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Sample records for korogwe tanzania implications

  1. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... at determining whether there was a difference in rates of LBW in areas of varying malaria transmission intensity in Korogwe, Tanzania. Retrospective data for one year (June 2004-May 2005) in three maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in the district were analysed. Villages were stratified into three strata...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  2. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  3. Performance of rapid diagnostic test, blood-film microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of malaria infection among febrile children from Korogwe District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John

    2016-01-01

    with fever and/or history of fever in the previous 48 h attending outpatient clinics. Blood samples were collected for identification of Plasmodium falciparum infection using histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP-2)-based malaria RDT, light microscopy and conventional PCR. Results: A total of 867 febrile patients......Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and light microscopy are still recommended for diagnosis to guide the clinical management of malaria despite difficult challenges in rural settings. The performance of these tests may be affected by several factors, including malaria prevalence and intensity...... of transmission. The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of malaria RDT, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting malaria infections among febrile children at outpatient clinic in Korogwe District, northeastern Tanzania. Methods: The study enrolled children aged 2-59 months...

  4. Korogwe Research Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    . It is a large vaccine trial programme simultaneously conducted in several countries in Africa funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The laboratory is an extension to a district hospital placed quite isolated and rural in the north-eastern part of Tanzania. It’s close to the equator and the climate...... and ceiling have been separated leaving a large space for natural ventilation creating a general chimney effect. To provide independent backup water supply all rainwater falling on the roof is collected and directed through a sand filter into a 100m3 subterranean water tank. All constructions, details...... and materials have been carefully selected to last a long time even in a future situation with limited maintenance. Except from the high-end lab equipment only local available materials have been used. All major spaces are reached from colonnades surrounding an inner calm and cool garden space equipped...

  5. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  6. Five-year surveillance of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum antimalarial drug resistance in Korogwe District, Tanzania: accumulation of the 581G mutation in the P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lusingu, John P; Mmbando, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    .001). In contrast, the chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) CVMNK haplotype increased from 6% to 30% (P use of SP for intermittent presumptive treatment of pregnant women......In January 2007, Tanzania replaced sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) with artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study examined the impact of widespread SP use on molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in blood samples from persons living in two...

  7. A tree girdling beetle in Korogwe District: its potential risk to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify and assess damage of an insect pest girdling young Eucalypts in Korogwe Forest Plantation, Tanga. Purposive sampling was employed to establish 10 plots of 10m by 10m. A total of 90 trees were sampled. Insect pest specimens were collected and girdled trees counted in each plot. The

  8. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  9. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  10. Cost implications of improving malaria diagnosis: findings from north-eastern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklin F Mosha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over diagnosis of malaria contributes to improper treatment, wastage of drugs and resistance to the few available drugs. This paper attempts to estimate the rates of over diagnosis of malaria among children attending dispensaries in rural Tanzania and examines the potential cost implications of improving the quality of diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The magnitude of over diagnosis of malaria was estimated by comparing the proportion of outpatient attendees of all ages clinically diagnosed as malaria to the proportion of attendees having a positive malaria rapid diagnostic test over a two month period. Pattern of causes of illness observed in a or=5 year age group in the lower transmission site (RR 14.0 95%CI 8.2-24.2. In the low transmission site the proportion of morbidity attributable to malaria was substantially lower in <2 year old cohort compared to children seen at routine care system. (0.08% vs 28.2%; p<0.001. A higher proportion of children were diagnosed with ARI in the <2 year old cohort compared to children seen at the routine care system ( 42% vs 26%; p<0.001. Using a RDT reduced overall drug and diagnostic costs by 10% in the high transmission site and by 15% in the low transmission site compared to total diagnostic and drug costs of treatment based on clinical judgment in routine health care system. IMPLICATIONS: The introduction of RDTs is likely to lead to financial savings. However, improving diagnosis to one disease may lead to over diagnosis of another illness. Quality improvement is complex but introducing RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria is a good start.

  11. Equity in financing and use of health care in Ghana, South Africa, and Tanzania: implications for paths to universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne; Ataguba, John E; Akazili, James; Borghi, Jo; Garshong, Bertha; Makawia, Suzan; Mtei, Gemini; Harris, Bronwyn; Macha, Jane; Meheus, Filip; McIntyre, Di

    2012-07-14

    Universal coverage of health care is now receiving substantial worldwide and national attention, but debate continues on the best mix of financing mechanisms, especially to protect people outside the formal employment sector. Crucial issues are the equity implications of different financing mechanisms, and patterns of service use. We report a whole-system analysis--integrating both public and private sectors--of the equity of health-system financing and service use in Ghana, South Africa, and Tanzania. We used primary and secondary data to calculate the progressivity of each health-care financing mechanism, catastrophic spending on health care, and the distribution of health-care benefits. We collected qualitative data to inform interpretation. Overall health-care financing was progressive in all three countries, as were direct taxes. Indirect taxes were regressive in South Africa but progressive in Ghana and Tanzania. Out-of-pocket payments were regressive in all three countries. Health-insurance contributions by those outside the formal sector were regressive in both Ghana and Tanzania. The overall distribution of service benefits in all three countries favoured richer people, although the burden of illness was greater for lower-income groups. Access to needed, appropriate services was the biggest challenge to universal coverage in all three countries. Analyses of the equity of financing and service use provide guidance on which financing mechanisms to expand, and especially raise questions over the appropriate financing mechanism for the health care of people outside the formal sector. Physical and financial barriers to service access must be addressed if universal coverage is to become a reality. European Union and International Development Research Centre. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of the Southeast Asian/South American SVMNT haplotype of the chloroquine-resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Dalgaard, Michael B; Lusingu, John P

    2006-01-01

    Two main haplotypes, CVIET and SVMNT, of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) are linked to 4-aminoquinoline resistance. The CVIET haplotype has been reported in most malaria-endemic regions, whereas the SVMNT haplotype has only been found outside Africa. We...... investigated Pfcrt haplotype frequencies in Korogwe District, Tanzania, in 2003 and 2004. The SVMNT haplotype was not detected in 2003 but was found in 19% of infected individuals in 2004. Amodiaquine use has increased in the region. The introduction and high prevalence of the SVMNT haplotype may reflect...... this and may raise concern regarding the use of amodiaquine in artemisinin-based combination therapies in Africa....

  13. Tourism-Related Impacts on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Implications for Tourism Management on Mountain Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    James WAKIBARA; Kimaro NDESARI; Nyamakumbati MAFURU

    2009-01-01

    Waste disposal, trail erosion, water contamination and porter head loads were investigated on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, from 2003-2005. Generated waste was identified and quantified, trail erosion measured, water sources examined for colifom contamination and head loads for Porters re-weighed against official limits. Waste on trails comprised mainly of fluffy items. Trail erosion was directly related to hiking pressure whereas water was contaminated mainly at lower elevation. Porters remov...

  14. The Demand for Cigarettes in Tanzania and Implications for Tobacco Taxation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Asmerom; Mduma, John; Naho, Alexis; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2015-10-01

    The study attempts to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania and presents simulation results on the effect of the cigarette excise tax on smoking participation, government revenue, and related topics. After briefly summarizing the magnitude and spread of cigarette consumption in the country, the paper reviews some empirical estimates from African and other countries. The 2008 Tanzanian household budget survey was used to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania. The descriptive statistics suggest that the smoking prevalence for Tanzania is 15.35 percent with low variability across expenditure (income) groups. Smoking intensity and per capita consumption were estimated at 7.08 cigarettes and 1.33 cigarettes, respectively, a relatively low value. A two-part demand equation model was used to estimate various elasticities. For the overall equation, the price elasticities of smoking participation, smoking intensity, and total elasticity were estimated at -0.879, -0.853, and -1.732, respectively. Compared to similar results in other developing countries, the estimates appear quite high. When estimated by expenditure (income) groups, the magnitude of the elasticity appears higher among high expenditure groups than among low expenditure groups. Two simulation exercises were undertaken. First, the effect of different excise rates on smoking participation rate, cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and related responses was estimated and highlighted. Second, the same exercise was undertaken to determine the effect of a given increase in the cigarette excise tax on various expenditure groups. The overall results suggest that an increase in the excise tax on cigarettes in Tanzania would reduce cigarette consumption and increase government tax revenue.

  15. The Demand for Cigarettes in Tanzania and Implications for Tobacco Taxation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Asmerom; Mduma, John; Naho, Alexis; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-wei

    2016-01-01

    The study attempts to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania and presents simulation results on the effect of the cigarette excise tax on smoking participation, government revenue, and related topics. After briefly summarizing the magnitude and spread of cigarette consumption in the country, the paper reviews some empirical estimates from African and other countries. The 2008 Tanzanian household budget survey was used to estimate the demand for cigarettes in Tanzania. The descriptive statistics suggest that the smoking prevalence for Tanzania is 15.35 percent with low variability across expenditure (income) groups. Smoking intensity and per capita consumption were estimated at 7.08 cigarettes and 1.33 cigarettes, respectively, a relatively low value. A two-part demand equation model was used to estimate various elasticities. For the overall equation, the price elasticities of smoking participation, smoking intensity, and total elasticity were estimated at −0.879, −0.853, and −1.732, respectively. Compared to similar results in other developing countries, the estimates appear quite high. When estimated by expenditure (income) groups, the magnitude of the elasticity appears higher among high expenditure groups than among low expenditure groups. Two simulation exercises were undertaken. First, the effect of different excise rates on smoking participation rate, cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and related responses was estimated and highlighted. Second, the same exercise was undertaken to determine the effect of a given increase in the cigarette excise tax on various expenditure groups. The overall results suggest that an increase in the excise tax on cigarettes in Tanzania would reduce cigarette consumption and increase government tax revenue. PMID:27358905

  16. Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L; Lusingu, John P

    2011-01-01

    system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across...... the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving...

  17. Conservation implications of deforestation across an elevational gradient in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Jaclyn; Burgess, Neil David; Lovett, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Deforestation is a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity, especially within global centers of endemism for plants and animals. Elevation, the major environmental gradient in mountain regions of the world, produces a rapid turnover of species, where some species may exist only in narrow...... elevations and target conservation and restoration efforts throughout these ecosystems' entire elevational ranges.......Deforestation is a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity, especially within global centers of endemism for plants and animals. Elevation, the major environmental gradient in mountain regions of the world, produces a rapid turnover of species, where some species may exist only in narrow...... elevational ranges. We use newly compiled datasets to assess the conservation impact of deforestation on threatened trees across an elevational gradient within the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. The Eastern Arc has suffered an estimated 80% total loss in historical forest area and has lost 25% of forest...

  18. HIV and Childhood Sexual Violence: Implications for Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Testing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Laura F; Chen, Jieru; Gladden, Matthew R; Mercy, James A; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mrisho, Fatma; Dahlberg, Linda L; Nyunt, Myo Zin; Brookmeyer, Kate A; Vagi, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.

  19. Silica Exposures in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tanzania and Implications for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Andrew, Damian; Dalhoff, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gold miners exposed to crystalline silica are at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, and experience higher incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although the hazards associated with mercury exposure in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) have been well documented, no published data was available on crystalline silica exposures in this population. Air sampling was conducted in the breathing zone of workers in five villages in Tanzania with battery-operated sampling pumps and bulk samples were collected to measure the type and concentration of crystalline silica in the ore. Samples were analyzed at an accredited laboratory with X-ray diffraction. Airborne crystalline silica exposures exceeded recommended limits for all tasks monitored with an average exposure of 16.85 mg/m(3) for underground drilling that was 337 fold greater than the recommended exposure limit (REL) published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 0.19 mg/m(3) for aboveground operations or 4-fold greater than the REL. The exposures measured raise concern for possible acute and chronic silicosis and are known to significantly contribute to TB incidence rates in mining communities. The use of wet methods could greatly reduce exposures and the risk of TB and silicosis in ASGM. Ongoing efforts to address mercury and other hazards in ASGM should incorporate crystalline silica dust controls.

  20. Biogeographic implications of small mammals from Northern Highlands in Tanzania with first data from the volcanic Mount Kitumbeine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabuni, C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Crocidura montis group * cytochrome b * Lophuromys * montane habitats * Northern Highlands of Tanzania Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016

  1. Geochemical evolution of Ngorongoro Caldera, Northern Tanzania: Implications for crust magma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F.; Swisher, Carl C.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.

    2008-07-01

    Ngorongoro Caldera is the largest and best-preserved of nine Plio-Pleistocene volcanoes that make-up the Ngorongoro Volcanic Highlands (NVH) complex situated at the southern bifurcation of Gregory Rift, part of the East African Rift system of northern Tanzania. We report here, major and trace element abundances, Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses and 40Ar/ 39Ar laser incremental-heating and total fusion ages on lava and tephra sampled from stratigraphic sections exposed within the Ngorongoro Caldera. Major and trace elements measured on samples collected from the Ngorongoro Caldera wall indicate a stratified magma chamber whose silicic top and basaltic bottom was inverted by sequential eruptions. Samples from the lower part of the exposed Ngorongoro Caldera wall are high in silica, alkalis and HFSE (High Field Strength Elements). The Zr, Nb and Hf concentrations are highly correlated with each other and decrease up-section, indicative of the extent of magma evolution. Modeling of major, trace as well as Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data suggests that assimilation fractional crystallization processes were essential in producing the observed geochemical variations. The Sr and Nd isotope ratios from the Ngorongoro samples are widely dispersed ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.70405 to 0.70801, 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.512205 to 0.512623) and Pb isotope ratios are consistent with previous studies: 206Pb/ 204Pb = 18.73 to 19.37, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.64 to 15.69, 208Pb/ 204Pb = 39.52 to 39.55. Although Sr isotopic ratios are similar to Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB), the more radiogenic samples ( 87Sr/ 86Sr > 0.705) from the lower part of the section suggest crust-magma interaction; this is supported by Ce/Pb ratios (Ngorongoro Caldera wall section yield 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of 2.25 ± 0.02 Ma to 2.01 ± 0.02 Ma, constraining a duration of volcanism of the order of ~ 240 kyr. These ages suggest correlation of a normal to reverse geomagnetic polarity transition measured in the Ngorongoro Caldera wall section with the ~ 2

  2. Forests and water - Friends or foes?. Hydrological implications of deforestation and land degradation in semi-arid Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the study area in Babati District in Tanzania a multi-component research approach was attempted. Two catchments, one forested and one deforested-degraded, were studied regarding soil properties, runoff and groundwater recharge. This was done both in the field and with the use of two computer models: one simulating groundwater recharge as a function of rainfall variability, and one simulating hydrological implications of massive land cover conversion on the flooding of nearby Lake Babati. Three major findings came out of the study. The first is that most forested catchments (in various hydroclimates and landscapes) will increase the runoff following deforestation (due to less evapotranspiration). This is well-established knowledge, but it also depends on the actual conditions at hand. These conditions are defined as hydroclimate, soil texture and slope. In humid-temperate climates with coarse soils on flat land, the conditions strongly favor increased runoff following deforestation. However, in dry regions with fine textured soils on hilly ground, and where deforestation also implies land degradation, less dry season flow is likely to develop after a considerable adjustment period has been allowed. Secondly, the prevalence of preferential flow in a forest soil, as compared to a compacted and eroded soil, must be a key component in an explanation of why more dry season flow can emerge from a forested as compared to a deforested catchment in the dry tropics. Thirdly, there are several aspects of semi-arid and arid tropical hydrology which make comparisons with humid-temperate regions difficult and require special attention in the management of water resources in the dry tropics. 14 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  3. Geochemistry of tephra from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: Stratigraphic correlations and implications for magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, L.

    2003-04-01

    At least 10 predominantly trachytic and rhyolitic tuffs are preserved interbedded in volcaniclastic sediments of Plio-Pleistocene Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Physical correlation of the tuffs is complicated by faulting and variation in preservation and lithofacies. Differences in the degree and type of tephra alteration (clay, zeolitic, none) and preservation of glass shards within the various depositional environments (saline-alkaline lake, lake margin, wetlands, alluvial fan) make correlation by conventional glass chemistry methods impossible. However, variations in overall mineralogy and chemical compositions of co-magmatic phenocrysts (feldspar, augite, titanomagnetite, amphibole) have proven useful to uniquely characterize the tuffs for correlation purposes. Samples of 10 major tuffs in the Olduvai Bed I sequence were collected from various depostional and preservational environments situated up to 15 km apart. Thin sections and mineral separates (10-60 grains of each type of phenocryst/ sample, 2-3 samples/ tuff) were analyzed by electron microprobe for major and minor elements. The lower Bed I tuffs are rhyolitic and easily distinguished from the upper tuffs by the presence of quartz and high-Fe augite. Feldspar composition has been previously found to separate all of the upper tuffs (1B-1F) except the two trachyandesitic tuffs (1D and the "unnamed" tuff between 1E and 1F). Mn and Ti concentrations in the titanomagnetites separate the upper tuffs (MnO%: 1B=1.5-2, 1C=1.3-1.6, 1D=1.1-1.4, 1E=1.5-1.7, unnamed= 0.9-1.2, 1F=1.6-2; TiO2%: 1B, 1E=23-26, 1C=18-22, 1D=25-27, unnamed=20-21, 1F= 12-20). Tuffs 1B, unnamed, and 1F contain abundant amphibole, 1D contains none. Mn and Fe concentrations in the augites also separate the tuffs (MnO%: 1B=1.2-1.5, 1C=0.9-1.2, 1D=0.6-0.9, 1E=0.9-1.1, unnamed=0.5-0.7, 1F=variable; FeO%: 1B=19-21, 1C=15-19, 1D=12-16, 1E=13-16, unnamed=11-14, 1F=variable). Results of these findings provide new widespread markers in the Olduvai

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of Late Holocene felsic magmas from Rungwe volcano (Tanzania), with implications for trachytic Rungwe Pumice eruption dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, K.; Elburg, M.A.; Nikogosian, I.K.; van Bergen, M.J.; Ernst, G.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Rungwe in southern Tanzania is an active volcanic centre in the East African Rift System, characterised by Plinian-style explosive eruptions of metaluminous to slightly peralkaline trachytic silica-undersaturated magmas during its late Holocene history. Variations in whole-rock major and trace

  5. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpembeni Rose

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO. In this study we assess the time health workers currently spent on providing ANC services and compare it to the requirements anticipated for the new ANC model in order to identify the implications of Focused ANC on health care providers' workload. Methods Health workers in four dispensaries in Mtwara Urban District, Southern Tanzania, were observed while providing routine ANC. The time used for the overall activity as well as for the different, specific components of 71 ANC service provisions was measured in detail; 28 of these were first visits and 43 revisits. Standard time requirements for the provision of focused ANC were assessed through simulated consultations based on the new guidelines. Results The average time health workers currently spend for providing ANC service to a first visit client was found to be 15 minutes; the provision of ANC according to the focused ANC model was assessed to be 46 minutes. For a revisiting client the difference between current practise and the anticipated standard of the new model was 27 minutes (9 vs. 36 min.. The major discrepancy between the two procedures was related to counselling. On average a first visit client was counselled for 1:30 minutes, while counselling in revisiting clients did hardly take place at all. The simulation of focused ANC revealed that proper counselling would take about 15 minutes per visit. Conclusion While the introduction of focused ANC has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and to raise the number of births attended by skilled staff in Tanzania, it may need additional investment in human resources. The generally anticipated saving effect of

  6. Disequilibrial ecosystems and livelihood diversification among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania: Implications for conservation policy in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper looks at the challenges emerging when conservation objectives in the Ngorongoro district of northern Tanzania needs to be coordinated with the goal of creation of sustainable livelihoods by the pastoral people living in that area. The paper first gives brief review of pastoralism as it is seen by most ecologists, conservationists, and development practitioners prior to the 1990s. After then the paper examines the diversification of the livestock-based econom...

  7. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  8. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: geographical differences and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Lyche, J L; Mdegela, R H; Nonga, H E; Mabiki, F P; Mbise, T J; Skaare, J U; Sandvik, M; Skjerve, E; Lie, E

    2014-08-01

    In Tanzania fish is one of the most important protein sources for the rapidly increasing population. Wild fish is threatened by overfishing and pollution from agriculture, industries, mining, household effluents and vector control. To monitor possible implications for public health, the geographical differences of the occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) from four different Tanzanian lakes were investigated in 2011. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were determined in pooled samples of tilapia muscle from Lake (L) Victoria, L. Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (also called L. Malawi) and L. Babati in Tanzania in 2011. Levels of Σ-DDTs (274 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and sum of 7 indicator PCBs (Σ-7PCBs) (17 ng/g lw) were significantly higher in tilapia from L. Tanganyika compared to the other lakes. The highest levels of Σ-endosulfan (94 ng/g lw) were detected in tilapia from L. Victoria. Toxaphenes were detected in low levels in fish from L. Tanganyika and L. Babati. Results revealed a geographic difference in the use of DDT and endosulfan between L. Victoria and L. Tanganyika. Low ratios of DDE/DDT in tilapia from L. Tanganyika indicated an on-going use of DDT in the area. Median levels of ΣBDEs, including BDE-209, were highest in L. Victoria (19.4 ng/g lw) and BDE-209 was present in 68% of the samples from this lake. The presence of BDE-209 indicates increasing influence of imported products from heavy industrialized countries. The measured POP levels in the studied tilapia were all below MRLs of EU or were lower than recommended levels, and thus the fish is considered as safe for human consumption. They may, however, pose a risk to the fish species and threaten biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-09-27

    Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may not access EmONC facilities within 2 hours

  10. "Women's bodies are shops": beliefs about transactional sex and implications for understanding gender power and HIV prevention in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

    2011-02-01

    Although transactional sex has been linked to undesirable sexual health outcomes, there is a lack of clarity as to the meaning of the practice, which appears to extend beyond behaviors related to women's economic circumstances. This article explored the perspectives of parents and unmarried young people on motivations for, and beliefs about, transactional sex in rural Tanzania using an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus groups and 46 in-depth interviews with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/caregivers. Transactional sex was widely accepted by both parents and young people. Male parents equated sexual exchange to buying meat from a butcher and interpreted women's demand for exchange before sex with personal power. Young men referred to transactional sex as the easiest way to get a woman to satisfy their sexual desires while also proving their masculinity. Young women perceived themselves as lucky to be created women as they could exploit their sexuality for pleasure and material gain. They felt men were stupid for paying for "goods" (vagina) they could not take away. Mothers were in agreement with their daughters. Although young women saw exploitation of the female body in positive terms, they were also aware of the health risks but ascribed these to bad luck. Interventions aimed at tackling transactional sex in the interests of women's empowerment and as a strategy for HIV prevention need to understand the cultural beliefs associated with the practice that may make it thrive despite the known risks.

  11. SCREENING FOR BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICAN BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER) IN NGORONGORO CONSERVATION AREA, NORTHERN TANZANIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katale, Bugwesa Z; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Mjingo, Eblate E; Sayalel, Kuya; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Matee, Mecky I; Keyyu, Julius D; Muumba, Justice; Mdaki, Maulid; Mbugi, Erasto V; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Mpanduji, Donald G

    2017-10-01

    In the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, where wildlife and livestock interaction is intense, greater potential for intra- and interspecies disease transmission is expected. We assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) residing on the valley floor of the crater in the NCA. Apparently healthy animals were randomly selected from herds in nine sites of the Ngorongoro Crater. Syncerus caffer buffalo herds were located using very high-frequency radio-aided rangers positioned in various observation points around the crater in the NCA. A total of 102 African buffalo from 16 herds were immobilized from the ground using a cocktail of 4-10 mg etorphine hydrochloride (M99) and 60-150 mg azaperone tartrate. The M99 was reversed using 10-25 mg diprenorphine hydrochloride depending on age of animals. An interferon gamma assay was performed on harvested plasma samples using sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 102 animals sampled, two (2%) African buffalo tested positive for bovine tuberculosis. These results corroborate those of the skin test done recently in cattle in the NCA. The presence of bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife suggested the possibility of cross-species transmission of the disease, indicating the need for appropriate intervention measures.

