 16.7% (95% CI 11.3-22.2 probably. Of the children who had certainly been exposed, 43.1% (95% CI 41.1-60.9 had not received social services or mental health care. The majority of the children (58.7%; 95% CI 52.1-65.3 were present at the location of the homicide when the killing took place, with varying levels of exposure. Homicide weapons mostly involved cutting weapons and firearms, leading to graphic crime scenes.Care providers need capacity not only to help children cope with the sudden loss of a parent but also with unaddressed histories of domestic violence and exposure to graphic homicide scenes, in a culture

  9. The impact of exposure to interpersonal violence on gender differences in adolescent-onset major depression: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Gilman, Stephen E; Willett, John B; Slopen, Natalie B; Molnar, Beth E

    2012-05-01

    Beginning in adolescence, females are at significantly higher risk for depression than males. Despite substantial efforts, gaps remain in our understanding of this disparity. This study tested whether gender differences in adolescent-onset depression arise because of female's greater exposure or sensitivity to violence. Data came from 5,692 participants in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Trained interviewers collected data about major depression and participants' exposure to four types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, sexual assault, rape, and witnessing violence) using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We used discrete time survival analysis to investigate gender differences in the risk of adolescent onset depression. Of the entire sample, 5.7% met DSM-IV criteria for depression by age 18; 5.8% of the sample reported being physically abused, 11.7% sexually assaulted, 8.5% raped, and 13.2% witnessed violence by age 18. Females had 1.51 times higher odds of depression by age 18 than males. Exposure to all types of violence was associated with an increased odds of depression in both the past year and the years following exposure. Adjusting for exposure to violence partially attenuated the association between gender and depression, especially for sexual assault (odds ratio [OR] attenuated = 1.28; 15.23%) and rape (OR attenuated = 1.32; 12.59%). There was no evidence that females were more vulnerable to the effects of violence than males. Gender differences in depression are partly explained by females' higher likelihood of experiencing interpersonal violence. Reducing exposure to sexual assault and rape could therefore mitigate gender differences in depression. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Somatic symptoms, peer and school stress, and family and community violence exposure among urban elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Shayla L; Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Hyman, Corine; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-10-01

    Somatic symptoms are a common physical response to stress and illness in childhood. This study assessed 409, primarily African American (85.6 %), urban elementary school children to examine the association between: (1) somatic symptoms and potential external stressors (school and peer stress, family conflict, and community violence) and (2) parent and child agreement on children's self-report of somatic symptoms. The odds of self-report of somatic complaints were significantly associated with family conflict, school and peer stress, and community violence exposure (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.50; OR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28; and OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05, respectively). Identifying the associations between social, family, and community based stress and somatic symptoms may improve the quality of life for children living in urban environments through early identification and treatment.

  11. Childhood exposure to domestic violence and attitude towards wife beating in adult life: a study of men in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Dalal, Koustuv

    2010-03-01

    This study examined men's justification of wife beating in relation to their perceived rights and autonomy using a nationally representative sample of 18,047 men in India with childhood exposure to parental violence. Five reasons for wife beating justification, four items of men's perceived rights, and five items of household autonomy were analysed using chi2 test and logistic regression. Among 18,047 participants, 67% justified wife beating. Low education, economic stress and being unmarried were generally more associated with justifying wife beating for all five reasons. Wife's refusal of sex and husband's final say on household autonomy are risk factors. Joint autonomy on household decision making and wife's autonomy on managing her own earnings are protective factors. Perceived relationship rights and autonomy are highly predictive of wife-beating justification for the men who have been exposed to parental violence during childhood. The study has significant implications for public health planners and education strategies.

  12. The impact of domestic violence exposure on South Asian children in the United States: Perspectives of domestic violence agency staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Fikre, Tsion; Millner, Uma; Bair-Merritt, Megan

    2018-02-01

    The South Asian community is the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, and past research suggests that South Asian domestic violence (DV) survivors may require culturally-specific resources. Similarly, South Asian children in the US exposed to DV may have unique responses and needs, but this has not been explored to date. The objective of this study was to examine the specific needs of South Asian children exposed to DV from the vantage point of staff from South Asian DV agencies across the United States. Thirty interviews were conducted, with data coded and consolidated into larger themes using thematic analysis. Participants described several factors important to understanding the impact of DV on South Asian children including the role of the extended family, identifying with two cultures, fear about what the South Asian community will think, gender differences, and the importance of projecting an image of perfection. Participants also discussed development of culturally-tailored resources. This study suggests the importance of framing South Asian children's experiences within the context of interweaving South Asian and American cultural values, with careful attention paid to how potential culture clashes between parents and children may impact the way children process trauma. Further work should triangulate these themes with children, parents, and extended family, as well as collaborate with South Asian DV agencies to design child-focused programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF KOSOVO PENSION SAVING TRUST FUND

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    Ymer Havolli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pension system in Kosovo has experienced various developments in the last three decades. These changes have been driven by both, political and economic developments. The political developments were most important, especially that the previous system failed due to the lack of access to the fund in the post-war Kosovo. The newly established system in post-war Kosovo continues its operations with principles of modern pension fund, savings-based. KPST was established by Law in December 2001 as a not-for-profit institution. As such, the sole objective of KPST is to serve only the best interests of its contributors. KPST is funded in a similar way as are all defined contribution pension funds i.e. by charging fees on assets under management (pension assets. KPST is funded in a similar way as are all defined contribution pension funds i.e. by charging fees on assets under management (pension assets. Throughout this discussion paper, the implications of the crisis, management, asset management issues and most importantly, investment strategy are discussed and some potential solutions to these problems are proposed in order to increase the flexibility of the fund to improve performance in times of crisis.

  14. Midwifery student exposure to workplace violence in clinical settings: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Boyle, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Evidence indicates that nurses regularly experience bullying within the workplace which has the potential for health and social effects, as well as worker attrition. Literature suggests that nursing students are exposed to workplace violence during clinical placements including from health professionals and mentors, however little is known about midwifery students. This study sought to examine undergraduate midwifery students' experiences of workplace violence during clinical placements. A cross-sectional approach using a paper-based survey, the Paramedic Workplace Questionnaire, was used to solicit the information. Students were exposed to workplace violence with the main act being intimidation (30%), verbal abuse (17%), physical abuse (3%), and sexual harassment (3%). In more than three-quarters of the incidents the students had some level of apprehension or were frightened as a result of the violence. Students responded to the acts of violence with changes to emotions, self-confidence, and a desire to "give up". This paper demonstrates ways in which midwifery students are vulnerable to potential workplace violence from various sources. Support mechanisms need to be developed to ensure this can be minimised. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Violence exposure and burn-out among Turkish nursing home staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Cam, Olcay

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of violence against personnel from residents and to identify the prevalence of burn-out among staff working in nursing homes. The study was performed in two cities in the west of Turkey. A semi-structured questionnaire on violence and Pines' Burnout scale were distributed among all the staff working in six nursing homes, and 214 of them responded. Of the total number of respondents, 56% stated that they had been exposed to violence during the preceding year. More than 20% stated that they had reported violence to their supervisor. Less than 10% had received medical or psychological support following the event. Violent incidents were reported significantly more frequently among staff who reported problems working with elderly residents. There was no relationship between violence towards staff and burn-out. Violence is commonly experienced by care workers in nursing homes for the elderly. Strategies to improve occupational conditions in nursing homes are required.

  16. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  17. Kosovo probleemid taas ummikseisus / Jüri Piirisild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirisild, Jüri

    2007-01-01

    Kosovo iseseisvumist lükkab edasi Venemaa vastuseis, kes on ÜRO-s selle küsimuse puhul ähvardanud kasutada oma vetoõigust. Ühelt poolt on see Venemaa võimalus lüüa kiilu lääneriikide vahele, kuid teisalt tooks ka Kosovo iseseisvumine Venemaale kasu

  18. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “downward spirals” and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment. PMID:26456988

  19. The Kosovo Education for Sustainable Development's Role in Promoting the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beka, Arlinda

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Kosovo declared its independence in 2008 following almost a decade of administration by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo. During the United Nations administration the first initiatives towards Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) were taken, particularly with the Millennium Development Goals agenda. Following the idea of…

  20. Educational Change in Post-War Kosovo: Perceptions of Kosovo Educators as Presented in "Shkëndija"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirsylaj, Armend

    2013-01-01

    After the Kosovo conflict ended in June 1999, Kosovo educational authorities, backed extensively by international technical assistance, introduced educational changes for the first time after a decade of isolation. Educational policy documents started to shift rhetoric of teaching and learning practices from traditional, largely content-based,…

  1. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I: prevalence, risk factors and consequences

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    Montgomery Edith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1 determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2 identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. Methods The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II. A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870 were selected. Results Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family

  2. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Modvig, Jens; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-11-21

    The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1) determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2) identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II). A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870) were selected. Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for

  3. Relations between the EU and Republic of Kosovo - The path of Kosovo integration towards the EU

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    Arif Riza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the European Union member states have surpassed various challenges toward their integration into the European family. Although all these challenges are special cases on their own, Kosovo’s journey differs from the above mentioned cases, because Kosovo has not been recognized as an independent state by some members of the European family. The other key element that differs Kosovo’s journey from other cases is the presence of international institutions such as: EULEX, ICO, UNMIK, KFOR etc. in Kosovo’s territory. These organizations were not present in other member states of the European Union and other countries which aim for European integration. This manuscript aims to analyze the Kosovo challenges in its path towards the European family, which is only possible if Kosovo can create sustainable politics and cause fundamental changes in all fields, whether in public or private institutions, in order to build the rule of law. In general, this article will discuss the presence of international institutions in Kosovo such as: EULEX, ICO, UNMIK, KFOR and other international organizations, their effects on the rule of law, economic development and the sustainability of institutions. Moreover, this paper will particularly analyze the influence of the above mentioned factors to ease Kosovo’s path, as an observed country, compared to other countries in the region.

  4. Privatization of POEs in Kosovo – Case Study: Post and Telecom of Kosovo

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    Agron Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kosovo is Europe’s youngest country – and one of its poorest – but it has maintained positive economic growth rates, most recently 3.6 percent in 2016. Kosovo is working to improve the investment climate by strengthening the legal environment necessary to attract and retain foreign investment. Kosovo is comparatively small country located in the South-East Europe. It has a population of approximately 1.8 million, with 49.53 percent male and 50.47 percent female, and percentage of people living in rural areas 61%. In the economic transformation processes, the privatization is conceptualized not only as an ownership change but also as the only alternative that will ensure the effective function of acts for all “market stakeholders”, private or public in order to ensure loyal competition between them. Main objective of this manuscript is the analysis of the stagnation of the Post Telecommunications privatization process, and its negative effect in the economic expansion of Kosovo.

  5. Kosovo – from Dayton to Rambouillet

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    Dr.Sc. Ramë Buja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A mature, wise, successful and concluding diplomatic action would be recorded if the international community would not have ignored the Yugoslav crisis in its beginning, and if it would conference less for the same matter without finding a solution, but it would hold a single international conference for the serious crisis in Yugoslavia, with serious partners and allies, lead by the USA. Why did this not happen, at least in Dayton, when such a crisis had already passed four years since its inception? The answer is rather flagellant for the international community, because unfortunately, in relevant circles of political and diplomatic force, the determination and courage for a consolidated and decisive action for a solution was not created yet. In this conference, a third one in the series (after the ones in the Hague and London addressing the crisis in former Yugoslavia, determination, courage and bravehood was only on the side of one single international factor, the USA. It had all that, after all failing efforts of the EU in resolving this piece of the crisis, which was now being dealt with by the USA and the Dayton Conference, without having the potential or the pretence to put a halt to the wholesome crisis which had already metastasized throughout the former SFRY area. The Dayton Conference had delegated the Kosovo problem to the Contact Group, together with other matters disputable with the political order in the former Yugoslavia, until a final settlement of peace. For a long time, it was said that the Kosovo issue would have to be tackled by a future diplomatic cycle. The Dayton Peace was considered to be the concluding act of the former Yugoslav dissolution and reconstruction crisis. Disputable matters, left to the competency of the Contact Group, were more related to crisis management, preservation of provisional balances, ensuring mediation and presence of international institutions for the purpose of monitoring. The Contact Group had

  6. The impact of neighborhood disorganization on neighborhood exposure to violence, trauma symptoms, and social relationships among at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  8. THE APPLICATION OF GUERRILLA MARKETING IN KOSOVO

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    Shaip BYTYÇI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Until the year 2000, the marketing in Kosovo used to be of a traditional form with the main focus on advertisements which can be considered outdated. We are all witnessing a continuous growth of television, radio, and print media; however as consumers we are tired of such communications and readings. We need something that creates immediate movement. In this direction different entrepreneurs in Kosovo have chosen different marketing strategies to meet their needs. Nowadays, when we have a technological development and a high mobility enabling access to Internet through different smart devices (smart phone, i-pad, etc. a more dynamic marketing is required compared to a traditional marketing. The traditional marketing is quite expensive and different organizations have been searching for less expensive forms of marketing, because most of organizations do not have the means to do traditional marketing. A form of marketing that fits well with the now days requirements as well as various economic opportunities to these organizations is "guerrilla marketing" without leaving aside the marketing of social networks. The guerrilla marketing is a marketing technique that does not require a lot of financial means and is suitable for the companies that can not afford to allocate a lot of their budget in marketing. Also, the current trends in line with the technological developments require aspects that are suitable for many enterprises in Kosovo, especially those of the private sector such as small and medium enterprises or organizations, associations and movements, which do not have a sufficient budget to make major traditional marketing campaigns..

  9. Labour market and the charasteristics of unemployment in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artan Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo, given its difficult past, is the most underdeveloped country of Europe. Gross national product is the lowest in the region, in 2009 was 1853 Euros per capita, which is half the value of the average gross natio-nal product of the region. Average economic growth in Kosovo during 2006-2009 was 4.8%. This economic growth, although seemingly large, given the low level of development in Kosovo cannot solve problems to address important economic issues that Kosovo faces, unemployment, poverty etc. Kosovo has a large import of goods and the export-import cover is only 10%, thus the trade deficit is extremely high. Unemploy-ment remains the main economic problem for many years in Kosovo. The unemployment rate in Kosovo remains high even though there are no clear statistics about the rate of unemployment. According to many stu-dies, whether local or international institutions, the unemployment rate ranges near 40%. So this high rate of unemployment  imposes as a pri-mary and essential task before the Kosovo institutions to establish poli-cies and strategies for promoting employment which is undoubtedly the best way to combat poverty.According to many studies, in order to keep the unemployment at current levels, Kosovo needs a growth rate of 7% and therefore we conclude that in order to reduce unemployment, the growth should be significantly increased over 7%, and with current developments this is unachievable, neither it is expected to be achieved by the competent institutions regarding economical growth

  10. Impact of FDI in economic expansion: The Kosovo case

    OpenAIRE

    Afrim Loku; Nadire Loku; Nora Vizdik

    2017-01-01

    The Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008. Kosovo's neighbor to the north, Serbia does not recognize it as a sovereign state, but has begun to normalize relations in accordance with the Brussels Agreement of April 2013. With a population of 1.8 million and land area 6,765 square miles, landlocked Kosovo is considered Europe’s poorest country, yet it does have some mineral and coal deposits. Kosovo’s official unemployment rate is 35.3 percent, although some estimates are...

