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Sample records for korean infant developmental

  1. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQwere analysed bymultiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant......Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims......: To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity,mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association...

  2. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants.

  3. Mutations of the Norrie gene in Korean ROP infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Seong Sup

    2002-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate if there is a Norrie disease gene (ND gene) mutation involved in the retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to identify the possibility of a genetic abnormality that may be linked to the presence of ROP. Nineteen premature Korean infants, with a low birth weight (1500 g or less) or low gestational age (32 weeks or less), were included in the study. Eighteen infants had ROP, and the other did not. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of these patients, and all three exons and their flanking areas, all known ND gene mutations regions, were evaluated following amplification by a polymerase chain reaction, but no ND gene mutations were detected. Any disagreement between the relationship of ROP to the ND gene mutation will need to be clarified by further investigation.

  4. Acceptance of Disability and Hwa-Byung among Korean Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Hwang, Jowon; Park, Sukyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how child problem behaviour could be related to maternal Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean culture syndrome, meaning "anger illness") among Korean mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Acceptance of disabilities and parenting stress were tested as mediators for the relationship between child problem behaviour and…

  5. A Study of Korean Working Mothers with Infants: Implications for Research and Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, So-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a broad range of variables that predict maternal self-efficacy with a sample of 92 Korean working mothers whose infants are cared for at non-maternal child care settings. In addition, differences between mothers of infants on welfare roll and their socioeconomic status (SES) counterparts (not on welfare)…

  6. Korean Gifted Education: Domain-Specific Developmental Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee; Suh, Yewon

    2016-01-01

    The current Korean gifted education system is designed to help gifted children have a balance between excellence and emotional and social wellbeing. In this article, the current status of Korean gifted education is presented, reflecting on the history, purpose, theoretical foundation, infrastructure, and state of art of gifted education with…

  7. South Korean Development Cooperation in Africa: The Legacy of a Developmental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kalinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the legacy of the South Korean developmental state influences the way the country conducts its development cooperation (DC policies. We argue that institutions of the developmental state remain instrumental in structuring South Korea’s cooperation with the developing world. Two country case studies of South Korean DC and investment projects in Mozambique and Rwanda show that state initiative and a strong state–business partnership are defining elements of South Korean DC. At the same time, both cases show substantial differences when it comes to type of project, type of state–business partnership in the South Korean approach, degree of project ownership by the recipient country, and quality of governance in the recipient countries.

  8. Determinants of developmental delay in infants aged 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Rebecca F; Thompson, John M D; Clark, Phillipa M; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Pryor, Jan E; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which demographic, maternal, obstetric and postnatal variables were associated with achievement of developmental milestones at the age of 12 months in term infants. Mothers and babies were enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study shortly after birth. All infants were full term (gestation >or= 37 weeks). Approximately half of the sample were small for gestational age (SGA = birthweight 10th percentile). A maternal interview was conducted soon after birth. Phase 2 of the study occurred 12 months later when mothers were sent a postal questionnaire requesting information about the child's health and development during the first year of life using the Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. Seven hundred and forty-four (85.4%) European mothers returned the postal questionnaire. SGA children were not at increased risk of developmental delay at 12 months of age. In a sample representative of New Zealand European children, after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]), maternal smoking during the first year of life (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.8]) and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.1, 5.2]) were associated with significantly increased risk of developmental delay. In the subgroup of SGA children, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.9 [95% CI 1.4, 6.2]), high levels of stress associated with parenting (OR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.2, 4.0]), and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 4.3 [95% CI 1.3, 13.5]) were significantly associated with developmental delay after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders. In conclusion, maternal and postnatal factors were better predictors of developmental delay than demographic variables.