  12. Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Frances L; Plummer, Thomas W; Raaum, Ryan L

    2018-01-01

    The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category. The protocol was reduced to a subset of landmarks on the mandibular corpus in order to make it applicable to incomplete fossils. The reduced landmark set resulted in greater overlap between feeding categories but maintained the same continuum as the complete landmark model. The DFA resubstitution and jackknife analyses resulted in classification success rates of 85% and 80%, respectively. The reduced landmark model was applied to fossil mandibles from the Upper Laetolil Beds (∼4.3-3.5 Ma) and Upper Ndolanya Beds (∼2.7-2.6 Ma) at Laetoli, Tanzania in order to assess antelope diet, and indirectly evaluate paleo-vegetation structure. The majority of the fossils were classified by the DFA as browsers or mixed feeders preferring browse. Our results indicate a continuous presence of wooded habitats and are congruent with recent environmental studies at Laetoli indicating a mosaic woodland-bushland-grassland savanna ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Has the woodfuel crisis returned? Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwampamba, Tuyeni Heita

    2007-01-01

    By lumping together charcoal and firewood consumption to determine the threats to forests from widespread use of woodfuel energy in sub-Sahara African, studies have greatly underestimated the individual impact of charcoal. Where high consumption levels are coupled with poor forest management and negligible regulation of the charcoal trade, the threat of an impending crisis caused by charcoal alone needs to be revisited. This study uses a survey of 244 households in six Tanzanian cities to determine whether current consumption levels, charcoal production techniques and forest management practices are sufficient to meet present and future charcoal demand. Projections to year 2100 were made to determine whether forests can continue to meet future demand under 24 scenarios that capture the numerous uncertainties that exist of converting charcoal consumption into forest needed. The findings suggest that the scenarios containing median consumption levels, low kiln efficiencies and low replenishment of harvested forests could deplete forests on public land by 2028. Best-case scenarios occurred when the opposite conditions existed. The study concludes that charcoal consumption is a real threat to the long-term persistence of forests in Tanzania and proposes policy interventions for alleviating forest loss

  14. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  15. Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyagusa, Dismas B; Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Masatu, Melchiory

    2013-10-14

    Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs' inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal

  16. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2001-01-01

    The catchment areas of Lake Victoria in Tanzania are impacted by mercury contamination from small-scale gold mining activities. A preliminary survey of the mercury contamination has indicated in some cases mercury concentrations that are higher than background levels in soil and river sediment downstream of the mining areas. Average mercury concentration in contaminated soil is in the order of 3.4 mg/kg whereas in river sediment the concentration is about 4.9 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations in fish from a few areas of the Lake Victoria close to gold mining areas are in the range of 2-20 ppb. These fish mercury concentrations are surprisingly low considering the extent of mercury contamination in the Lake Victoria catchment. The dynamics of mercury cycling and their long-term impact on mercury levels in fish and other aquatic organisms in the Lake Victoria gold fields still need to be clarified. Research activities for the first year (2000) will concentrate on the determination of total mercury distribution patterns among soil, river water, sediment, and biota (fish, and other aquatic biota) in two areas (Mugusu-Nungwe Bay and Imweru-Bukombe Bay) of the Lake Victoria gold fields. The relationships between local tropical soil-sediment- and water-chemistry and the distribution of mercury in the contaminated areas will be investigated. Data from this work will be used in the identification and selection of suitable bio-monitors for mercury contamination and human health risk assessment in the study areas. In the second year, the project will focus mainly on methylmercury production and partition between sediment, water and biota in contaminated local tropical sediments. The main factors influencing the methylation and distribution of mercury species will be evaluated in laboratory experiments and extrapolated to environmental conditions. The results of the project will have important implications in mercury pollution monitoring, mitigation, and health risk assessment not

  17. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection in rural Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania: Implications for prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyna Germana H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15–44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Results Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0% participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2% as compared to men. The age group 25–44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3–4.7, and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2–5.6; women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4–4.0], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2–5.8, bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7–20.1 and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5–9.2. Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. Conclusion HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection in rural Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania: implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmbaga, Elia J; Hussain, Akhtar; Leyna, Germana H; Mnyika, Kagoma S; Sam, Noel E; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2007-04-19

    Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15-44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0%) participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2%) as compared to men. The age group 25-44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3-4.7), and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2-5.6); women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4-4.0)], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2-5.8), bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7-20.1) and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5-9.2). Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or separated individuals remained at higher risk of infection. To prevent further

  20. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

    2010-05-12

    Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. This paper explores parent-child communication about SRH in families, content, timing and reasons for their communication with their children aged 14-24 years in rural Tanzania. This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved eight weeks of participant observation, 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents of young people in this age group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Parent-child communication about SRH happened in most families. The communication was mainly on same sex basis (mother-daughter and rarely father-son or father-daughter) and took the form of warnings, threats and physical discipline. Communication was triggered by seeing or hearing something a parent perceived negative and would not like their child to experience (such as a death attributable to HIV and unmarried young person's pregnancy). Although most young people were relaxed with their mothers than fathers, there is lack of trust as to what they can tell their parents for fear of punishment. Parents were limited as to what they could communicate about SRH because of lack of appropriate knowledge and cultural norms that restricted interactions between opposite sex. Due to the consequences of the HIV pandemic, parents are making attempts to communicate with their children about SRH. They are however, limited by cultural barriers, and lack of appropriate knowledge. With some skills training on

  1. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. This paper explores parent-child communication about SRH in families, content, timing and reasons for their communication with their children aged 14-24 years in rural Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved eight weeks of participant observation, 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents of young people in this age group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parent-child communication about SRH happened in most families. The communication was mainly on same sex basis (mother-daughter and rarely father-son or father-daughter and took the form of warnings, threats and physical discipline. Communication was triggered by seeing or hearing something a parent perceived negative and would not like their child to experience (such as a death attributable to HIV and unmarried young person's pregnancy. Although most young people were relaxed with their mothers than fathers, there is lack of trust as to what they can tell their parents for fear of punishment. Parents were limited as to what they could communicate about SRH because of lack of appropriate knowledge and cultural norms that restricted interactions between opposite sex. Conclusions Due to the consequences of the HIV pandemic, parents are making attempts to communicate with their children about SRH. They are however, limited by cultural barriers

  2. Implementation Challenges of the New Geography Diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on implementation challenges of the new Geography Diploma Syllabus in Tanzania. The study used Korogwe and Dakawa Teachers' Training Colleges as a case. Dakawa teachers' training college is located in Morogoro region while Korogwe teachers' training college is based in Korogwe district, ...

  3. Utilization and Accessibility of Healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: Implications for Health Outcomes and Disease Surveillance for Typhoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Ali, Said M.; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Deen, Jacqueline; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers', health administrators', and village residents' and leaders' perceptions of typhoid fever, and hypothetical and actual health care use among village residents for typhoid fever. Qualitative data provided descriptions of home-based treatment practices and use of western pharmaceuticals, and actual healthcare use for culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Survey data indicate health facility use was associated with gender, education, residency, and perceptions of severity for symptoms associated with typhoid fever. Data have implications for education of policy makers and health administrators, design and implementation of surveillance studies, and community-based interventions to prevent disease outbreaks, decrease risks of complications, and provide information about disease recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:23208887

  4. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building

  5. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derua Yahya A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. As part of investigations into possible causes for the change in vector population density, the present study analysed the Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species composition in north-eastern Tanzania. Methods The study was in two parts. The first compared current species complex composition in freshly caught An. gambiae s.l. complex from three villages to the composition reported from previous studies carried out 2–4 decades ago in the same villages. The second took advantage of a sample of archived dried An. gambiae s.l. complex specimens collected regularly from a fourth study village since 2005. Both fresh and archived dried specimens were identified to sibling species of the An. gambiae s.l. complex by PCR. The same specimens were moreover examined for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti infection by PCR. Results As in earlier studies, An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles merus and Anopheles arabiensis were identified as sibling species found in the area. However, both study parts indicated a marked change in sibling species composition over time. From being by far the most abundant in the past An. gambiae s.s. was now the most rare, whereas An. arabiensis had changed from being the most rare to the most common. P. falciparum infection was rarely detected in the examined specimens (and only in An. arabiensis whereas W. bancrofti infection was prevalent and detected in all three sibling species. Conclusion The study indicates that a major shift in An. gambiae s.l. sibling species composition has taken place in the study area in recent years. Combined with the earlier reported decline in overall malaria vector density, the study suggests that this

  6. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2002-01-01

    Tanzania experienced unprecedented rush for gold mining in late 1980s and early 1990s when a similar gold rush was taking place in Latin America and other developing countries because of good gold market prices. The gold rush in Tanzania was also prompted by the socioeconomic and political transformations that were taking place in the country. The liberalization of mining policy and regulations by the government allowed foreign and local private investment in mining and encouraged small-scale mining and gold trade. Because of the liberalization, thousands of local miners, mostly from rural communities, rushed to gold mining for subsistence income. The use of mercury in gold recovery became widespread in Tanzania as a result of the gold rush. From 1992/93, the Department of Geology of the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM in collaboration with the National Environment Management Council (NEMC) initiated studies to assess the extent of mercury pollution in the country. Further studies on mercury and other heavy metal pollution were undertaken between 1993 and 1997 by UDSM, under a broader project on 'Environmental Aspects of Mining and Industrialization in Tanzania', supported by the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries SAREC (Sida/SAREC). The above studies revealed the presence of elevated mercury concentrations in gold-ore tailings and river sediment in several gold mining areas. Studies to evaluate environmental transformation, partition and bioaccumulation of mercury in different environmental matrices and the long-term impact of mercury pollution have not been done. The present research project was initiated to provide scientific database necessary to better understand the environmental behaviour and cycling of mercury in the southwest Lake Victoria goldfields. Such data are necessary in the evaluation of environmental impacts of mercury pollution and in the mitigation of adverse impacts on the ecosystems and human health

  7. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  8. Tanzania - Water Supply & Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  9. Tanzania Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes any contribution that advances medical science or ... these core objectives the journal publishes papers on original scientific research, short ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719 ...

  10. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Tanzania after two years as first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria: assessment protocol and implication for treatment policy strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felger Ingrid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic surveillance for resistant malaria shows high level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP across eastern and southern parts of Africa. This study assessed in vivo SP efficacy after two years of use as an interim first-line drug in Tanzania, and determined the rates of treatment failures obtained after 14 and 28 days of follow-up. Methods The study was conducted in the Ipinda, Mlimba and Mkuranga health facilities in Tanzania. Children aged 6–59 months presenting with raised temperature associated exclusively with P. falciparum (1,000–100,000 parasites per μl were treated with standard dose of SP. Treatment responses were classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition as Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR, Early Treatment Failure (ETF, Late Clinical Failure (LCF and Late Parasitological Failure (LPF on day 14 and day 28. Results Overall 196 (85.2% of 230 patients had ACPR on day 14 but only 116 (50.9% on day 28 (57.7% after excluding new infections by parasite genotyping. Altogether 21 (9.1% and 13 (5.7% of the 230 patients assessed up to day 14 and 39 (17.1% and 55 (24.1% of the 228 followed up to day 28 had clinical and parasitological failure, respectively. Conclusion These findings indicate that SP has low therapeutic value in Tanzania. The recommendation of changing first line treatment to artemether + lumefantrine combination therapy from early next year is, therefore, highly justified. These findings further stress that, for long half-life drugs such as SP, establishment of cut-off points for policy change in high transmission areas should consider both clinical and parasitological responses beyond day 14.

  11. Carbonaceous components, levoglucosan and inorganic ions in tropical aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa: implication for biomass burning contribution to organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected at a rural site in Tanzania in 2011 during wet and dry seasons and they were analysed for carbonaceous components, levoglucosan and water-soluble inorganic ions. The mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 28.2±6.4 μg m-3 and 47±8.2 μg m-3 in wet season, and 39.1±9.8 μg m-3 and 61.4±19.2 μg m-3 in dry season, respectively. Total carbon (TC) accounted for 16-19% of the PM2.5 mass and 13-15% of the PM10 mass. On average, 85.9 to 88.7% of TC in PM2.5 and 87.2 to 90.1% in PM10 was organic carbon (OC), of which 67-72% and 63% was found to be water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Water-soluble potassium (K+) and sulphate (SO42-) in PM2.5 and, sodium (Na+) and SO42- in PM10 were the dominant ionic species. We found, that concentrations of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and mannosan) well correlated with non-sea-salt-K+, WSOC and OC in the aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa. Mean contributions of levoglucosan to OC ranged between 3.9-4.2% for PM2.5 and 3.5-3.8% for PM10. This study demonstrates that emissions from biomass- and biofuel-burning activities followed by atmospheric photochemical processes mainly control the air quality in Tanzania.

  12. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-Mintz, Nazia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  13. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  14. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: three public policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, Frida S; Beran, Tanya N

    2012-01-10

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Less than one quarter (22.6%) of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03) and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10) were significantly associated with screening uptake. Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of the disease must include specific information on how to prevent it

  15. Timing of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy and the implications of current policy on early uptake in north-east Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambo Pili

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp is efficacious in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy-associated malaria, however uptake of the recommended two doses is low in Tanzania, and little is known of the timepoint during pregnancy at which it is delivered. This study investigated the timing of delivery of IPTp to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC, and the potential determinants of timely uptake. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with staff and pregnant women at antenatal clinics in northeast Tanzania, and antenatal consultations were observed. Facility-based and individual factors were analysed for any correlation with timing of IPTp uptake. Results Almost half the women interviewed first attended ANC during or before the fourth month of gestation, however 86% of these early attendees did not receive IPTp on their first visit. The timing of IPTp delivery complied closely with the national guidelines which stipulate giving the first dose at 20–24 weeks gestation. Uptake of at least one dose of IPTp among women who had reached this gestation age was 67%, although this varied considerably between clinics. At one facility, IPTp was not delivered because SP was out of stock. Conclusion Early uptake of IPTp was found to be hampered by factors external to health worker performance or women's individual preferences. These include insufficient drug stocks and an apparent lack of information to health workers on the reasoning for continued use of SP for IPTp when it has been replaced as a first-line treatment. In addition, an unexpectedly high proportion of women attend antenatal clinics before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While current policy denies the use of IPTp at this time, there is emerging, but incomplete, evidence that malaria in early pregnancy may contribute considerably to the burden of pregnancy-related malaria. Current policy may thus result in a missed opportunity for maximising

  16. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  17. Tanzania Dental Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...

  18. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.

  19. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    worth CA$60 million since 1973. By identifying the major causes of death and disease, IDRC-supported research has helped to significantly reduced child and adult mortality rates in ... mental conditions in communities in. Tanzania and Malawi. Researchers and com- munity members will use the survey results to design ...

  20. Tanzania Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Science (Tanz. J. Sci.) was established in 1975 as a forum for communication and co-ordination between and among scientists and allied professionals. It is also intended as a medium for dissemination of scientific knowledge among scientists and the public at large to promote the advancement of ...

  1. Tanzania Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Medical Journal is a multi – disciplinary journal published two times a year in March - June and September – December. ... To achieve its objectives the journal invites papers on original scientific research, short communications, case reports and letters to the editor, in any branch of medical science. Original ...

  2. Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...

  3. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 15, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  4. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania: Implications for a superplume source for East Africa Rift magmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterno R Castillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered high, plume-like 3He/4He ratios at Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP in southern Tanzania, similar to those at the Main Ethiopian Rift in Ethiopia, strongly suggest that magmatism associated with continental rifting along the entire East African Rift System (EARS has a deep mantle contribution (Hilton et al., 2011. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for high 3He/4He lavas and tephras from RVP can be explained by binary mixing relationships involving Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean lithospheric mantle, present beneath the southern EARS, and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions and best represented by recent Nyiragongo lavas from the Virunga Volcanic Province also in the Western Rift. Other lavas from the Western Rift and from the southern Kenya Rift can also be explained through mixing between the same endmember components. In contrast, lavas from the northern Kenya and Main Ethiopian rifts can be explained through variable mixing between the same mantle plume material and the Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, present beneath the northern EARS. Thus, we propose that the bulk of EARS magmatism is sourced from mixing among three endmember sources: Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean lithospheric mantle, Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions. We propose further that the African Superplume, a large, seismically anomalous feature originating in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa, influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa with magmatism at RVP and Main Ethiopian Rift representing two different heads of a single mantle plume source. This is consistent with a single mantle plume origin of the coupled He-Ne isotopic signatures of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the EARS (Halldorsson et al., 2014.

  5. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisa, Allen Lewis; Kiriba, Deodatus

    2012-03-28

    Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs) in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$). By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem) was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$), the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug) was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29-1.18 US$). In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  6. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malisa Allen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. Methods To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. Results ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$. By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$, the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29–1.18 US$. Conclusions In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  7. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  8. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  9. Geochemistry and Geochronology of Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania: Implication for Magma Evolution, Duration of Volcanic Activity and Age of the Ngorongoro N-R Geomagnetic Polarity Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, G. F.; Swisher, C. C.; Feigenson, M. D.; Carr, M. J.

    2005-05-01

    40Ar/39Ar dates on volcanic rocks from the Ngorongoro Crater (NC) in northern Tanzania indicate that NC activity was very short in duration lasting approximately 120 ka. Laser incremental heating experiments on lava from the bottom and top of the NC crater-wall section gave ages of 2.08 +/- 0.04 and 1.96 +/- 0.02 Ma respectively. Lavas from the same section show a change in magnetic polarity from normal (N) at the lower part to reverse (R) polarity at the upper part (Grommé et al. 1970). The new ages are about 400 ka younger than previously estimated by K-Ar technique. These new ages suggest correlation of the NC N-R polarity transition to the 2.1 Ma (N-R) Reunion-Matuyama boundary (Cande and Kent, 1995), instead of the Gauss-Matuyama boundary as proposed by Grommé et al. (1970). 87Sr/86Sr measurements on lavas from the NC section vary widely from 0.70801 in the trachydacite at the base to 0.70405 in the basaltic lava near the top. The lower part of the section is more radiogenic varying from 0.70592 to 0.70801 whereas the upper part is constrained to 0.70405 to 0.70450. The more radiogenic lower part is likely to have interacted with crustal rocks. Two possible contaminants are the Tanzanian Archean Craton to the west and the late Proterozoic Mozambican belt in the east. The crater-wall section is composed of trachydacite at the bottom that becomes trachyandesite in mid-section. The top section is mainly basaltic. Major and trace elements show an inverted geochemical signature that is typical of stratified magma chambers characterized by a silicic top and basaltic bottom. Olivine basalt at the upper part of the section has the highest Mg# (56.60) and in general the upper section is more mafic than the lower section as inferred from Mg#. The upper part of the section is high in TiO2, MgO, FeOT, and CaO wt% whereas SiO2 and K2O wt% are higher in lower part of the section. No significant variations are observed in N2O, Al2O3, P2O5 and MnO wt% up-section. Highly

  10. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion and transformation of mercury in the southwest Lake Victoria gold fields was investigated through field and laboratory studies in order to evaluate the environmental impact and human health risks due to mercury pollution from small-scale gold mining in Tanzania. River sediment, gold-ore tailings, fish, and lichens were analyzed for their mercury content to determine mercury contamination levels. Mercury concentrations in the tailings from Rwamagaza mine were in the range of 165 to 232 mg/kg while at the Mugusu mine the maximum concentration was 6 mg/kg in the river sediment contaminated by the tailings. The dispersion of mercury along the Mabubi River downstream of the gold-ore processing site at the Mugusu mine decreased rapidly to less than 0.5 mg/kg at a distance of 4 km, and less than 0.1 mg/kg at 9 km. Granulometrical analysis of mercury distribution indicated highest mercury concentrations to be associated with the grain size fraction <212 mm in the sediment. Total mercury concentrations in eight fish species from the Lake Victoria at Nungwe Bay were generally very low and varied from 2 to 34, μg/kg (w.w). The lowest concentrations were found in Tilapia and the highest in Nile perch. The percentage of methylmercury in the fish muscle ranged from 65 to 97%. These results suggest that mercury contamination from gold mining operations in the southwest Lake Victoria goldfields has not led to any significant increase in environmental methylmercury levels that could be reflected in high mercury concentrations in the fish. Based on these results, fish consumption from the Nungwe Bay area of the Lake Victoria does not pose any human health risks on account of very low mercury levels in the fish at present. Mercury concentrations in two lichen species, Parmelia and Usnea, in the Geita Forest Reserve around the Mugusu mine ranged from 0.10 to 3.10 μg/g (d.w.). The mercury concentration in the lichens decreased away from the mine village, indicating the

  11. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  12. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  13. Country Presentation Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIFANGA, L.D.; GYIMBI, H.; MLOWOLA, V.; KASONGWA, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discusses overview of incidents and developments involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Tanzania.13 cases have been recorded between 1996 and 2008. All cases occurred in Dar Es Salam. Police, customs and security staff intercepted the sources and culprits arrested. The latest incident occurred in May 2008 and involved illegal possession of a capsule labelled nuclear material (U-238). A total of 14 sources were seized . Types of sources seized were u-238, Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and Radium-226.

  14. Sleeping sickness situation in Tanzania | Kibona | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Hosea, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded) by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. ...... to differences in biology and vectorial capacity of the An. gambiae s.l. complex the change in sibling species composition will have important implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in the study area.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded) by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control...

  16. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is ...

  17. Tanzania's healthcare breakthrough | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-18

    Nov 18, 2010 ... A model for success. The effects have ... health systems. Globally, there is a growing acceptance of the TEHIP lessons. ... has ended." — Hassan Mshinda, Director General, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ...

  18. Community knowledge and perceptions on the management of non-malarial fevers under reduced malaria burden and implications on the current malaria treatment policy in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Samuel Tarimo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate community knowledge and perceptions on the management of nonmalarial fevers under reduced malaria burden and the implications on the uptake of artmetherlumefantrine (ALu for malaria treatment. Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out in Morogoro Municipality in March 2015 to examine community knowledge and perceptions on the management of fever among underfives and effectiveness of ALu for malaria treatment. Household members were interviewed on knowledge of common childhood illnesses, recognition of fever symptom, and illnesses that present with fever; under-fives with a history of fever and malaria test and use of antimalarials in the last two weeks. Notion of whether every fever is due to malaria and the perceived effectiveness of ALu for malaria treatment was also assessed. Results: Fever was reported in 1 146 (69.2% under-fives, with malaria being the commonest illness (81.8% which was highly associated with fever (92.1%; other conditions associated with fever were respiratory (60.0% and gastroenteric (47.8% conditions. Malaria test was positive in 257/1 140 (22.5% under-fives; however 23.2% received ALu. The large majority (84.6% had the notion that not all fevers are due to malaria. About two thirds (63.4% believed that ALu has reduced fever episodes; however only about a half (54.6% rated ALu as being very effective. More than two thirds (70.4% of the respondents would prefer to continue using ALu as a 1st line drug. Conclusions: Fever is still a major health problem recognized to be associated with not only malaria. There is a need for continuous public education that ALu is still effective.

  19. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  20. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  1. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  2. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  3. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  4. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  5. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  6. Tanzania | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We have a rich history of supporting research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. ... importance of improving health and agriculture in order to reduce poverty. ... For more than a decade, we have provided grants that foster the capacity to ... fellowships and foster links between researchers and institutions in Tanzania ...

  7. Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania has undertaken since the mid-1980s. However, poverty is still ... Outputs. Papers. Private sector development in Tanzania : opportunities, challenges and strategic interventions to enhance competitiveness; final report. 42201.

  8. Tanzania | Page 41 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexander Soucy is correct to identify insecticide-treated bednets and inexpensive anti-malarial drugs as crucial to the global fight against malaria ('An easy way to save three million lives,' April 26). Read more about Tanzania ... Legislation on competition brings productivity and business investment to Tanzania. Increasing ...

  9. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  10. Tanzania | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English. Read more about Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English.

  11. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.

  12. Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific Innovations. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... Through review of various innovations developed by universities including SUA, it was established that there are several innovations in different fields especially in crop cultivation, animal ...

  13. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data from the Kukuluma Terrain of the Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania Craton: Implications for stratigraphy, crustal growth and timing of gold mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwelwa, S. D.; Sanislav, I. V.; Dirks, P. H. G. M.; Blenkinsop, T.; Kolling, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    The Geita Greenstone Belt is a late Archean greenstone belt located in the Tanzania Craton, trending approximately E-W and can be subdivided into three NW-SE trending terrains: the Kukuluma Terrain to the east, the Central Terrain in the middle and the Nyamullilima Terrain in the west. The Kukuluma Terrain, forms a NW-SE trending zone of complexly deformed sediments, intruded by the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex which, contains an early-syntectonic diorite-monzonite suite and a late-syntectonic granodiorite suite. Three gold deposits (Matandani, Kukuluma and Area 3W) are found along the contact between the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex and the sediments. A crystal tuff layer from the Kukuluma deposits returned an age of 2717 ± 12 Ma which can be used to constrain maximum sedimentation age in the area. Two granodiorite dykes from the same deposit and a small granodiorite intrusion found along a road cut yielded zircon ages of 2667 ± 17 Ma, 2661 ± 16 Ma and 2663 ± 11 Ma respectively. One mineralized granodiorite dyke from the Matandani deposit has an age of 2651 ± 14 Ma which can be used to constrain the maximum age of the gold mineralization in the area. The 2717 Ma crystal tuff has zircon grains with suprachondritic 176Hf/177Hf ratios (0.28108-0.28111 at 2717 Ma) and positive (+1.6 to +2.6) εHf values indicating derivation from juvenile mafic crust. Two of the granodiorite samples have suprachondritic 176Hf/177Hf ratios (avg. 0.28106 and 0.28107 at 2663 and 2651 Ma respectively) and nearly chondritic εHf values (avg. -0.5 and -0.3 respectively). The other two granodiorite samples have chondritic 176Hf/177Hf ratios (avg. 0.28104 and 0.28103 at 2667 and 2661 Ma respectively) and slightly negative εHf values (avg. -1.1 and -1.5 respectively). The new zircon age and isotope data suggest that the igneous activity in the Kukuluma Terrain involves a significant juvenile component and occurred within the 2720 to 2620 Ma period which, is the main period of crustal growth

  14. Væksten i Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Haagen Larsen, Pernille; Schack Wiedenbeien, Emma; Nørreager Christensen, Martin; Høj Brunn, Christoffer; Ferklov, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In our group, it has been decided to write about the growth in Africa. We believe a conflict can be seen between the year of focus to effort an improvement in Africa’s growth and the lack of change. However it is to be seen that there is a noticeable change compared to the time minimal effort spent. As case we have chosen to look at the conditions of establishing further expanding, development and growth of one of the poorest countries in the world, Tanzania. We have chosen to look into the e...