  11. Consequences of child emotional abuse, emotional neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence for eating disorders: a systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; McTavish, Jill R; Couturier, Jennifer; Boven, Alison; Gill, Sana; Dimitropoulos, Gina; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-09-22

    Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC up to October 2015 to identify original research studies that investigated the association between EA, EN and children's exposure to IPV, with adult eating disorders or eating-disordered behavior using a quantitative research design. Database searches were complemented with forward and backward citation chaining. Studies were critically appraised using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A total of 5556 publications were screened for this review resulting in twenty-three articles included in the present synthesis. These studies focused predominantly on EA and EN, with a minority examining the role of child exposure to IPV in adult eating-related pathology. Prevalence of EA and EN ranged from 21.0% to 66.0%, respectively. No prevalence information was provided in relation to child exposure to IPV. Samples included predominantly White women. The methodological quality of the available literature is generally low. Currently, the available literature precludes the possibility of determining the extent to which EA, EN or child exposure to IPV have independent explanatory influence in adult eating-related pathology above what has been identified for physical and sexual abuse. While a large proportion

  12. Exposure to Family Violence, Perceived Psychological Adjustment of Parents, and the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Palestinian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Remzie A; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat

    2014-07-14

    The purpose of this study was to present the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis in the developing country of Kosovo. Data were collected from active surveillance of bacterial meningitis cases treated at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2000 (first post-war year) and 2010. Meningitis cases in 2000 compared with 2010 showed a 35.5% decline in incidence (from 4.8 to 3.1 cases per 100,000 population) and a decrease in the case fatality rate from 10% to 5%. In children, there was a lower mortality rate (5% versus 2%) and a lower incidence of neurological complications (13% versus 16%) as compared to adults (32% versus 10% and 16% versus 35%, respectively). Neisseria meningitidis was the most common pathogen of bacterial meningitis in both study periods. Bacterial meningitis was most prevalent in the pediatric population, and showed an increase in the median age, from three years in 2000 to seven years in 2010. A steady number of bacterial meningitis cases in adults throughout last decade (around 20 cases per year) was recorded. During the last decade, gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis that are unrelated to the introduction of new vaccines, but are partly due to the improvement of living conditions.

  14. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  15. Rule of Law. Peculiarities of Kosovo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliriana ISLAMI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a general call, of every international institution, meaning EU, and other international mechanism requiring and basing their policies on the principle of conditionality (Pippan, 2004 by urging states to undertake steps to fulfill the whole range of political and economic conditions in return for partnership, membership or monetary aid. Conditionality is screened through the new lenses of order and stability based on rule of law, democracy, free market economy, and respect for human rights and minority rights, envisaged as Western values. (Copenhagen Criteria, 1993 To achieve this aim the rule of law is considered as occupying a unique position in a democratic society, therefore it is called upon states to create conditions for reforms on a judiciary as the traditional mechanism to decide on disputes, to protect citizens from the arbitrary political affiliation or private individuals. As such, it fights corruption too. (Un Judge Simply said it is required from the states to create conditions to achieve the independent judiciary, through which democratic society can be created. As such, these analyses give hints on the issue of rule of law from the transitional phase of UNMIK to Kosovar Institution elucidating the presence of the EU EULEX Mission, too. Therefore, in the case of Kosovo the challenge of the judiciary system was twofold concerning UNMIK and EU Mission and the establishment of the Kosovo Constitution from another side.

  16. Developing forensic mental healthcare in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Joachim Salize

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many economically struggling societies forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo- a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e. the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations.

  17. Workplace Stress Among Teachers in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleura Shkëmbi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching has been regarded as one of the most stressful professions, and workplace stress within this professional category has been thoroughly investigated. Nonetheless, no empirical research so far has examined workplace stress among teachers in Kosovo. The present study aimed to identify age and gender-related patterns of workplace stress as well as examine the role of marital status, educational level, and working experience in a sample of Kosovo teachers. The different types of stressors reported by teachers were also examined. The sample consisted of 799 teachers (Mage = 42.94; SD = 11.50, 33.8% males and 65.2% females. The measures included the National Stress Awareness Day (NSAD Stress Questionnaire, and one self-report questionnaire designed by the authors for the purpose of the research. Results showed that 33.2% (265 participants of the sample reported high levels of stress. Workplace stress was significantly predicted by place of residence (β = −.442, p < .00 and level of education (β = −.191, p < .00 but not age, gender, marital status, or working experience F(6, 520 = 34.162, p < .001, R2 = .283. As regards the specific stressors, the most frequently reported were inadequate wages (36.8%, physical working environment (30.1%, and undisciplined students (26.2%. Results are discussed in the context of practical implications they have and suggestions for future research are provided.

  18. Violence exposure among health care professionals in Saudi public hospitals. A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algwaiz, Waleed M; Alghanim, Saad A

    2012-01-01

    To identify the prevalence, causes, types, and sources of workplace violence among health professionals in public hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This exploratory cross-sectional survey employed self-administered questionnaires to collect data on aspects of workplace violence against physicians and nurses in Saudi hospitals. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 600 physicians and nurses, of which 383 (63.8%) completed the questionnaires at 2 public hospitals in Riyadh city between May and July 2011. More than two-thirds (67.4%) of respondents reported they were victims of violence in the previous 12 months. Nurses were more likely to be exposed to violent incidents than physicians (pviolence. Verbal abuse was the most common type encountered. The assailants were mostly the patients' relatives or friends, followed by the patients themselves. Reasons for not reporting violent events included: feel it is a part of the job, previous experience of no action, and fear of consequences. Physicians and nurses are at high risk of violent incidents. Health decision makers need to be aware of the potential consequences of such events. Appropriate preventive measures are needed to make hospitals safer environments.

  19. Riikide murd(u)mine Euroopas : Kosovo / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Kosovo iseseisvumine kui pretsedent võib saada innustuseks nii separistidele kui ka vähem autonoomsetele vähemustele, sest kinnitab, et territoriaalse terviklikkuse printsiip ei pruugi olla murdumatu

  20. Financial Analysis of the Financial Institutions Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlora Prenaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper work “Financial analysis of the financial institutions sector in Kosovo” treats financial sector in Kosovo. Paper work contains the current position of the economy, economic prospects and macroeconomic projections for the financial sector in Kosovo, future potential and possibilities of financial sector in Kosovo. The main goal of this research is financial analysis of Kosovo financial institutions sector - overview of key indicators. This research evaluates the performances of commercial bank’s profitability, which have operated in the market during the period 2006-2012. This research is conducted through financial analysis coefficients: Return on Equity, Return on assets and Cost to Income. Test t-Student is used to analyze the profitability for the period 2006/2007 before the financial crisis and the period 2011/2012 after financial crisis.

  1. The History and Effects of the Kosovo Polje Mythology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lugar, Peter B

    2005-01-01

    The mythology surrounding the 1389 Battle of Kosovo Polje, in present-day Serbia, is the foundation for the Serbian cultural identity and is a prism through which Serbs view and interpret the past, present, future...

  2. NATO's New Strategic Concept, kosovo and the Implications for Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, James

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of NATO's new strategic concept adopted in April 1999 and NATO's Operation Allied Force in Kosovo on the future development of intelligence capabilities within the Alliance...

  3. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  4. Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

  5. Child and Youth Victimization Known to Police, School, and Medical Authorities. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the last generation to encourage children and their families to report victimization to authorities. Nonetheless, concern persists that most childhood victimization remains hidden. The 2008 inventory of childhood victimization--the National Study of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)--allowed an…

  6. Turbulent times: effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Hair, Elizabeth; Zuckerman, Barry

    2013-10-01

    Turbulent social environments are associated with health and developmental risk, yet mechanisms have been understudied. Guided by a life course framework and stress theory, this study examined the association between turbulent life transitions (including frequent residential mobility, school transitions, family structure disruptions, and homelessness) and exposure to violence during adolescence and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors in young adulthood. Participants (n = 4834) from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort were followed prospectively from age 12-14 years for 10 years. We used structural equation models to investigate pathways between turbulence and cumulative exposure to violence (CEV), and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors, while accounting for early life socio-demographics, family processes, and individual characteristics. Results indicated that turbulence index was associated with cumulative exposure to violence in adolescence. Both turbulence index and cumulative exposure to violence were positively associated with higher health risk behavior, poorer mental health, and inversely associated with high school completion. These findings highlight the importance of considering the cumulative impact of turbulent and adverse social environments when developing interventions to optimize health and developmental trajectory for adolescents transitioning into adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  8. The effects of violence exposure on the development of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood: Time-specific and generalized effects in a sample of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C; King, Kevin M; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie

    2015-11-01

    Impulse control and future orientation increase across adolescence, but little is known about how contextual factors shape the development of these capacities. The present study investigates how stress exposure, operationalized as exposure to violence, alters the developmental pattern of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood. In a sample of 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, higher exposure to violence was associated with lower levels of future orientation at age 15 and suppressed development of future orientation from ages 15 to 25. Increases in witnessing violence or victimization were linked to declines in impulse control 1 year later, but only during adolescence. Thus, beyond previous experiences of exposure to violence, witnessing violence and victimization during adolescence conveys unique risk for suppressed development of self-regulation.

  9. Ethnic Identity and Conflicts: Lessons from the Kosovo Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, Mossa Hussen

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic identity and conflicts often inter-married in countries where diversities on such grounds were seen as a threat. Conflicts in the post-cold war period have attained a new dimension. The Balkan region has been one of the most conflict prone regions in the world where conflicts arising from ethnic difference were not uncommon. Kosovo, former province of Serbia is a case in point. The roots of Serbia and Albanian communities' conflict regarding Kosovo dated back since the medieval pe...

  10. International Security Presence in Kosovo and its Human Rights Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Istrefi, Remzije

    2017-01-01

    In this article I will examine the powers and activities of NATO-led Kosovo forces (KFOR) and their impact on human rights protection in Kosovo. Through this examination, I seek to answer the following questions: which KFOR actions affected the human rights of Kosovars? Does KFOR carry out responsibilities and abide by the obligations normally imposed upon nation-states? And is there a solution available when the alleged violator is KFOR? KFOR is responsible for carrying out military tasks an...

  11. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  12. Population as an Economic Development Factor: the Case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmije MUSTAFA-TOPXHIU; Florentina XHELILI-KRASNIQI; Justina PULA-SHIROKA

    2017-01-01

    Kosovo's population is a young population and is gradually entering the final stage of demographic transition, that is characterized by considerable decline in fertility, natality, mortality and natural growth. Despite demographic disturbances caused by numerous social and economic factors, the long period under Serbian occupation, major population displacement and the War of 1999, the population of Kosovo over the last hundred years have continued to increase, with high and low fluctuations....

  13. Kosovo peaminister sai Haagi tribunalilt sõjaroimasüüdistuse / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kosovo peaminister Ramush Haradinaj astus ametist tagasi, kuna Haagi tribunal esitas talle ametliku süüdistuse sõjakuritegudes 1998.-1999. aasta kodusõjas. Lisa: Kosovo Vabastusarmeest parteijuhiks ja peaministriks

  14. Kosovo serblaste viha lahvatas piiri ääres / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 20. veebr. 2008, lk. 5. Kosovo serblased korraldavad protestiaktsioone, Belgrad kuulutas Kosovo ühepoolse iseseisvusdeklaratsiooni kehtetuks ning alustas saatkondade tagasikutsumist iseseisvust tunnustanud riikidest

  15. Euroopa Liit läks Kosovo tunnustamise osas lõhki / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu välisministrite kohtumisel ei saavutatud üksmeelt Kosovo tunnustamises. EL-i avalduse kohaselt langetab iga EL-i liikmesriik suhete loomise otsuse ise. Lisa: Kosovo jäetakse ukse taha

  16. The Greek media and the Kosovo crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kondopoulou

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The NATO air attacks (24/3/99-10/6/99 as an instrument of force against Serbia to terminate the abuse of the Albanian population in Kosovo, albeit supported by a significant part of the international community, were received much differently in Greece. Key to the climate of strong disagreement with the campaign was the role of the Greek media. The true reason behind the offensive was, according to them, the change in the geopolitical map to the advantage of the West, and in particular the USA. The underlying argument of this paper is that in the Kosovo crisis the media, Greek (and international, projected their own environment. It is particularly apt to examine the Greek case because of its very unique perspective that differentiated the coverage in Greece - a NATO member country - from the overall world media view. Also, the discussion is pertinent because Greek media coverage disagreed with the official government position, which although advocating a diplomatic resolution of the crisis, had to support the Alliance's decision to bomb Serbia. Furthermore, study of this case is significant because the clash of the Greek media view with the mainstream pro-NATO coverage found in many other countries generated negative views on Greece and its media on the international level. An examination of media content reveals that despite any differences concerning political or other factors, and regardless of the variations in the phrasing of the anti-NATO arguments, the overall media perspective exhibited a unanimous opposition to the bombing campaign. By placing the emphasis more or less on the same thematic areas as the world media, but by crucially reversing the line of reasoning (e.g. the refugee problem was blamed on the NATO bombing raids and not on Serbian atrocities, the Greek media invariably remained anti-war, anti-NATO and anti-Albanian in many particular cases, and in principle pro-Serb throughout. A study of the general media and the specific

  17. Exposure to maltreatment and urban violence in children working on the streets in São Paulo, Brazil: factors associated with street work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.

  18. Monkey see, monkey do, monkey hurt: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violence on children’s aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orue, I.; Bushman, B.J.; Calvete, E.; Thomaes, S.; Orobio de Castro, B.

    2011-01-01

    Children witness violence at home, at school, in their neighborhood, and in the media. Children may also experience violence, as a victim, at home, at school, and in their neighborhood. A longitudinal study tested whether children who are exposed to a heavy dose of violence come to regard it as

  19. CONTROL ENVIRONMENT IN KOSOVO PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaqir M. REXHEPI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on how is Internal Control System developed in public institutions is of a special importance for modalities, forms and the manner of the application of relevant strategies for the functioning of internal control environment in public institutions. In this paper, there is treated the existing situation of internal control system environment of public finances and its implementation in public sector. For internal control system environment in public finances to function effectively, there should exist a coherent control environment which includes responsibilities for financial management from managers of Publicly Owned Enterprises and with complete functioning of internal audit, which exists in the function of development to add value. In Kosovo public institutions, this framework is offered by legislation and by institutional mechanism for the implementation of legislation according to these parameters.