  9. The Korean Military Advisory Group -- Developmental Challenges during Ongoing Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    from the North ( Lawrence , KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010), 304-305. Allen Millett describes in great detail the maneuver techniques implemented...in Korea, 1946-1948: The Intelligent Man on the Spot,” 192; Allan R. Millett, “Captain James H. Hausman and the Formation of the Korean Army, 1945...Oberdorfer retold a story of a prominent military strategist, Colonel Harry Summers , who stated, “…arriving for duty as a US Army private and being

  10. Predicting Developmental Disorder in Infants Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother–child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants. The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant’s development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  11. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  12. [A study of infant mortality rate in Korean rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y H

    1981-10-31

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to identify the level of birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas. The objectives of this study were to collect available information on birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas, and estimate actual levels of birth and infant mortality in these areas. Within these areas, events of birth and death are continuously recorded by the field health workers, such as the Family Folder, maternal health service card, and the infant-child health service card. Study areas included all the KHDI demonstration areas (Hongchon, Okgu, Gunee). However, 2 myons in the Okgu area were excluded from the study areas since there was no community health practitioner assigned there. The data were collected by 24 community health practitioners and 80 community health aides in the 3 demonstration areas, according to the survey format. These health workers examined and searched existing records. After filling out the survey questionnaires, these health workers made contact with village health workers, "Li" chiefs, mother's club chiefs, or Saemaul leaders at the village level in order that they might gather additional information on possible items which were omitted. Afterwards, health workers made home visits to selected households which were known to have had births or deaths during the 1 year period between January-December 1979. A review of the activities of the health workers during this study indicated that professional survey workers were needed. In addition, 8 surveyors were employed and trained by KHDI to strengthen field survey efforts; they were dispatched to Hongchon and Okgu for 17 days. A total number of 3302 live births and 120 infant deaths were recorded during 1979. All data collected were tabulated by manual counting in the KHDI office. Infant mortality was estimated to be 36.34/1000 births in the demonstration areas during 1979 (rate in Hongchon Gun was 34.5, 31.0 in Okgu Gun, and 46.2 in Gunee Gun). (author's)

  13. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean infants and children: imaging findings and diverse clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, In One; Lim, Myung Kwan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean infants and children, and we sought to evaluate the prognostic factors. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy was diagnosed in 14 Korean infants and children. We retrospectively analyzed the neuroimaging findings including the follow-up changes. The clinical course of the disease was graded, and we evaluated prognostic factors including age, serum level of the aminotransferase, hemorrhage, and localized atrophy of the brain. This encephalopathy predominantly affected the bilateral thalami (n = 14), pons (n = 12), and midbrain (n = 10) in a symmetrical pattern. Hemorrhage was observed in eight patients (57%). On the follow-up images (n = 12), the brain lesions were reduced in extent for all patients, and generalized atrophy was seen in six patients. Localized tissue loss was observed in five patients and a complete resolution occurred for one patient. All the patients survived and two recovered completely; mild (n = 6) to severe (n = 6) neurological deficits persisted in the remaining 12 patient. The significant prognostic factors identified in this study were the presence of hemorrhage (ρ 0.009) and localized atrophy (ρ = 0.015). Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean patients showed the characteristic patterns of the post-infectious encephalopathy as described in the literature. The high survival rate and the relatively favorable clinical course observed for the present study suggest a more diverse spectrum of disease severity than was previously described. The presence of hemorrhage and localized tissue loss on MR images may suggest a poor prognosis