  15. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centres to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS centre is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centres and facilitating the establishment of INIS National centre. (author)

  16. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology, keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centers to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS center is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centers and facilitating the establishment of INIS National center. (author)

  17. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine and exploratory analysis on anti-circumsporozoite antibody titres and protection in children aged 5–17 months in Kenya and Tanzania: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Leach, Amanda; Lievens, Marc; Vekemans, Johan; Msham, Salum; Lang, Trudie; Gould, Jayne; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Jongert, Erik; Vansadia, Preeti; Carter, Terrell; Njuguna, Patricia; Awuondo, Ken O; Malabeja, Anangisye; Abdul, Omar; Gesase, Samwel; Mturi, Neema; Drakeley, Chris J; Savarese, Barbara; Villafana, Tonya; Lapierre, Didier; Ballou, W Ripley; Cohen, Joe; Lemnge, Martha M; Peshu, Norbert; Marsh, Kevin; Riley, Eleanor M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Bejon, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine. We recently showed efficacy against clinical falciparum malaria in 5–17 month old children, during an average of 8 months follow-up. We aimed to assess the efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E during 15 months of follow-up. Methods Between March, 2007, and October, 2008, we enrolled healthy children aged 5–17 months in Kilifi, Kenya, and Korogwe, Tanzania. Computer-generated block randomisation was used to randomly assign participants (1:1) to receive three doses (at month 0, 1, and 2) of either RTS,S/AS01E or human diploid-cell rabies vaccine. The primary endpoint was time to first clinical malaria episode, defined as the presence of fever (temperature ≥37·5°C) and a Plasmodium falciparum density of 2500/μL or more. Follow-up was 12 months for children from Korogwe and 15 months for children from Kilifi. Primary analysis was per protocol. In a post-hoc modelling analysis we characterised the associations between anti-circumsporozoite antibodies and protection against clinical malaria episodes. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00380393. Findings 894 children were assigned, 447 in each treatment group. In the per-protocol analysis, 82 of 415 children in the RTS,S/AS01E group and 125 of 420 in the rabies vaccine group had first or only clinical malaria episode by 12 months, vaccine efficacy 39·2% (95% CI 19·5–54·1, p=0·0005). At 15 months follow-up, 58 of 209 children in the RTS,S/AS01E group and 85 of 206 in the rabies vaccine group had first or only clinical malaria episode, vaccine efficacy 45·8% (24·1–61·3, p=0·0004). At 12 months after the third dose, anti-circumsporozoite antibody titre data were available for 390 children in the RTS,S/AS01E group and 391 in the rabies group. A mean of 15 months (range 12–18 months) data were available for 172 children in the RTS,S/AS01E group and 155 in the rabies group. These titres at 1 month after the third dose were

  18. Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Moshi, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because, in many parts of the world, there ... Annual prizes are awarded for the student achieving the highest mark in the overall assessment ... 31 No. 7. Dermatology in Tanzania prize). A second training programme (MMed) provides 4-year.

  19. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.

  20. Read full report, Youth employment in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But the quality of formal education in Tanzania is poor. Less than 12 percent ... NGOs offer a broad range of services and training for youth, including fostering ..... Service workers. 20.6 ..... customer/market validation training provided by profes-.

  1. Financial Institutions And Poverty Alleviation In Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial institutions in Tanzania have operated under a competitive financial system ... to move away from the tenets of a centrally planned economy towards free-market orientation. ... They have also favored traders rather than producers.

  2. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.

  3. Tanzania Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  4. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.

  5. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  6. african indigenous and traditional vegetables in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in four regions of Tanzania with a total of 160 sellers ... washing; and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ..... and endosulfan and metalaxyl/mencozeb mix as.

  7. Tanzania Monitoring and Evaluation Management Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MEMS II is a two-year project to enable USAID/Tanzania and a number of its partners to meet their multifold performance reporting responsibilities; upgrade,...

  8. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  9. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A question...

  10. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania ... Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania.

  11. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  15. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  16. Tanzania.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation (Seebeck, 1973: Mackinnon-e't ar: 1990): Majority of paststlidies"on' reproductive performance from' tropicar-are'as have been' largely limited to'the assessment of effects of>. ·no'n.,genetk factors and breed difference's : '(Galiila. and Arthur, 1989), Genetic parameter es-, timates and infonnation. on the'extent of ...

  17. Exploring Foreign Tourists’ Image of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the economy of African continent and Tanzania in particular has witnessed a business boom of the tourism sector. While the sector has continued to grow and become a dependable source of direct and indirect employment to youths in urban and rural areas, the sector has been awash...... with challenges. These challenges include terrorism attacks, energy crises and poor infrastructure. However, the impact of these challenges on the image of Tanzania as a tourist destination has not received the deserved attention. This study explores the perception of visitors towards Tanzania as a tourist....... Front line employees, various tourist sites and access to services emerged to be strong tourist destination image factors. This implies that the efforts of marketing tourism destination should focus on promoting all the sites the country has....

  18. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Catherine Muze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups.

  19. Occupational dose trends in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Nyanda, A.M.; Ngaile, J.E.; Lema, U.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers in Tanzania from 1986 to 1997. The analysis of dose records observes over this period, a fluctuating trend both in the individual and collective doses. The trend is more related to the fluctuations of the number of radiation workers than to the possible radiation safety changes of the working conditions. It has been found that, the maximum annual dose for the worker in all work categories was about 18 mSv y -1 . This suggests that the occupational radiation exposure in all practices satisfies the current dose limitation system. The national exposure summary shows that, the highest collective dose of 12.8 man-Sv which is 90% of the total collective dose, was due to medical applications. The applications in industry and research had a contribution of nearly 0.8 and 0.7 man-Sv respectively. From the professional point of view, the medical diagnostic radiographers received the highest collective dose of 11.2 man-Sv. Although the medical physicists recorded the minimum collective dose of nearly 0.07 man-Sv, the data shows that this profession received the highest mean dose of about 33 mSv in 12 years. Some achievements of the personnel monitoring services and suggestions for future improvement are pointed out. (author)

  20. Transcultural nursing course in Tanzania, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhoda

    2012-06-01

    A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States.

  1. The Costs of Climate Change: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Markandya, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail potentially serious consequences for human health, including an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. This study integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall...... to climate change are shown to be in the range of 0.32 to 1.4 percent of GDP in Tanzania 2030. The results provide useful insights into national-level estimates of the implications of climate change on the health sector and offer information which can feed into both national and international debates...... risk of cholera increases by 15 to 29 percent. Based on the modeling results, we project the number and costs of additional cases of cholera that can be attributed to climate change by 2030 in Tanzania for a 1 and 2 degree increase in temperatures, respectively. The total costs of cholera attributable...

  2. Social Work Implication on Care and Vulnerability of Older People in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Work Implication on Care and Vulnerability of Older People in Tanzania. ... as the national ageing policy, health policy, national social security policy, ... The social workers were found at the district headquarters but also in few numbers.

  3. Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction industry generates a lot of construction and demolition (C&D) waste which puts some challenges to its management. For example, currently, in many towns in Tanzania, there are no landfill sites for solid waste disposal; and as a consequence open air dumping sites are used. Dumping C&D waste puts ...

  4. Marketing Dental Services | Tuominen | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Marketing Dental Services. R Tuominen. Abstract. No Abstract.

  5. Boosting youth employment prospects in Tanzania | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Return to main page, Addressing the youth employment challenge in Africa. Related links: Youth Employment Promotion a Priority Agenda for Tanzania, The Guardian; Report: National Stakeholders Consultative Workshop on Youth Employment (PDF, 1.74 MB); Watch the workshop video on YouTube ...

  6. Country programme review. United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.; Hance, R.; Yurtsever, Y.; Maudarbocus, V.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a review of past and present IAEA Technical Co-operation Activities in Tanzania and gives descriptions of the current status of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, human health, water resources and industrial applications/nuclear instrumentation

  7. Tanzania | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Tanzania. Tanzanie. Read more about Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. Language English. Read more about Free and Open Source Management Information Systems and Microfinance - Phase II. Language English. Read more about La microfinance et les TIC : systèmes ...

  8. Teaching 'natural product chemistry' in Tanzania | Buchanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...

  9. Tanzania | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corn, cassava and pulses are the main food sources in rural Tanzania. Meat is scarce for rural populations, and don't expect to find carrots, kale or squash at the local market! Animal products – particularly offal –, green vegetables and orange fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin A. As a result, Tanzanians ...

  10. Tanzania | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers working in Tanzania's Morogoro and Dodoma districts have made an important discovery. By fortifying hay with cassava tops and sweet potato vines, they provided dairy goats with a cheap, protein-rich feed that enabled them to produce more milk. Read more about Better feed for animals means better food for ...

  11. Tanzania | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato leaves are a significant feed supplement.

  12. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  13. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  14. Tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about ​Promoting locally fortified sunflower oil using e-vouchers. Language English. Read more about ​Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes. Language English. Read more about Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Élevage de la ...

  15. Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S.Sife

    Introduction. Agriculture is a key sector of economy in Tanzania. ... media to reach a wide audience, newspapers have additional advantages of being in permanent form ... advertisements, politics, entertainment, and crime events while ignoring developmental topics such as ..... Social Sciences, 3(8): 578–582. Kayode, J.

  16. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  17. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  18. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single most effective way to reverse this ...

  19. Tanzania | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Réseau des développeurs - logiciels d'exploitation libre pour assistants numériques personnels utilisés dans la collecte de données sur la ...

  20. Tanzania | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Bourses de recherche pour la lutte antitabac en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa. Language English. Read more about Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas of Tanzania and Rwanda.

  1. Opalescence: Tooth Whitening Systems | Fischer | Tanzania Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  2. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...

  3. Deficiency within pavement Maintenance Organization in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the rules and regulations of the public administrative system do not allow for an effective and efficient management of road maintenance. Lack of equipment and adequate qualified personnel in the field of road maintenance is too an added deficiency. As a consequence, Tanzania has started to put road ...

  4. CHECKLIST OF THE MILLIPEDES (DIPLOPODA) OF TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, these many-legged animals are not insects (which have three .... Simon Stuart, who was carrying out studies on birds, contributed many specimens ... Diversity Project of November 1994 provided a series of millipede specimens. ... Tanzania records: Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural Distr., Uluguru Mts, Lupanga.

  5. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  6. Local management of rural power supply. A new approach in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Katyega, Maneno; Kjellstroem, Bjoern

    1999-07-01

    a result of this evaluation it was recommended to try a new approach to rural electrification in Tanzania, based on local management of supply and distribution and with TANESCO's role limited to bulk supply of electricity and technical support. TANESCO agreed to carry out a few pilot projects to collect experiences from this approach as part of the research co-operation between TANESCO and SEI. The present energy policy of Tanzania includes statements that encourage a departure from the earlier course of action and that have direct implications for local initiatives to rural electrification. In particular, the encouragement of private initiatives and the possibility for these to apply tariffs differing from TANESCO's, facilitates for local initiatives. This project is a co-operation between the SEI, the University of Dar es Salaam and TANESCO, involving the head quarters in Dar es Salaam and the regional offices.

  7. Gender differences in the factors influencing consistent condom use among young people in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella

    2006-01-01

    AIDS has become a major cause of death in Tanzania and young people represent the most vulnerable group. Recent HIV prevalence data showed that young women are more likely than young men to become infected. This paper examined commonalties and differences in the sociodemographic and ideational predictors of condom use among young men and women in Tanzania. The data derive from a 2004 sample survey among young people aged 15-24 years in five regions of Tanzania. The sample on which the analyses were based included 1,523 single women and 1,200 single men. An ideation framework guided the analyses of the predictors of consistent condom use. Logistic regression was the main analytic method used and separate models were estimated for men and women. The most significant correlates of consistent condom use for men included perceived self-efficacy for correct condom use, discussing condom use with friends, and perceived self-efficacy for using condoms with a long-term partner. Discussing condom use with a sex partner and the perceived self-efficacy to refuse sex if the sex partner refused to use a condom were the most significant predictors for women. One implication of the findings is that for men, effective interventions should emphasize correct condom use know-how and address the issue of negative peer pressure and group norms around condom use. For women, interventions should focus on sexual empowerment.

  8. Tanzania | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is 2002. Parents and babies wait patiently to see the community health worker in Mvomero, Tanzania. “People have faith in the services. They are treated well and diagnosed properly,” says Samuel Hassain, here with his sick grandson. Health worker Y.E. Kapito marvels that “it has been six to eight months since I heard of ...

  9. Coral Reefs and Their Management in Tanzania | Wagner | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management approaches and strategies implemented by various ICM programs, conservation areas and marine parks in Tanzania. It also provides recommendations for further research and coral reef management strategies. Keywords: coral reefs, threats, management, recent initiatives, Tanzania West Indian Ocean ...

  10. 24 STATUS OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION IN TANZANIA'S PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.S. Samzugi

    universities. Kasulwa's (2008) report has mentioned the automation efforts in Tanzania, ... System (EMIS) and E-Library system for All Higher Education and Research Institutions in. Tanzania. ... Both telephone and face-to-face methods were used. ... Qualitative data collected from interviews with directors of libraries, on the.

  11. Creating Fiscal Space for Social Sectors Development in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses fiscal space creation and use in the context of development of social sectors in Tanzania. The paper observes that Tanzania is making good progress in creating and using her fiscal space. The priority being accorded to social sectors, especially in education and health is in the right direction. However ...

  12. All projects related to tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Tanzania, the maternal mortality rate of 454 deaths per 100,000 live births means that ... and employment options in poor rural communities in Rwanda and Tanzania. ... of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries.

  13. Sixty Years of Special Needs Education in Tanzania: Celebrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study traces the development of special needs education in Tanzania from 1950, and discusses the achievements and the persistent challenges that Tanzania is facing as we celebrate 60 years since the first special education school was started. Both documentation and interview methods were used to collect ...

  14. All projects related to tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH EXPENDITURE, HEALTH FINANCING. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 366,015.00. Food Security, Adequate Care and Environment (Tanzania and Malawi). Project.

  15. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  16. Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...

  17. tanzania : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HIV, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, PREGNANCY, VIRUSES, TANZANIA, ZAMBIA, BOTSWANA, DISEASE TRANSMISSION, Gender. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 55,000.00. Les pertes après ...

  18. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 14, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe malaria among children admitted to Rungwe and Kyela district hospitals in south-western Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Dermatological malignancies at a University teaching Hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 154 cases · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  19. IAEA responds to cancer crisis in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the occasion of World Cancer Day (4 February), the IAEA announced that its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) will establish its first Centre of Excellence in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. This low-income East African country has one of the continent's highest cancer rates and only one cancer treatment centre. 'Cancer is a growing crisis all across the developing world,' explains IAEA Director General and Nobel Laureate Mohammed ElBaradei. 'We can save thousands of lives if we put together the tools, the knowledge and the political will to fight cancer effectively,' he said. Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular disease. Over 7 million people died of cancer in 2005, and close to 11 million new cancer cases were diagnosed, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 70 percent of cancer deaths now occur in low and middle income countries - the very countries least able to address this growing burden. Cancer-related deaths are projected to increase to more than 9 million people annually by 2015. Already cancer claims twice the number of lives worldwide as AIDS. Low income nations now face a dual burden of communicable and chronic diseases such as cancer. The IAEA spends about 12 million dollars each year for improving cancer treatment in the developing world. Last year, it established the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), to build partnerships with the WHO and other organizations dedicated to controlling cancer. Much of the IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize Award has been dedicated to helping the developing world deal with the dramatic rise in cancer that is overwhelming limited health resources and equipment. The harsh reality of developing nations is one of overburdened health systems with little cancer screening and unnecessarily late cancer diagnosis and non-curative treatment. The IAEA estimates that approximately 5,000 cancer care centres and systems - plus the

  20. E- Waste Disposal in Tanzania: The Implications for Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of its fast growth, the ICT industry has generated volumes and volumes of 'e - waste', which in turn, requires mechanisms and skills for disposal, notwithstanding, the necessity to explore means of using the same as a business for income generation. The study set out to investigate the existing practices and levels ...

  1. Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    This article examines farmers' livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic and other stressors. Some of these responses have depleted and degraded natural resources such as forest, soil and water resources, which will complicate their living with climate change in the future. This will be particularly problematic to vulnerable groups such as women, children and pastoralists who have limited access to employment, markets and public services. In this light, fair adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in Morogoro and elsewhere in developing countries requires several complementary responses. Adaptation efforts should involve effective governance of natural resources because they function as safety nets to vulnerable groups. In addition, strengthening of national markets by infrastructure investments and institutional reforms is needed to give incentives to intensification and diversification in agriculture. Market participation also demands enhancement of human capital by public programs on health, education and wellbeing

  2. The Fire is Coming: An HIV Prevention Intervention Contextualized to the Maasai People of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Fire is Coming” film is an innovative HIV-prevention intervention contextualized to the Maasai people of Tanzania through use of a traditional Maasai story. The intervention was developed and implemented in partnership with Maasai Pastoralists for Education and Development (MAPED. Although there have been numerous Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP surveys conducted among the Maasai, this is the first control-group comparison study designed to measure the effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention contextualized specifically to the Maasai people of Tanzania. We will first discuss the background and context in which the intervention was developed and methods used to develop the intervention. We will then discuss the evaluation methods, results, and implications of a retrospective Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP two-village comparison survey (n=200 for “The Fire is Coming” HIV-prevention intervention among Maasai people. There was a significant effect for HIV-related attitudes, t(16 = 2.77, p 0.05. Implications: Belief in one’s ability to do something is often the pivotal point for behavior change. The results of the survey denote a highly effective intervention in changing HIV-related attitudes and behaviors. It is promising for replication among other Maasai communities and for adaptation with indigenous people groups in other regions.

  3. Protected area entrance fees in Tanzania: The search for competitiveness and value for money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Spenceley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is difficult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs. Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.

  4. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  5. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  6. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-10-06

    Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  7. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatu Melkiory C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  8. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will test improved cassava and sweet potato varieties to ... Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweetpotatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis.

  9. Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania | Kisinza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. W Kisinza, E MakundI, A Mwisongo, G Mubyazi, SM Magesa, H Malebo, J Mcharo, K Senkoro, P Hiza, K Pallangyo, Y Ipuge, AY Kitua, M Malecela-Lazaro ...

  10. The forgotten 'coastal forests' of Mtwara, Tanzania: a biologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Mtwara, Tanzania: a biologically impoverished and yet important ecosystem. ... and endemism values in these forests, and high levels of forest disturbance. ... of modest biological importance within the context of the Eastern Arc Mountains ...

  11. Civic Participation in the Democratisation Process in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , village and chiefdom levels were prevalent throughout Tanzania even before the advent of colonialism. The scope, size and focus of civic societies have increased and changed over time from being primary agents for social service delivery ...

  12. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 9, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Siziya, P R Ntata, E Rudatsikira, C M Makupe, E Umar, A S Muula, 190-195.

  13. Growth aspirations of women entrepreneurs in tourism in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugalla, Irene Mkini

    2018-01-01

    Dit proefschrift presenteert empirische resultaten op basis van een kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve studie van vrouwelijke ondernemers in de toerismesector in Tanzania. Door Bourdieu's praktijktheorie en de institutionele theorie van Scott toe te passen, analyseren we de relatie tussen de

  14. Climate Change and Food Security in Tanzania: Analysis of Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food systems in Tanzania are highly vulnerable to climate change and variability due to poor adaptive capacity of ... available GCMs and downscaling techniques ... water for hydroelectric power generation ... for farm-level decision making.

  15. Extension Systems in Tanzania: Identifying Gaps in Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Tanzania on agricultural extension systems; review research globally on agricultural ... cal techniques, unique results and major recommendations. .... participation in decision-making, natural .... soil and water management technologies in.

  16. Preliminary observations of birds of Songo Songo Island, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods ... The island rises some 10 m above sea level and is c. ... PM a. Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii. Obs. Littoral. PM a .... terrestrial birds on Pemba Island (Tanzania), with particular reference to six endemic ...

  17. Agrochemicals use in horticulture industry in Tanzania and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... It is apparent that most of the horticultural farms in Northern Tanzania are located on gently ... Thus discharges of wastewaters from horticulture farms may affect the quality of water ...

  18. Agrochemicals use in horticulture industry in Tanzania and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    (Fertilizers and Pesticides) in the Tanzanian horticulture industry especially the Northern regions ... It is apparent that most of the horticultural farms in Northern Tanzania are located on gently .... evaluate any potential for polluting such water.

  19. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 38, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human-wildlife interaction in Serengeti and Ngorongoro districts of Tanzania: A case study on small mammals · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FJ Magige, 95-103 ...

  20. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...

  1. A new genus and species of Ceratocanthidae from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Usambara Mountains (Tanzania), is described. The morphology of the clypeus and mesoepisternum is discussed, also with reference to other Ceratocanthidae. The affinities of the genus are discussed, and ...

  2. Training Teachers in Special Needs Education in Tanzania: A Long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the training of special education teachers in Tanzania. ... learning materials, few trained teachers, teacher attrition, negative attitudes, barrier to ... Keywords: Special needs education, disability, inclusive education, teacher ...

  3. Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... which is the daytime governmentally prescribed noise limit for residential-commercial areas. ... The main impacts of exposure to noise were reported to be headache, ...

  4. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.

  5. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 8, No 3 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine carcinoembryonic antigen determination in urinary bladder bilharziasis predicts carcinoma in patients with premalignant lesions: Observation of 43 cases ... Participatory involvement of farming communities and public sectors in determining malaria control strategies in Mvomero District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  6. All projects related to tanzania | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas ... Region: India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, Canada ... growth rates in East Africa, the effects of growth on poverty reduction and ...

  7. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  8. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Yamagata, Yoichi; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jurg; Keiser, Jennifer; Singer, Burton H

    2004-08-01

    The rapid growth of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, much of it driven by rural-urban migration, is associated with complex transformations of these ecosystems and an intricate set of challenges for malaria control. Urban malaria transmission is substantially less intense and much more focal than in rural and peri-urban settings. However, the danger of epidemics is higher and the presence of substantial non-immune populations places people of all ages at comparable levels of risk. The limited number of breeding sites in urban centers suggests that prevention strategies based on vector control, with emphasis on environmental management, should be a central feature of urban malaria control programs. We focus on malaria in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Following a brief review of the 100-year history of malaria control in this urban center, we describe and evaluate a control program that operated from 1988 to 1996 as a consequence of a bilateral agreement between the governments of Tanzania and Japan. We present an innovative urban malaria risk mapping methodology based on high-resolution aerial photography with ground-based validation. This strategy clarifies that remote sensing technology at a level of resolution of one meter is essential if this kind of information is to play a role in guiding the detailed specification of intervention strategies for urban malaria control. The Tanzania-Japan multiple-intervention malaria control program, adaptively implemented over time, is described and evaluated with implications for urban malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa more generally. Copyright 2004 The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

  9. Sustainability Partnerships for the Governance of Coastal Resources in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katikiro, Robert; Kweka, Opportuna; Namkesa, Faraja

    The paper examines the experience of sustainability partnerships for the management of coastal resources in Tanzania. It identifies key actors and governance dynamics, with focus on decentralization processes, legitimacy-building and participation of local communities. The paper first provides a ...... of ongoing research under the New Partnerships for Sustainability project (NEPSUS), it provides guidance on research gaps in specific relation to the Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and selected BMUs in Mtwara region, Southern Tanzania....

  10. Petroleum fund in Tanzania? Other alternatives may be better

    OpenAIRE

    Torvik, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Tanzania is looking for the best policies and institutional designs to turn future petroleum revenues into welfare, development and jobs. This Brief argues that the Tanzanian society will benefit more by investing in infrastructure, health and education, rather than establishing a petroleum sovereign wealth fund and investing in foreign assets. Exploration for oil and gas in Tanzania started in the 1950s. The first discoveries were made in the 1970s, and commercial prod...

  11. The incidence of local government allocations in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson Boex

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, Tanzania has been actively pursuing reforms of the way in which the central government finances local government activities. This paper looks at the current incidence of central government allocations to local authorities in Tanzania through: 1) examining of potential problems with the current financing method, 2) showing large variations between local government allocations, and 3) finding that surprisingly what drives t his distribution of resources maybe substantial pro-wealthy...

  12. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  13. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...

  14. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  15. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J Terrence; Leslie, Paul W; Deluca, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies.

  16. Struggles over patriarchal structural adjustment in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, M

    1993-10-01

    Within the space of 7 years (1986-93), structural adjustment policies have contributed to a reversal of the gains in economic development achieved in Tanzania in the 1960s and 1970s. Structural adjustment policies have helped large-scale producers and ordinary citizens but have led to a decline in social services which is reflected in drops in primary school enrollment and increases in medical costs. Government revenues are absorbed by foreign debt servicing. The reduction of support for social services has increased women's work; bolstered gender division of labor; and reduced women's access to education, formal employment, and health services. On the other hand, increased participation in market-oriented activities has increased women's mobility and exposure to modern ideas. This has led to changing gender relations which on the positive side can lead to shared decision-making but on the negative side may cause men to abdicate their familial responsibilities. Women suffer, however, from a lack of investment in ways to lighten their household responsibilities and have lost their ability to control food production because of the shift to cash crop production for export. The combination of hard work, low income, and stress has taken a toll on women's health, and both the maternal mortality rate and incidence of HIV infections among teenage girls has increased. In response to this situation, Tanzanian women have formed the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP) which seeks to empower women and transform society through such activities as education and training, research, and lobbying and networking. Workshops sponsored by the TGNP have resulted in recommendations for adoption of a people-centered development strategy.