  20. Parameters of Economic Growth in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkumbin Misini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the macroeconomic components that influenced macroeconomic growth in a country, more concretely, the focus will be on the measurement of components that affected economic growth under nominal GDP, in Kosovo. We intend to found out which component of nominal GDP has the biggest and the lowest influence on economic growth. Thus, in order to measure it, GDP components must be analysed: consumption measurement, investments measurement, government expenditures measurement and export measurement. These parameters will be measured by analysing their importance in relation to one another, and the major influence on the growth of nominal GDP. The paper includes a graphic analysis of nominal GDP in relation to consumption, investments, governmental expenses and export.

  1. Depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness in adolescence: Impact of two decades of war and political violence on adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences in Serbia in the last two decades have caused significant psychological consequences in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, exposure to aggression and delinquency proneness among high school and elementary school students in Belgrade, Serbia. The participants were 899 students (51.8% were female with no prior treatment for psychological problems, with a mean age of 16.70±1.95. All used instruments were taken from the modified Social and Health Assessment (SAHA. Our findings show that delinquent behavior or exposure to delinquency was significantly related to depressive symptoms. The strongest predictors of depression were variables concerning legal consequences, affiliation with delinquent peers, victimization by community violence and peer victimization. This study confirmed a strong correlation between depression and exposure to violence. Identifying adolescents with depressive symptoms is important for prevention of serious mental health consequences.

  2. NATO ja EL lubavad tagada Kosovo ühtsuse / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi teatel on NATO 16 000 rahukaitsja ülesanne tagada kogu Kosovo turvalisus ja kaitsta kõiki Kosovo kodanikke. Javier Solana sõnul hakkab Euroopa Liidu tugimissioon tegutsema kogu Kosovo territooriumil

  3. Uus kava lükkab Kosovo iseseisvumise edasi / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Uus ÜRO resolutsioonikava ei maini erivolinik Martti Ahtisaari välja pakutud ideed Kosovo piiratud iseseisvusest ja näeb ette vaid kõneluste taaselustamise Serbia ja sõltumatust taotleva Kosovo vahel. Vt. samas: Serbia ja Kosovo vägikaikavedu

  4. Kinnitus Kosovo iseseisvusele võib tulla tänavu / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Kosovo nn. staatuseläbirääkimisi juhtiva Martti Ahtisaari sõnul otsustakse Kosovo staatus pärast seda, kui leiavad lahenduse praegused kõnelused provintsi detsentraliseerimise, vähemusküsimuste üle. Autori sõnul on USA välisministeerium andnud selgelt mõista, et Kosovo iseseisvus on sisuliselt otsustatud

  5. Kosovo rühib diplomaatide toel iseseisvuse suunas / Martin Jaigma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaigma, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi Serbia on kritiseerinud Kosovo võimaliku iseseisvumise kõneluste peavahendajat, ÜRO eriesindajat Martti Ahtisaarit provintsi huvide esindamises, alustasid Serbia ja Kosovo poliitikud 20. veebruaril läbirääkimisi Kosovo staatuse üle

  6. Kosovo elanikud ei malda enam iseseisvuse küsimusega oodata / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2007-01-01

    Tee leidmine Kosovo iseseisvusele on praegu üks kõige valulikumaid rahvusvaheliste läbirääkimiste küsimusi. Vt. samas: ÜRO erisaadiku Ahtisaari plaan Kosovo jaoks; Eestlased teenivad kõige keerulisemas piirkonnas; Kosovo serblaste liider: iseseisvusel pole põhjendust

  7. Project Date SMART: a Dating Violence (DV) and Sexual Risk Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls with Prior DV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J; Joppa, Meredith; Barker, David; Collibee, Charlene; Zlotnick, Caron; Brown, Larry K

    2018-05-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing dating violence and sexual risk behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (ages 14-17) with prior exposure to physical dating violence (DV). One hundred and nine girls were randomly assigned to Date SMART (Skills to Manage Aggression in Relationships for Teens) or a Knowledge-only (KO) comparison group. Both intervention arms consisted of six, weekly 2-h sessions and one "booster" session 6 weeks later. Based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, the Date SMART intervention was designed to target common underlying skills deficits linked to both DV and sexual risk behavior in adolescent females: depression, self-regulation deficits, and interpersonal skills deficits. Assessments were administered at four time points (baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months). The Date SMART group was effective as reducing sexual DV involvement across the 9-month follow-up period. Both groups evidenced clinically meaningful reductions in physical, emotional, and digital DV involvement, total time in dating relationships, as well as reductions in depression. Findings indicate that delivering a DV and sexual risk prevention intervention to DV-affected adolescent girls is feasible and well-received. Furthermore, a skills-based approach that addresses the co-occurrence of DV and sexual risk behavior may be particularly useful for promoting reductions of sexual DV among high-risk adolescent girls. A future, large-scale trial with an inactive comparison condition is needed to evaluate the efficacy of Date SMART further. Clinical Trials, NCT01326195, and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  8. Family Violence Exposure and Health Outcomes Among Older African American Women: Do Spirituality and Social Support Play Protective Roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence (FV), spirituality, and social support are salient psychosocial determinants of health. FV is associated with poor health among older African American women. The effect of spirituality and social support levels on the health of older African American women is unknown. Methods To assess the role of spirituality and social support as culturally relevant determinants of health status for older African American women independent of FV levels, we used a cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred twelve African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in two urban primary care practices. The measures used were (1) Family Violence Against Older Women (FVOW) scale, (2) Physical and Mental Composite Scores of the Short-Form 8® scale, (3) Medical Outcomes of Social Support survey (MOSS), and (4) Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Spearman correlation coefficients estimated to test associations among lifetime FV exposure, spirituality, social support, and health status outcomes and multivariate regression models were used to examine the independent effect of spirituality and social support on physical and mental health status, controlling for FV and significant demographic variables. Results Mean participant age was 63.9 years. Higher spirituality levels were significantly associated with better physical health status after adjusting for FV levels and demographic factors (F = 6.17, p = 0.0001). Similarly, higher levels of spirituality and social support both significantly correlated with better mental health status in the multivariate model (F = 13.45, p < 0.0001) that controlled for lifetime FV levels and demographic factors. Conclusions Spirituality and social support are two potentially modifiable determinants of health for older African American women. Culturally appropriate mechanisms to enhance social support and spirituality levels need to be explored as potential inteventions to improve the health of those

  9. Feasibility and effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in a context of ongoing violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsberger, Martina; Holtzhausen, Leon; Sommer, Jessica; Kaminer, Debra; Elbert, Thomas; Seedat, Soraya; Wilker, Sarah; Crombach, Anselm; Weierstall, Roland

    2017-05-01

    In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment. The primary efficacy endpoints were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I) severity score, the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) score, and the number of perpetrated violent event types 8 months (on average) after treatment. Only in the sample receiving FORNET were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores significantly reduced at the first follow-up (Cohen's d = -0.97) and significantly different from those of the control group (Cohen's d = -1.03). The changes in scores for appetitive aggression and perpetrated events were not significant for any of the treatment conditions. The study shows that trauma-focused treatment can reduce the psychological symptoms of posttraumatic stress even for individuals living under unsafe conditions in low-income urban communities. However, achieving changes in violent behavior within a context of ongoing violence may require more than the treatment of trauma-related suffering, confrontation with one's offenses, or cognitive-behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Violence and Asthma: A Review

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    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  11. Surveillance of tularaemia in Kosovo, 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, R; Kalaveshi, A; Kühn, A; Mulliqi-Osmani, G; Ramadani, N

    2012-07-12

    Tularaemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, had not been registered in Kosovo before an outbreak in 1999 and 2000. A national surveillance system has been implemented in Kosovo since 2000 to monitor a number of diseases, including tularaemia. Antibody detection in human sera was used for laboratory diagnosis of tularaemia and F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigen was used as a marker of infection. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence of tularaemia in Kosovo after the 1999-00 outbreak. In 2001 and 2002, a second outbreak occurred, with 327 serologically confirmed cases. From 2001 to 2010, 25-327 cases were registered per year, giving a mean annual incidence of 5.2 per 100,000 population. The most likely sources of infection were contaminated drinking water and food. The dominant clinical manifestations were the glandular (79%) and ulcero-glandular (21%) forms. By 2010, the disease had spread throughout Kosovo. Presumably as a result of war and subsequent environmental disruption, mass population displacement and breakdown of sanitation and hygiene, the two major outbreaks of tularaemia resulted in the establishment of an active endemic area of tularaemia in Kosovo.

  12. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

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    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  13. Review of Administrative Justice in the Republic of Kosovo

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    Islam Pepaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide a real view of adjudication of administrative cases in Kosovo. The issue of adjudication of administrative cases in the Republic of Kosovo remains a challenge following justice reforms which began in 2013 and are still on-going. Kosovo as a new country faces difficulties in professionalization of public administration and this is closely related to large number of case that are subject of judicial review which is not a case with other countries which have longer experience in public administration. In this context, more attention has been paid to review of administrative acts and issues with special focus on judicial review, following with legal remedies, administration silence as cause of judicial review. The paper also contains information about administrative justice in Kosovo before and 2013, and its current state. New court structure brought with New Law on Courts which entered into force in 2013 affected administrative justice substantially. In the previous system, Kosovo Supreme Court was the only instance handling administrative disputes. In this regard, the issue of effective legal remedies was not in place as required by international standards. However, new court structure brought significant changes regarding legal remedies in administrative justice by setting up three court instances; Administrative departments within Prishtina Basic Court and Appellate Court as well as Supreme Court extraordinary legal remedies review.

  14. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  15. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  16. Violence in context: Embracing an ecological approach to violent media exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Erin; Gray, Sarah A O

    2016-12-01

    This commentary expands on Anderson, Bushman, Donnerstein, Hummer, and Warburton's agenda for minimizing the impacts of violent media exposure (VME) on youth aggression. We argue that in order to effectively intervene in the development of aggression and other maladaptive traits, researchers and policymakers should take an ecological, developmental psychopathology approach to understanding children's exposure to VME within developmental, relational, environmental, and cultural contexts. Such a framework holds the most promise for identifying at-risk groups, establishing targets of intervention, and testing mechanisms of change.

  17. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

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    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  18. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  19. Deindustrialization of Kosovo and establishment of the private sector in Kosovo - Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ymer Havolli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing activities, and some of the causes of deindustrialization of Kosovo’s economy, and the stage of initial establishment of the private sector in Kosovo. The purpose of the paper is to present the current situation and development orientations, namely to review some of the obstacles from the perspective of entrepreneurs, with a view of eliminating such obstacles and fostering development. The paper shall provide a comparison of exports and imports, with a special focus on obstacles to Kosovo’s SMEs. This paper shall prove an overview on the situation of SME development and its sectors, and it is an effort to mirror the main obstacles preventing competitiveness and development of the sector. The analysis in this paper represent an effort to inform stakeholders with the sector, and help interested parties to take necessary action in improving the situation in the sector, and to assist sectors in benefitting from business opportunities, by creating a business development conducive environment, so that the changes occurring in the sector feed economic development, foster employment and help in attracting foreign investments The main goal of the paper is to provide a basis for informing various actors involved in industrial development policy making in Kosovo. On the other hand, it is also an effort to contribute in consolidating information and statistical records, with a view of providing an accurate overview on Kosovo’s industry.

  20. Rational Dialogue between Kosovo and Serbia - Way Toward Reconciliation

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    Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Within a decade, Kosovo has compromised twice: accepting the process of decentralization in order to achieve independence and international recognition, through the President Martti Ahtisaari’s Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement (2 February 2007, and finally, by approving to offer autonomy for Kosovo Serbs for the sovereignty, but still within the limits of the Ahtisaari Plan. Coincidentally, the same Serbian political parties which had fought three wars, resulting in dissolution of the state (Former Yugoslavia at that time (the Socialist Party and the Serbian Radical Party, now are in power in the Republic of Serbia, and have the possibility to finally solve the Kosovo case, and to open the perspective for this part, Europe’s black hole, to be engaged in global integration. Statements by senior Serbian politicians are positively shifting, compared to the radicalization of the relations between Albanians and Serbs three decades ago and it is believed that the developments will evolve towards rational choice and acceptance by the parties. Being under pressure by difficult socio-economic situation and need for integration processes, both sides undertake risky and unpopular steps by signing unclear political and verbal agreements on normalization of relations, which may produce difficult solving externalities in the future. The risk lies in the possibility of further damaging the Kosovo’s “piece of the cake”, after every refusal step by the Serbian side, which will damage the interest of Kosovo side according to the “zero sum” game. Analyses of the dialogue process between Kosovo and Serbia reflect the mixed benefits to the parties, resulting in not very soon European integration, and with hope on difficult but necessary reconciliation between Albanians and Serbs in the region. The broken, after the war established, status quo is better than entering into a protracted conflict in the middle of Europe.

  1. Public health in Kosovo after five difficult years of independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Jerliu

    2015-12-01

    administration. Regarding the health status, five years after independence, compared with other European countries, post-war transitional Kosovo is still characterized by higher mortality rates including traditional public health problems pertinent to infant mortality and maternal deaths. In parallel, however, Kosovo is undergoing a rapid process of epidemiological transition characterized by an aging trend which is inevitably coupled with high cardiovascular and cancer mortality and morbidity along with an excess mortality in external causes of death and injuries among the adult population. Adoption of the new Health Law in December 2012 by the Kosovo Assembly aims the transition from centralized health care system established under emergency conditions of the post-war period towards a contemporary modern health care system with a clear purchaser-provider split based on a high transparency and accountability of the health care providers and their contractors. The health care reform, leading eventually to significant changes within the health sector in Kosovo, consists of two main pillars: (i structural and functional reorganization of the health care system through establishment of Kosovo Health Service (an autonomous and non-for-profit public enterprise at central level of the health care sector, and; (ii establishment for the first time of the public health insurance system with a Health Insurance Fund as its main body. Nevertheless, five years after declaration of independence, Kosovo, the newest state in Europe consisting of the youngest population, is currently facing a particularly difficult socioeconomic and political transition and is additionally struggling and mainstreaming all energies and efforts in order to get full international recognition.

  2. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

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    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  3. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk analysis of Finnish peacekeeping in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma

    2005-04-01

    The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future.