  14. Usefulness of 1000-Hz probe tone in tympanometry according to age in Korean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mina; Han, Kyu-Hee; Jung, Hyunseo; Kim, Mee-Hee; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the superiority of a 1000-Hz frequency probe tone for evaluating the middle ear status of infants. However, most of these studies examined Caucasian populations. This study validated the 1000-Hz probe tone and evaluated the age at which it should be used in Korean infants. Data from 83 infants (43 males, 40 females; mean age 9.2±6.2 (range 1-30) months, 165 ears) were analyzed. Tympanograms were classified according to Baldwin's modification of the method of Marchant et al. and correlated with results based on combined diagnostic tests, including an endoscopic examination of the tympanic membrane, myringotomy findings, and the air and bone conduction auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds. Data were analyzed in five age groups, each covering a 3-month range. The traces were measured for both 226- and 1000-Hz probe tones. The sensitivity and specificity for the different age groups were also determined. For the 226-Hz probe tone, the tympanograms showed normal traces for most ears with otitis media effusions in infants younger than 12 months. By contrast, the tympanograms using the 1000-Hz probe tone showed abnormal traces in most of the infants with otitis media effusions in all age groups. In infants with no otitis media effusion, the tympanograms using both 226- and 1000-Hz probe tones were interpreted as normal in most cases in all age groups. In infants younger than 12 months, the sensitivity of the 226-Hz probe tone was very low (0-6.6%), whereas that of the 1000-Hz probe tone was very high (90-100%). In infants older than 13 months, however, the sensitivities of the 226- and 1000-Hz probe tones were 76.2% and 85.7%, respectively. Regarding specificity, the difference between the two probe tones was not significant for any age group. This study confirmed the superiority of the 1000-Hz probe tone for evaluating the middle ear in infants. We recommend using a 1000-Hz probe tone at least up to the age of 12 months for Korean

  15. Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Ahlborg, U. G.; van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L. S.; Boersma, E. R.; Bosveld, B.; Denison, M. S.; Gray, L. E.; Hagmar, L.; Holene, E.

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  16. Developmental Changes in the Responses of Preterm Infants to a Painful Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel; Townsend, Elise L.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Guiang, Sixto F.; Ciffuentes, Raul F.; Lussky, Richard C.; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine longitudinally gestational age and developmental differences in preterm infants' self-regulatory abilities in response to a painful stressor, as well as associations between behavioral and cardiovascular responses. Participants included 49 healthy premature infants. Behavioral and cardiovascular responses to a heel stick blood draw were compared between infants of 28–31 and 32–34 weeks gestational age at birth. Both gestational age groups displ...

  17. Care of preterm infants: programs of research and their relationship to developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Black, Beth Perry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the topics covered in current programs of nursing research on the care of the preterm infant and to determine the extent to which this research is informed by developmental science. A researcher was considered to have a current program of research if he or she had at least five publications published since 1990 and was the first author on at least three of them. The infants in a study could be any age from birth throughout childhood; studies focusing on parenting, nursing, or other populations of infants were not included. Seventeen nurse researchers had current programs of research in this area. These programs had four themes. Those of Becker, Evans, Pridham, Shiao, and Zahr focused on infant responses to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment and treatments. Franck, Johnston, and Stevens focused on pain management. Harrison, Ludington-Hoe, and White-Traut's research focused on infant stimulation. Holditch-Davis, McCain, McGrath, Medoff-Cooper, Schraeder, and Youngblut studied infant behavior and development. These research programs had many strengths, including strong interdisciplinary focus and clinical relevance. However, additional emphasis is needed on the care of the critically ill infant. Also, despite the fact that the preterm infant's neurological system develops rapidly over the first year, only three of these researchers used a developmental science perspective. Only research on infant behavior and development focused on the developmental changes that the infants were experiencing. Most of the studies were longitudinal, but many did not use statistics appropriate for identifying stability and change over time. The response of individual infants and the broader ecological context as evidenced by factors such as gender, ethnic group, culture, and intergenerational effects were rarely examined. Thus research on the care of preterm infants could be expanded if the developmental science perspective

  18. Correlation Between Mothers' Depression and Developmental Delay in Infants Aged 6-18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2015-08-23

    Regarding the importance of children's developmental status and various factors that delay their development, this study was conducted to examine the correlation between mothers' depression levels and the developmental delay in infants. This descriptive study was performed on 1053 mothers and their infants' age 6 to18 month-old in medical centers affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2014-2015. The participants were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The following instruments were used in this study: A demographic and obstetric specification questionnaire, infant specification questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire to determine the status of the children's development. The data were analyzed using SPSS19 software, Mann-Whitney; independent T-test and logistic-Regression tests were used. The results showed that 491 mothers (46.7%) suffered mild to extremely severe depression. The delay in infant development was 11.8%. The Mann-Whitney test showed a correlation between mothers' depression levels and developmental delay in infants (P=0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between mothers' depression and developmental delays in gross-motor and problem-solving skills (Pmothers' depression and infant development, it is recommended to screen mothers for depression in order to perform early interventions in developmental delay.