  17. 54 1.Jerry George Mwakanyamale, 2Richard K.A Towett,3Fariji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defecate as well as lay eggs to the environment 1. The female flea remains in the skin for up to five .... simple remedies. 2. Medical personnel in Korogwe should be empowered with knowledge and budget for controlling the disease. 3. More research is needed to establish the prevalence of the problem in Tanzania as a.

  18. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngalie, J.E.; Mompome, W.K.; Meza, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  19. Cost of microbial larviciding for malaria control in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rifat; Lesser, Adriane; Mboera, Leonard; Kramer, Randall

    2016-11-01

    Microbial larviciding may be a potential supplement to conventional malaria vector control measures, but scant information on its relative implementation costs and effectiveness, especially in rural areas, is an impediment to expanding its uptake. We perform a costing analysis of a seasonal microbial larviciding programme in rural Tanzania. We evaluated the financial and economic costs from the perspective of the public provider of a 3-month, community-based larviciding intervention implemented in twelve villages in the Mvomero District of Tanzania in 2012-2013. Cost data were collected from financial reports and invoices and through discussion with programme administrators. Sensitivity analysis explored the robustness of our results to varying key parameters. Over the 2-year study period, approximately 6873 breeding sites were treated with larvicide. The average annual economic costs of the larviciding intervention in rural Tanzania are estimated at 2014 US$ 1.44 per person protected per year (pppy), US$ 6.18 per household and US$ 4481.88 per village, with the larvicide and staffing accounting for 14% and 58% of total costs, respectively. We found the costs pppy of implementing a seasonal larviciding programme in rural Tanzania to be comparable to the costs of other larviciding programmes in urban Tanzania and rural Kenya. Further research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of larviciding relative to, and in combination with, other vector control strategies in rural settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  1. Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.

  2. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty......Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...

  3. Winners and losers of IWRM in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Koppen,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in Tanzania. It asks: how did IWRM affect the rural and fast-growing majority of smallholder farmersʼ access to water which contributes directly to poverty alleviation and employment creation in a country where poverty and joblessness are high? Around 1990, there were both a strong government-led infrastructure development agenda and IWRM ingredients in place, including cost-recovery of state services aligning with the Structural Adjustment Programmes, water management according to basin boundaries and the dormant colonial water rights (permits system. After the 1990s, the World Bank and other donors promoted IWRM with a strong focus on hydroelectric power development, River Basin Water Boards, transformation of the water right system into a taxation tool, and assessment of environmental flows. These practices became formalised in the National Water Policy (2002 and in the Water Resources Management Act (2009. Activities in the name of IWRM came to be closely associated with the post-2008 surge in large-scale land and water deals. Analysing 25 years of IWRM, the paper identifies the processes and identities of the losers (smallholders and – at least partially – the government and the winners (large-scale water users, including recent investors. We conclude that, overall, IWRM harmed smallholdersʼ access to water and rendered them more vulnerable to poverty and unemployment.

  4. Sustaining Ecotourism in Tanzania through Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pasape

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of community empowerment to the sustainability of ecotourism in Tanzania using education programmes, access to information and language. Through the survey approach data was collected from Tanzania’s ecotourism stakeholders (N=250 in the eight selected regions of Dar es Salaam, Pwani, Morogoro, Tanga and Zanzibar (for the eastern tourism circuit and Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Manyara (for the northern circuit and thereafter a qualitative analysis was employed complemented by estimation of the multinomial logistic regression model. The findings show that tourism stakeholders lack sufficient knowledge on ecotourism conservation and preservation. Likewise community members have poor access to information due to insufficient ecotourism publications, tourist information centres, a reliable mechanism for communicating with stakeholders and the use of foreign languages in most of the publications. It is therefore the study’s recommendation that community members be empowered through being provided with adequate education programmes and access to relevant information and the use of a language that is understood by them in order to broaden their level of understanding, enhance their management skills and contribute significantly to ecotourism-related activities.

  5. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...

  6. Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, FE

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10949 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www....csir.co.za Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania Esbeth van Dyk CSIR Centre for Logistics ORSSA/SAIIE August 2005 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www.csir.co.za Structure • Why traceability? • Legislation • Tanzania project • Recordkeeping in coffee...

  7. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  8. Dragonflies (odonata) of Rufiji district, Tanzania with new records for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitat specialists found in Ngumburuni forest and in the forests of the Kichi and Kiwengoma Hills are globally endangered species and require special attention with regard to conservation. Keywords: dragonflies; coastal forest; Tanzania; conservationJournal of East African Natural History Vol. 95 (2) 2006: pp. 139-162 ...

  9. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 42, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FA Kapile, IN Makundi, 94-108 ...

  10. Are sustainable tourism policies and strategies working in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article briefly explores the development of tourism in Tanzania and then focuses primarily on relevant tourism policies adopted by the Tanzanian Government in order to grow the industry in a sustainable manner. Although these policies have been effective for a decade since their introduction, indications are that they ...

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 10, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JJ Massaga, JP Lusingu, R Makunde, HM Malebo, MM Chile, JA Akida, MM Lemnge, ...

  12. Climate change and food security in Tanzania: analysis of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...

  13. Genetic structure among the local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...

  14. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 12, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motorcycle injuries as an emerging public health problem in Mwanza city, Tanzania: A call for urgent intervention · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Phillipo L. Chalya, Joseph B. Mabula, Isidor H. Ngayomela, Emmanuel S. Kanumba, Alphonce B.

  15. Determinants of public health expenditure growth in Tanzania: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies some major drivers of per capita public health expenditure growth in Tanzania using nationally representative annual data between 1995 and 2014. It used Bayesian model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The empirical result shows that both the real GDP per capita and ...

  16. Leptospira infections in freshwater fish in Morogoro Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine presence of Leptospira in fish; the prevalent Leptospira serovars and whether are related to serovars reported in animals; and to ascertain potential public health risk. Live tilapia, catfish and eel fish (n=48) were caught in Mindu Dam in Morogoro Municipality in eastern Tanzania ...

  17. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 20, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard ...

  18. Status, Impact and Management of Invasive Alien Species in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used three methodological approaches including documentary search, interviews with relevant stakeholders and limited field visits. Findings from the study have indicated that the awareness, trends, distribution and impacts of the invasive alien species in Tanzania are variable, and similarly are the management ...

  19. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-02

    Project. The Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) is an independent research organization that was registered in Tanzania in October 1992. Start Date: July 2, 2009 ... Five-City Network to Pioneer Climate Change Adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. Project ... Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ...

  20. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 13, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reaching the poor through community-based distributors of contraceptives: experiences from Muheza district, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Daudi Simba, Cordula Schuemer, Forester Kate, Merriment Hiza, 1-7.

  1. The Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis in Tanzania: the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population (Delany et al. 2009). Britton (1980) mentions only Siguri Falls in the. Selous Game Reserve for Tanzania and while suggesting that it breeds there, no breeding records were admitted in Brown & Britton (1980). Over the last three decades, a number of new observations―including the first breeding record―of this ...

  2. GROWTH-RATES OF SHRUBS ON DIFFERENT SOILS IN TANZANIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT; VANDERJEUGD, HP

    1992-01-01

    Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length

  3. Growth rates of shrubs on different soils in Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, H.H.T.; Jeugd, van der H.P.

    1992-01-01

    Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length

  4. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh | Rahman | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  5. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh | Rahman | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh.

  6. Engaged Learning and Peace Corps Service in Tanzania: An Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach to community…

  7. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...

  8. Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. The Role of Pharmacist in Dental Care Services | Kalala | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  10. Consequences of Female Migration for Families in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with economic and political change in Africa, Asia and Latin America .... notes that in developing countries, internal and international migration is a result of ... 'hut tax' in Tanzania was one of the important factors behind sex differentials in migration. ... The country is located in East Africa, covering 940,000 km2.

  11. Antiproliferation effects of selected Tanzania plants | Choi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plants still remain a prime source of drugs for the treatment of cancer and can provide leads for the development of novel anticancer agents. Our screening of indigenous medicinal plants from Tanzania has led to the identification of the number of anticancer activity. Material and methods: The current study ...

  12. Two 'extinct' trees rediscovered near Kilwa, Tanzania | Clarke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary botanical explorations in the little-known Namatimbili–Ngarama forest block located some 35 km inland of Kilwa in south-east Tanzania have rediscovered and further confirmed the presence of two tree species, Erythrina schliebenii Harms and Karomia gigas (Faden) Verdc., that were previously thought to have ...

  13. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 16, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Proches Hieronimo, Hubert Gulinck, Didas N. Kimaro, Loth S. Mulungu, Nganga I. Kihupi, Balthazar M. Msanya, ...

  14. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 9, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M L Kamugisha, S Gesase, D Minja, S Mgema, T D Mlwilo, B K Mayala, 12-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v9i1.14286 ...

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives

    Abstract

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  16. Field vegetable production in the Lake Zone of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.; Maerere, A.P.; Amon, W.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2012 and in August 2014 surveys were carried out in field vegetable producing areas in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. The aim of the surveys was to learn the conditions for field vegetable production and marketing in these areas. Recommendations for the development of vegetable production

  17. Tanzania Dental Journal - Vol 17, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient satisfaction with dental services rendered at School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B Mwela, EN Kikwilu, 38-44 ...

  18. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in bats roosting in human settlements in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Georgies F. Mgode, Huruma A. Mbugi, Ginethon G. Mhamphi, Dickson Ndanga, Evance L. Nkwama.

  19. Paleoseismic Investigations along the Bubu Fault, Dodoma-Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-11-04

    The central part of Tanzania, Dodoma, was hit by an Mw= 5.5 earthquake in November 4, 2002. It was part of a swarm of moderate earthquakes that affected the area. This paper, reports the first attempt to investigate significant past earthquakes along one of the known seismically active rift faults (Bubu fault, Gonga ...

  20. The Southern Black Tit Melaniparus niger in Tanzania with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Friedrich Fülleborn at Undis south of Tunduru near the Tanzania – Mozambique border (11°17'S ... and was not included in any reference books or field guides. None of these ... was clearly a dark-eyed leucomelas rather than a pale-eyed.

  1. Growth and Structure of Tanzania's Industrial Sector Investment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agro-based industrial activities. Tanzania being basically an agricultural country such investment will have a multiplier effect in terms of employment generation partly due to the linkages effects which such industries might have to the rest of the economy. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.8(2) 2000: 46-54 ...

  2. Liberalisation of the Banking Industry in Tanzania: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, banks play a predominant role in the financial sector of the country as far as mobilisation and allocation of financial resources is concerned. The question that deserves attention however, is whether and to what extent foreign banks have been playing a positive role in the ...

  3. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...

  4. Concrete block production from construction and demolition waste in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabai, M.M.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Mato, R.R.A.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Lichtenberg, J.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    In Tanzania, construction and demolition (C&D) waste is not recycled and knowledge on how it can be recycled especially into valuable products like building materials are still limited. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of recycling the C&D waste (mainly cementitious rubble) into

  5. Disclosure of HIV Status in Rural Tanzania: Practices, Facilitators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, HIV counselling and testing practices are now widely accepted as the cornerstone of HIV prevention programmes. Within HIV testing and counselling, emphasis is placed on the importance of individuals to disclose their HIV status. Despite increasing focus on disclosure of HIV status, relatively little is known ...

  6. Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

  7. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  8. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. ... had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. ... Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 ...

  9. Bureaucratic Blockages : Water, Civil Servants, and Community in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Juli

    2017-01-01

    How do civil servants in district water and sanitation departments address problems of water access in rural communities in Tanzania? What are the bureaucratic procedures they follow? How do the bureaucratic procedures around formulating budgets, managing money, and interacting with communities impede or enhance their ability to manage water projects? This report addresses these and related ...

  10. Cancer Training for Frontline Healthcare Providers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Tara J; Deming, Cassondra M; Helland, Janey R; Hartwig, Kari A

    2017-08-16

    Cervical and breast cancer are responsible for the highest cancer-related mortality in Tanzania, although both are preventable or curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Limited knowledge of cervical cancer by clinic and dispensary level healthcare providers in Tanzania is a barrier for prevention and control strategies. The purpose of the study was to provide basic oncology training to frontline healthcare workers with a focus on cervical and breast cancer in order to increase knowledge. A 1-day cancer training symposium was conducted in Arusha, Tanzania, with 43 clinicians. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed cancer knowledge and confidence of clinicians in risk assessment. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported never receiving any cervical cancer training in the past. A significant difference was found between the pre- and post-test in a majority of knowledge questions and in reported confidence recognizing signs and symptoms of breast and cervical cancer (p < 0.05). The 1-day community oncology training symposium was effective in delivering and increasing basic knowledge about cervical and breast cancers to these healthcare providers. The low level of baseline cancer knowledge among frontline medical providers in Tanzania illustrates the need for increased training around the country.

  11. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 41, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of heavy metal concentration in water around the proposed Mkuju River Uranium Project in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Firmi P. Banzi, Peter K. Msaki, Najat K. Mohammed, 8-18 ...

  12. Country's image as judged by international indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented various international indices and how Tanzania is judged by them. The purpose was to reveal to different stakeholders and policy makers how this country is perceived by outsiders such as foreign donor countries, investors, tourist or international bodies. The methodology involved empirical review of ...

  13. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  14. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 15, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus potential vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Clement N. Mweya, Sharadhuli I. Kimera, Esron D.

  15. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.

  16. Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mosquito survived much better and the scientists had a total of 467 mosquitoes to run the insecticide susceptibility tests. Innovative ways are necessary under field conditions for mosquito breeding in susceptibility studies. Key words: Malaria, Anopheles gambiae complex, larvae, fabric, resistance, susceptibility, Tanzania.

  17. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 19, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased memory phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in children with sickle cell anaemia in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Emmanuel Balandya, Teri Reynolds, Said Aboud, Stephen Obaro, Julie Makani ...

  18. Slaughterhouse survey of Trichinella infections in pigs of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in five regions of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of the nematode in domestic pigs slaughtered for human consumption in the framework of an OIE Twinning project. At least five grams of diaphragm muscle was taken from each sampled carcass. A total of 1,078 adult pigs were ...

  19. Fasihi ya Kiswahili na rushwa Tanzania: Thomas A. R. Kamugisha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala hii inajaribu kuelezea mchango wa fasihi ya Kiswahili katika kuijadili rushwa. Kwa kurejea kwenye Riwaya ya Thomas A.R. Kamugisha Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii inasawilisha miongo takribani mitatu ya dhana ya “kitu kidogo” na athari zake kwa jamii ya Tanzania. Kwa kuijadili riwaya ya Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii ...

  20. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown. C. Comoro, J.

  1. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  2. Hunting and trading bushmeat in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    premiums are paid for particular species this needs to be considered. This paper investigates these issues in the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania, based on one year of market data and interviews with 80 hunters, 169 traders and 67 retailers. Motivations were overwhelmingly commercial and the bushmeat trade...

  3. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...

  4. A new genus of Odontopygid Millipeds from Tanzania (Diplopoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new generic taxon Calyptomastix is proposed to accommodate the type species Odontopyge kakandae Kraus, 1958, and, tentatively, Odontopyge dorsalis Carl, 1909, Haplothysanus leviceps Attems, 1909, and Spirostreptus pardalis Gerstäcker, 1873, all from Tanzania. This genus is defined by the broad basal ...

  5. Tanzania Dental Journal - Vol 15, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of uvulectomy and related complications among children aged below 6 years in Ilemela district, Mwanza, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F Taylor. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tdj.v15i1.48377 ...

  6. Provision of Family Planning Services in Tanzania: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...

  7. Library and information provision for distance learners in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses some of the library and information provision research and evaluation aspects in the distance education context in Tanzania. It explores some current and potential areas that can be considered for research and evaluation by library and information personnel, scholars and researchers. It does so by ...

  8. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  9. The Irrelevance of Financial Statements from Parastatals in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to establish whether financial statements from Tanzania parastatals were availed on time, and if not, whether the delay was significant. Using the Normal Approximation Rule to test for significance in mean time difference, it was found that parastatals delayed in releasing financial statements. The difference ...

  10. Dentistry for the underprivileged | Mosha | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  11. Editorial Fluorides in dentistry | Masalu | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  12. Consent for care in dentistry | Rugarabamu | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  13. Stagnating maternal mortality in Tanzania: what went wrong and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rumishael Shoo

    In particular routine facility data collected as part of the Health Management .... There is established evidence that introduction of even small amounts of user ... A major factor affecting coverage remains the perceived low quality ... Tanzania today faces a challenge of both population outstripping social services such as.

  14. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  15. Forest Reform in Tanzania: A Review of Policy and Legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community participation in forest management has existed in the United Republic of Tanzania for a long time, but on a small scale. It is common to find trees of certain species are being protected and managed for traditional reasons. It has been observed that forests and woodlands that are managed using traditional ...

  16. The dependent character of development planning in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shift, which had more to do with the surge of neoliberalism than domestic conditions, resulted in a simplified and more interactive planning, and lesser dependency on foreign experts than before. While Tanzania experienced rapid economic growth under the new planning regime, this was not without serious trade-offs, ...

  17. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  18. Functioning of the Governance Structure in the Tanzania Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the functioning of tobacco value-chain in Urambo district in Tanzania, focusing mainly on the critical analysis of the value-chain agents and their functions, chain governance and the institutional environment in which the chain operates. It starts by mapping up the chain to have a pictorial representation ...

  19. Tanzania Medical Journal - Vol 26, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying Gaps in Knowledge, Prevalence and Care of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tanzania – a Qualitative Review article · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KP Manji, MN Hogan, 7-17 ...

  20. Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: A Study of Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with reference to the proposed WMAs. Data were ...

  1. Vocational Education and Skills Training in Mainland Tanzania for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of any country Tanzania included depends on availability and effective utilization of human resources, which in turn are predicated on the level, quantity and quality of education, especially vocational and technical education and skills attained through formal and informal education, living and working ...

  2. All projects related to tanzania | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania ... GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation ... Donor organizations increasingly support the idea that civil society ... the growth of private health care as a key element of health sector reform.

  3. National anti-tuberculosis drug resistance study in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, T. M.; Basra, D.; Mfinanga, S. G. M.; Range, N.; Lwilla, F.; Shirima, R. P.; van Deun, A.; Zignol, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Egwaga, S. M.; van Leth, F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a national representative sample of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Tanzania according to recommended methodology. DESIGN: Cluster survey, with 40 clusters sampled proportional to size, of notified TB patients from all

  4. Users' perspectives on decentralized rural water services in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of decentralization reforms on improving access to domestic water supply in the rural districts of Kondoa and Kongwa, Tanzania, using a users' and a gender perspective. The article addresses the question whether and to what extent the delivery of gender-sensitive

  5. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  6. Enhancing mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The study has revealed that the use of a comprehensive, school-based programme, emphasising peer collaboration, can be a promising scenario for professional development of mathematics teachers in Tanzania. Such a comprehensive approach has the potential of supporting teachers with diverse levels of

  7. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 2, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib progenies of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PAL Masawe, EP Cundall, PDS Caligari ...

  8. Effect of Knowledge Sources on Firm Level Innovation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osoro, Otieno; Kahyarara, Godius; Knoben, Joris; Vermeulen, P.A.M.

    In this paper we analyse the impact of different sources of knowledge on product innovation in Tanzania using firm level data from 543 firms. Specifically, we assess the separate impacts of internal knowledge and external knowledge and the combined impact of both on a firm’s likelihood of

  9. Effect of Knowledge Sources on Firm Level Innovation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osoro, O.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, J.; Kahyarara, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of different sources of knowledge on product and process innovation in Tanzania using firm-level data. We specifically analyse the separate impacts of internal knowledge, external knowledge and the combined impact of both types of knowledge on firms’ product and

  10. Pwani Yetu: Issue 4. April 1999.Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership

    1999-01-01

    The Newsletter of the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership - Pwani Yetu - 'our coast', is produced every other month in both Kiswahili and English and circulated to all coastal management partners from national level, coastal communities and the private sector. Pwani Yetu reports on coastal and marine activities, including issues on conservation, environment, and social economic development. 'Research Group' TCMP.

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of cholera risks using Geographical Information System in Ilala District, Tanzania, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BK Mayala, LEG Mboera, F Gwacha, 8-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v5i1.14197 ...

  12. Changamoto Za Mawasiliano Kwa Viziwi Katika Tanzania | Muzale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  13. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 11, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV patients presenting common adverse drug events caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OMS Minzi, H Irunde, C Moshiro. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v11i1.43243 ...

  14. Quality of HIV laboratory testing in Tanzania: a situation analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    December 2004 to February 2005 in 12 laboratories which were conveniently selected to represent all the zones of Tanzania. The questionnaires comprised of questions on laboratory particulars, internal and external quality control for HIV testing and quality control of reagents. Source and level of customer satisfaction of ...

  15. Challenges in the Management of Road Safety in Tanzania: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania is hardest hit by daily accident deaths and casualties on the roads. Although various measures have been taken by the government, enforcement agencies and NGOs, accidents and fatalities keep growing at a rate above that of killer diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. The main causes observed were ...

  16. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 12, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni Municipalities, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Thyroid hormones profile in students of Makerere College of Health Sciences in Kampala Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Community violence in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A mixed methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most homicide deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (DSM) are a result of violence arising from within the community. This type of violence is commonly called, by perpetrators and victims, “mob justice”. Unilateral non-state collective violence can take four forms: lynching, vigilantism, rioting, and terrorism. The purpose of this ...

  18. Taking oral health in Tanzania a step forward | Rugarabamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking oral health in Tanzania a step forward. Paschalis Ntome Rugarabamu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  19. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 3, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of health management information system in disease surveillance in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L.E.G. Mboera, S.F. Rumisha, S.M. Magesa, A.Y. Kitua, 15-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v3i2.14213 ...

  20. Impact of Export Instability on Economic Growth in Tanzania | Kweka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the consequence of export earnings instability on growth in Tanzania. Applying time-series econometric technique on annual data for the period 1968-2008, a long-run relationship between export instability and growth is confirmed to be negative for aggregate exports. However, the relationship is ...

  1. Knowledge and perception on tuberculosis transmission in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems in ... knowledge and perception on the transmission of TB in Tanzania. ... Although all age groups are at risk, the disease mostly affects young ... used to assess the distributional characteristics of the data and as the prerequisite information.

  2. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  3. Stagnating maternal mortality in Tanzania: what went wrong and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper presents and analyses the trend of maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania against major events, policy, economic and political decisions which may have influenced this trend. The impact of several initiatives related to Health Systems Strengthening are discussed and alternative strategies for effective ...

  4. Water use by Eucalypt Clones Growing at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out between April and October 2014 to investigate the amount of water used by Eucalypt clones grown at Kongowe, Tanzania. Sap flow sensors using heat pulse velocity were deployed across GC 167, GC 15 and GC 940 in wet and dry seasons. Data on water use were analysed using sap flow software ...

  5. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 12, No 3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Livestock Keeping in Human Brucellosis Trends in Livestock Keeping Communities in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G. M. Shirima, J. M. Fitzpatrick, J. S. Kunda, G. S. Mfinanga, R. R. Kazwala, D. M. Kambarage, S. C. ...

  6. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania; ... and other stakeholders invested heavily in ... 1a), the other at Kunduchi near .... (features) that were clearly identifiable in both ... determine the intra- and inter-annual trends in ..... sea level (as seen in Google Earth imagery).

  7. How economic empowerment reduces women's reproductive health vulnerability in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westeneng, J.; D'Exelle, B.S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from Northern Tanzania to analyse how economic empowerment helps women reduce their reproductive health (RH) vulnerability. It analyses the effect of women's employment and economic contribution to their household on health care use at three phases in the reproductive cycle:

  8. Dengue data and surveillance in Tanzania: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tara; Samuel, Moody; Maoz, Dorit; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Boyce, Ross; Toledo, Joao; Velayudhan, Raman; Horstick, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    Although there is evidence that dengue virus is circulating in Tanzania, the country lacks a dengue surveillance system. Consequently, the true estimate of dengue seroprevalence, as well as the incidence in the population, the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks is unknown. This study therefore sought to systematically review available dengue data from Tanzania. The systematic review was conducted and reported using the PRISMA tool. Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, WHOLIS and Google Scholar) were searched for articles using various keywords on the illness, data and geographical location. Identified articles were assessed for inclusion based on predefined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted from included articles, analysed and reported. Based on the 10 seroprevalence studies in defined populations with estimates of acute confirmed infections that were included in the review, the estimated seroprevalence of past dengue infection in Tanzania ranged from 50.6% in a health facility-based study to 11% in a population-based study. Acute confirmed infections of dengue were estimated to be as high as 38.2% of suspected cases. Only one study reported on an outbreak. It is evident that dengue needs to become part of regular disease surveillance in Tanzania. Control measures need to be instituted with a focus on building human resource capacity and integrating dengue control measures in ongoing health programmes, for both preventive and curative interventions. Systematic reviews are valuable in assessing health issues when surveillance data are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Tanzania : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ECONOMIC REFORM, ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation. Région: Africa, South of Sahara, Tanzania. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 193,000.00. Ghana, Afrique du Sud et Tanzanie : Stratégies de ...