  5. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo

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    Shaip Krasniqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB. To our knowledge, the data about patients’ adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. Design. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. Results. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109–0.188. Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. Conclusion. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker’s commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  6. Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence of Patients in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Shaip; Jakupi, Arianit; Daci, Armond; Tigani, Bahri; Jupolli-Krasniqi, Nora; Pira, Mimoza; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Neziri, Burim

    2017-01-01

    The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients. This study was conducted during 12 months, and the survey was a descriptive study using the standardized questionnaires with total 324 patients. The overall nonadherence for TB patient cohort was 14.5%, 95% CI (0.109-0.188). Age and place of residence are shown to have an effect on treatment adherence. Moreover, the knowledge of the treatment prognosis, daily dosage, side effects, and length of treatment also play a role. This was also reflected in knowledge regarding compliance with regular administration of TB drugs, satisfaction with the treatment, interruption of TB therapy, and the professional monitoring in the administration of TB drugs. The level of nonadherence TB treatment in Kosovar patients is not satisfying, and more health care worker's commitments need to be addressed for improvement.

  7. The Mediational Role of Posttraumatic Stress in the Relationship between Domestic Violence Exposure and Peer Victimisation: A Cambodian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rachel E.; Reed, David E., II.; Wickham, Robert E.; Field, Nigel P.

    2018-01-01

    Research demonstrates that children exposed to domestic violence experience a myriad of internalising and externalising symptoms. The current study examines this pathway within a Cambodian sample, specifically determining if the effect of witnessing domestic violence on the child's tendency to bully or to be bullied is mediated by symptoms of…

  8. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.

  9. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  10. The role of fortitude in relation to exposure to violence among adolescents living in lower socio-economic areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Tyrone B; Padmanabhanunni, Anita; Campbell, Jerome

    2016-07-01

    There is compelling evidence that a significant proportion of adolescents exposed to violence do not develop trauma-related symptoms, but adapt successfully. This differential vulnerability has propelled research into identifying factors that promote coping. This study focused on the role of fortitude in the relationship between violence and trauma-related symptoms among South African adolescents living in two low-income communities. Fortitude is derived from positive cognitive appraisals of the self, the family and external sources of support. Adolescents (n = 498) completed an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS) and the Fortitude Questionnaire (FORQ). Moderated regression analysis demonstrated that fortitude had a health-sustaining and stress-buffering role. Adolescents who displayed high levels of fortitude had lower levels of trauma symptoms in relation to exposure to violence (stress-buffering) and were able to maintain their levels of wellbeing irrespective of the nature and extent of such exposure (health-sustaining). The study provides evidence for fortitude as a protective factor by highlighting the role of specific cognitive appraisals related to fortitude in facilitating adaptation in relation to trauma. The study also underscores the relevance of using clinical interventions that target problematic cognitive appraisals and strengthen perceptions of coping.

  11. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  12. Physical domestic violence exposure is highly associated with suicidal attempts in both women and men. Results from the national public health survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Mariana; Stenbacka, Marlene; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-06-01

    Studies on a national level concerning domestic violence (DV) among both men and women are few. DV and its relation to other social and health outcomes within the framework of the Swedish Public Health Survey have remained unexplored. To compare women and men regarding their social situation and health status in relation to self-reported exposure to physical DV as measured in the Swedish National Public Health Survey. This study used cross-sectional data from the Swedish Public Health Survey, years 2004-09 with a total sample of 50 350 respondents, of which 205 women and 93 men reported DV exposure. Logistic regression analyses stratified by sex with physical DV exposure as the outcome measure were conducted, and the multivariate models were fitted using the likelihood ratio test. Being foreign-born [women odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, men OR = 1.92] and lack of social support (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) were associated with DV exposure among both sexes. Higher psychological distress (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) and hazardous drinking (women OR = 1.61, men OR = 2.33) were also associated with DV exposure. Among women, financial problems were associated with DV exposure (OR = 1.83), whereas among men, sum of medicines used and higher odds of DV were associated (OR = 1.17). Further, suicidal attempts were associated with DV exposure among both women (OR = 5.59) and men (OR = 8.34). In this national survey, prevalence rates of violence exposure were lower than in other studies, but despite this, both women and men exposed to physical DV reported increased odds of having attempted suicide. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Correlates of Hypertension Among Adult Men and Women in Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashani, V.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to assess the independent socioeconomic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of hypertension among the adult population of Kosovo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Pristina in 2012-2013 which included a large representative sample of 1793 consecutive primary

  14. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

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    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  15. Political Risk and Foreign Direct Investments in Kosovo

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    MSc. Neshat Podvorica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the importance of political risk and its impact on attracting investments, also to analyse policies made by the Kosovo institutions to reduce political risk and increase the FDIs. Attracting of the FDIs is complex because they depend on many factors, and one of the methods that measure political risk is the model used by the PRS Group that includes the flow of the economy through 12 components. Measuring political risk plays an important role in transitional countries, because these are countries that have problems in various fields and also the trust on by the investors is low. As a finding of this study is that Kosovo is estimated to have moderate political risk, and is close to joining the group of countries with low political risk. Challenges faced by Kosovo in reducing political risk are concentrated in several components, which are: socioeconomic, corruption and rule of law components. Kosovo has taken significant steps in improving the conditions for investment, government stability and positioning of the country facing internal and external conflicts.

  16. The Kosovo Precedent in the Secession and Recognition of Crimea

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    Dr.Sc. Elvina Jusufaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crimea’s secession from Ukraine and its annexation to the Russian Federation invoked Kosovo precedent, in its declaration of independence, as an argument for secession. The territorial referendum in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, only five days after the declaration of independence, was an attempt to justify the secession based on the right to selfdetermination of the people of Crimea. It is overwhelmingly considered illegal and its outcome has not been accepted and recognized by states, regional and international organizations. The comparative elements of statehood and secession between Kosovo and Crimea are reflected through analyzing the declarations of independence, international recognition and Russia’s role as a third-state factor in external selfdetermination. Essential distinctions are highlighted. Kosovo is widely acknowledged and accepted a sui generis case. Its declaration of independence came as result of a long monitored comprehensive process; not to legitimize the right for self-determination but as the final option for stability and peace in the region. Crimea seceded in violation of international law through the use of force. While Kosovo is a democratic, multi-ethnic new state and recognized by 107 states, the secession of Crimea and its annexation to the Russian Federation is considered illegal and endangers the existing international order.

  17. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of dairy farms in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egzon BAJRAMI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A possible accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO and an expected membership in the European Union raise significant opportunities and challenges for the agricultural sector in Kosovo. As a result of these changes, the sector will have to improve efficiency and competitiveness. This research is motivated by the need to understand better the forces that drive competitiveness in the Kosovo dairy sector. This study estimates the technical efficiency (TE of 243 dairy farms in Kosovo and relates TE variation to farm size and other primary determinants of TE. A stochastic frontier production function is estimated using a two-stage procedure. Results reveal that concentrate feed intake, land use per cow, and the number of days cows had been kept on pasture have statistically significant impacts on milk productivity per cow. The mean technical efficiency of dairy farms was estimated at 0.72. The major determinants that increase efficiency are breed improvement, intensification of corn production on the farm, improving concentrate feed intake, and using free-range production systems. Given the results from the technical efficiency analysis, it is crucial for the Government of Kosovo to redesign their dairy policy—specifically their grant investment schemes—and target assistance on improving national herd genetics, promoting free range systems and expanding area planted in corn.

  18. Kosovo: what does the future hold for LGBT people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Fauchier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rising numbers of people from Kosovo are seeking asylum in otherEuropean countries on grounds of persecution for their sexualorientation. States considering such claims need to look beyondKosovo’s apparently progressive constitution to the rather differentreality on the ground.

  19. Indoor air radon concentration in schools in Prizren, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahtijari, M.; Stegnar, P.; Shemsidini, Z.; Kobal, I.; Vaupotic, J.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations were measured in spring and winter in 30 rooms of 9 elementary schools and 19 rooms of 6 high schools in Prizren, Kosovo, using alpha scintillation cells. Only in three rooms of elementary schools and four rooms of high schools did winter concentrations exceed 400 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  20. The Roles of Family and Teacher Support in Moderating and Mediating Externalized and Internalized Outcomes of Exposure to Community Violence Among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2018-02-01

    The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems. ECV predicted high levels of internalized and externalized problems, family support predicted low levels of internalized and externalized problems, and teacher support had no predictive role. Path analysis confirmed the significance of the relationships between ECV effects, support variables, and gender. The limitations of the study and implications of the findings for future research and for the development of family care and family intervention programs are discussed.

  1. Natural resources as a factor of economic growth in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haki Shatri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the economic growth, there are numerous examples of countries that have developed based on their available natural resources. Especially, these assets have been the propulsion of the development in the initial period. But we also find some cases where countries with limited natural resources have experienced dynamic economic development. Kosovo is the last federal unit dismembered from former Yugoslavia after a decade under Milosevic’s Serbian regime and a two years’ war. International intervention and the inclusion of the country under an international protectorate created the conditions for the development of devastated economy by war and the robbery to be recovered together with the creation of institutional and economic infrastructure (Lidhja e Ekonomistëve të Kosovës, 1996. Under these conditions, everything had to start from scratch. The only development factor that Kosovo possessed was the human factor - age structure and the abundant natural resources, especially in key sectors such as the energy and in mining and minerals, agriculture and tourism. Thus it is sustainable the conclusion that “The rapid and sustainable economic and social development of Kosovo depends substantially from the implementation of the appropriate policies and suitable economic reforms that enable more rational use of its natural and human resources”. The list of the available resources of Kosovo is long. Kosovo possesses significant amount of all mineral raw materials in both quality and quantity terms. Among the most important raw materials have been ranked the power-lignite mining that is stretched into three basins and it is estimated to be around 9 billion exploitable tons (Kelmendi, 2012. Kosovo also owns mineral resources which are found in the Trepca’s Metals basin. The geological researches show favorable conditions of exploitation and high quality of the ore. Mainly one can found the lead, zinc, silver and other

  2. Effects of Exposure to Gun Violence in Movies on Children's Interest in Real Guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kelly P; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-11-01

    More US children die by accidental gun use than children in other developed countries. One factor that can influence children's interest in guns is exposure to media containing guns. To test whether children who see a movie containing guns will handle a real gun longer and will pull the trigger more times than children who see the same movie not containing guns. One hundred four children aged 8 to 12 years recruited through advertisements were randomly assigned in pairs to watch a 20-minute PG-rated movie containing or not containing guns in a university laboratory. Children then played with toys and games in a room for 20 minutes while being video recorded. A cabinet in the room contained a real (disabled) gun with a sensor counting trigger pulls. Recordings were coded for the time spent holding the gun and in aggressive play. Data were collected from July 15, 2015, through January 1, 2016, and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (Tweedie log-link for time spent holding the gun; Poisson log-link for pulling the trigger). The 2 main outcomes were time spent holding the gun and the number of trigger pulls. Control variables included sex, age, trait aggressiveness, exposure to violent media, interest in guns, and number of guns at home. Among the 104 study participants (62 boys [59.6%] and 42 girls [40.4%]; mean (SD) age, 9.9 [1.5] years), the adjusted median number of trigger pulls among children who saw the movie containing guns was 2.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.2-2.8) compared with 0.01 (IQR, 0.01-0.2) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 22.3; 95% CI, 6.0-83.4; P gun among children who saw a movie containing guns was 53.1 (IQR, 35.5-53.1) compared with 11.1 (IQR, 10.7-16.7) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.9-9.9; P = .07). Qualitative analyses on 4 pairs from each condition found that children who saw the movie containing guns also played more

  3. The Impact of Degree of Exposure to Violent Video Games, Family Background, and Other Factors on Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Despite decades of study, no scholarly consensus has emerged regarding whether violent video games contribute to youth violence. Some skeptics contend that small correlations between violent game play and violence-related outcomes may be due to other factors, which include a wide range of possible effects from gender, mental health, and social influences. The current study examines this issue with a large and diverse (49 % white, 21 % black, 18 % Hispanic, and 12 % other or mixed race/ethnicity; 51 % female) sample of youth in eighth (n = 5133) and eleventh grade (n = 3886). Models examining video game play and violence-related outcomes without any controls tended to return small, but statistically significant relationships between violent games and violence-related outcomes. However, once other predictors were included in the models and once propensity scores were used to control for an underlying propensity for choosing or being allowed to play violent video games, these relationships vanished, became inverse, or were reduced to trivial effect sizes. These results offer further support to the conclusion that video game violence is not a meaningful predictor of youth violence and, instead, support the conclusion that family and social variables are more influential factors.

  4. The Role Of Migrant Workers Remittances In Fostering Economic Growth: The Kosovo Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmije Topxhiu; Florentina Xhelili

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries, in Kosovo as well, remittances of workers from diaspora have become an important source of external financing. In this paper some theoretical and practical aspects of the role of remittances in the development of countries receiving them are treated. An analytical approach is made about the migration trends of Kosovo's population, trends and role of remittances in the economic development of Kosovo through various statistical data published by relevant national ...

  5. Evidence for the presence of bluetongue virus in Kosovo between 2001 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, A; Murati, B; Kabashi, Q; Goga, I; Berisha, B; Wilsmore, A J; Hamblin, C

    2006-03-25

    In 2001, clinical cases of bluetongue were observed in Kosovo, and in that year and in 2003 and 2004, serum samples were collected from cattle and small ruminants and tested for antibodies to bluetongue virus. The results provide evidence that bluetongue virus was not present in Kosovo before the summer of 2001, but that the virus circulated subclinically among the cattle and sheep populations of Kosovo in 2002, 2003 and 2004.

  6. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have analyzed the initial circumstances which characterize tax system in Kosovo after independence. After the Declaration of Independence, it is of the paramount importance that Kosovo has undergone through a reform of policy and tax system by exploring more seriously the economic functions. However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public ...

  7. BUILDING ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITIES IN KOSOVO AND ITS CHALLENGE TO COMPLY WITH EU ENVIRONMENTAL ACQUIS

    OpenAIRE

    Istrefi, Remzije; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the development of environmental governance in Kosovo, environmental laws, regulations, processes, and their conformity with the EU environmental acquis. Kosovo, like other countries in the Balkans trying to join the EU, will, in the process of accession, have to ensure that its legislation conforms to the Copenhagen accession criteria. While Kosovo authorities have progressed in the process of legal harmonization, there has been little progress in executing the legal fram...

  8. Prospective Constitutional Changes in Kosovo Emanating from the EU Pre-Accession Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morina, Visar

    2016-01-01

    Although Kosovo is in the initial period of its European integration process, this article will analyse the extent to which the 2008 Kosovo Constitution is compatible with EU law. Integration in the European Union is one of the key objectives of Kosovo’s constitutional preamble and the paper will discuss the prospective constitutional amendments that will occur in Kosovo in anticipation of accession to the European Union. The author’s position is that a great part of constitutional non-compli...

  9. The role and importance of leadership in business development in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Hoti; Edisona Kurhasku

    2016-01-01

    Leadership in Kosovo today is one of the questions of exceptional importance. This institution has not yet been analyzed properly based on: quality, efficiency and responsibility, legal-, material- and moral leadership. Kosovo is faced with many challenges consisting of the needed steps towards the business development of the enterprise in Kosovo and in the international arena. Leaders cannot be created only by giving orders to others but the main problem is to identify the principles of coop...