  19. Growth of Korean preterm infants in a family-centered tradition during early infancy: the influence of health risks, maternal employment, and the sex of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Lee, Sangmi

    2014-10-01

    The physical growth of mild preterm infants (maternal employment status, and the infant sex. There were four noteworthy findings on growth variation in Korean mild preterm infants during early infancy: (i) the secular trend of intrauterine growth; (ii) the cumulative adverse effects of four risk factors; (iii) the possible burden of maternal employment if insufficient support; and (iv) the possibility of the cultural favoritism to male infants regardless of the modern industrialized society. The study suggests that, in a modern society, while mild preterm infants could sustain typical fetal growth, the early postnatal growth may vary based on health risks and sociocultural circumstances related to child-bearing and -rearing practices surrounding them. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  20. Breast functions perceived by Korean mothers: infant nutrition and female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Yoo, Eunkwang

    2010-04-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional study of 2,235 Korean postpartum women was conducted to explore (a) feeding types with related factors, (b) the perceived benefits of each feeding type, (c) the perceived sexuality-related barriers to breast-feeding, and (d) the perceived relative significance of breast functions. The most frequently utilized feeding type was breast-feeding only. The gender of infants, vaginal delivery, not being employed, having a nuclear family, previous breast-feeding experience, and previously receiving breast-feeding education were statistically significant factors of breast-feeding. Breast-feeding and mixed feeding mothers indicated that their feeding choices were based on nutritional benefits, convenience, and improving family relationships. Only breast-feeding mothers reported changes in breast shape as a perceived sexuality-related barrier to breast-feeding. All mothers reported that infant feeding was a more significant concern than female sexual functioning, but post hoc Schéffe revealed that the breast-feeding mothers appreciated infant feeding function more than female sexual functioning.

  1. Accentuate or repeat? Brain signatures of developmental periods in infant word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Language acquisition has long been discussed as an interaction between biological preconditions and environmental input. This general interaction seems particularly salient in lexical acquisition, where infants are already able to detect unknown words in sentences at 7 months of age, guided by phonological and statistical information in the speech input. While this information results from the linguistic structure of a given language, infants also exploit situational information, such as speakers' additional word accentuation and word repetition. The current study investigated the developmental trajectory of infants' sensitivity to these two situational input cues in word recognition. Testing infants at 6, 9, and 12 months of age, we hypothesized that different age groups are differentially sensitive to accentuation and repetition. In a familiarization-test paradigm, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed age-related differences in infants' word recognition as a function of situational input cues: at 6 months infants only recognized previously accentuated words, at 9 months both accentuation and repetition played a role, while at 12 months only repetition was effective. These developmental changes are suggested to result from infants' advancing linguistic experience and parallel auditory cortex maturation. Our data indicate very narrow and specific input-sensitive periods in infant word recognition, with accentuation being effective prior to repetition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Communication Deficits in Infants and Toddlers with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Turygin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research that focuses on detecting and assessing the presence of communication impairments in children with developmental disabilities exists. However, more research is needed which compares these deficits across individuals with various developmental disabilities. This information could inform the assessment process and treatment programs.…

  3. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  4. Associations Between Maternal-Foetal Attachment and Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branjerdporn, Grace; Meredith, Pamela; Strong, Jenny; Garcia, Jenniffer