  10. Tanzania : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ECONOMIC REFORM, ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation. Région: Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 193,000.00. Pauvreté et systèmes de technologie de ...

  11. Editorial | Mshinda | Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During this scientific event more that 23 papers were presented by local researchers from academia and Research and Development (R&D) institutions and 13 papers presented under the Tanzania - South Africa joint research activities. The conference was organized along specific themes of common grounds to suit the ...

  12. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 40, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in the neighborhood of Minjingu phosphate mine, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Leonid L Nkuba, Najat K Mohammed, 51-59 ...

  13. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 14, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural drought analysis for sustainable smallholder maize production in semi-arid areas: a case study of the Lower Moshi Irrigation Scheme, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Patrick Bell, Didas Kimaro, Rattan Lal ...

  14. Petrogenesis of basalt-trachyte lavas from Olmoti Crater, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F.; Swisher, Carl C., III; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    Olmoti Crater is part of the Plio-Pleistocene Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH) in northern Tanzania to the south of Gregory Rift. The Gregory Rift is part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) that stretches some 4000 km from the Read Sea and Gulf of Aden in the north to the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Here, we (1) characterize the chemistry and mineral compositions of lavas from Olmoti Crater, (2) determine the age and duration of Olmoti volcanic activity through 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of Olmoti Crater wall lavas and (3) determine the genesis of Olmoti lavas and the relationship to other NVH and EARS volcanics and (4) their correlation with volcanics in the Olduvai and Laetoli stratigraphic sequences. Olmoti lavas collected from the lower part of the exposed crater wall section (OLS) range from basalt to trachyandesite whereas the upper part of the section (OUS) is trachytic. Petrography and major and trace element data reflect a very low degree partial melt origin for the Olmoti lavas, presumably of peridotite, followed by extensive fractionation. The 87Sr/ 86Sr data overlap whereas Nd and Pb isotope data are distinct between OLS and OUS samples. Interpretation of the isotope data suggests mixing of enriched mantle (EM I) with high-μ-like reservoirs, consistent with the model of Bell and Blenkinsop [Bell, K., Blenkinsop, J., 1987. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of East African carbonatites: implications for mantle heterogeneity. Geology 5, 99-102] for East African carbonatite lavas. The isotope ratios are within the range of values defined by Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB) globally and moderate normalized Tb/Yb ratios (2.3-1.6) in these lavas suggest melting in the lithospheric mantle consistent with other studies in the region. 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental-heating analyses of matrix and anorthoclase separates from Olmoti OLS and OUS lavas indicate that volcanic activity was short in duration, lasting ˜200 kyr from 2.01 ± 0.03 Ma to 1.80 ± 0

  15. Health Libraries and Information Services in Tanzania: A Strategic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Hussein; Mtoroki, Majaliwa; Gerendasy, Dan D; Detlefsen, Ellen G

    The intention of the Government of Tanzania is to establish more health information resource canters in all health facilities. With this regard, health information science personnel are needed to provide adequate and accurate health information services. However, availability of these personnel remains to be a challenge because of their non-existence. To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and user perception of these libraries, as a prerequisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania. A needs assessment was carried out using a convenience sample of local respondents, including librarians, trainers, academicians, students, health care providers, and patients and families, drawn from national, referral, regional, district hospitals, health training institutions, and universities from both government and nongovernment entities in Tanzania. A focus group approach was used to gather data from respondents. Results from this assessment revealed that health science libraries in Tanzania are faced with the challenges of insufficient infrastructure, old technology, limited facilities and furniture, inadequate and incompetent library staff, lack of health sciences librarians, outdated and insufficient resources, and low knowledge and use of information technologies by library clients. Most respondents would prefer to have both physical and electronic libraries, as well as librarians with specialized health information science skills, to cope with changing nature of the medical field. The findings obtained from this assessment are strong enough to guide the development of a curriculum and training strategy and an operational plan and training packages for health information professionals. The development of a training curriculum for health information science professionals will mean better health information service delivery for Tanzania. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of

  16. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  17. Human resources for health care delivery in Tanzania: a multifaceted problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzi Fatuma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in funds for procurement of health commodities in developing countries. A major challenge now is the efficient delivery of commodities and services to improve population health. With this in mind, we documented staffing levels and productivity in peripheral health facilities in southern Tanzania. Method A health facility survey was conducted to collect data on staff employed, their main tasks, availability on the day of the survey, reasons for absenteeism, and experience of supervisory visits from District Health Teams. In-depth interview with health workers was done to explore their perception of work load. A time and motion study of nurses in the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH clinics documented their time use by task. Results We found that only 14% (122/854 of the recommended number of nurses and 20% (90/441 of the clinical staff had been employed at the facilities. Furthermore, 44% of clinical staff was not available on the day of the survey. Various reasons were given for this. Amongst the clinical staff, 38% were absent because of attendance to seminar sessions, 8% because of long-training, 25% were on official travel and 20% were on leave. RCH clinic nurses were present for 7 hours a day, but only worked productively for 57% of time present at facility. Almost two-third of facilities had received less than 3 visits from district health teams during the 6 months preceding the survey. Conclusion This study documented inadequate staffing of health facilities, a high degree of absenteeism, low productivity of the staff who were present and inadequate supervision in peripheral Tanzanian health facilities. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of decentralized health care in Tanzania.

  18. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  19. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  20. Strategies of Successful Poverty Reduction: Case Studies of Tanzania and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Economic Update: Raising the Game , Can Tanzania Eradicate Extreme Poverty? The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Africa Region. No...poverty threshold were exceptionally modest and based on the minimum caloric requirement, which excludes meat and fish.259 The Zambian government...Tanzania Economic Update: Raising the Game , Can Tanzania Eradicate Extreme Poverty? The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Africa

  1. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2001-01-01

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  2. Vaginal practices among women at high risk of HIV infection in Uganda and Tanzania: recorded behaviour from a daily pictorial diary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravaginal practices (IVP are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African and have been implicated as risk factors for HIV acquisition. However, types of IVP vary between populations, and detailed information on IVP among women at risk for HIV in different populations is needed. We investigated IVP among women who practice transactional sex in two populations: semi-urban, facility workers in Tanzania who engage in opportunistic sex work; and urban, self-identified sex workers and bar workers in Uganda. The aim of the study was to describe and compare IVP using a daily pictorial diary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred women were recruited from a HIV prevention intervention feasibility study in Kampala, Uganda and in North-West Tanzania. Women were given diaries to record IVP daily for six weeks. Baseline data showed that Ugandan participants had more lifetime partners and transactional sex than Tanzanian participants. Results from the diary showed that 96% of Tanzanian participants and 100% of Ugandan participants reported intravaginal cleansing during the six week study period. The most common types of cleansing were with water only or water and soap. In both countries, intravaginal insertion (e.g. with herbs was less common than cleansing, but insertion was practiced by more participants in Uganda (46% than in Tanzania (10%. In Uganda, participants also reported more frequent sex, and more insertion related to sex. In both populations, cleansing was more often reported on days with reported sex and during menstruation, and in Uganda, when participants experienced vaginal discomfort. Participants were more likely to cleanse after sex if they reported no condom use. CONCLUSIONS: While intravaginal cleansing was commonly practiced in both cohorts, there was higher frequency of cleansing and insertion in Uganda. Differences in IVP were likely to reflect differences in sexual behaviour between populations, and may warrant

  3. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  4. The current state of wind energy development in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainkwa, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wind Energy is one of the renewable power sources that is currently used in a commercial scale for various end-uses such as pumping water deep wells and electricity generation. A precise knowledge of wind speed characteristics is an essential for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. In Tanzania the use of wind energy in generating electricity has not yet taken place due to lack of knowledge on prospective sites with high wind energy potential. The main objective of this paper is to review some attempts that have been made to explore the wind energy potential in Tanzania and the corresponding prospective sites that have been earmarked so far. (author)

  5. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  6. ICT based training on nuclear technology applications in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mdoe, S.L. [Nuclear Technology Applications Directorate, Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha (Tanzania)]. E-mail: slcmdoe@yahoo.com; Kimaro, E. [Nuclear Technology Applications Directorate, Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha (Tanzania)]. E-mail: taec@habari.co.tz

    2006-07-01

    Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)

  7. Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment and REDD+: Learning from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusaga Mukama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM. Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon stock changes through conventional forest inventories, something which is rarely done in PFM forests due to its high cost and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to discuss experiences of Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment (PFCA in Tanzania. The study revealed that villagers who participated in PFCA were able to perform most steps for carbon assessment in the field. A key challenge in future is how to finance PFCA and ensure the technical capacity at local level.

  8. ICT based training on nuclear technology applications in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mdoe, S.L.; Kimaro, E.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)

  9. Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Blaise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. The present study assessed PfATPase6 mutations (S769N and A623E in 615 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections in Tanzania but no mutant genotype was detected. This observation suggests that resistance to artemisinin has not yet been selected in Tanzania, supporting the Ministry of Health's decision to adopt artemether+lumefantrine as first-line malaria treatment. The findings recommend further studies to assess PfATPase6 mutations in sentinel sites and verify their usefulness in monitoring emergency of ACT resistance.

  10. An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojoyi, MM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania Mercy M. Ojoyi School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa... of feedback results from analysis of variance tests conducted. Major indicators of climate variability and change include: increased dry spells (39.7 per cent), drying of rivers (34.7 per cent), a reduction in water flows (14.6 per cent) and poor economy...

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:29666656

  12. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kilonzo, Semvua B.; Gunda, Daniel W.; Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatm...

  13. Mobile Phone Use in Two Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew; Galloway, David; Mollel, Andrew; Mgoma, Sylvester; Pima, Madeleke; Deogratias, Enos

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone technology in Tanzania has grown rapidly but there is insufficient data on its application in schools. This paper aims to show how students in the first and third year (F1 and F3) teachers in two rural secondary schools perceived its use. F1 and F3 students completed a questionnaire. Teachers and students in F1 and F3 discussed the…

  14. Temperature Changes, Household Consumption and Internal Migration: Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalle Hirvonen

    2015-01-01

    Large rural-urban wage gaps observed in many developing countries are suggestive of barriers to migration that keep potential migrants in the rural areas. Using long panel data spanning nearly two decades, I study the extent to which migration rates are constrained by liquidity constraints in rural Tanzania. The analysis begins by quantifying the impact of weather variation on household welfare. The results show how household consumption co-moves with temperature rendering households vulnerab...

  15. Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited as a Mobile Service Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Ndyamukama, Edna

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was researched and written under the consent and authority of Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited (TTCL), with the purpose to find out ways of improving sales and profits of its mobile service department. The mobile service department of TTCL is performing poorly as compared to its competitors despite being managed by a strategically positioned and experienced company in tele-communication services. It was also meant to find out the positive contribution of compe...

  16. WHAT CAN TANZANIA'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM LEARN FROM OECD COUNTRIES?

    OpenAIRE

    Kajuna, Dezidery Theobard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Healthcare systems around the world have different shapes that are largely affected by socio-economic and political situations of a particular country. It is essential for the population to have better health services which requires the country to have better health policies, enough funding for health care sector, and a well structured delivery system. Tanzania like any other developing countries continue to face different challenges in healthcare sector greatly influenced by poor ec...

  17. Women, donors and land administration: The Tanzania case

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk; Haule, Scholastica

    2013-01-01

    Tanzania's land reform from 1999 has been evaluated as among the most gender-sensitive of its kind in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is a gap between the legal framework and what is happening on the ground. This working paper analyses the challenges related to the protection of women's rights to land in rural areas. It provides detailed information on reform implementation experiences so far by analysing a number of government and NGO interventions. It furthermore discusses the ambiguous ...

  18. An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojoyi, MM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available region of Tanzania. Climate change is a vital issue of global concern. Design/methodology/approach - Rain fall data trends collected from different meteorological stations in the region were useful in assessment of climate variability and change... also did not take into consideration institutional arrangements required to successfully implement national adaptation programmes to climate change. Finally, it is important to remember that peoples’ perceptions determine the social mental picture...

  19. Editorial Fluorides in dentistry | Masalu | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 12(1) 2005: iv-v. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tdj.v12i1.37551 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  20. Tanzania. A developing mining country; Tansania. Bergbauland im Aufbruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Wirtschaftsgeologie der mineralischen Rohstoffe

    2009-03-19

    Tanzania is the rising country in East Africa, to which not least of all the booming mining sector contributes. Many large gold mines, two precious stone mines, three cement works and smaller facilities for extraction of salt, phosphates, gypsum, pozzolana, coal and coloured gemstones currently characterise the mining sector. The high mineral potential of the country combined with the mining legislation favouring investment will also lead in future to the development of further deposits in particular, nickel, gold, coal and graphite. (orig.)

  1. Development and Climate Change in Tanzania. Focus on Mount Kilimanjaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Van Aalst, M.; Smith, J.; Hitz, S.; Hemp, A.; Meena, H.; Mwakifwamba, S.M.; Hyera, T.; Mwaipopo, O.U.

    2003-01-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Tanzania are assessed, and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios in Tanzania are analyzed to examine the proportion of donor activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for climate change impacts and response strategies for Mount Kilimanjaro - a critical ecosystem, biodiversity hotspot, and source of freshwater. This part of the analysis draws upon extended field research by a case study consultant in collaboration with national and international partners

  2. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV......The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants...... were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV...

  3. Protecting the rights of people with HIV. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temba, P

    1997-04-01

    In Tanzania, preliminary efforts are underway to protect the human rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Tanzania, which has been criticized for failing to recognize human rights abuses against people with HIV/AIDS, is the 15th country in sub-Saharan Africa to establish a regional network of physicians, lawyers, and nongovernmental organizations seeking to protect the rights of people with HIV/AIDS and those vulnerable to the infection with appropriate legislation and policies. Discrimination, which hastens spread of the disease by forcing it underground, is found even among medical personnel who disclose patient information without consent or refuse to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. Certain laws also compromise the rights of infected people by requiring physicians to tender medical reports before the courts, permitting employers to force employees to undergo HIV testing, or requiring rape victims to provide an excessive burden of proof. Participants at a recent workshop recommended a review of national AIDS policy and changes in the law. A computer database will be used to track HIV/AIDS-related human rights abuses in Tanzania.

  4. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...

  5. Albinism, stigma, subjectivity and global-local discourses in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocco, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    Societal ideas and explanations of albinism at the local level in Tanzania are conceived in terms of family history, social relations, economic status, moral-religious positions, global-local flows of information and humanitarian actions on behalf of people with the congenital condition. This paper aims to show how the subjectivities of people with albinism in Tanzania are shaped and re-shaped through local moral conceptions as well as globalizing (bio)medical explanations of albinism. An exemplary case study of a 28-year-old woman, plus episodes from the lives of seven other informants with the condition, are analyzed in order to understand, on the one hand, local social relationships between people with albinism and other individuals in family and community settings, and on the other hand, the interconnections between persons with albinism and global humanitarian actors and the broadcast media. When stigma and marginalizing behaviors are perceived by individuals with albinism in Tanzania as impeding their social lives, they employ different coping strategies and discourses to enhance social acceptance.

  6. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue.

  7. Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation in Tanzania: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urio, Elisaphinate Moses; Jeje, Benedict; Ndossi, Godwin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition among children under the age of five continues to be a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Despite numerous nutritional interventions that have been implemented, the country still experiences high rates of malnutrition. According to Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey of 2010 the prevalence of underweight was estimated to be 16%, wasting 5% and stunting 42 %. Factors contributing to causes of malnutrition include immediate, underlying and basic causes. All these factors are interlinked and operate synergistically and not independently. Approaches for managing malnourished children in Tanzania evolved from facility based Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NURU) in the late 1960s to Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation (CBNR) in late 1980s. In the latter approach, malnourished children are rehabilitated in the same environment (village, home) that precipitated the condition, using resources and infrastructures available in the community. Mothers are taught about child feeding using family foods to make good food mixtures and of the importance of feeding frequency for the young child. Limitations for this approach include inadequate advocacy to leaders from districts down to the community level, few trained health providers and community health workers on knowledge and skills on community based nutrition rehabilitation, inadequate equipment and supplies for identification and categorization of malnutrition, low awareness of parents, care givers and community leaders on home rehabilitation of malnourished children. Nonetheless, Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation approach has the potential to address malnutrition in children given political will and resources. (author)

  8. Popular soap opera helps raise contraceptive use. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The latest Demographic and Health Surveys Report on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice documents an increase in the level of use of modern contraceptive methods in Tanzania between 1991 and 1994 from 5.9% to 11.3% of reproductive-age women. 53.2% of all women of reproductive age were exposed to mass media messages about family planning, which large majorities of men and women consider acceptable. 48.3% were exposed through radio, 22.9% reported listening to the US Agency for International Development-funded family planning promotional radio soap opera "Zinduka]", 22.5% read newspaper items, 17.5% saw posters, and 7.3% saw leaflets. 4.5% were visited by a family planning worker, 24.7% discussed family planning with a friend or relative, and 24.7% discussed family planning with health facility personnel. Zinduka], a popular 52-episode soap opera, depicts how the lives of Bomu wa Kabuma's family, in Msongano Town and Tawanya village in Tanzania, are affected because he is unable to provide for his eight children, parents, wife, mistress, and the mistress's child. The soap was produced with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Population Communication Services project. The 15-minute episodes were first broadcast in Swahili on Radio Tanzania from October 1993 through October 1994. The series was then resumed in September 1995 for another 12 months.

  9. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  10. Assessment of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Delivery in Primary Schools in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushahu, Bernadetha Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and the Life Skills Education delivery in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically the study investigated pupils' views about the effect of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills teaching in primary schools in Tanzania; assessed pupils' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS and Life Skills education, and…

  11. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. 1, May 2007 Oral health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    *Part of this work was presented at the Tanzania Dental Association, 19th Scientific and Annual General Meeting, 22nd. –24th September 2004, Golden Tulip Hotel, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. ... data on oral health behavior for children and adults ... were randomly selected and among them, sorted the ... to WHO criteria (13).

  12. Instructor Support Services: An Inevitable Critical Success Factor in Blended Learning in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of blended learning to widen access, reduce cost, and improve the quality of education is becoming prevalent in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. University of Dar es Salaam and the Open University of Tanzania offer various blended learning courses using Moodle system via regional centres scattered…

  13. Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Children at Risk for Growth Impairment in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...

  14. July 16th, 2013 Dr. Leonard EG Mboera, Tanzania Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    windowsxp

    2013-07-16

    Jul 16, 2013 ... Accidents: Morbidity and Associated Factors in a city of Northeast of Brazil” for review by the. Editorial Board of the Tanzania Journal of Health Research. ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research in the event that such work is published. The undersigned authors declare that they have no proprietary, financial ...

  15. Early Child Development and Care in Tanzania: Challenges for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

    2009-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…

  16. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  17. Managing the double burden: Effects of pregnancy on labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women in rural areas of developing countries. However, physical exertion may result in poor health outcomes for mother and infant if continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the last week on: 1) housework, 2) care giving, 3) agricultural work, and 4) self-employed or non-agricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed effects approach is adopted to overcome potential time invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With a few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time use patterns between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting, and may have implications for both women’s livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods. PMID:24323660

  18. Managing the double burden: pregnancy and labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2013-12-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women living in rural areas of developing countries. The physical exertion involved in such work may result in poor health outcomes for mothers and infants when continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico, and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time-use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the past week on: (1) housework, (2) caregiving, (3) agricultural work, and (4) self-employment or nonagricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed-effects approach is adopted to overcome the potential time-invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time-use patterns between pregnant and nonpregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor-intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting and may have implications for both women's livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  19. Wood fuel use in Tanzania rural-based industries. Brick kiln studies in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwele, P.M.; Mbise, H.A.; Mwihava, N.C.X.; Svenningsson, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    About 90% of the annual total energy consumed in Tanzania is biomass-based, mainly in the form of wood fuel. Small-scale brick-making is one of the major consumers of wood fuel, with Arusha, Iringa and Mbeya being the main areas where brick-making activities take place. In 1993, the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) proposed a project to undertake studies on fuelwood in small rural industries of Tanzania, particularly brick-making. The study on wood fuel utilisation involved field measurements and analyses with the aim of establishing major sources of energy losses and to recommend measures regarding fuel switching, kiln thermal efficiency improvements, and the yield and quality of bricks. The positive feedback would mean reduced demand for fuelwood and hence reduced deforestation rate and therefore environmental protection. The implementation of the project, which commenced in 1994, involved field measurements in order to establish kiln performances as well as laboratory tests to determine the qualities of the fired bricks. At a later stage of implementation, efforts were made to consider other potential fuels (sawdust and coal) for firing the kilns. The main indicators of kiln performance include thermal efficiency, specific energy consumption (SEC), which is sometimes referred to as specific fuel consumption (SFC; yield; and quality. The average SEC for Mbeya region was found to vary from 1.11 to 1.54 while for Iringa region the range was from 1.21 to 1.84 MJ/kg fired brick. The data for Arusha was in the range of 0.76 to 3.3 MJ/kg of fired brick. The low SEC may not necessarily give a reasonable indication of the kiln performance because kiln operators in Mbeya mould larger size bricks which are unloaded from incomplete firing conditions. The fired bricks at Babati (Arusha), though of work-size, are of low quality and consume very little wood fuel. Findings obtained under the SADC project four

  20. The malagarasi river does not form an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movement in Western Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Piel

    Full Text Available The Malagarasi River has long been thought to be a barrier to chimpanzee movements in western Tanzania. This potential geographic boundary could affect chimpanzee ranging behavior, population connectivity and pathogen transmission, and thus has implications for conservation strategies and government policy. Indeed, based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons it was recently argued that chimpanzees from communities to the north and to the south of the Malagarasi are surprisingly distantly related, suggesting that the river prevents gene flow. To investigate this, we conducted a survey along the Malagarasi River. We found a ford comprised of rocks that researchers could cross on foot. On a trail leading to this ford, we collected 13 fresh fecal samples containing chimpanzee DNA, two of which tested positive for SIVcpz. We also found chimpanzee feces within the riverbed. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the Malagarasi River is not an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movements and communities from the areas to the north and south should be considered a single population. These results have important consequences for our understanding of gene flow, disease dynamics and conservation management.

  1. Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in the Issa valley, Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Warren, Katarina; Sommer, Volker; Piel, Alex K; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Issa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1-16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants. The exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Specialised Sweetpotato Vine Multiplication in Lake Zone, Tanzania: What “Sticks” and What Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan Margaret A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Lake Zone, Tanzania, farmers were trained to multiply and distribute quality sweetpotato planting material. The objectives of this study were to assess changes in skills and practices among the trained farmers as vine multiplication became a specialized task. Nine months after the project ended, all 88 decentralized vine multipliers (DVMs operating as groups (72% or individuals (28% were visited and qualitative data on their current multiplication practices collected through a questionnaire, checklists and observations. Results showed that 69% of DVMs were still multiplying vines, but less than half were using the seed production technologies promoted by the project. 34% used rapid multiplication beds; 61% used conventional plant spacing on ridges for roots and vines and 5% used both. As the vine multiplication cycle became a specialised activity, the multiplication and root production cycles were separated. Vines were treated differently in terms of site selection, length of cutting and spacing, depending on whether the objective of their use was for high root or high vine production. Capacity building of specialised vine multipliers and scaling-up seed interventions should consider the implications of skilling and task segregation in a broader context based on society’s choice of technologies and agrarian change.

  3. Giving Adolescents a Voice? Using Videos to Represent Reproductive Health Realities of Adolescents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Dorothee Pfeiffer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual research forms part of a growing field in participatory research. Lately new discussions among scientists evolved about conceptual considerations and methodological approaches related to the use of visual participatory methods. The following article presents a reflection on a participatory video project with adolescents aged 15 to 19 in Tanzania from the perspective of the adult researcher. On the one hand the project aimed at gaining visual insights into adolescents' realities related to teenage pregnancy. On the other hand, the young filmmakers were empowered to share their experiences and to use the film clips in order to reach policy makers and practitioners. While the use of an adolescent participatory video approach has great potential to represent different realities and to reach policy makers and practitioners in an appealing way, its drawbacks must also be considered. The methodological implications of this highlight the need to reflect about multiple subjectivities and related courses of action of all actors involved on various levels within society. It is argued that symbolic representations have the potential to create knowledge not only for policy and practice but also for science—as long as the research process, personal background, relationships and actions among involved actors, the socio-cultural context and related power dynamics are presented and unfolded in the final outcome of the visual participatory research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303189

  4. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Potential profitability of pearl culture in coastal communities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Climatic Variation in Coastal Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohli, R. V.; Ates, S.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Polito, M. J.; Midway, S. R.; Gold, A.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Uchida, E.; Suwa, M.; Mangora, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic controls are particularly important to the natural and human systems in coastal Tanzania, where mangrove vegetation is a major component of world-renowned biodiversity. This research provides an improved understanding of the climatic features and forcing mechanisms that support the critical mangroves of Tanzania and the livelihoods of its populace, using updated and complete datasets. Updated data confirm that coastal Tanzania falls in the tropical wet-dry Köppen-Geiger climatic type, except for the extreme north, where tropical rain forest exists north of Pangani. The northeast monsoon, known as the kaskazi, largely corresponds to the rainy November-December and March-May months. The southeast monsoon - known as the kusi - overlaps with the drier June-September. Results suggest that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are key modulators of precipitation variability in the entire area. More specifically, September-November positive precipitation anomalies occur during positive IOD, especially when combined with El Niño, with slightly negative anomalies during negative IOD, especially when combined with La Niña. The rest of the year tends to show similar precipitation during both IOD phases (March-August) or less precipitation during the positive phase (December-February). Because the literature suggests likelihood of more frequent positive IOD mode and a strengthened relationship of these events to warm-ENSO events, changes to the hydrologic cycle in east Africa may be likely in the future, with a potential for an expanded secondary rainy season and a drier "saddle" between the secondary and primary rainy seasons (i.e., December-February). Therefore, future research should investigate in more detail the influence of the IOD and ENSO on various components of the climatic water balance. Results may be useful to earth, environmental, and social scientists as they seek further understanding of the drivers of ecological and

  7. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus

    2016-01-01

    was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...