  10. The banking system of liquidity risk management in commercial banks in Kosovo for 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Berisha

    2017-01-01

    The financial system in general and banking system in particular in Kosovo, is one of the most stable sectors, even though the Kosovo Economy is not in any enviable position and a stable financial system which would have an impact on greater economic growth. The focus of this research will be in the structure and organization of the financial system in Kosovo with particular emphasis on Kosovo's banking system for 2015. In this research we are focused on the Commercial Banks operating in the ...

  11. The Specialist Court for Kosovo: continuity or departure from the hybrid courts model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkёlzen Selimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether to establish Specialist Chambers within the Kosovo justice system for alleged war crimes committed in Kosovo has been, arguably, one of the most heated debates not only from a political and social point of view, but also from a legal one. While the required amendments in the Constitution and several laws of Kosovo necessary to establish the Specialist Chambers in furtherance of the agreement dated 14 April 2014 between the Republic of Kosovo and the European Union on the Mission of the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (“EULEX” will certainly create heated debates in the political level, one may argue that the legal issues that are expected to be encountered when the Specialist Chambers will be operational, may be even more pressing. This is in consideration of the peculiar nature of the Specialist Chambers, which are meant to have their basis within the laws of Kosovo, but at the same time, be independent from them and from control of Kosovo authorities. The purpose of this article is to delineate the possible legal issues that might confront the Specialist Chambers of Kosovo. Its main argument is that, while the Specialist Chambers seem to follow the experience of other hybrid internationalised courts, it still differs from them in some aspects. The challenges that the new Specialist Chambers may need to tackle deal with its jurisdiction and position within the Kosovo Judicial system, and its legitimacy and legal basis.

  12. Do self-reported data reflect the real burden of lifetime exposure to sexual violence among females aged 13-24 years in Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Kress, Howard; Gupta, Sundeep; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; Shawa, Mary; Mercy, James

    2016-08-01

    Under most circumstances, the lifetime experience of sexual violence (SV) among girls and young women would likely increase with age. However, the empirical data from a retrospective study may not necessarily conform to this belief. Data from a nationally representative sample of females aged 13-24 years in Malawi in 2013 (n=1029) were analyzed. SV was defined as unwanted touching or attempted, pressured, or physically forced sex. The distribution of four types of SV among victims was compared between younger (13-18 years) and older (19-24 years) age groups. The strength of association between SV exposure and health outcomes was examined by age group. The risk of experiencing SV during their lifetime was three times greater for younger than that for older age females (Hazard ratio=3.32). Among females who had experienced SV, older age females were more likely to report forced or pressured sex (41.2%) as their initial SV experience than younger age females (17.8%). The strength of association between the SV exposure and health outcomes did not differ by age group. The self-report lifetime and childhood victimization to sexual violence may not necessarily higher among older than that among younger females. The current risk of exposure to sexual violence seems to influence the recall of lifetime and childhood victimization to a great extent. In order to make the field aware of this phenomenon, prevalence estimates from all three time frames (lifetime, childhood, and during the past 12 months) should be reported separately by age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year

  14. The impact of violence on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, J D

    1999-01-01

    Existing research on the effects of children's exposure to violence covers a broad range of community, family, and media violence. This research is relevant and useful to an examination of domestic violence in two key ways. First, understanding how exposure to various types of violence affects children and what best enables them to cope can point to important considerations when trying to help children cope with exposure to domestic violence in particular. And second, many families experiencing domestic violence are exposed to other types of violence as well. Exposure to violence on multiple levels can affect the parents' behavior and can compound the effects on children. This article begins with an overview of the extent of children's exposure to various types of violence, and then examines what is known about the effects of this exposure across the developmental continuum. Key protective factors for children exposed to violence are examined. Research indicates that the most important resource protecting children from the negative effects of exposure to violence is a strong relationship with a competent, caring, positive adult, most often a parent. Yet, when parents are themselves witnesses to or victims of violence, they may have difficulty fulfilling this role. In the final section, directions for future research are discussed.

  15. The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Rok; Pejič, Nina; Grilj, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    different types and levels of effectiveness, considering both means applied and ends achieved. In so doing, the article contributes to the general literature on operational conflict prevention and on the specific case of Kosovo. The empirical analysis is based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews......This article appraises effectiveness in operational conflict prevention. By focusing on the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) in Kosovo, it assesses the most extensive civilian Common Security and Defence Policy mission so far. Contrary to prevailing assessments, it posits that EULEX......, despite its challenges and deficiencies, presents positive contributions to operational conflict prevention, and peace-building. This is uncovered through structured focused analysis according to effectiveness criteria and success indicators that allow for identification of and distinction between...

  16. International Security Presence in Kosovo and its Human Rights Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istrefi Remzije

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will examine the powers and activities of NATO-led Kosovo forces (KFOR and their impact on human rights protection in Kosovo. Through this examination, I seek to answer the following questions: which KFOR actions affected the human rights of Kosovars? Does KFOR carry out responsibilities and abide by the obligations normally imposed upon nation-states? And is there a solution available when the alleged violator is KFOR? KFOR is responsible for carrying out military tasks and for ‘shouldering’ UNMIK and local security forces in some civilian peace-building tasks. In the course of the exercise of its mandate, there were alleged complaints of human rights violations by KFOR. The legal implications of these alleged complaints against KFOR (inactions will also be discussed.

  17. Kosovo 2011 Census: Contested Census within a Contested State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Musaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the census in Kosovo in 2011 with specific focus on the political implications and ethnic minority rights. A key conclusion is that this census highly influences public policy-making, and with regard to minority rights, the census data, in comparison to previous estimates and Kosovo Constitutional provisions, is not favorable to ethnic minorities. Expressing a lower number of minorities in total terms, the 2011 census explicitly reduced the representation of minorities at the central and local institutions, and consequently affected budget allocations. However, we must be aware that to some extent, because of the full boycott in the North by local Serbs, and the partial boycott in the South by the Roma and Serb communities, comparisons are limited and the data needs to be analyzed with care.

  18. Credit Risk in the Banking Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Aliu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Loans make up the bulk of a bank’s assets, and thus credit risk is the most significant risk for commercial banks in Kosovo and throughout the world. Despite its complexity, effective management of credit risk is a prerequisite for the success of a bank and the banking system in general. A special role in this aspect is played by the separation of reserves to cover the risk of failure to repay the loan or in cases of nonfulfilment of contractual obligations by the loan recipient. Therefore, this research aims to address this issue and analyses the credit risk management of the banking system of the Republic of Kosovo in general and the effects of separation of reserves for loan losses in particular.

  19. Social determinants and maternal exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric patients with severe maternal morbidity in the intensive care unit: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Taft, Angela; McDonald, Susan; Pollock, Wendy; Roque Henriquez, Joel Christian

    2016-11-28

    Maternal mortality is a potentially preventable public health issue. Maternal morbidity is increasingly of interest to aid the reduction of maternal mortality. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are an important part of the global burden of maternal morbidity. Social determinants influence health outcomes of pregnant women. Additionally, intimate partner violence has a great negative impact on women's health and pregnancy outcome. However, little is known about the contextual and social aspects of obstetric patients treated in the ICU. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the social determinants and exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric patients admitted to an ICU. A systematic search will be conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, LILACS and SciELO from 2000 to 2016. Studies published in English and Spanish will be identified in relation to data reporting on social determinants of health and/or exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric women, treated in the ICU during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of the end of pregnancy. Two reviewers will independently screen for study eligibility and data extraction. Risk of bias and assessment of the quality of the included studies will be performed by using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Data will be analysed and summarised using a narrative description of the available evidence across studies. This systematic review protocol will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Since this systematic review will be based on published studies, ethical approval is not required. Findings will be presented at La Trobe University, in Conferences and Congresses, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42016037492. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The Kosovo Agriculture Market and the Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Pllana; Iliriana Miftari; Njazi Bytyqi; Sali Aliu; Jehona Shkodra

    2013-01-01

    Considering marketing as main contributor to the contemporary development, it has encouraged us to raise discussion regarding the role of the marketing in business decision-making and economic development as a whole. The concept of marketing is becoming a necessity tool for survival and the development of different business enterprises. The main objective of the study was to find out about the level at which Kosovo enterprises understand and apply marketing and how do they distinguish marketi...

  1. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  2. A decade of civilian vascular trauma in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaha, Luan; Andreevska, Tatjana; Rudari, Hajriz; Ademi, Bekim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose We sought to analyze the results of arterial injury management in a busy metropolitan vascular unit and risk factors associated with mortality and morbidity. Patients and methods We analyzed 120 patient with arterial injury treated between year 2000 and 2010 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Seven of these years were prospective and three retrospective study. Results The mechanism of arterial injury was stabbing 46.66%, gunshot wounds in 31.66%, blunt in 13.33%, an...

  3. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the...

  4. Surgical treatment of hepatic echinococcosis in Prizren (Kosovo)

    OpenAIRE

    Avdaj, Afrim; Namani, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    Management option of hepatic echinococcosis represents a major challenge for a surgeon. The aim of the study was to evaluate surgical treatment of patients with hepatic echinococcosis at the surgery department of the regional hospital in Prizren (Kosovo). The medical records of 22 patients operated for hepatic echinococcosis in our department during a four year study period (2009–2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Apart from the total of 5850 operated patients, 22 cases were diagnosed for l...

  5. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly se...

  6. Competition and SMEs front informal economy - Case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Afrim Loku; Naim Baftiu; Nadire Shehu Loku

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to raise a discussion in order to raise awareness of the population about understanding the problems that informality brings. In general, the study has the potential to not only affect economic development, but also to set up a socio-political agenda that will benefit the citizens of Kosovo. Informality is a globally widespread phenomenon, which has become a feature of developed and developing countries. Despite the global reach, and despite the adverse effects it has, informa...

  7. Germination traits of three weed species in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmeti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Datura stramonium are the most important weed species in Kosovo. They cause severe yield depression, contaminate fodder and negatively affect growth and reproduction of other weed species. To counteract these problems, specific strategies need to be developed. Such strategies should consider information on species germination traits. In this context, our study provides information on temperature requirements for germination. Seeds of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. stramonium were harvested in two sub-regions of Kosovo (western and eastern parts differing in climate and land use. They were set for germination experiments in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 3 to 35 °C and under field conditions. In both experiments, the germination rate differed between species and provenances. In the growth chamber experiment, germination of all three species was negligible below 15 °C and reached the highest rates between 24 and 30 °C. Seeds originating from the western part of Kosovo had higher germination rates and required a lower temperature for germination than seeds originating from the eastern part. In the field experiment, the time-dependent germination behaviour of D. stramonium differed between provenances. In general, germination started when soil temperature was above 18 °C and continued as long as the soil was moist. The results are discussed in the context of the need to develop weed management strategies against these weeds in Kosovo.

  8. Corruption and its Impact on the Kosovo economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Hoti

    2017-01-01

    Corruption today is quite a complex phenomenon in Kosovo, which is a serious obstacle for an efficient state. Today experience shows that corruption is bad and affects economic development. Corruption leads governments to intervene where they do not need, and this impairs their ability to formulate and implement policies in the areas in which government intervention is needed, such as: health, environment, welfare people and economic development in general. This paper will address the nature ...

  9. The Changing Urban Landscape: Interconnections Between Racial/Ethnic Segregation and Exposure in the Study of Race-Specific Violence Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen F; Stansfield, Richard

    2015-09-01

    We investigated how racial/ethnic shifts in the urban landscape influence race-specific violence by considering changes in the size of the Hispanic population, racial/ethnic contact, and racial segregation patterns. We used a time-series approach incorporating 4 decennial periods (1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010) to determine whether racial/ethnic demographic changes in 144 US cities influenced White and Black homicide rates. Sources included census and Uniform Crime Reports Supplemental Homicide Report data. The growing diversity in the residential population of US cities contributed to the dramatic decline in homicide rates over time, but the effects differed by racial group. Exposure between Hispanics and Blacks and the growing presence of Hispanics led to a reduced Black homicide trend but had no impact on Whites, after adjustment for economic shifts and other important structural features in US cities. Our research highlights the importance of paying closer attention to exposure and integration between immigrants and existing racial groups. Failure to consider racial/ethnic contact and the racial nature of urban violence may produce misleading results in studies of associations between Hispanic immigration and crime.

  10. Perceptions of safety and exposure to violence in public places among working age adults with disabilities or long-term health conditions in the UK: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Krnjacki, L; Llewellyn, G; Vaughan, C; Kavanagh, A

    2016-06-01

    To examine perceptions of safety and exposure to violence in public places among working age adults with and without disabilities in the UK and to assess the extent to which any between-group differences may be moderated by gender and socio-economic situation. Cross-sectional study. Secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 3 (2011-13) of Understanding Society. Data were extracted on a subsample of 5069 respondents aged 16 to 64 years (28% of whom had a disability/long-term health condition) who were administered a questionnaire module addressing experiences of harassment. Between-group comparisons were made on four self-reported indicators of safety. Respondents with disabilities/long-term health conditions were significantly more likely to have been attacked (adjusted OR 2.30, 95%CI 1.17-4.50, P condition are at significantly increased risk of exposure to interpersonal violence, particularly if they are living in poverty or are women. As such, there is a clear need to develop interventions that are targeted to the particular circumstances and needs of these high risk groups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  12. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  13. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II): history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. Methods A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP), and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. Results The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%), or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%). Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low (political involvement, personal conflicts and the fear of neighbourhood violence strongly affected emotional well-being. Good emotional well-being correlated with increased political and social participation. Conclusion A detailed picture of characteristics of the victimisation is presented. The participants showed poor emotional well-being and reduced physical capacity. The results indicated that

  14. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II): history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Haque, Mohammad Akramul; Masum, Saber-Ud-Daula; Biswas, Shuvodwip; Modvig, Jens

    2009-11-27

    Organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP), and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%), or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%). Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low (<13) on the 25-point "WHO-5 Well-being" scale. The number of years since the TCIDTP event, pain frequency, the need to quit a job to take care of an injured family member, political involvement, personal conflicts and the fear of neighbourhood violence strongly affected emotional well-being. Good emotional well-being correlated with increased political and social participation. A detailed picture of characteristics of the