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Infant developmental outcomes may be influenced by a range of prenatal maternal characteristics. While there is some evidence to suggest that maternal-foetal attachment may be associated with infant developmental outcomes, there is a need to systematically review this evidence to guide future research and clinical practice. Methods Five electronic databases were systematically scanned. Key journals and reference lists were hand-searched. Papers were included if: (1) pregnant women were assessed for maternal-foetal attachment; (2) the infants were later assessed, under 2 years old, for any developmental outcome (e.g., social-emotional, cognition, motor, language, adaptive behaviour); and (3) they were published in English. Two independent reviewers used the STROBE checklist to appraise the quality of each paper. Results Of the 968 papers identified, eight were included in the review, and four of these were of low quality (infant temperament (n = 5), adaptive behaviour (e.g., colic, sleep) (n = 2), and milestone attainment (n = 1). There is some evidence to suggest that lower maternal-foetal attachment is related to suboptimal developmental outcomes. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited and low quality studies available. Conclusions Although maternal-foetal attachment may be associated with infant developmental outcomes, future research is required which: (1) considers a range of developmental outcomes, (2) has increased scientific rigour, (3) assesses mother-infant dyads at different prenatal and postnatal time points, and (4) examines different target populations.

  5. Developmental Psychology: How Social Context Influences Infants' Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Sam V; Leong, Victoria

    2016-05-09

    A recent study shows that changes in the focus of a social partner's attention associate, on a second-by-second scale, with changes in how much attention infants pay to objects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urban communities with a focus on early childhood development and FASD. Keywords: .... The level of cognitive and motor development of infants and children, at both time ..... Child Psychology Psychiatry2000; 41: 737-747. 27. Atkinson L ...

  7. Developmental pathways in infants from 4 to 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, L; Birkeland, M S; Hofoss, D; Slinning, K

    2017-07-01

    There has been limited epidemiological research describing population-based samples regarding developmental pathways throughout infancy, and the research that exists has revealed substantial diversity. Identifying predictors for developmental pathways can inform early intervention services. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire was used to measure communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving and personal-social skills longitudinally in a large, population-based sample of 1555 infants recruited from well-baby clinics in five municipalities in southeast Norway. We conducted latent class analyses to identify common pathways within the five developmental areas. Our results indicated that most classes of infants showed generally positive and stable normative developmental pathways. However, for communication and gross motor areas, more heterogeneity was found. For gross motor development, a class of 10% followed a U-shaped curve. A class of 8% had a declining communication pathway and did not reach the level of the high stable communication class at 24 months. Low gestational age, low Apgar score, male sex, maternal depression symptoms, non-Scandinavian maternal ethnicity and high maternal education significantly predict less beneficial communication pathways. The results suggest that infants with low gestational age, low Apgar score, male sex and a mother with depression symptoms or non-Scandinavian ethnicity may be at risk of developing less beneficial developmental pathways, especially within the communication area. Targeting these infants for surveillance and support might be protective against delayed development in several areas during a critical window of development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Developmental care does not alter sleep and development of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Thoman, E B; Boeddiker, M A; Kugener, B; Constantinou, J C; Mirmiran, M; Baldwin, R B

    1997-12-01

    The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Program (NIDCAP) for very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants has been suggested by Als et al to improve several medical outcome variables such as time on ventilator, time to nipple feed, the duration of hospital stay, better behavioral performance on Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB), and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We have tested the hypothesis of whether the infants who had received NIDCAP would show advanced sleep-wake pattern, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcome. Thirty-five VLBW infants were randomly assigned to receive NIDCAP or routine infant care. The goals for NIDCAP intervention were to enhance comfort and stability and to reduce stress and agitation for the preterm infants by: a) altering the environment by decreasing excess light and noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and by using covers over the incubators and cribs; b) use of positioning aids such as boundary supports, nests, and buntings to promote a balance of flexion and extension postures; c) modification of direct hands-on caregiving to maximize preparation of infants for, tolerance of, and facilitation of recovery from interventions; d) promotion of self-regulatory behaviors such as holding on, grasping, and sucking; e) attention to the readiness for and the ability to take oral feedings; and f) involving parents in the care of their infants as much as possible. The infants' sleep was recorded at 36 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and at 3 months corrected age (CA) using the Motility Monitoring System (MMS), an automated, nonintrusive procedure for determining sleep state from movement and respiration patterns. Behavioral and developmental outcome was assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) at 36 weeks PCA, the APIB at 42 weeks PCA, and by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 4, 12, and 24 months CA. Sleep developmental measures at 3 months CA showed a