  8. Socio-Economic Determinants of Blood Donation in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest L. Mramba; Ismail J. Ismail

    2018-01-01

    The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health in...

  9. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  10. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua B. Kilonzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  11. Tourism Taxation, Politics and Territorialisation in Tanzania's Wildlife Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Sulle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities occurring on communal lands such as Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs are increasing in Tanzania. This is the result of natural resources governance reforms aimed to empower communities to manage and benefit directly from resources found in their jurisdictions. This article explores the impacts of taxes imposed on tourism activities occurring on communal lands and the emerging politics of resource and revenue sharing among WMA member villages. In the process, we use empirical data gathered from two WMAs in northern Tanzania between 2006 and 2016. We find that while the current high tax rates on tourism businesses occurring at the grassroots level reduce revenue earned by communities, the main challenge facing the studied WMAs is the model of revenue sharing among WMA member villages. Currently, as the result of WMA regulations, villages which had prior arrangement with tour operators in their land have suffered revenue losses as they have to share revenue equally with other members of the WMA. We argue that the current tax regime coupled with the contested cost and benefit sharing model not only lower returns to grassroots communities--which in turn discourage their much needed participation in conservation-tourism initiatives--but also generate new forms of struggles over resource control.

  12. Determinants of Secondary School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Jackson Nyamubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ job satisfaction in Tanzania. It addressed one research question: what factors determine secondary school teachers’ job satisfaction? The study was conducted in eight secondary schools in two regions of Tanzania. It used focus group discussion as the data collection tool. Results show that teachers were satisfied by both monetary and nonmonetary incentives such as community support. They were pleased with fair remuneration packages that related to their labour input, opportunities for career development, a well-defined individual appraisal system, timely promotion, and requisite workplace conditions. The study also showed that teachers’ friendship and cooperation with coworkers and students as well as the respect of community members also enhanced their satisfaction in teaching. Also important to their satisfaction is their students’ success in and after school, which reveals the teachers’ sense of duty and responsibility. Teachers’ job dissatisfaction can lead to their search for other means to gain economically. It is recommended that care should be given to address teachers’ pertinent issues, especially salaries, workplace conditions, and timely promotion, to enhance teachers’ physical and mental attachment to their workplaces.

  13. The Twin Deficits Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manamba Epaphra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.

  14. Individual Local Farmers’ Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Röschel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and environmental changes are expected to affect in particular those regions where the economy is primarily based on the agricultural sector and where the dependency on water availability is high. This study examines how smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania perceived climatic and environmental changes over the past 20 years and the resulting effects on water availability and food security. The study is based on a household survey of 899 farmers in a semi-arid and a sub-humid region in Tanzania. It was found that (a significant differences in perceptions of the environment by farmers can be attributed to agro-climatic location, while the distance to a water source has less impact on individual perception; (b differently perceived changes affect individual water availability and food security; and (c the farm level adaptation methods applied are linked to vulnerability to changes and the household dependence on the immediate environment. The authors conclude that the specific environmental surroundings paired with socio-economic factors can severely compound the negative effects of water scarcity on rural farmers.

  15. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Some policy aspects of energy development in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M J [Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals and Univ. of Dar es Salaam (TZ)

    1991-01-01

    Tanzania's energy policy goals must reconcile the need to ensure continuity and security of oil supplies on one hand and the need to reduce the burden on the economy of imports of petroleum on the other. Petroleum imports account for 40% of the value of the country's export earnings, having risen from 5% in 1964. Therefore, the national energy policy goals, must have the immediate task of overcoming problems caused by this total dependence on imported petroleum. Another immediate goal of the national energy policy should be the minimisation of biomass energy use in order to reduce deforestation and its ecological and social consequences. Although not articulated in a concise form, the development of the energy sector in Tanzania over the last two decades has followed a consistent pattern based on the following principles: the need to exploit the abundant hydroelectric energy sources; the need to develop and utilise other indigenous energy sources such as coal and natural gas; the need to step up petroleum exploration activities; the need to arrest the depletion of wood through the evolution of more appropriate land management practices, wood plantation and woodlot development and use of more efficient woodfuel technologies; the need to minimise energy price fluctuations through strengthening and rationalisation of energy supply sources and infrastructure and a rational energy pricing structure; the need to develop the human resource potential; and the need to develop an indigenous capacity for research and development in energy systems technologies.

  17. Increasing the availability and quality of caesarean section in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamtema, A; Mwakatundu, N; Dominico, S; Mohamed, H; Shayo, A; Rumanyika, R; Kairuki, C; Nzabuhakwa, C; Issa, O; Lyimo, C; Kasiga, I; van Roosmalen, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the results of increasing availability and quality of caesarean deliveries and anaesthesia in rural Tanzania. Before-after intervention study design. Rural Tanzania. Ten health centres located in rural areas were upgraded to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) and the four related district hospitals were supported. Upgrading entailed constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operation rooms and laboratories; installing solar systems, backup generators and water supply systems. Associate clinicians were trained in anaesthesia and in CEmOC. Mentoring and audit of reasons for caesarean section (CS) and maternal deaths were carried out. Measures of interest were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests. Trends in CS rates, proportion of unjustified CS, use of spinal anaesthesia, and the risk of death from complications related to CS and anaesthesia. During the audit period (2012-2014), 5868 of 58 751 deliveries were by CS (10%). The proportion of CS considered to be unjustified decreased from 30 to 17% in health centres (P = 0.02) and from 37 to 20% in hospitals (P availability and quality of CS by improving infrastructure, training and audit of reasons for CS is feasible, acceptable and required in low resource settings. Increasing availability and quality of CS in rural Africa is feasible. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Leptospirosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.

    2011-01-01

    We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ≥ 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ≥ 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ≥ 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ≥ 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847

  19. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  20. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Determinants of Leather and Leather products Exports in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lwesya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of Leather and Leather products Exports in Tanzania. We apply Ordinary Least Square (OLS analysis on time series data from 1980 to 2015. The findings show that export of raw hides and skins, and high costs of production are among the deterring factors to leather and leather products export in Tanzania. Export of raw hides and skins and costs of production recorded negative and significant relationship with leather exports. On the other hand, hides and skins collection recorded insignificant relationship while leather price in the world market had negative and significant relationship with leather exports. This suggests that other factors such as low quality of leather and leather products exported, inadequate capital investment, stiff competition with foreign companies for hides and skins and inadequate market information explain the state of current Tanzania’s leather exports. Thus, attracting local and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the leather subsector by providing friendly investment climate and addressing the supply side constraints will enable increased high quality leather and leather products diversification and exports

  2. AIDSCAP initiative. Innovation in NGO capacity building: Tanzania AIDS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadian, M J

    1998-01-01

    Tanzania has since the mid-1980s experienced some of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world, with data now showing the mean levels of HIV seroprevalence nationwide to be greater than 13%, and even higher than 30% in some districts. By 2000, as many as 2.4 million Tanzanians will be infected with HIV and more than 850,000 Tanzanian children will be orphaned by the epidemic. The Tanzania AIDS Project (TAP), funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), was implemented through the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project by Family Health International (FHI) during 1993-97. TAP will receive support throughout 1998 through a cooperative agreement between USAID and FHI. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) representatives meet on a regular basis in Dar es Salaam and in 8 other regions of the country to plan and coordinate the major aspects of TAP's HIV/AIDS prevention activities in each area. The author describes the evolution of the idea to bring NGOs together into geographic clusters, the diversity of talents enjoyed from using the cluster concept, building institutional capacity, the challenges facing TAP's 9 clusters, and working with traditional communities.

  3. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  4. Demographic Shifts and ‘Rural’ Urbanization in Tanzania during the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    Since the late 1990s, Tanzania has experienced remarkable economic progress. Yet, overall societal benefits have been limited, in particular as to challenging persistent poverty. To counter this shortfall, support for urbanization has been identified as one of three major policy shifts needed...... in Tanzania. In this paper we will take a critical look at trends in demographic shifts in Tanzania with a particular focus on how to identify processes of urban growth, urbanization and internal migration. In this respect we draw on existing analyses of urbanization produced in the context of the 2009 World...... Bank report and supplement these with critical examinations of recent household and panel survey data. From these readings we look for a generic portrait of urban growth dynamics in Tanzania during the 2000s. This leads us to an exploration of one of the particular changes in urbanization...

  5. Potentials and limitations of bio-fuel production in Tanzania | Silayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation ... could invite several ecological, socioeconomic, technical, and land insecurity problems. ... to food crops, overuse of water resources, and threaten biodiversity and environmental quality.

  6. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop
    contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production,
    growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens

    The

  7. Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania - Vol 11 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on Risk Factors for Malaria in Rufiji District, Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila, S Magesa, S Abdulla, 1-12 ...

  8. Stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyimo, R.A.; Stutterheim, S.E.; Hospers, H.J.; de Glee, T.; van der Ven, A.; de Bruin, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a proposed theoretical model examining the interrelationships between stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among 158 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in northern Tanzania. Perceived and self-stigma, voluntary and involuntary disclosure,

  9. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation - Vol 79, No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion and sediment yield from the degraded Mzinga River Catchment in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MK Mulengera, LLL Lulandala, SMS Maliondo, 47-57 ...

  10. Prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for scaling-up malaria chemoprevention in pregnancy in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To describe the prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Tanzania in light of national antenatal care (ANC) guidelines and ability of service providers to comply with them....

  11. A "one health" approach to address emerging zoonoses: the HALI project in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonna A K Mazet; Deana L Clifford; Peter B Coppolillo; Anil B Deolalikar; Jon D Erickson; Rudovick R Kazwala

    2009-01-01

    Jonna Mazet and colleagues describe their work in the Tanzania-based HALI Project, which adopts the ?One Health? approach to address emerging zoonoses and that recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health.

  12. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, Timothy M.; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M.; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. METHODS:

  13. Motivation Of Health Care Workers In Tanzania: A Case Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation Of Health Care Workers In Tanzania: A Case Study Of Muhimbili National Hospital. ... workers were female. ... between workers and management, lack of participation in decision-making processes, and a general lack of concern for ...

  14. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  15. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. 1, May 2007 In vitro efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2007-05-30

    May 30, 2007 ... Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. ... 2 Centre for Stomatological Research, School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. ..... Interestingly, clinical trials .... International Organization for Standardization,.

  16. Narrowing Maize Yield Gaps Under Rain-fed conditions in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The wide gap between potential and actual yields of maize in Tanzania, due low productivity is the major constraint to ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research ... for determining maize grain yield followed by water.

  17. Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania - Vol 23, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SMM Sabai, JJ Lichtenberg, ELC Egmond, M. V. M Florea, HJH Brouwers, 1-19 ...

  18. An assessment of open source promotion in addressing ICT acceptance challenges in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available challenges. This study is an assessment of such OS promotion efforts in addressing ICT acceptance challenges in Tanzania specifically. The research design includes case studies done on four OS communities using document analysis, a questionnaire, interviews...

  19. Historical Perspective and Risk of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases in Coastal Tanzania: Compositional and Contextual Determinants of Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Quansah, Reginald; Luginaah, Isaac; Chuenpagdee, Ratana; Hambati, Herbert; Campbell, Gwyn

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania. We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual) factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural) factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks. NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national) levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing the imperative of multi

  20. Historical Perspective and Risk of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases in Coastal Tanzania: Compositional and Contextual Determinants of Disease Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania.We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks.NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing the imperative of multi

  1. Introducing payment for performance in the health sector of Tanzania- the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhutu, Victor; Tjomsland, Marit; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Moland, Karen Marie

    2015-09-02

    Prompted by the need to achieve progress in health outcomes, payment for performance (P4P) schemes are becoming popular policy options in the health systems in many low income countries. This paper describes the policy process behind the introduction of a payment for performance scheme in the health sector of Tanzania illuminating in particular the interests of and roles played by the Government of Norway, the Government of Tanzania and the other development partners. The study employed a qualitative research design using in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations and document reviews. Thirteen IDIs with key-informants representing the views of ten donor agencies and government departments influential in the process of introducing the P4P scheme in Tanzania were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Oslo, Norway. Data was collected on the main trends and thematic priorities in development aid policy, countries and actors perceived to be proponents and opponents to the P4P scheme, and P4P agenda setting in Tanzania. The initial introduction of P4P in the health sector of Tanzania was controversial. The actors involved including the bilateral donors in the Health Basket Fund, the World Bank, the Tanzanian Government and high level politicians outside the Health Basket Fund fought for their values and interests and formed alliances that shifted in the course of the process. The process was characterized by high political pressure, conflicts, changing alliances, and, as it evolved, consensus building. The P4P policy process was highly political with external actors playing a significant role in influencing the agenda in Tanzania, leaving less space for the Government of Tanzania to provide leadership in the process. Norway in particular, took a leading role in setting the agenda. The process of introducing P4P became long and frustrating causing mistrust among partners in the Health Basket Fund.

  2. Production and Marketing of Orange in Two Villages in Muheza District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    MHANDO, David Gongwe; IKENO, Jun

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the current situation and challenges in orange production and marketing in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania. Tanga Region is a major orange production area in Tanzania, and it is estimated that more than 80% of all oranges in Tanga Region are produced in Muheza District. Utilizing field data collected in Mkuzi and Mindu villages in Muheza District, this paper explores the current situation of orange production and marketing. Orange production makes a substantial con...

  3. Judicial Reform and Commercial Justice : The Experience of Tanzania's Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, David Louis

    2004-01-01

    Policymakers in developing and transition economies recognize the important role played by judiciaries in creating an institutional environment conducive to robust private sector activity. In the case of Tanzania, the government, with the support of local business groups, international investors, and the donor community, created a specialized court dedicated to considering and resolving commercial and financial cases. The Commercial Division of the High Court of Tanzania (the "Commercial Cour...

  4. Do co-operative organisations contribute to a process of democratisation? : the case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Liv

    1998-01-01

    Do co-operative organisations contribute to a process of democratisation? The Case of Tanzania May co-operative organisations be said to perform a role of any importance in processes of democratisation? The objective of my thesis is to answer this question theoretically and to illustrate with the case of Tanzania. It can thus be formulated in two parts; one theoretical and one empirical; May co-operative organisations contribute to a process of democratisation? Do co-operative organi...

  5. Currency Demand, the Subterranean Economy and Tax Evasion: The Case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    EPAPHRA, Manamba; JILENGA, Moga Tano

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This paper estimates the magnitude of, and changes to the subterranean economy in Tanzania, as well as its adverse effect on tax revenue during the 1966-2015 period. To achieve this objective, the paper applies currency -ratio due to Gutmann and the traditional currency-demand approach à la Tanzi. Despite their differences, both approaches suggest the existence of a substantial size of the subterranean economy in Tanzania. This persistent large size of the subterranean economy is an...

  6. Analysis of the Value Chain for Biogas in Tanzania Northern Zone (Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagabona, N.T.

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Tanzania. The research included assessment of processes and activities carried out by the players, the influencers and business supporters of the biogas value chain. The methodology used is holistic, combining literature review with focus group discussions and interviews with actors and observations of processes across the value chain in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions, where biogas has the longest history in Tanzania.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Some Experience with Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngaile, J.E.; Banzi, F.P.; Kifanga, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (orphan sources or disuse sources) is of global concern. Reports on the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) indicates increasing trend of incidents recorded in more than 40 countries on six continents[1]. It is suspected that nuclear trafficking is fueled by nuclear terrorism and is a threat for increasing illegal trade in nuclear and radioactive materials to manufacture Radiological Disposal Devices (RDD)- dirty bombs. As such, the international co-operative efforts are needed to uncover and combat nuclear trafficking in order to minimize its consequences such as external radiation exposure of persons from source to various radiation levels during illicit movement and after seizure; rupture of source leading to internal exposure of persons and environmental contamination. Although accidents with radioactive materials have not occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), incidents of illicit trafficking and unauthorized possession of radioactive materials has occurred thus prompting the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) to strengthen its nuclear security of nuclear and radioactive material in the URT. Nuclear faclities and radioactive sources lacks adequate physical protection against theft, fire or different forms of unauthorized access. Tanzaniaia has recorded about thirteen (13) illicit trafficking incidents of radioactive between 1996-2006. Caesium-137, Uranium-238; and Uranium oxide standard and Radium-226 with activity ranging from low to significantly high were among the radiounuclides which were intercepted. Most of these incidents had their original outside Tanzania. The incidents were uncovered by informers in cooperation with the police. Despite the fact that the management of these incidents by the police were adequate, it was observed that there is an inadequate radiation protection arrangements during transport of seized sources; lack of precautions for safety when handling seized

  9. Rural Transformation and the Emergence of Urban Centres in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, Evelyne; Agergaard, Jytte; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    as market places for sale of a dominant crop. In all four cases, new employment opportunities have been created in the value chain sequence of economic activities and the influx of migrant works have increased significantly. 3) How do migration and investments contribute to the consolidation of EUCs...... that have been stimulated by Tanzanian market liberalizations and its long term effects on private enterprise. The paper is based on a study of four EUCs in Tanzania (Ilula, Igowole, Madizini and Kibaigwa) and seeks to answer three major research questions: 1) What economic and spatial trends, including......Urbanization and rural transformation in the Global South can be conceptualized and explored as integrated processes. Recent academic debates have discussed how rural places are changing in close relation to economic and social processes where the distinction between rural and urban livelihoods...

  10. Quality assurance programme at the National Calibration Laboratory in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Yoloye, O.; Ngaile, J.; Lema, U.S.

    2000-01-01

    A quality assurance programme at the National Calibration Laboratory for ionizing radiation in Tanzania is described. The programme focuses mainly on regular stability check source and reference output measurements, performance testing of TLD systems as well as some external audit checks. It is found that the stability check source measurements are within ± 1%. Similarly, the air kerma rate measurements agree well with calibration uncertainties, that is ± 2% for protection level measurements and ± 1.5% for clinical dosimetry. The results of comparison of dose measurements done on site and those obtained from some external audit checks are also within requirements. This shows that the working standards have been kept with good care, and that the traceability to the international measurement system is adequately maintained. Some examples on calibration transfer activities are briefly discussed

  11. Participatory forest management for more than a decade in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngaga, Y. M.; Treue, Thorsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In Tanzania, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) was introduced in order to address the challenge of deforestation which continues at alarming rate. Equally, PFM aimed to involve communities adjacent to forests in management of forest resources while at the same time accrue economic benefits. PFM...... consists of Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) and Joint Forest Management (JFM). CBFM takes place on village land, in forests that are owned by the village while JFM takes place in Central or Local Government forest reserves (FRs) whereby owner of the FR and adjacent communities jointly manage......, households across wealth categories benefit economically from PFM. However, there is a slight tendency that the rich benefit more than the poor. Similarly, the study concludes that, while CBFM and JFM have formally established appropriate institutions for PFM, this has not promoted enfranchisement...

  12. The impact of privatization on access in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J S

    2001-06-01

    In the late 1980s, many developing countries were forced to adopt structural adjustment policies as a condition for securing loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the World Bank's recommended policies was to change the mix of private and public health facilities. This study, based on fieldwork done in Tanzania in 1993, examines the impact of this policy on health-care accessibility in two northern Tanzanian districts, one rural and one urban. Accessibility was measured in terms of equality and equity of coverage. The placement of the very few government clinics opened during the years 1985-1993 did much more to improve coverage than the haphazard location of many new private clinics. Equity was not improved as very few clinics were placed in demographically needy areas.

  13. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  14. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health...... services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. METHODS: Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests...... were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status...

  15. Elections and landmark policies in Tanzania and Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Much of the relevant literature on Africa downplays the salience of elections for policy-making and implementation. Instead, the importance of factors such as clientelism, ethnicity, organized interest group and donor influence, is emphasized. We argue that, in addition, elections now motivate...... political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics......: they are clearly identifiable with the party in power; citizens country-wide are targeted; and policy implementation aim at immediate, visible results. The influence of elections on policy making and implementation could therefore be more significant in countries where elections are more competitive than...

  16. Quality assurance for diagnostic X-ray machines in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungita, Y.Y.; Mdoe, S.L.; Ngatunga, J.; Kitosi, A.E.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation it is being discussed a close relationship between the prevention of accidents involving apparatus that generates the ionizing radiation (x-ray tubes etc.) and the need to perform quality control procedures and make follow-up corrective maintenance procedures. A summary of results of quality control performance of x-ray machines in certain centers in Tanzania is tabled and measures to overcome some of the observed problems are recommended. The number of X-ray units inspected were 219, out of which 123 were working, 75 were out of order, 6 units were not yet installed and those which are working with faulty parts were 15. The performance of quality assurance for X-Ray units (57) tested showed that 36.8% didn't qualify. About 80% of these equipment are more than 15 years old. (author)

  17. Decentralized health care priority-setting in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Sebastiån, Miguel San

    2010-01-01

    Priority-setting has become one of the biggest challenges faced by health decision-makers worldwide. Fairness is a key goal of priority-setting and Accountability for Reasonableness has emerged as a guiding framework for fair priority-setting. This paper describes the processes of setting health...... care priorities in Mbarali district, Tanzania, and evaluates the descriptions against Accountability for Reasonableness. Key informant interviews were conducted with district health managers, local government officials and other stakeholders using a semi-structured interview guide. Relevant documents...... no formal mechanisms in place to ensure that this information reached the public. There were neither formal mechanisms for challenging decisions nor an adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that decisions were made in a fair and equitable manner. Therefore, priority-setting in Mbarali district did...

  18. Can conservation funding be left to carbon finance? Evidence from participatory future land use scenarios in Peru, Indonesia, Tanzania, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ashwin; Larjavaara, Markku; Larson, Anne; Kanninen, Markku

    2017-01-01

    Revenues derived from carbon have been seen as an important tool for supporting forest conservation over the past decade. At the same time, there is high uncertainty about how much revenue can reasonably be expected from land use emissions reductions initiatives. Despite this uncertainty, REDD+ projects and conservation initiatives that aim to take advantage of available or, more commonly, future funding from carbon markets have proliferated. This study used participatory multi-stakeholder workshops to develop divergent future scenarios of land use in eight landscapes in four countries around the world: Peru, Indonesia, Tanzania, and Mexico. The results of these future scenario building exercises were analyzed using a new tool, CarboScen, for calculating the landscape carbon storage implications of different future land use scenarios. The findings suggest that potential revenues from carbon storage or emissions reductions are significant in some landscapes (most notably the peat forests of Indonesia), and much less significant in others (such as the low-carbon forests of Zanzibar and the interior of Tanzania). The findings call into question the practicality of many conservation programs that hinge on expectations of future revenue from carbon finance. The future scenarios-based approach is useful to policy-makers and conservation program developers in distinguishing between landscapes where carbon finance can substantially support conservation, and landscapes where other strategies for conservation and land use should be prioritized.

  19. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  20. Assessing the Climate Resilience of Transport Infrastructure Investments in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. W.; Pant, R.; Koks, E.; Thacker, S.; Russell, T.

    2017-12-01

    Whilst there is an urgent need for infrastructure investment in developing countries, there is a risk that poorly planned and built infrastructure will introduce new vulnerabilities. As climate change increases the magnitudes and frequency of natural hazard events, incidence of disruptive infrastructure failures are likely to become more frequent. Therefore, it is important that infrastructure planning and investment is underpinned by climate risk assessment that can inform adaptation planning. Tanzania's rapid economic growth is placing considerable strain on the country's transportation infrastructure (roads, railways, shipping and aviation); especially at the port of Dar es Salaam and its linking transport corridors. A growing number of natural hazard events, in particular flooding, are impacting the reliability of this already over-used network. Here we report on new methodology to analyse vulnerabilities and risks due to failures of key locations in the intermodal transport network of Tanzania, including strategic connectivity to neighboring countries. To perform the national-scale risk analysis we will utilize a system-of-systems methodology. The main components of this general risk assessment, when applied to transportation systems, include: (1) Assembling data on: spatially coherent extreme hazards and intermodal transportation networks; (2) Intersecting hazards with transport network models to initiate failure conditions that trigger failure propagation across interdependent networks; (3) Quantifying failure outcomes in terms of social impacts (customers/passengers disrupted) and/or macroeconomic consequences (across multiple sectors); and (4) Simulating, testing and collecting multiple failure scenarios to perform an exhaustive risk assessment in terms of probabilities and consequences. The methodology is being used to pinpoint vulnerability and reduce climate risks to transport infrastructure investments.