  15. KOSOVO FORCE (KFOR ORGANIZATION IMAGE: EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON KOSOVO SECURITY FORCES (KSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan ARUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Comprehensive efforts to rebuild a society’s security and peace-enforcing have become an increasingly frequent activity of the NATO as KFOR (Kosovo Force, which is formed of many countries that its image results from these countries collateral relations. KFOR’s image has come to the fore because it affects the mission success and decisions about its existence in Kosovo. The image has two components, functional and emotional: Military symbols and uniforms of NATO (KFOR are functional and emotional relations of countries with Kosovo Security Forces (KSF members are emotional part. In this research; the main objective is finding out the effects that shape KFOR image. Sublevel objectives are the effects of Kosovo’s “connections”, KSF “personal links” and “perceived mission success” with KFOR member states in KFOR image. To study these effect 3 hypothesis are formed and empirical research is done with KSF members to get a foundation of emotional relationship which affects country image. Evaluating of questionnaires with linear regression, correlation and factor analysis, besides the important effects of ethnocentrism and patriotism, military personnel relations formed by countries military involvement and activities found as predictor factors in KFOR image. As a matter of course these base components of emotions about the image will enlighten future literature about building an organizational image. Keywords: Organizational Image, Country Image, Image, KFOR (Kosovo Force. ÖZ: Birçok ülkenin katkılarıyla oluşan ve imajı da bu ülkelerin tamamlayıcı ilişkileri sonucu ortaya çıkan NATO’nun uluslararası topluma yansıyan yüzü olarak Kosova Gücü (KFOR için toplumun güvenliğini yeniden tesis etmek ve barışı zorlama faaliyetleri gittikçe daha geniş kapsamlı bir çaba haline gelmektedir. KFOR’un imajının öne çıkmasının nedeni görevin başarılmasında ve Kosova’daki varlığıyla ilgili

  16. Promotion of Human Rights in the Republic of Kosovo

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    MSc. Albulena Ukimeraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental rights and freedoms are constitutional category of democratic states whereas the standards for guaranteeing these rights have been determined in the highest international acts of the United Nations. Promotion of equality and compliance with human rights initially originated in social developments in antiquity period. The Greek philosophy represented by world class philosophers Plato and Aristotle, created the foundation for complying with these rights which still serve as principles in the modern times and democratic developments. In later stages of social developments, despite the progress, compliance with human rights in the slavery era but even in the medieval times was faced with many challenges. Meanwhile, the development of the modern world, as an enlightening historic moment, it is the French Revolution, which was of course preceded by important documents in the history of development and advancement of human rights such as: Magna Carta Libertatum and the US Constitution. The reason for addressing this topic consists in the fact that these fundamental rights and freedoms are parts of constitutions of many countries including Kosovo, which are proclaimed and protected by different acts and norms, however they continue to be infringed either by individuals or institutions. Thus, with the aim of promotion of human rights and legal basis related to them in the Republic of Kosovo, this paper will elaborate development of human rights and the legal infrastructure for protection and compliance of human rights in a chronological manner by providing conclusions on the promotion of human rights in the Republic of Kosovo.

  17. The Determinants of Return Migration: Evidence for Kosovo

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    Ardiana Gashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Return migration represents a potentially important contributor to economic development for countries that are large exporters of labor. This paper provides an analysis of the determinants of return migration to Kosovo, a country with an especially high level of recent emigration. The findings of this investigation suggest that there is a non-linear relationship between the age of the migrant and their probability of returning. In addition, the more educated migrants and those that have acquired additional education whilst abroad are more likely to return, whereas recent migrants, those that possess permanent resident status and have their family abroad are less likely to return. As expected, the stronger the family ties of a migrant with their home country, the more likely they are to return. Finally, migrants that are expected to invest in businesses in Kosovo are more inclined to return. Together these findings suggest that return migration may be an important contributor to economic development in Kosovo and policies are outlined that could strengthen this contribution.

  18. Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

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    Këlliçi Klejd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

  19. Kosovo: A False Pretext for Russian Regional Paternalism

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    Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cold War, characterized by its bipolar ideological rivalry, did not resolve centuries-old hostilities between the West and Russia. In order to regain the lost influence and reincarnation of regional hegemony, President Putin wanted a casus-belli. The international humanitarian intervention in Kosovo and the latter’s declaration of independence were Russia’s weak justifications for resuming the old clashes. Interventions in the territories of the former Soviet Union inhabited by Russian speakers, the annexation of Crimea, and direct involvement in the interethnic disputes in the eastern part of Ukraine and the Syrian wars show that Russia is determined to challenge and test the Western commitment to the spread of democracy. The similarities between Kosovo and Crimea, loudly echoed by Russia and their supporters, cannot be academically binding, except in some aspects of tertiary nature. The brutal prevention of Chechnya’s independence in the 1990s and failure to recognize Kosovo while applauding the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia present Putin’s political inconsistency and Real politic orientation. The Russian annexation of Crimea from Ukraine, and threats to destabilize countries that “do not respect” the rights and interests of Russians wherever they are, exemplify Putin’s policy. The article aims to analyze the volatility of Russian foreign policy by comparing the case of Kosovo’s independence to the annexation of Crimea and Russia’s paternalist intentions abroad.

  20. Impact of FDI in economic expansion: The Kosovo case

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    Afrim Loku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008. Kosovo's neighbor to the north, Serbia does not recognize it as a sovereign state, but has begun to normalize relations in accordance with the Brussels Agreement of April 2013. With a population of 1.8 million and land area 6,765 square miles, landlocked Kosovo is considered Europe’s poorest country, yet it does have some mineral and coal deposits. Kosovo’s official unemployment rate is 35.3 percent, although some estimates are as high as 45 percent. Unemployment levels for youth and first-time job seekers are considerably higher than the official rate. According to the World Bank, Kosovo’s economy is characterized by: limited integration into the global economy; the success of its Diaspora in foreign labor markets resulting in a steady stream of remittances; pro-growth budgetary priorities; and continued international financial support. Political instability coupled with corruption -- practiced and perceived -- unreliable energy supply, a large informal economy estimated at 35 percent of GDP, and a lack of contract enforcement have created significant barriers to foreign investment. Establishing appropriate policies regarding emigration and the status of the Kosovo Diaspora are of key importance for stimulating growth reducing macroeconomic imbalances in Kosovo. With appropriate policies and incentives, the Diaspora could contribute more effectively, both in terms of human capital and financial resources, to economic growth and job creation in Kosovo. Kosovo is at an early stage in developing a functioning market economy. Some progress was made, particularly on supporting export-oriented businesses, improving contract enforcement, especially within the financial sector, and access to finance. However, the fiscally unsustainable decisions related to war-veterans' benefits may have a negative effect on the macroeconomic stability of Kosovo and its relations with international

  1. ANALYZING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN BANKING SECTOR OF KOSOVO

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    Vjosa Fejza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of understanding, analyzing and studying consumer behavior and behavior model, it was deemed necessary to conduct a research on this issue. As part of this research, consumer behavior models in the banking system of Kosovo were studied and analyzed. The first part of the study is characterized by a review of various literature, publications and scientific journals related to understanding the role and importance of consumer behavior in enterprises. Whereas the second part of the study includes a survey questionnaire, with a 500 individual client sample base, randomly selected from commercial banks in Kosovo. This survey was done with the purpose to collect data to determine behavior models of existing consumers in the banking sector and analyze various internal and external factors which influence such behaviors. Finally, data obtained from questionnaire surveys were used to draw conclusions on issues central to this research and issue recommendations which may be useful to commercial banks currently operating in Kosovo, as well as other financial institutions interested in this field.

  2. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

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    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  3. Institutional fragility – challenge for peacebuilding in Kosovo

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    Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peace building, as part of conflict resolution strategy, is challenged by several internal factors with socio-economic, political, governmental nature, and factors coming from outside the country and violent past under governance of ex Yugoslavia/Serbia. This process becomes more difficult by the transition from socialist to free economy. Kosovo independence undermines taking responsibilities by institutions on peace building perspective which will bring to the gradual reconciliation with neighbors, including Serbia. Growing authoritarian tendencies on decision making mechanisms chock already existing fragile democracy. Enhancing the rule of law and system of justice will create a good basement for elimination of corruption and increase the quality of governance as strengthening elements of the social peace and reconciliation between the communities inside Kosovo.                              Even that, Kosovo institutions have made huge efforts in building the state mechanisms in preparation for the country’s independence phase. Rise of care in the rule of law, legislation implementation, efforts for combating corruption as a major source of state vulnerability, democratic institution building, and economic development, will be the challenges faced Kosovo’s future.

  4. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  5. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, F.; Shala, F.; Xhixha, G.; Xhixha, M.K.; Hodolli, G.; Kadiri, S.; Bylyku, E.; Cfarku, F.

    2014-01-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg −1 , 9 ± 1 Bq kg −1 and 9 ± 3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. - Highlights: • NORMs in lignite combustion residues from CFPPs are studied. • Th/U indicates either low U uptake from host rocks and/or high leaching from peat. • The concentration factor of NORMs in fly and bottom ash samples are 3–5 times. • No 226 Ra enrichment is observed in fly ash while a depletion in bottom ash. • The reuse of fly ash in cement industry poses no significant radiological issue

  7. Credit policy and its impact in the work of Kosovo businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Lemane Haziri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit policy in Kosovo is a result and a reflection of the general development of macroeconomic policy. In the post-war Kosovo economic trends were negative. Therefore, in order to come to recovery and promotion of economic development, Kosovo needs investments. Surely credits represent one of financial resources through which material factors are provided for opening of new jobs that will be expressed in the decreasing of unemployment and increasing of the national production. Kosovo, as a part of Euro area, cannot make monetary policy, but it may make credit policy. Currently, out of the banking system of Kosovo is over 1.4 million Euros of financial means, and for this sum the credit potential is reduced, as a very important factor for business and the economy of Kosovo in general. Credits in Kosovo are characterized by high interest rates and short time of their return, so the purpose of this paper is to show how much the credits have been in the function of the development of businesses in Kosovo.

  8. Välisminister Urmas Paet : Kosovo tunnustamine on ainult aja küsimus / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet ei nimetanud veel kuupäeva, millal Eesti tunnustab Kosovo iseseisvust. Ta ei näe Kosovo iseseisvuse tunnustamisel vastuolu ÜRO resolutsiooniga, mis sätestab endise Jugoslaavia ja praeguse Serbia territooriumi terviklikkuse

  9. The Implications of the European Integration Process of Kosovo's Constitutional Order

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    Flamur Hyseni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I have analyzed and studied on what are the implications of the European integration process of Kosovo’s constitutional order and how much of institutional order Kosovo has, also how much of the effects of the European integration process has used. I’ve made a brief analysis of the establishment of the constitutional order of Kosovo in the former federal state of Yugoslavia and establishment of Kosovo under international administration. However an analyze and more detailed study I’ve made on the first report of contracting between Kosovo and EU, Stabilization and Association Agreement which will be implemented in Kosovo through the National Program for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement that was approved by the Government on 16 December 2015 and by the Assembly on 10 March 2016. The other aspect of the study and analysis in this article is the study of acts to protect the territorial integrity of Kosovo, which are: 12244/99 resolution of the UN Security Council, Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self- Government in Kosovo, 16 May 2001, Declaration of Independence, 17 February 2008 and the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo, 09 April 2008.

  10. 78 FR 28698 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Insurance or Pension System-- Kosovo AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--Kosovo. Finding: Section 202(t)(1) of the Social... has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and...

  11. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980–2000). Methods A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Findings Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = −.198, t = −2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. Conclusions These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their

  12. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana B

    2013-10-23

    The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980-2000). A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = -.198, t = -2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their relationship, which is not fully explained by linear

  13. Functionality of the Kosovo Competition Authority on the basis of European Union standards a guarantee for loyal economy in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Krasniqi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal regulation of market mechanisms and the implementation of economic policies for a fair competition in TEs is a challenging issue. The competition is a complex economic phenomenon that is manifested and characterized by the strength and content that gives to the market economy. In Kosovo specific economic entities, in one way or another, are tempted to gain as much buyers or markets and create much more profits. The problem is connected with the irregularity. Such behavior and unfair actions are not only damaging the image of the country but are a serious threat the harmonious development of the national economy and the country’s accession process to the EU. The parliament of Kosovo established the Kosovo Competition Authority as an independent institution with special competences to control and fight this negative phenomenon. Based to official data it turns out that the effectiveness of this institution is not only incomplete but also non-functional. This is because of the “ignorance” and non-adequate treatment that is reserved for this authority by the parliamentary and governmental institutions. All this because the members are not elected based to regular procedures and not allocating the necessary financial means to operate. At least so far, the Kosovo Competition Authority was not allowed to hire professionals with clear competences to act and investigate the negative phenomenon of unfair competition. Certainly, this situation does not guarantee effective implementation of laws and quality protection of competition. Therefore, the mobilization of parliamentary and governmental levels is needed to enhance professional capacities and increase their competence in scope of the investigation including cooperation with prosecutors and courts. These actions should be reconsidered with the aim of creating a competitive safe environment for all operators. To conclude, the loyal competition policies and legislative framework should be

  14. The Role Of Migrant Workers Remittances In Fostering Economic Growth: The Kosovo Experience

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    Rahmije Topxhiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, in Kosovo as well, remittances of workers from diaspora have become an important source of external financing. In this paper some theoretical and practical aspects of the role of remittances in the development of countries receiving them are treated. An analytical approach is made about the migration trends of Kosovo's population, trends and role of remittances in the economic development of Kosovo through various statistical data published by relevant national and international institutions and current published material in this regard. Researched material and published data on the role of remittances in Kosovo's economic development lead to the conclusion that migration and remittances will continue to be an important part of the economic, political and social development of Kosovo.

  15. Fundamental Economic Factors That Affect Housing Prices: Comparative Analysis between Kosovo and Slovenia

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    Visar Hoxha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide strategic implications for real estate appraisers and real estate managers to know the economic determinants of housing price dynamics in Kosovo. The fundamental economic determinants of housing prices, adopted from previous studies, are Gross Domestic Product growth, demographics, real interest rates, and construction costs. The research methodology used is quantitative factor analysis. The main question addressed is, whether the conventional fundamental determinants of housing prices, such as Gross Domestic Product per capita, real interest rates, demographic factors, and construction costs have driven the observed housing prices in Kosovo. By sampling the determinants of housing prices in Kosovo, the study shows their effects on housing price dynamics. The study shows that housing prices in Kosovo are significantly determined by the underlying conventional fundamentals. This is the first research that tries to determine whether the fundamental economic factors influence the housing prices in Kosovo.

  16. Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Women Exposed to Community and Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jorielle R.; Hill, Hope M.; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research documents increased trauma symptoms associated with exposure to violence, primarily by examining types of violence separately. This study extends prior research by examining traumatic stress symptoms associated with two types of violence exposure, community violence and partner violence. A sample of 90 low-income African American…

  17. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II: history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Shuvodwip

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. Methods A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP, and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. Results The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%, or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%. Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low ( Conclusion A detailed picture of characteristics of the victimisation is presented. The participants showed poor emotional well-being and reduced physical capacity. The results indicated that the simple and rapid method of assessment used here is a promising tool that could be used to monitor the quality and outcome of rehabilitation.