  1. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashurano Marcellina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is particularly harmful to infectious disease management in low-income countries since expensive second-line drugs are not readily available. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate a computerized system for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Methods A computerized surveillance system for antimicrobial susceptibility (WHONET was implemented at the national referral hospital in Tanzania in 1998. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of all clinical bacterial isolates received during an 18 months' period were recorded and analyzed. Results The surveillance system was successfully implemented at the hospital. This activity increased the focus on antimicrobial resistance issues and on laboratory quality assurance issues. The study identified specific nosocomial problems in the hospital and led to the initiation of other prospective studies on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial infections. Furthermore, the study provided useful data on antimicrobial patterns in bacterial isolates from the hospital. Gram-negative bacteria displayed high rates of resistance to common inexpensive antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, leaving fluoroquinolones as the only reliable oral drugs against common Gram-negative bacilli. Gentamicin and third generation cephalosporins remain useful for parenteral therapy. Conclusion The surveillance system is a low-cost tool to generate valuable information on antimicrobial resistance, which can be used to prepare locally applicable recommendations on antimicrobial use. The system pinpoints relevant nosocomial problems and can be used to efficiently plan further research. The surveillance system also functions as a quality assurance tool, bringing attention to methodological issues in identification and susceptibility testing.

  2. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be achieved

  3. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania.This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick.Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be

  4. Health and self-reliance: the experience of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, E

    1978-01-01

    Since its independence, Tanzania has consistently followed a socialist policy with a strong emphasis on the development of the rural areas and on an equal distribution of goods and services. In the health field, this policy has taken the form of establishing a network of rural health centers, training auxiliaries, and involving the communities through mass mobilization campaigns. Community participation in health care services is hindered by 3 sets of problems related to lack of cohesion, lack of structure, and the autonomous and sometimes paternalist attitude of the health profession. In Tanzania much emphasis is placed on self-reliance. It is in the field of education that policies of self-reliance have been most successfully implemented. Traditional practitioners represent 1 of the health resources that can be tapped. The medical profession cannot claim credit for the major improvements in health, for at times it has even blocked health development. Health standards and quality are important in the 3rd world. Staff must be properly trained to function at a particular level, supplies must be provided regularly, and there must be constant supervision. A health care system that is appropriate to the 3rd world must also emphasize disease prevention. To increase health coverage there must be a program of health service that is within reach of the people, including the rural population. Health cannot be furthered by the health services as tradtionally conceived; an intersectoral approach is essential. It is important that a commitment to an integrated development of the rural areas, with health as a component, be made.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites of the chimpanzee population introduced onto Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzelková, Klára J; Hasegawa, Hideo; Appleton, Chris C; Huffman, Michael A; Archer, Colleen E; Moscovice, Liza R; Mapua, Mwanahamissi Issa; Singh, Jatinder; Kaur, Taranjit

    2010-04-01

    The release of any species into a novel environment can evoke transmission of parasites that do not normally parasitize the host as well as potentially introducing new parasites into the environment. Species introductions potentially incur such risks, yet little is currently known about the parasite fauna of introduced primate species over the long term. We describe the results of long-term monitoring of the intestinal parasite fauna of an unprovisioned, reproducing population of chimpanzees introduced 40 years earlier (1966-1969) onto Rubondo Island in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, a non-native habitat for chimpanzees. Two parasitological surveys (March 1997-October 1998 and October 2002-December 2005) identified Entamoeba spp. including E. coli, Iodamoeba buetschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichuris sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Strongyloides spp., Strongylida fam. gen. sp., Enterobius anthropopitheci, Subulura sp., Ascarididae gen. sp., and Protospirura muricola. The parasite fauna of the Rubondo chimpanzees is similar to wild chimpanzees living in their natural habitats, but Rubondo chimpanzees have a lower prevalence of strongylids (9%, 3.8%) and a higher prevalence of E. anthropopitheci (8.6%, 17.9%) than reported elsewhere. Species prevalence was similar between our two surveys, with the exception of Strongyloides spp. being higher in the first survey. None of these species are considered to pose a serious health risk to chimpanzees, but continued monitoring of the population and surveys of the parasitic fauna of the two coinhabitant primate species and other animals, natural reservoir hosts of some of the same parasites, is important to better understand the dynamics of host-parasite ecology and potential long-term implications for chimpanzees introduced into a new habitat. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Katja V; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Nikolin, Veljko; East, Marion L; Kilewo, Morris; Speck, Stephanie; Müller, Thomas; Matzke, Martina; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2010-12-15

    In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were found throughout the parenchymal tissue, both reacting clearly positive with antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 388 nucleotide (nt) fragment of the CDV phosphoprotein (P) gene revealed that the pack was infected with a CDV variant most closely related to Tanzanian variants, including those obtained in 1994 during a CDV epidemic in the Serengeti National Park and from captive African wild dogs in the Mkomazi Game Reserve in 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of a 335-nt fragment of the fusion (F) gene confirmed that the pack in 2007 was infected with a variant most closely related to one variant from 1994 during the epidemic in the Serengeti National Park from which a comparable fragment is available. Screening of tissue samples for concurrent infections revealed evidence of canine parvovirus, Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum and Hepatozoon sp. No evidence of infection with Babesia sp. or rabies virus was found. Possible implications of concurrent infections are discussed. This is the first molecular characterisation of CDV in free-ranging African wild dogs and only the third confirmed case of fatal CDV infection in a free-ranging pack. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  8. Magnetic mineralogy and rock magnetic properties of silicate and carbonatite rocks from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, H. B.; Balashova, A.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Bosshard-Stadlin, S. A.; Weidendorfer, D.

    2018-06-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai, a stratovolcano in northern Tanzania, is most famous for being the only currently active carbonatite volcano on Earth. The bulk of the volcanic edifice is dominated by eruptive products produced by silica-undersaturated, peralkaline, silicate magmas (effusive, explosive and/or as cumulates at depth). The recent (2007-2008) explosive eruption produced the first ever recorded pyroclastic flows at this volcano and the accidental lithics incorporated into the pyroclastic flows represent a broad variety of different rock types, comprising both extrusive and intrusive varieties, in addition to various types of cumulates. This mix of different accidental lithics provides a unique insight into the inner workings of the world's only active carbonatite volcano. Here, we focus on the magnetic mineralogy and the rock magnetic properties of a wide selection of samples spanning the spectrum of Oldoinyo Lengai rock types compositionally, as well from a textural point of view. Here we show that the magnetic properties of most extrusive silicate rocks are dominated by magnetite-ulvöspinel solid solutions, and that pyrrhotite plays a larger role in the magnetic properties of the intrusive silicate rocks. The natrocarbonatitic lavas, for which the volcano is best known for, show distinctly different magnetic properties in comparison with the silicate rocks. This discrepancy may be explained by abundant alabandite crystals/blebs in the groundmass of the natrocarbonatitic lavas. A detailed combination of petrological/mineralogical studies with geophysical investigations is an absolute necessity in order to understand, and to better constrain, the overall architecture and inner workings of the subvolcanic plumbing system. The results presented here may also have implications for the quest in order to explain the genesis of the uniquely natrocarbonatitic magmas characteristic of Oldoinyo Lengai.

  9. Nutritional Deficiencies and Food Insecurity Among HIV-infected Children in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea E. Modlin, BA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition has been associated with impaired immunity and accelerated disease progression in HIV- infected children. The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of nutrient intake in HIV-infected children and compare these to standard recommendations. Methods: We surveyed HIV-infected Tanzanian children enrolled in a pediatric care program that provided routine nutritional counseling and vitamin supplementation. We obtained anthropometric measurements and determined 24-hour macronutrient and micronutrient intakes and food insecurity. Values were compared to recommended nutrient intakes based on age and gender. Results: We interviewed 48 pairs of children and their caregiver(s. The age of the child ranged from 2-14 years; median age 6 and 60% female. The median weight-for-height z-score for children ≤ 5 years was 0.69 and BMI-for-age z-scores for children >5 was -0.84. Macronutrient evaluation showed that 29 (60% children were deficient in dietary intake of energy; deficiency was more common in older children (p=0.004. Micronutrient evaluation shows that over half of study subjects were deficient in dietary intake of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B12, and calcium. Food insecurity was reported by 20 (58% caregivers. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The diets of many HIV-infected children at a specialized treatment center in Tanzania do not meet recommended levels of macro- and micro-nutrients. Food insecurity was a contributory factor. Enhanced dietary counseling and provision of macro- and micro-nutrient supplements will be necessary to achieve optimal nutrition for most HIV-infected children in resource-poor regions.

  10. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  11. Coping with inadequacy : understanding the effects of central teacher recruitment in six ward secondary schools in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafuru, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralization by devolution is the means to transfer the responsibilities for service provision to the grassroots levels in Tanzania. The aim of this policy is to deal with the stagnation in the development of, among other things, secondary education. Despite this policy, Tanzania still provides

  12. Educating a Nation towards Self-Reliance: Tanzania's Journey in Search for an Education That Is Meaningful to Its People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabike, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since independence in 1961, Tanzania's political ideology (known as Ujamaa-familyhood) has gone hand in hand with the country's education philosophy. The most important feature of this combination is that people should be educated to fit in Tanzania's environment and culture. Education should emancipate man from mental slavery inherited from…

  13. Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato isolates from Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Stephan, D.; Mabagala, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania, 56 isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using...

  14. Everyday social dynamics and cultural drivers of women's experiences with HIV/AIDS : voices from Buhaya, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster Githinji, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyday social dynamics and cultural drivers of women’s experiences with HIV/AIDS: voices from Buhaya, Tanzania is based on ethnographic research conducted in the village of Nsisha in northwestern Tanzania. Like most households in this region, Nsisha has been indirectly or

  15. Special and Inclusive Education in Tanzania: Reminiscing the Past, Building the Future

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    Mwajabu K. Possi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Special education was introduced in Tanzania Mainland in 1950 by the Church Missionary Society. Despite its long history in the country, not many policies have clearly stipulated the need for special and inclusive education. This paper succinctly and systematically evaluates various educational reforms and policies in Tanzania, and points out some successes and embedded challenges in the development of special needs and inclusive education in Tanzania. To analyze clearly the current situation of special and inclusive education in the country, the Peter’s model and cases of some identified schools for exceptional students are used. The analysis has indicated an evolution from special to integrated and later on to inclusive education, which has led to an apparent increase in the number of schools and subsequent relatively higher enrollment figures for children with special needs. Despite this evolution, Tanzania has a long way to go, when compared to other countries in effectively achieving the provision of education to exceptional individuals. Finally, towards a new era of special and inclusive education in Tanzania, various recommendations are offered.

  16. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  17. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  18. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  19. Hopefulness Fosters Affective and Cognitive Constructs for Actions to Cope and Enhance Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siril, Hellen; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Todd, Jim; Wyatt, Monique; Kilewo, Japheth; Ware, Norma; Kaaya, Sylvia

    The aims of this study were to describe how people living with HIV (PLWH) perceive hope and illustrate implications for HIV care and treatment. This is a qualitative study done to explore perceptions and meanings of hope among PLWH attending care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In all, 10 focus group discussions and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted. People living with HIV described the following 3 dimensions of hope: cognitive, positive emotions, and normalization. Being cognizant of the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) often led to positive emotions, such as feeling comforted or strengthened, which in turn was related to positive actions toward normalizing life. Improved treatment outcomes facilitated hope, while persistent health problems, such as ART side effects, were sources of negative emotions contributing to loss of hope among PLWH. Hope motivated positive health-seeking behaviors, including adherence to ART, and this may guide interventions to help PLWH cope and live positively with HIV.

  20. Malignant lymphomas (ML and HIV infection in Tanzania

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    Mwakigonja Amos R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is reported to be associated with some malignant lymphomas (ML so called AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL, with an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. The ML frequency, pathogenicity, clinical patterns and possible association with AIDS in Tanzania, are not well documented impeding the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Methods Sections of 176 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies of ML patients at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH/Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS, Tanzania from 1996–2001 were stained for hematoxylin and eosin and selected (70 cases for expression of pan-leucocytic (CD45, B-cell (CD20, T-cell (CD3, Hodgkin/RS cell (CD30, histiocyte (CD68 and proliferation (Ki-67 antigen markers. Corresponding clinical records were also evaluated. Available sera from 38 ML patients were screened (ELISA for HIV antibodies. Results The proportion of ML out of all diagnosed tumors at MNH during the 6 year period was 4.2% (176/4200 comprising 77.84% non-Hodgkin (NHL including 19.32% Burkitt's (BL and 22.16% Hodgkin's disease (HD. The ML tumors frequency increased from 0.42% (1997 to 0.70% (2001 and 23.7% of tested sera from these patients were HIV positive. The mean age for all ML was 30, age-range 3–91 and peak age was 1–20 years. The male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Supra-diaphragmatic presentation was commonest and histological sub-types were mostly aggressive B-cell lymphomas however, no clear cases of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL were diagnosed. Conclusion Malignant lymphomas apparently, increased significantly among diagnosed tumors at MNH between 1996 and 2001, predominantly among the young, HIV infected and AIDS patients. The frequent aggressive clinical and histological presentation as well as the dominant B-immunophenotype and the HIV serology indicate a pathogenic association with AIDS. Therefore

  1. Malignant lymphomas (ML) and HIV infection in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakigonja, Amos R; Kaaya, Ephata E; Mgaya, Edward M

    2008-06-10

    HIV infection is reported to be associated with some malignant lymphomas (ML) so called AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL), with an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. The ML frequency, pathogenicity, clinical patterns and possible association with AIDS in Tanzania, are not well documented impeding the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Sections of 176 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies of ML patients at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH)/Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Tanzania from 1996-2001 were stained for hematoxylin and eosin and selected (70) cases for expression of pan-leucocytic (CD45), B-cell (CD20), T-cell (CD3), Hodgkin/RS cell (CD30), histiocyte (CD68) and proliferation (Ki-67) antigen markers. Corresponding clinical records were also evaluated. Available sera from 38 ML patients were screened (ELISA) for HIV antibodies. The proportion of ML out of all diagnosed tumors at MNH during the 6 year period was 4.2% (176/4200) comprising 77.84% non-Hodgkin (NHL) including 19.32% Burkitt's (BL) and 22.16% Hodgkin's disease (HD). The ML tumors frequency increased from 0.42% (1997) to 0.70% (2001) and 23.7% of tested sera from these patients were HIV positive. The mean age for all ML was 30, age-range 3-91 and peak age was 1-20 years. The male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Supra-diaphragmatic presentation was commonest and histological sub-types were mostly aggressive B-cell lymphomas however, no clear cases of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) were diagnosed. Malignant lymphomas apparently, increased significantly among diagnosed tumors at MNH between 1996 and 2001, predominantly among the young, HIV infected and AIDS patients. The frequent aggressive clinical and histological presentation as well as the dominant B-immunophenotype and the HIV serology indicate a pathogenic association with AIDS. Therefore, routine HIV screening of all malignant lymphoma

  2. Status of occupational radiation protection at end users in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Mwalongo, D.; Lema, U.S.; Mboya, G.; Banzi, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents the results of the national survey conducted by regulatory authority to assess the awareness on occupational radiation protection (ORP) at end using facilities in Tanzania. The survey was done by using a questionnaire, which addressed elements required for desirable ORP infrastructure at end users. The questions were mainly structured with closed questions such that the first response could be 'yes' or 'no'. The elements included compliance to authorization requirements, cooperation to ensure the safety of employees of another employer, availability of radiation safety officer (RSO) with adequate power to discharge his/her functions, availability of radiation protection programme (RPP) and desirable management structure. Others; were the availability of programmes on staff selection, information and training; workplace (WP) monitoring, coverage of individual monitoring for external radiation service (IMERS), intervention and emergencies and health insurance. Aspects on effective control of doses, provisional of administrative control, quality management system and occupational exposures from natural sources were not covered because they were presumed to be less familiar. Out of 270 questionnaires distributed, seventy four questionnaires (28%) were returned for analysis. The results indicated that 65% responded to questions as requested and therefore had a satisfactory general awareness on ORP. Other positive findings were good understanding on authorization details and related compliance (92%), availability of RPP and recognition of RSO as well as a supportive management structure (86%) and fully coverage by IMERS (72%). The shortcomings were observed in the following areas: absence of cooperation agreements to ensure the safety of employees of other employers (96%); absence of formal information and training programmes (72%); absence of work place monitoring programmes (96%); absence of interventions and emergency programmes (78

  3. The "politics of the queue": the politicization of people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadine; Bujra, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a body of literature on movements around "biological citizenship," this article analyses the political significance of HIV-positive people's collective action in Tanzania. We explore reasons for the limited impact of Tanzanian AIDS activism on the wider political scene, concluding that the formation of a "movement" is still in its infancy and faces many constraints, though some breakthroughs have been made. Participation in PLHA groups in Tanzania encourages politicizing struggles over representation, democratic forms and gender that can lead to a process of political socialization in which members learn to recognize and confront abuses of power. It is in such low-level, less visible social transformations that the greatest potential of participation in collective action around HIV/AIDS in Tanzania lies.

  4. Child malnutrition – from Hospital to clinical practice – the experience of Tanzania and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vasconcelos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a global effort to tackle the problem of child malnutrition that is still the underlying cause of death of at least 3.1 million children annually. Uganda and Tanzania are among the 22 countries with higher prevalence of child malnutrition. However, these two countries are true examples of how it is possible to reduce this scourge through simple, low-cost strategies. In 2010 I had the opportunity to learn and understand childhood malnutrition through a postgraduate course in Tanzania and Uganda – the East African Short Course in Tropical Medicine from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM. Beginning with a review of concepts and definitions of childhood malnutrition and the links between development and nutrition, this article moves on to summarise a learning experience from Uganda and Tanzania related to the progress and effectiveness of ‘hospital-based” and ‘community-specific’ interventions.

  5. Preparing investigation of methods for surveying tree seed demands among farmers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabæk, Anders

    Insufficient seed supplies is often a major constraint on tree planting activities in developing countries. A central problem is to assess the actual demands for tree seed. This report shall, as a part of a PhD-study, prepare an investigation of different methods for surveying tree seed demands...... and preferences among private farmers in Tanzania. A framework for investigating seed demand and supply is outlined. The role of a national tree seed project in a seed supply sector is discussed and data requirements for strategy on seed procurement and tree improvement are outlined. Earlier surveys on seed...... demand pattern in Tanzania, Uganda and Nicaragua are discussed and a choice of strategy for an extensive survey of seed demand and supply in Tanzania is made. Different data collection methods and tools, e.g. quantitative and qualitative surveys and rapid rural appraisals, are described in detail...

  6. Quaternary ostracodes and molluscs from the Rukwa Basin (Tanzania) and their evolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Todd, Jonathan A.; McGlue, Michael; Michel, Ellinor; Nkotagu, Hudson H.; Grove, A.T.; Delvaux, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Much of the spectacular biodiversity of the African Great Lakes is endemic to single lake basins so that the margins of these basins or their lakes coincide with biogeographic boundaries. Longstanding debate surrounds the evolution of these endemic species, the stability of bioprovinces, and the exchange of faunas between them over geologic time as the rift developed. Because these debates are currently unsettled, we are uncertain of how much existing distribution patterns are determined by modern hydrological barriers versus reflecting past history. This study reports on late Quaternary fossils from the Rukwa Basin and integrates geological and paleoecological data to explore faunal exchange between freshwater bioprovinces, in particular with Lake Tanganyika. Lake Rukwa's water level showed large fluctuations over the last 25 ky, and for most of this period the lake contained large habitat diversity, with different species assemblages and taphonomic controls along its northern and southern shores. Comparison of fossil and modern invertebrate assemblages suggests faunal persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum, but with an extirpation event that occurred in the last 5 ky. Some of the molluscs and ostracodes studied here are closely related to taxa (or part of clades) that are currently endemic to Lake Tanganyika, but others testify to wider and perhaps older faunal exchanges between the Rukwa bioprovince and those of Lake Malawi and the Upper Congo (in particular Lake Mweru). The Rukwa Basin has a long history of rifting and lacustrine conditions and, at least temporarily, its ecosystems appear to have functioned as satellites to Lake Tanganyika in which intralacustrine speciation occurred. Paleontological studies of the Rukwa faunas are particularly relevant because of the basin's important role in the late Cenozoic biogeography of tropical Africa, and because many of the molecular traces potentially revealing this history would have been erased in the late Holocene extirpation.

  7. When AIDS meets poverty : implications for social capital in a village in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nombo, C.

    2007-01-01

    The role of social capital in development has in recent years received increasing attention. Social capital seems to have evolved into panacea for the problems affecting poor communities. The question is how social capital produced in social networks is used, generated and maintained in a context of

  8. Youth poverty, employment and livelihoods: Social and economic implications of living with insecurity in Arusha, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The youth employment crisis in sub-Saharan Africa’s towns and cities is among the region’s top development priorities. High rates of youth under- and unemployment create significant obstacles to young people’s ability to become self-reliant, a crucial first step in the transition to adulthood. It is important to explore how local and global structures and processes create the hostile economic and social environment in which urban youth search for livelihoods. Only then can we identify the way...

  9. Unpredictable checks of yellow fever vaccination certificates upon arrival in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberger, Selina; Hatz, Christoph; Bühler, Silja

    2016-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne disease, which can be prevented by vaccination. While YF vaccination (YFV) is not generally recommended for travellers to Tanzania, proof of YFV may be required upon arrival. In April 2013, the World Health Organization concluded that one dose of YFV confers lifelong protection and countries have started to adapt their entry requirements. The traveller's consultant has to balance the risk of YFV and the risk of encountering problems when entering a country without a valid YFV, especially because countries are slowly implementing the requirements. We performed a survey among 421 travellers to Tanzania with a pre-travel consultation at the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich about their experiences with YFV certificate inspections upon arrival in Tanzania between January and November 2015. There were three main findings: (i) most vaccine card checks were done while crossing the land border of Tanzania. Inspections were frequently conducted at Arusha airport, less often in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar. In the latter a significantly larger percentage of individuals arriving by ferry/boat were checked than those arriving by plane. (ii) Checks appeared to be non-systematic. They were also performed in travellers who did not enter Tanzania from a YF-endemic country. No seasonal or daytime pattern could be identified; the thoroughness of checks varied widely. (iii) In the case of travel without valid YFV, an exemption certificate was always accepted. In travellers with neither a valid YFV nor an exemption certificate, travellers reported forced YF vaccination and fines before entry was granted. We recommend YFV or a YF exemption certificate for all travellers to Tanzania until further notice. The decision of whether to vaccinate against YF or to issue an exemption should be based on exposure risk to YF infection in other countries during travel. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by

  10. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species.

  11. Seasonal water chemistry variability in the Pangani River basin, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemani, Juma R; Zhang, Jing; Muzuka, Alfred N N; Njau, Karoli N; Zhang, Guosen; Maggid, Arafa; Mzuza, Maureen K; Jin, Jie; Pradhan, Sonali

    2017-11-01

    The stable isotopes of δ 18 O, δ 2 H, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and dissolved major ions were used to assess spatial and seasonal water chemistry variability, chemical weathering, and hydrological cycle in the Pangani River Basin (PRB), Tanzania. Water in PRB was NaHCO 3 type dominated by carbonate weathering with moderate total dissolved solids. Major ions varied greatly, increasing from upstream to downstream. In some stations, content of fluoride and sodium was higher than the recommended drinking water standards. Natural and anthropogenic factors contributed to the lowering rate of chemical weathering; the rate was lower than most of tropical rivers. The rate of weathering was higher in Precambrian than volcanic rocks. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr was lower than global average whereas concentration of strontium was higher than global average with mean annual flux of 0.13 × 10 6  mol year -1 . Evaporation and altitude effects have caused enrichment of δ 18 O and δ 2 H in dry season and downstream of the river. Higher d-excess value than global average suggests that most of the stations were supplied by recycled moisture. Rainfall and groundwater were the major sources of surface flowing water in PRB; nevertheless, glacier from Mt. Kilimanjaro has insignificant contribution to the surface water. We recommend measures to be taken to reduce the level of fluoride and sodium before domestic use.

  12. Socio-Economic Determinants of Blood Donation in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest L. Mramba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health insurance were negatively related with blood donation at 1%, 5%, 10%, 1% level with p values of 0.000, 0.011, 0.070, 0.012, respectively, as per assumption. However, age, strong social network at community, employment status, and level of income were not significant determinants. Conclusively, blood donation was largely determined by sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and health insurance. To increase blood donation, females must be encouraged, emphasis on education, eradication of the myths and misconception about blood donation, partnerships between national blood transfusion and religious bodies, need for more community’s awareness about blood donation so as to alleviate unfounded fear (i.e. fear for HIV test results, need of improving health status of the people and donor recruitments programs strategies must be improved.

  13. Language promotion for educational purposes: The example of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubagumya, Casmir M.

    1991-03-01

    Kiswahili is one of the most widely used languages in East and Central Africa. In Tanzania, where it is the national language, attempts have been made to develop it so that it can be used as an efficient tool of communication in all sectors of the society, including education. This paper shows that although Kiswahili has successfully been promoted as the medium of primary and adult education, at secondary and tertiary levels of education, its position is still precarious. The notion that English and Kiswahili are in complementary distribution is rejected. It is argued that the two languages are in conflict, and that those who are in a better socio-political/economic position have more control of, and better access to, English. In such a situation the right question to ask is not in which domains English is used, but why it is used in such domains and who uses it. The paper further argues that the present sociolinguistic environment makes the use of English as a viable medium unsustainable. For this reason, insistence on the use of English adversely affects the learning process. It is suggested that if Kiswahili became the medium of education at secondary school level and English was taught well as a foreign language, this would help to promote both languages without jeopardising the learning process.

  14. Dissatisfaction with traditional birth attendants in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaruku, Godfrey; Msambichaka, Beverly; Galea, Sandro; Rockers, Peter C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2009-10-01

    To assess women's satisfaction with traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in rural Tanzania. A population-representative sample of households in Kasulu district was used to collect data on demographics, childbirth history, and perception of TBAs and doctors/nurses from women who had recently had a child and from their partners. Two-thirds of women who gave birth in a health facility reported being very satisfied with the experience, compared with 21.2% of women who delivered at home with TBAs. A sizeable proportion of women felt that TBAs had poor medical skills (23.1%), while only 0.3% of women felt the same about doctors' and nurses' skills. Of women who delivered with a TBA, 16.0% reported that TBAs had poor medical skills whereas 0.5% stated the same for doctors and nurses. Although many women delivered at home in this rural study district, women and their partners reported higher confidence in doctors and nurses than in TBAs. Policymakers and program managers should not assume that women prefer TBAs to trained professionals for delivery but should consider system barriers to facility delivery in interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality.

  15. Sustainable Development? Controversies over Prawn Farming on Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Caplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world market for crustaceans has increased exponentially in recent years and so too have the number of production sites. However, the growth of this industry has not been without controversy, particularly regarding its environmental effects. In 2002, a large company based in Kenya applied to locate a prawn farm on Mafia Island, Tanzania, close to the Rufiji Delta. This scheme raised very differing views among various 'stakeholders': villagers living around the proposed site, the Mafia District Councillors (madiwan, government officials at varying levels, local and national activists (some in NGOs, the prawn farming company, and the experts whom they hired to produce environmental impact reports. There were opposing discourses around the rights of locals as citizens to retain control of 'their' resources, on the one hand, versus the needs of 'development' and the creation of jobs, on the other. There were also fierce debates about the importance and meaning of environment and sustainability, and the perceived role of corruption. This paper, based on fieldwork in 2002 and 2004, explores these complex debates and the ways in which the decision was finally made to allow the prawn farm to go ahead. It reveals the means by which the legal rights of citizens at the local level may be trumped by pressures emanating from those coming from above and outside who wield greater power.

  16. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  17. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenous, resulting in full partnerships in which participants share expertise to meet mutual needs. With reference to literature and two illustrative examples of intercultural education initiatives in Mexico and Tanzania, we present an original conceptual framework for assessing indigenous participation in intercultural education. This incorporates a new ladder of participation depth (in relation to both curriculum content and decision making alongside separate considerations of breadth, i.e., stakeholder diversity, and scope, i.e., the number of key project stages in which certain stakeholder groups are participating. The framework can be used to compare intercultural education initiatives in differing contexts and might be adaptable to other intercultural work.

  19. Discharge measurements of the River Rufiji (Tanzania) using artificial tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Florkowski, T.; Salamba, S.

    1984-01-01

    The use of chemical or radioactive tracers for measuring stream flow is now the established method for discharges up to about 200 m 3 /s. For larger flows and higher suspended load the chemical tracers and also gamma-emitting radioactive tracers become cumbersome if not impossible to use when good accuracy is required. Tritiated water proved to be a good and safe tracer, provided care is taken in handling (no contamination of samples) and the experiments are adequately planned (good estimation of mixing lengths, water velocity and sampling duration). The paper describes discharge measurements performed in 1982 and 1983 in the river Rufiji (Tanzania). Flow rates up to 2000 m 3 /s have been measured, with estimated errors varying between 2 and 4%. Because of high river turbulence in the measurement section, good mixing has been observed over a distance of 7 km (this is much shorter than the distance recommended by various formulae for calculating the mixing length). The problem of selecting the mixing length is discussed and recommendations are given for planning future experiments. Sample contamination as experienced during the first phase of measurements in the river Rufiji is also treated. It is concluded that, technically and economically, the tritium tracer method is feasible for calibrating rating curves (water stage/flow relationship) in turbulent large rivers, also in remote areas. (author)

  20. Global Financial Partnerships in Microfinance: India, Peru and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUBARO, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the ‘wholesale’ market through which microfinance institutions operating in three contexts (Peru, Tanzania and the state of Tamil Nadu in India obtain loans from a variety of domestic and international funding bodies. The nature and characteristics of the relationships between them are captured through network analysis and visualization tools, with a dataset comprising inter-organisational lending relationships and organisations’ attributes over the years 2006-8. Focus is on the extent to which patterns in wholesale lending relationships relate to the legal status and characteristics of microfinance institutions; to the regulatory, business and social environment in which they operate; and to shifts in the balance between social and commercial interests of diverse types of lenders.The analysis brings to light considerable cross-country variation in the structure and features of wholesale lending relationships, and relates it primarily to differences in governance and regulation. On this basis, it makes the case that building a more enabling regulatory environment for funding partnerships may improve the capacity of microfinance to achieve its dual goals of poverty alleviation and financial sustainability.

  1. Tenure Issues in REDD+ Pilot Project Sites in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Dokken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ has been proposed as a viable option for addressing climate change in the near term, and at relatively low cost. There is a broad consensus that clearly defined tenure rights are important for the implementation and success of REDD+, both to manage forests effectively and to protect local communities’ livelihoods. We use primary data from 23 villages in six REDD+ pilot sites in Tanzania to identify causes of deforestation and forest degradation, and tenure rights issues, at the village level prior to project implementation. Further, interviews with project proponents and examination of project documents yields insights into how the proponents plan to address tenure issues. Most villages perceive their tenure as secure and have exclusion rights, while collective action challenges are prevalent in villages experiencing deforestation and forest degradation. These findings suggest that the main tenure issues are related to internal institutional arrangements. While we find that tenure is high on the agenda for all the project proponents, they are mainly focusing on formalization and securing tenure rights from state to community level. Though we do find this to be a precondition for reducing deforestation and degradation, some of their focus should be shifted to strengthening village institutions and enhancing internal compliance.

  2. Gender and performance of community treatment assistants in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Alexander; Gracewello, Catherine; Mkocha, Harran; Roter, Debra; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of gender and demographics of community treatment assistants (CTAs) on their performance of assigned tasks and quantity of speech during mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma in rural Tanzania. Surveys of CTAs and audio recordings of interactions between CTAs and villagers during drug distribution. Mass drug administration program in rural Kongwa district. Fifty-seven randomly selected CTAs, and 3122 residents of villages receiving azithromycin as part of the Kongwa Trachoma Project. None. Speech quantity graded by Roter interaction analysis system, presence of culturally appropriate greeting and education on facial hygiene for trachoma prevention from coded analysis of audio-recorded interactions. At sites with all female CTAs, each CTA spent more time and spoke more in each interaction in comparison with CTAs at sites with only male CTAs and CTAs at 'mixed gender' sites (sites with both male and female CTAs). At 'mixed gender' sites, males spoke significantly more than females. Female CTAs mentioned trachoma prevention with facial cleanliness more than twice as often as male CTAs; however, both genders mentioned hygiene in genders had culturally appropriate greetings in Gender dynamics affect the amount of time that CTAs spend with villagers during drug distribution, and the relative amount of speech when both genders work together. Both genders are not meeting expectations for trachoma prevention education and greeting villagers, and novel training methods are necessary. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  3. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  4. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  5. Surveillance of artemether-lumefantrine associated Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein-1 gene polymorphisms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavishe, Reginald A; Paulo, Petro; Kaaya, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    falciparum positive dried blood spots on filter paper and rapid diagnostic test strips collected by finger pricks from patients attending health facilities in six regions of Tanzania mainland between June 2010 and August 2011 were used. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR...... of common Pfmdr1 haplotypes reflecting strict implementation of ALu policy in Tanzania with overall prevalence of NFD haplotype ranging from 17 to 26% among other haplotypes. With continuation of ALu as first-line drug this haplotype is expected to keep rising, thus there is need for continued...

  6. PEPFAR/DOD/Pharmaccess/Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    HIV/AIDS RCH Reproductive Child Health SOP Standard Operating Procedure STI Sexually Transmitted Infections TB Tuberculosis TPDF Tanzania...during assignments and continued exposure and increased sexual activity levels, constitute a high-risk population. 1,000,000 condoms have been...P2.ALC.3 Project management PAI-Headquarters 75,668 75,668 130,291 90,202 205,960 165,869 2. Office costs Tanzania P2. TOC .1 Power 2,745 2,745 2,250 509

  7. Micro-Credit and Community Wildlife Management: Complementary Strategies to Improve Conservation Outcomes in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, Emmanuel; Chapman, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Community wildlife management programs in African protected areas aim to deliver livelihood and social benefits to local communities in order to bolster support for their conservation objectives. Most of these benefits are delivered at the community level. However, many local people are also seeking more individual or household-level livelihood benefits from community wildlife management programs because it is at this level that many of the costs of protected area conservation are borne. Because community wildlife management delivers few benefits at this level, support for their conservation objectives amongst local people often declines. The study investigated the implications of this for reducing poaching in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Three community wildlife management initiatives undertaken by Park management were compared with regard to their capacity to deliver the individual and household-level benefits sought by local people: community conservation services, wildlife management areas and community conservation banks. Interviews were carried out with poachers and local people from four villages in the Western Serengeti including members of village conservation banks, as well as a number of key informants. The results suggest that community conservation banks could, as a complementary strategy to existing community wildlife management programs, potentially provide a more effective means of reducing poaching in African protected areas than community wildlife management programs alone.

  8. Role Of E-Government In Delivery Of Public Services In Tanzania Electric Supply Company In Ruvuma Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jackson Petro Gunda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT E-government facilitates delivery of public services of relevant government information in electronic form to citizens in a timely manner and better service delivery to citizens. E-government is a kind of governmental administration which is based on Information Communication and Technology Services. Electronic government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and disperse of government information and services. The scope of the work was limited to Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited TANESCO in Ruvuma region. The population of thirty 31 were selected from a total population of 169 public servants use both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques applied. The major findings of study revealed that about 67.7 of response from respondents agree that ICT infrastructures specifically modern computer connected to internet reliable internet speed well organized organization website power availability in public operation contribute to efficient in delivery of services it also noted by respondents to faster decision making speeding up transaction processing and reduce cost. The study greatly recommends that capacity building to public servants on ICT install and strengthening ICT infrastructures to government organizational are inevitable to realise relevant role of e-government in delivery of public services.

  9. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  10. Understanding resilience of female adolescents towards teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Ahorlu, Collins K; Alba, Sandra; Obrist, Brigit

    2017-06-26

    In Tanzania, teenage pregnancy rates are still high despite the efforts being made to reduce them. Not enough is known about how adolescents experience and cope with sexuality and teenage pregnancy. Over the past few decades, most studies have focused on vulnerability and risk among youth. The concept of 'reproductive resilience' is a new way of looking at teenage pregnancy. It shifts the perspective from a deficit-based to a strength-based approach. The study presented here aimed to identify factors that could contribute to strengthening the reproductive resilience of girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using a cross-sectional cluster sampling approach, 750 female adolescents aged 15-19 years were interviewed about how they mobilize resources to avoid or deal with teenage pregnancy. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits), and symbolic capital (recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of adolescent competencies for avoiding or dealing with teenage pregnancy and childbirth. A cumulative competence scale was developed to assess reproductive resilience. The cumulative score was computed based on 10 competence indicators that refer to the re- and pro-active mobilization of resources. About half of the women who had never been pregnant fell into the category, 'high competence' (50.9%), meaning they could get the information and support needed to avoid pregnancies. Among pregnant women and young mothers, most were categorized as 'high competence' (70.5%) and stated that they know how to avoid or deal with health problems that might affect them or their babies, and could get the information and support required to do so. Cultural capital, in particular, contributed to the competence of never-pregnant girls [OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.06 to 3.07, p = 0.029], pregnant adolescents and young mothers

  11. Why has canine rabies remained endemic in the Kilosa district of Tanzania? Lessons learnt and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipanyula, M J

    2015-11-30

    Domestic dogs are the main targets for rabies control as they are the principal reservoir for transmission of the rabies virus to humans and other domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that contribute to the rabies virus infecting the human population in a rural community of Eastern Tanzania. Using a cross-sectional study design, field visits were conducted to gather information on villagers' knowledge on and practices associated with canine rabies control and dog vaccination campaigns. A total of 248 individuals were interviewed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania. Almost two-thirds (61.3 %) had a primary school education. The majority (91.1 %) of the respondents were aware that rabies is acquired through dog bites and 66.9 % knew about the clinical signs of rabies in an animal. Very few (17.7 %), however, were aware of the clinical signs of rabies in humans. Only 20.4 % of the respondents knew how rabies is controlled in dogs and 71 % were not aware of dog vaccination campaigns. The average number of dogs kept per household was 4 ± 3.3; 70.0 % of the respondents had one to five dogs, 28.3 % had six to dog dogs, and 1.6 % had 16-20 dogs. The dogs were primarily used to guard livestock and property, and to hunt. About 59.7 % of the respondents indicated that rabies was a public health problem. Low vaccination coverage was observed in the study area, with previous mass vaccination campaigns covering only 24.4 % of the dog population. Dogs appeared to have limited value in the studied community. Furthermore, there were no proper waste disposal facilities and oftentimes wild canids and felids visited the villages to scavenge on kitchen leftovers. Although communities in the Kilosa district had knowledge on rabies in dogs, they were not aware of the public health implication of the disease, which thus led a poor response during mass dog vaccination campaigns. Establishment of a well-coordinated rabies control program, strategic public

  12. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  13. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  15. Risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition among hospitals in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauka, Wilhellmuss I; Mtuy, Tara B; Mahande, Michael J; Msuya, Sia E; Mboya, Innocent B; Juma, Abdul; Philemon, Rune N

    2018-01-01

    Blood is a critical aspect of treatment in life saving situations, increasing demand. Blood requisition practices greatly effect sufficient supply in blood banks. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition in Tanzania. This was a cross sectional study using secondary data of 14,460 patients' blood requests from 42 transfusion hospitals. Primary data were obtained by using cluster-sampling design. Data were analysed using a two-level mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine fixed-effects of individual-level factors and hospital level factors associated with inappropriate blood requests. P-value Factors significantly associated with inappropriate requisition were; reporting pulse rate and capillary refill decrease the risk (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.64, 0.84) and (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63, 0.85) respectively and the following increased the risk; having surgery during hospital stay (RR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06, 1.4); being in general surgical ward (RR 3.3; 95% CI 2.7, 4.2), paediatric ward (RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2, 2.7), obstetric ward (RR 2.5; 95% CI 2.0, 3.1), gynaecological ward (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5, 2.9), orthopaedics ward (RR 3.8; 95% CI 2.2, 6.7). Age of the patient, pallor and confirmation of pre-transfusion haemoglobin level were also significantly associated with inappropriate requisition. Majority of appropriate requisitions within the wards were marked in internal medicine (91.7%) and gynaecological wards (77.8%). The proportion of inappropriate blood requests was high. Blood requisition was determined by clinical and laboratory findings and the ward patients were admitted to. Adherence to transfusion guidelines is recommended to assure the best use of limited blood supply.

  16. Recycling Improves Soil Fertility Management in Smallholdings in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Krause

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residues from bioenergy and ecological sanitation (EcoSan can be utilized to sustain soil fertility and productivity. With regard to certain cooking and sanitation technologies used in smallholder households (hh, we systematically analyzed how utilization of the respective potentials to recover residues for farming affects (i soil nutrient balances, (ii the potential for subsistence production of composts, and (iii environmental emissions. On the example of an intercropping farming system in Karagwe, Tanzania, we studied specific farming practices including (1 current practices of using standard compost only; (2 a combination of using biogas slurry, urine, and standard compost; (3 a combination of using so-called “CaSa-compost” (containing biochar and sanitized human excreta, Project “Carbonization and Sanitation”, urine, and standard compost. The system analysis combines a soil nutrient balance (SNB with material flow analysis (MFA. Currently, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P are depleted by −54 ± 3 and −8 ± 1 kg∙ha−1∙year−1, respectively. Our analysis shows, however, a clear potential to reduce depletion rates of N, and to reverse the SNB of P, to bring about a positive outcome. Composts and biogas slurry supply sufficient P to crops, while urine effectively supplements N. By using resources recovered from cooking and sanitation, sufficient compost for subsistence farming may be produced. Human excreta contribute especially to total N and total P in CaSa-compost, whilst biochar recovered from cooking with microgasifier stoves adds to total carbon (C and total P. We conclude that the combined recycling of household residues from cooking and from sanitation, and CaSa-compost in particular, is especially suitable for sustainable soil management, as it mitigates existing P-deficiency and soil acidity, and also restores soil organic matter.

  17. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  18. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  19. The school as a force for community change in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyamkono, T. L.

    1980-09-01

    In newly independent countries where traditional theories of educational policy have continued to be followed, education has persisted as little more than a sophisticated mechanism for the recruitment of elites, and there has been an increased dependence on the advanced industrial nations for aid, experts and educational models. Tanzania, however, has attempted to break away from traditional strategies, and the author here describes and analyses the impact of two of the most far-reaching reforms — Education for Self-Reliance, and Decentralization — on national goals and policies. President Nyerere enunciated the objectives for Education for Self-Reliance in 1967 as relating education to rural life, correcting the elitist bias of education, and changing negative attitudes among students towards agriculture and rural life. Five major programmes of reform covering primary and secondary education, teacher and higher education, and examinations were to be pursued, ensuring a closer integration of schools with local communities, e.g., through school farms and co-operative shops, and making curricula directly relevant to local needs. A policy of Decentralization is being implemented, allowing, theoretically at least, a much greater participation at community level in decision-making. In primary and adult education this has already been effected to some extent, though there is evidence to suggest that decentralization in some regions and districts has resulted in the creation of local bureaucratic machinery for control, defeating the intention of the reform. Decentralization of secondary and teacher education is likely to follow, leaving only higher education centrally controlled for manpower training and allocation purposes. Finally the author discusses the question of the transferability of the Tanzanian reforms.

  20. Prices and availability of locally produced and imported medicines in Ethiopia and Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewen, M.; Kaplan, W.; Gedif, T.; Justin-Temu, M.; Vialle-Valentin, C.; Mirza, Z.; Regeer, B.; Zweekhorst, M.; Laing, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effect of policies supporting local medicine production to improve access to medicines. Methods: We adapted the WHO/HAI instruments measuring medicines availability and prices to differentiate local from imported products, then pilot tested in Ethiopia and Tanzania. In each

  1. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Moro...

  2. Problems affecting the promotion of literacy in Tanzania and the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illiteracy is envisaged to be a major 'obstruction\\' on the road to Information Superhighway in Tanzania. Records indicate that over 90 percent literacy levels recorded in 1970s and 1980s for different reasons have dropped to only 78 percent. This paper highlights some of the factors causing high level of illiteracy rate and ...

  3. Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the

  4. Basic Education in Tanzania: A Slight Touch on the Views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to visualize what basic education is. To provide a focus to the paper, from 1997-2003, 198 primary seven leavers from Nachingwea and Tandahimba districts in the southern regions of Tanzania were sampled. Six simple questions from six conventional primary school subjects (Kiswahili, ...

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Educational Technologies Integration in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines pre-service teachers' (N = 386) self-efficacy beliefs towards educational technologies integration in the classroom at the two colleges in Tanzania that prepare secondary education teachers. Using regression analysis, the study found out that the determinants of self-efficacy beliefs among pre-service teachers towards…

  6. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  7. An Analysis of the Performance of International Tourism Demand in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Ndiege

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the performance of Tanzanian tourism industry which depends on natural heritage tourism scene particularly natural resources by assessing the trend and forecasting the international tourism demand. The number of international tourist arrivals in Tanzania is used as the proxy measure for international tourism demand. Using the data for the period of 2001q1- 2010q4 and using ARIMA model, the study asserts that the international tourism demand in Tanzania is growing though in a very low pace of about 1% per year. This is less than world average growth that has reported by World Tourism Organization (UNWTO in 2012 to reach 4-5% per annum. Moreover, the Tanzania international tourism demand is becoming increasingly less competitive and has been fluctuating over the years. Thus to reap enough from the world growing international tourism demand the development of artificial tourism scene to supplement the natural heritage and development of new tourism products should be given more attention in a Tanzania tourism industry development.

  8. Private Capital, Public Goods: Forest Plantations' Investment in Local Infrastructure and Social Services in Rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degnet, M.B.; Werf, van der E.; Ingram, V.J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of private forest plantations worldwide, their impacts on local development are under scrutiny by NGOs and researchers alike. This study investigates the impacts of private forest plantations on local infrastructure and social services in rural Tanzania. We take a

  9. Pedagogical Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care in Tanzania: Policy and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mligo, Ignasia; Mitchell, Linda; Bell, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine current pedagogical practices in early childhood education and care in Tanzania, a reflection from policy and practices to the implementation of Learner-Centred Pedagogy and to put forward possible improvements for the future. In 2005 a new pre-school education curriculum introduced a learner-centred…

  10. Abundance and Ecology of Leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren

    habitats such as rainforests. The Udzungwa Mountains in South Central Tanzania are covered in both rainforest and more familiar African habitats, holds an incredible number of mammal species and a completely unknown population of leopards. In this study I used automatic camera traps that took photos of all...

  11. Identification, characterisation and composition of scavengeable feed resources for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Katule, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A participatory study was carried out in four villages of central Tanzania to appraise existing and potential scavengeable feed resources available for rural poultry. In addition, proximate analysis of selected scavengeable feed resources including chicken crop and gizzards contents was carried out

  12. Sustainable Interventions in Enhancing Gender Parity in Senior Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Watende Pius; He, Chen; Yusuph, Mashala Lameck

    2017-01-01

    Despite the international campaigns for gender equality and equity in Higher Education Institutions, studies conducted in several countries continue to show that women are underrepresented in senior leadership positions in universities. Women leaders in higher education subsector in Tanzania are very few. Of all the 60 and above universities and…

  13. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation - Vol 82, No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of forest land tenure regimes on forest condition in Uluguru mountains, Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MM Kitula, GC Kajembe, E Zahabu, EJ Luoga, JZ Katani, SE Ngowi, E Tron, 68-91 ...

  14. An Approach to ICT-based School Education in Tanzania | Senzige ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... work an approach has been suggested based on survey conducted by the authors and an implemented model in another developing country. The main focus of this approach is the use of ICT in schools (both primary and secondary) in Tanzania considering resource constraint as a major factor. African Journal of Finance ...

  15. A diatom record of recent environmental change in Lake Duluti, northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Helena; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Westerberg, Lars-Ove

    2012-01-01

    Lake Duluti is a small, topographically closed crater lake located on the flanks of Mt Meru, northern Tanzania. Analyses of diatoms in three short sediment cores and four modern samples from Lake Duluti were used to infer past environmental changes. 210Pb and 137Cs activity profiles combined...

  16. Prevalence of, and Factors Associated with, Unemployment among Graduates: Evidence from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Jaquiline

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment in Tanzania and many other sub-Saharan African countries has remained one of the daunting challenges in these nascent economies. Drawing on secondary sources, this article reviews and analyses the employment barriers Tanzanian graduates face, with a view to discussing possible counter-strategies. The article reveals barriers to…

  17. New Leptospira serovar Sokoine of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from cattle in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgode, G. F.; Machang'u, R. S.; Goris, M. G.; Engelbert, M.; Sondij, S.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of leptospirosis is generally high in domestic animals and rodents in Tanzania. Identification of Leptospira isolates from cattle was carried out to establish prevalent Leptospira serovars. Serological typing was done based on monoclonal antibodies and the standard cross-agglutination

  18. Provision of family planning services in Tanzania: a comparative analysis of public and private facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakoko, D.C.; Ketting, E.; Kamazima, S.R.; Ruben, R.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based

  19. E-learning course design in teacher design teams. Experiences in the Open University of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nihuka, Kassimu A.; Voogt, Joke

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative course design in teacher design teams (TDTs) has proved to be a promising professional development arrangement. This study explored the potential of TDTs in orienting teachers on course redesign for e-learning delivery at the context of Open University of Tanzania (OUT). Three teachers

  20. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work Stress in Academia in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila

    2014-01-01

    Work stress has been identified as a common phenomenon in the teaching profession. However, little research has been done to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with work stress among employees in university context in Tanzania and sub-Saharan African countries in general. Using survey design within the quantitative approach, this…