  19. Exposure to interpersonal violence and risk for PTSD, depression, delinquency, and binge drinking among adolescents: data from the NSA-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Begle, Angela M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-02-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with a range of subsequent negative outcomes; however, research has yet to test whether IPV operates as a specific risk factor for separate psychopathology outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, or binge drinking. To address this, cumulative exposure to IPV and non-IPV-related traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and binge drinking were measured 3 times over approximately 3 years among a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 12-17 (N = 3,614 at Wave 1). Results demonstrated that cumulative IPV exposure predicted subsequent PTSD, depression, delinquency, and binge drinking (βs = .07, .12, .10, and .09, respectively; all ps < .01) when all cross-relationships (e.g., the effect of delinquency on future binge drinking) were in the model. Exposure to non-IPV traumatic events generally did not confer vulnerability to subsequent psychopathology outcomes. Overall, findings from this study advance the literature in this area by exploring consequences for adolescents following cumulative IPV exposure. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. The use of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in forensic medicine following incidents of sexual violence in Hamburg, Germany: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Julia; Sperhake, Jan Peter; Degen, Olaf; Schröder, Ann Sophie

    2018-05-18

    In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016. One thousand two hundred eighteen incidents of sexual violence were reviewed. In 18% of these cases, HIV PEP was initially prescribed by the FMS. HIV PEP indication depended on the examination occurring within 24 h after the incident, no/unknown condom use, the occurrence of ejaculation, the presence of any injury, and the perpetrator being from population at high risk for HIV. Half of the HIV PEP recipients returned for a reevaluation of the HIV PEP indication by an infectious disease specialist, and just 16% completed the full month of treatment. Only 131 potential perpetrators were tested for HIV, with one found to be HIV positive. No HIV seroconversion was registered among the study sample. Provision of HIV PEP by an FMS after sexual assault ensures appropriate and prompt care for victims. However, patient compliance and completion rates are low. HIV testing of perpetrators must be carried out much more rigorously.

  1. Perpetual perpetration: How violence shapes the offender : The interplay between organized and family violence, appetitive aggression and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis explored how violence shapes the violent offender by investigating the interplay between exposure to and perpetration of organized and family violence and its impact on mental health and aggression. Violence and cruelty seem to be omnipresent in men. Nell (2006) suggested that an affectively positive, dopamine mediated and, therefore, rewarding perception of violence fosters violence among humans. Findings concerning the impact of perpetrating violence on mental health are,...

  2. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. How States Carry Out Acts of Terror: Wars, Strategies and Tactics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Astrit Lleshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a notoriously difficult concept that defies single universal definition. Terrorists intentionally employ violence in order to instill fear in their victims and the wider public. Terrorist movements aim to achieve their political, social and/or religious goals through use of violent acts. (Hoffman, 1998: 43 In most cases terrorism is perpetrated by non-state actors and is "bottom up" challenge to the existing political order. However this article argues that the nature of the crime and not the perpetrator should determine whether some criminal act constitutes terrorism and acts of terror can also be committed by states and/or state actors. In this article, the author will examine the overall strategy and tactics used by the Milosevic and Karadzic regimes in BiH and Kosovo to fulfil their wartime ambitions of maintaining and consolidating control over Serb and Serb-occupied territory, relying primarily upon the indictments and judgments of the ICTY in which they and members of their armed forces acting under their authority have been charged and/or convicted of war crimes and terror, along with reports from international organizations such as the United Nations and other sources. Through an analysis of these tactics against leading definitions of terrorism, it will be demonstrated that rather than fighting against terrorists and insurgents, the Milosevic and Karadzic regimes carried out acts of terror during the wars in Kosovo and BiH, respectively, and furthermore Milosevic was sponsoring state-terrorism in BiH (Blakely, 2012: 3-4.

  4. Prior Interpersonal Violence Exposure and Experiences During and After a Disaster as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi; Zuromski, Kelly L; Galea, Sandro; Price, Matthew; Gilmore, Amanda K; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Ruggiero, Kenneth

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the current report was to examine prior history of exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), as compared with prior accident or prior disaster exposure, experiences during and after a disaster, and demographic variables as predictors of past month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity among adolescents exposed to the tornadoes in Alabama and Missouri. IPV exposure has been consistently identified as a unique category of potentially traumatic events (PTE) that significantly increases risk for development of PTSD and other difficulties relative to other event types among adolescents. A population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers ( N = 2,000) were recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Participants completed structured telephone interviews on an average of 8.8 months posttornado. Prior history of IPV was prevalent (36.5%), as was reported history of accidents (25.9%) and prior disaster exposure (26.9%). Negative binomial regression analyses with PTSD and depression symptom counts for past month as outcome variables indicated that history of predisaster IPV was most robustly related to PTSD and depression symptoms, such that those with a history of IPV endorsed over 3 times the number of symptoms than those without IPV history. Final model statistics indicated that female gender, physical injury to caregiver, concern about others' safety, prior disaster, prior accident, and prior IPV exposure were also related to PTSD. Predictors of depression symptoms were similar with the exception that concern about others' safety was not a predictor and age was a predictor in the final model. It is important to evaluate potential additive effects of IPV history in addition to recent disaster exposure variables and to consider such history when developing interventions aimed to reduce or prevent symptoms of PTSD and depression among adolescents recently exposed to disaster.

  5. Maternal depression and intimate partner violence exposure: Longitudinal analyses of the development of aggressive behavior in an at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A

    2017-07-01

    A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior. Longitudinal analyses (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) examining three time points (toddler: age 2-3 years, preschool/kindergarten: age 4-5 years, and elementary school: age 6-8 years) were conducted using 1,399 at-risk children drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). IPV exposure during age 2-3 years was significantly related to concurrent aggressive behavior and aggressive behavior during age 4-5 years. At all three time points, IPV was significantly associated with maternal depression, which in turn, was significantly related to higher levels of aggressive behavior. There was also a significant indirect lagged effect of IPV exposure at age 2-3 years through maternal depression on aggressive behavior at age 4-5 years. Results indicated that maternal depression was a strong predictor of increased reports of overt aggressive behavior, suggesting that interventions to buffer the effects of IPV exposure should focus on relieving maternal depression and fostering productive social behavior in children. Aggr. Behav. 43:375-385, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women’s high education has on children’s corporal punishment: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mariano; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Solórzano, Lucia; Herrera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that women's education is protective against corporal punishment (CP) of children. However, the effect that women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has on the association between women's education and children's CP has not been studied. Objective To understand how the interaction between women's exposure to IPV and their education level influences the occurrence of children's CP at the household level. Methods We selected 10,156 women who had at least one child less than 16 years old from cross-sectional data from the 2006–2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey. Children's CP was defined as the punishment of children by slapping them, hitting them with a fist, or hitting them with a rope, belt, stick, or other object. IPV was measured by using a conflict tactic scale. The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20) was used to assess the women's mental health. We computed adjusted risk ratios (ARR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator. Results Women's exposure to IPV was associated with a 10–17% increase in the risk of children's CP. IPV and children's CP were associated with impaired women's mental health. Women's lifetime exposure to emotional IPV and controlling behavior by a partner significantly decreased the protective effect from women's high education level on children's CP. When women were exposed to emotional IPV, the protective effect from having a college education decreased from ARR=0.61 (95% CI 0.47–0.80) to ARR=0.98 (95% CI 0.80–1.19). A similar pattern was found among women exposed to controlling behavior by a partner, the protective effect decreased from ARR=0.71 (95% CI 0.53–0.90) to ARR=0.86 (95% CI 0.70–1.06). Conclusion This study shows how significant gains in one positive social determinant of children's well-being can be undermined when it interacts with men's violence toward women. Policies that aim to end children

  7. Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women’s high education has on children’s corporal punishment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Salazar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that women's education is protective against corporal punishment (CP of children. However, the effect that women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV has on the association between women's education and children's CP has not been studied. Objective: To understand how the interaction between women's exposure to IPV and their education level influences the occurrence of children's CP at the household level. Methods: We selected 10,156 women who had at least one child less than 16 years old from cross-sectional data from the 2006–2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey. Children's CP was defined as the punishment of children by slapping them, hitting them with a fist, or hitting them with a rope, belt, stick, or other object. IPV was measured by using a conflict tactic scale. The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20 was used to assess the women's mental health. We computed adjusted risk ratios (ARR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator. Results: Women's exposure to IPV was associated with a 10–17% increase in the risk of children's CP. IPV and children's CP were associated with impaired women's mental health. Women's lifetime exposure to emotional IPV and controlling behavior by a partner significantly decreased the protective effect from women's high education level on children's CP. When women were exposed to emotional IPV, the protective effect from having a college education decreased from ARR=0.61 (95% CI 0.47–0.80 to ARR=0.98 (95% CI 0.80–1.19. A similar pattern was found among women exposed to controlling behavior by a partner, the protective effect decreased from ARR=0.71 (95% CI 0.53–0.90 to ARR=0.86 (95% CI 0.70–1.06. Conclusion: This study shows how significant gains in one positive social determinant of children's well-being can be undermined when it interacts with men's violence toward women. Policies that aim

  8. Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women's high education has on children's corporal punishment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mariano; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Solórzano, Lucia; Herrera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that women's education is protective against corporal punishment (CP) of children. However, the effect that women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has on the association between women's education and children's CP has not been studied. To understand how the interaction between women's exposure to IPV and their education level influences the occurrence of children's CP at the household level. We selected 10,156 women who had at least one child less than 16 years old from cross-sectional data from the 2006-2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey. Children's CP was defined as the punishment of children by slapping them, hitting them with a fist, or hitting them with a rope, belt, stick, or other object. IPV was measured by using a conflict tactic scale. The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20) was used to assess the women's mental health. We computed adjusted risk ratios (ARR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator. Women's exposure to IPV was associated with a 10-17% increase in the risk of children's CP. IPV and children's CP were associated with impaired women's mental health. Women's lifetime exposure to emotional IPV and controlling behavior by a partner significantly decreased the protective effect from women's high education level on children's CP. When women were exposed to emotional IPV, the protective effect from having a college education decreased from ARR=0.61 (95% CI 0.47-0.80) to ARR=0.98 (95% CI 0.80-1.19). A similar pattern was found among women exposed to controlling behavior by a partner, the protective effect decreased from ARR=0.71 (95% CI 0.53-0.90) to ARR=0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.06). This study shows how significant gains in one positive social determinant of children's well-being can be undermined when it interacts with men's violence toward women. Policies that aim to end children's CP must include actions to end women's exposure to IPV.

  9. General comparative overview of constitutional acts of the Republic of Kosovo over the years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Kryeziu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The declaration of Kosovo Independence and afterwards the adoption of the Constitution were preceded by a multiyear process of persistent political endeavours in order to affirm the right of the Kosovo people for self-determination. Drafting of the constitution was one of the important and long-term tasks in building the state; it is a will of the past generations, for the creation of a new political-legal order, establishment of new government institutions. Its drafting was a product of joint cooperation and will of the Kosovo institutions, experts and politicians and the international institutions and experts. It is known that the idea of drafting the Constitution of Kosovo has been longstanding. However, its implementation process is characterized by specific ways imposed by actual international and local circumstances. The request of the Kosovo citizens and institutions for independence should by all means be sublimated by a constitutional-normative act, as an instrument for making the society functional in all areas of life, such as social, institutional, political, economic, security, etc. The experts of constitutional law and the Kosovo political profiles, along with the international experts, in compliance with the principles proclaimed by the international acts and in accordance with historical, political, economic and social features, commenced drafting the draft constitution of the Republic of Kosovo as a sovereign and independent country.

  10. The Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo's Declaration of Independence

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    Besnik MURATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question raised by Serbia at the ICJ that, “Is the unilateral declaration of independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo in accordance with international law?”, is my main focus in this study. The purpose of the paper is the study and analysis of the advisory opinion of the ICJ on Kosovo's declaration of independence. In the beginning, I will make a brief chronology of the process up to the Declaration of Independence, offering historical and legal facts that this way of declaration of independence was the only option for Kosovo. Later, I will focus on contesting the declaration of independence from Serbia at the ICJ of UN. After contesting the Declaration of Independence, will analyze the review and its judgment the ICJ, whether ICJ had jurisdiction in the treatment and trial of the case, countries with their statements that were in support of Kosovo and countries which they were against it and in favor of Serbia. After review and trial at the ICJ, I would analyze the decision of the ICJ that Kosovo's declaration of independence was in accordance with International Law? In conclusion, I would summarize the whole of the paper, the process through which Kosovo went during this period. Was also an undeniable fact that the Declaration of Independence was the only remaining option for Kosovo and its people?

  11. The Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth - Case Study for Kosovo

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    Dr.Sc. Myrvete Badivuku - Pantina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper will explain the impact and relationship between the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and economic growth, Kosovo case. The used data in research are secondary data and cover a period of time between 2008 and 2013. By using STATA program for calculation and by various regression analyses (descriptive statistics, linear regression and correlation relationships have been identified between involved variables in research, where economic growth is defined as dependent variable, whereas FDI, interest rate and real effective and exchange rate (REER are defined as independent variables. The main results in this research paper indicate that FDI has a positive relation (0.011 but non-significant effect (T2 on economic growth in Kosovo. The real effective exchange rate has a negative (-0.347 and non-significant relation (T<2 with economic growth. The main activities of FDI in overall Kosovo's economy are: real estate, transport and telecommunication, financial and manufacture services, construction, etc. The main conclusion is that the Kosovo institutions should create a favorable environment, such as: political stability, enforcement of justice, reduction of trade barriers, Kosovo should also create appropriate policy for protection of foreign investors, investment security, fair competition and institutional support. This will impact the drastic improvement and increase of FDI. In 2013 Kosovo had an FDI percentage of 5% of GDP while in 2007 it was over 13% of Kosovo's GDP.

  12. Children's Witnessing of Adult Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence through a review of 31 research articles. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence (child abuse,…

  13. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kosovo Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoza Shahini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD at veterans 8 years after war, to find out relation of PTSD with other demographic and health related variables and discover the impact of depression and trauma on PTSD on 687 veterans from six municipalities in Kosovo. Method: Participants were 687 war veterans selected from six regions of Kosovo during 2008. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ-40, was administered to measure PTSD and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25 for depression and anxiety. Pearson chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Results indicated that 11.2 % of veterans even 8 years after the war ended were suffering from PTSD. Six percent of veterans with PTSD did not seek medical help. They reported to have had emotional problems and physical problems, but they did not seek medical help. The findings suggest that self-medication may be one way of veterans dealing with PTSD symptoms. Veterans with PTSD symptoms were more concerned with “family issues” than those without PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: The study found that 8 years after the war the veterans of the war in Kosovo suffer PTSD symptoms and that a good number of them do not seek help for this problem. The establishment of adequate services by the state would transform these veterans’ dealing with PTSD not into a moral challenge but into a fundamental right to equal and high-quality services.

  14. The History of Tax Administration of Kosovo and its Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakije Kida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This document provides a brief description of the work in the field of taxation and efficiency in execution of Tax Administration of Kosovo (TAK, inspired by my work in this institution. This work presents the systematic connection of taxpayers, the Tax Administration of Kosovo (TAK and revenue growth within a 12 year period. TAK work effect is conditioned by the level of the staff engagement which leads the tax policy, honest engagement of tax officials and effective enforcement of tax laws based on international best practices. This means that countries that have promoted European Union tax rules have significantly gained better working practices but also collecting the most revenue without applying penalties or closure of businesses. This study examines the short-and long-term effectiveness of TAK. We have found complementarities tax laws of the Republic of Kosovo with EU rules, implying a positive outbreak of their administration. This paper focuses on presenting positive sides as well as opportunities for a greater engagement to a general and dynamic framework for accountability and expected results in a short term. It also treats the policies that are directly and strongly incorporated in the work of TAK. Reducing of the risk of tax evasion, full integration of electronic payment system (E-banking of taxpayers, the successful realization of the pilot project for the establishment of electronic files is a challenge for TAK. Low level of economic integration and political risk of the north of the country are the two elements that have a negative impact on the strength and the will of businesses to pay on the one hand and the effect of collecting revenue from TAK on the other side.

  15. Matched trauma: The role of parents' and children's shared history of childhood domestic violence exposure in parents' report of children's trauma-related symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms.

  16. What Social Impact Does Exposure to Domestic Violence Have on Adolescent Males? A Systemic Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Icheku, V; Graham, R

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence is widespread in the United Kingdom (UK) and accounts for 14 per cent of all violent crimes. It is a significant health concern, as it damages physical and emotional health and can have long lasting negative impact across a wide range of health, social and economic outcomes for families as well as having a major impact on the social development of young people. A recent report shows that in 2002 there were 750,000 children in Britain estimated to have witnessed domestic viol...

  17. Mortality from bacterial meningitis in children in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie; Milenkovic, Zvonko; Kuchar, Ernest; Koci, Remzie; Mehmeti, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe infection responsible for high mortality. This prospective study of 277 pediatric bacterial meningitis cases was done to identify factors predicting death in children 24 hours after admission (RR = 11.5), age <1 month (RR = 19.3), the use of inotropic agents (RR = 11.5), and admission after 5 days' duration of illness (P < .001). The mortality rate in children in Kosovo is similar to those reported from developing countries, and this is most likely due to the unfavorable living conditions.

  18. Corruption and its Impact on the Kosovo economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Hoti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption today is quite a complex phenomenon in Kosovo, which is a serious obstacle for an efficient state. Today experience shows that corruption is bad and affects economic development. Corruption leads governments to intervene where they do not need, and this impairs their ability to formulate and implement policies in the areas in which government intervention is needed, such as: health, environment, welfare people and economic development in general. This paper will address the nature of corruption, its causes and its effects on the country's economic and social development.

  19. Video games and youth violence: a prospective analysis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    The potential influence of violent video games on youth violence remains an issue of concern for psychologists, policymakers and the general public. Although several prospective studies of video game violence effects have been conducted, none have employed well validated measures of youth violence, nor considered video game violence effects in context with other influences on youth violence such as family environment, peer delinquency, and depressive symptoms. The current study builds upon previous research in a sample of 302 (52.3% female) mostly Hispanic youth. Results indicated that current levels of depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of serious aggression and violence across most outcome measures. Depressive symptoms also interacted with antisocial traits so that antisocial individuals with depressive symptoms were most inclined toward youth violence. Neither video game violence exposure, nor television violence exposure, were prospective predictors of serious acts of youth aggression or violence. These results are put into the context of criminological data on serious acts of violence among youth.

  20. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  1. A property rights-based analysis of the illegal logging for fuelwood in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bouriaud, L.; Nichiforel , L.; Ribeiro Nunes, L. M.; Pereira, H.; Bajraktari, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increased demand for fuelwood may have the side-effect of unsustainable use of forest resource. The case of Kosovo fuelwood production is of a peculiar relevance to studying the drivers of the unsustainable patterns of forest biomass use in a post-war and poor economic context. The domestic market demand for fuelwood in Kosovo is estimated at more than 1.5 hm3, while the legal supply, including imports, is slightly higher than 0.3 hm3. Illegal logging for satisfying Kosovo population fuel...

  2. Challenges of Tuition fee’s decision: Private Universities case in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa Shahini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses Challenges that Private Universities in Kosovo face when employing tuition fee strategies. Data are collected on May - June 2012 through in-depth interview and questioners with supervisors and students of three Private Universities in Kosovo. As of low purchasing power of students and overall economic crises in Kosovo, students are very sensitive to pricing strategies employed and according to fee they evaluate before and after -enrollment assessment. Students’ academic expectations are much higher relative to their low tuition requirements. In transition economies, employing tuition strategies that satisfy both Universities and students is a challenge for higher educational institutions.

  3. Impact of exposure to intimate partner violence on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell decay in HIV infected women: longitudinal study.

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    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is a risk factor for HIV acquisition in many settings, but little is known about its impact on cellular immunity especially in HIV infected women, and if any impact differs according to the form of IPV. We tested hypotheses that exposure to IPV, non-partner rape, hunger, pregnancy, depression and substance abuse predicted change in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell count in a dataset of 103 HIV infected young women aged 15-26 enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Multiple regression models were fitted to measure rate of change in CD4 and CD8 and including terms for age, person years of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell observation, HIV positivity at baseline, and stratum. Exposure variables included drug use, emotional, physical or sexual IPV exposure, non-partner rape, pregnancy and food insecurity. Mean CD4+ T cell count at baseline (or first HIV+ test was 567.6 (range 1121-114. Participants were followed for an average of 1.3 years. The magnitude of change in CD4 T-cells was significantly associated with having ever experienced emotional abuse from a current partner at baseline or first HIV+ test (Coeff -132.9 95% CI -196.4, -69.4 p<0.0001 and drug use (Coeff -129.9 95% CI -238.7, -21.2 p=0.02. It was not associated with other measures. The change in CD8 T-cells was associated with having ever experienced emotional abuse at baseline or prior to the first HIV+ test (Coeff -178.4 95%CI -330.2, -26.5 p=0.02. In young ART-naive HIV positive women gender-based violence exposure in the form of emotional abuse is associated with a faster rate of decline in markers of cellular immunity. This highlights the importance of attending to emotional abuse when studying the physiological impact of IPV experience and the mechanisms of its impact on women's health.

  4. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the specially designed form. Results: 116 children with rotavirus diarrhea are included in the study. The majority boys (74.4%) and children aged 0 – 12 months (82.75%). Mean age of children in the study was 16.38 months. Almost every third child in the study was hypotrophic (29.2%). More than half of the infants (55.2%) were on mixed food, somewhat more than every third was breast feeding (36.45%), and every twelfth (8.33%) was on artificial milk (animal or formula). Apart from diarrhea, present in all patients, vomiting (97.41%) and fever (43.96%) were characteristics of the clinical presentation of the diarrhea. Two thirds of the children had mild grade dehydration (70.7%). All patients recovered with no sequels. Conclusion: Rotavirus continues to be responsible for a significant portion of acute diarrhea in Kosovo. Clinical features, epidemiological data and the agglutination test are safe enough to establish the diagnosis. Treated correctly rotavirus diarrhea has a favorable outcome. PMID:25568634

  5. Competition and SMEs front informal economy - Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Loku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to raise a discussion in order to raise awareness of the population about understanding the problems that informality brings. In general, the study has the potential to not only affect economic development, but also to set up a socio-political agenda that will benefit the citizens of Kosovo. Informality is a globally widespread phenomenon, which has become a feature of developed and developing countries. Despite the global reach, and despite the adverse effects it has, informality still remains the term that causes many disagreements, which are directly related to its definition, classification and measurement. This study aims to present the real picture of informality in Kosovo; The size, the determinants, and the economic consequences that this phenomenon may cause. In this study, informality is defined as a phenomenon that describes all the economic activities that are secretly developed by the state and which do not neglect the rule of the state. As such, it includes concepts such as tax evasion, informal employment and undersigning employee salaries.

  6. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Begolli, Ilir; Hoxha, Rina; Mehmeti, Rukije; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Kurti, Arsim; Loku, Afrim; Raka, Lul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health challenge worldwide, caused primarily by the misuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is closely related to the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a population. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about antibiotic use among the general public in Kosovo. Methods: A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out with a sample of 811 randomly selected Kosovo residents. The methodology used for this survey was based on the European Commission Eurobarometer survey on antimicrobial resistance. Results: More than half of respondents (58.7%) have used antibiotics during the past year. A quarter of respondents consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reasons for usage were flu (23.8%), followed by sore throat (20.2%), cold (13%) and common cold (7.6%). 42.5% of respondents think that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Almost half of respondents (46.7%) received information about the unnecessary use of antibiotics and 32.5% of them report having changed their views and behaviours after receiving this information. Health care workers were identified as the most trustworthy source of information on antibiotic use (67.2%). Conclusion: These results provide quantitative baseline data on Kosovar knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the use of antibiotic. These findings have potential to empower educational campaigns to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in both community and health care settings. PMID:28503216

  7. Does Education Matter for Entrepreneurship Activities? The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the innovation and technology progress, it is expected that in the near future there will be an increasing trend of jobs that require high qualifi- cations. There is a debate whether education is significantly increasing probabilities of earning higher wage for employees or whether higher education will increase probabilities of entrepreneurship performance. In post-conflict countries, entrepreneurial education does not have a significant impact on entrepreneurship performance, especially in Kosovo due to different factors. First, due to the structure of enterprises, as most of the enterprises are involved on trade activities; second, due to the level of macroeconomic development and, third, due to the lack of involvement of enterprises in EU knowledge and innovative projects, such as Erasmus and Horizon 2020. By using a probit model this paper analyses several factors, such as level of education, gender, marital status and health, for the case of Kosovo. Finally, it confirms empirically that currently the level of education does not seem to play an important role on entrepreneurship performance compared to other factors, such as gender and marital status.

  8. Organizing a marketing function in SME in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatos Ukaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to structural differences amongst the large enterprises as well as, small and medium enterprises, from different authors and marketing specialists it has been observed that marketing applied to SMEs should be adapted, especially in marketing mix. In Kosovo, the number of SMEs is also high and in the past period were made institutional efforts in order to support these enterprises by developing a wide range of measures and activities to help their development, with the aim of increasing employment in the country and economic development. In this paper we will address the disparities between SMEs and other enterprises that affect the application of marketing different from the traditional. Development of SMEs is undergoing an analysis through life cycles of the enterprise, but it also can be found simply in any stage such as that of growth, stagnation or fall, and this dictates the application of appropriate marketing mix that responds to the market movements. Based on the research done, it appears that there are more limiting factors for the application of marketing to these companies, such as poor acquaintances of the owners/managers for marketing. This made it necessary to find some innovative methods and modes of marketing actions on SMEs, which is a task that should be learned and adopted from their managers. It is normal that a model could be applied if we recognize the needs of consumers and the market, this making it possible to create a field for a specific marketing application also to SMEs in Kosovo

  9. Parental Responsibilities to Children in the Republic of Kosovo

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    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, in Albanian customary law, parental responsibilities were an exclusive competency of fathers. In positive law, especially with the reform of the legal system in the Republic of Kosovo, now both parents are fully equal in exercising parental responsibilities. Children are the future of any society, and therefore, their upraising, education and proper welfare of children is an objective and responsibility not only for the parents, but also of societal and state institutions. Although parent-child relations incorporate moral, biological and legal elements, the absolute power of parents must be shared between parents and proper social and educational policies, in the heart of which are always the best interests of the child. Kosovo has already adopted a complete legal framework, approximated to the standards of the European Union and international instruments which clearly provide on the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents and institutions in enjoying such rights. Within the range of this new legal framework, we make an effort of addressing parental responsibilities, which are exercised in terms of personality of children, and derive as a result of personal non-material relations. Our work is focused on a study of parental responsibilities in terms of giving a personal name, healthy development, education and upraising. We have also analysed several court rulings related to the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents in enjoying such rights, which we believe are to enrich and render the paper more interesting.

  10. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  11. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...

  12. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  13. Operational Command and Control: Lessons for Today's Joint Force from Grenada, Somalia, and Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foraker III, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines operational command and control issues encountered during Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada, the deployment of Task Force Ranger in Mogadishu, Somalia, and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo...

  14. The Prospects of Membership in International Organizations: The Case of Kosovo

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    Ardian Emini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspective of Kosovo and its membership in international organizations. There are three pillars upon which the analysis of the paper is built. Initially the general question of theoretical frameworks in general the organizations which focus on the elaboration of the very concept of statehood and state-building in general and specifically on Kosovo. The final section deals with a range of behaviors and initiatives of countries in general and the challenges for membership in international organizations. With the aim of contextualizing the subject, the paper focuses on the case of Kosovo state and membership in international organizations with a view to strengthening the international subjectivity and security in the international arena. Finally, the paper concludes that the importance of the accession countries, namely Kosovo's membership in international organizations, and the use of multilateral diplomacy are vital to their safety and welfare.

  15. Moskva jätab Kosovo puhul otsad lahti / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa välisminister Sergei Lavrov teatas, et Kosovo iseseisvuse oodatav väljakuulutamine ei tähenda tingimata, et Venemaa tunnustab Abhaasiat ja Lõuna-Osseetiat. Moskva politoloogi Aleksei Malashenko arvamus

  16. The role and importance of leadership in business development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Hoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Kosovo today is one of the questions of exceptional importance. This institution has not yet been analyzed properly based on: quality, efficiency and responsibility, legal-, material- and moral leadership. Kosovo is faced with many challenges consisting of the needed steps towards the business development of the enterprise in Kosovo and in the international arena. Leaders cannot be created only by giving orders to others but the main problem is to identify the principles of cooperation and co-financing that identify people who can and should be able to mobilize forces to create economic advantages to the society. In this sense the most important thing is the determination of the exact diagnosis of the current situation before promoting economic growth. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of the role and importance of leadership in the business development in Kosovo.

  17. Riigikogu pikendas eile Iraagi ja Kosovo missiooni veel aastaks / Maria-Elisa Rannajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannajõe, Maria-Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Iraagi ja Kosovo missiooni pikendamisest Riigikogus, roheliste erakonna juhi Marek Strandbergi arvamus Iraagi missiooni pikendamise kohta. ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu pikendas liitlasvägede mandaati Iraagis aasta võrra, Iraak palus missiooni pikendamist viimast korda

  18. Building sustainable institutions ? : the results of international administration in Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo: 1995-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, Niels Johannes Gerard van

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several large and ambitious international administrations established to govern territories plagued by war and left without effective governments. The international administrations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and in Kosovo were among those established.

  19. Soldier Dimensions and Operational Readiness in U.S. Army Forces Deployed to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...

  20. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tačík, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...