  9. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. Dropout in looking time studies: The role of infants' temperament and cognitive developmental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9 months of age. At 9 months of age, an additional habituation task and a subsequent novelty preference task were conducted. In addition, temperament was assessed via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (IBQ-R, Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), and cognitive developmental status was assessed via the Cognitive Scale of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III, Bayley, 2006). Dropout was positively related to the IBQ-R temperament scales Distress to Limitations and Approach, and negatively related to the scales Falling Reactivity and Cuddliness. The representativeness of the final sample regarding situation-specific temperament dimensions is affected by dropout. Dropout was not related to cognitive developmental status as measured via the BSID-III, habituation speed and novelty preference. Dropout at 6 months of age was associated with dropout at 9 months of age. We concluded that in looking time studies, the representativeness of the final sample regarding performance-relevant temperament dimensions or cognitive developmental status is not affected by dropout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie

    2011-10-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released

  12. Transient hypothyroxinaemia associated with developmental delay in very preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Brand, R.; Brande, J.L. van den

    1992-01-01

    In 563 surviving very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) and/or very low birthweight (<1500 g) infants the relationship between neonatal thyroxine concentration and psychomotor development at 2 years of age (corrected for preterm birth) was studied. A significant association was found between low

  13. Predictors of Developmental Outcomes for Infants Who Are Medically Fragile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B.; Boyce, Glenna C.

    This paper presents results of a preliminary study which evaluated medical birth data as potential predictors of developmental outcome, and developed and tested an instrument designed for this purpose. Forty low birthweight children, all of whom had experienced neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, were evaluated at school age (66 months) on the…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ouss

    2018-02-01

    are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance

  15. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  16. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  17. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pPermanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly contribute to the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in preterm infants.

  18. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  19. Very pre-term infants' behaviour at 1 and 2 years of age and parental stress following basic developmental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.M.; Bruil, J.; Cessie, S. le; Zwieten, P. van; Veen, S.; Wit, J.M.; Walther, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at I and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard

  20. Age correction in cognitive, linguistic, and motor domains for infants born preterm: an analysis of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition developmental patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsan, Valentina; Fantoni, Carlo; Tallandini, Maria Anna

    2018-03-15

    To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age. The developmental trends of infants born at term and infants born preterm differ across domains. Statistical analysis shows that age correction produces an overrated estimate of motor performance (12.5 points [95% confidence interval 9.05-16.01]) but not of cognitive performance. Given the broad use of the Bayley-III by psychologists and paediatricians, these results are important in the early diagnosis of developmental difficulties for children born preterm. Correction for gestational age should be applied for the cognitive domain only; whereas for the motor domain, chronological age should be used. No clear data emerged for language. Age correction with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) for infants born preterm should be applied differently in cognitive, language, and motor domains. Using corrected age with Bayley-III, the motor skills are overrated. Correction for preterm births adequately measures cognitive skills. No clear indication emerged about language skills. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in alveolar and white matter developmental failure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Vadim S

    2017-02-01

    At birth, some organs in premature infants are not developed enough to meet challenges of the extra-uterine life. Although growth and maturation continues after premature birth, postnatal organ development may become sluggish or even arrested, leading to organ dysfunction. There is no clear mechanistic concept of this postnatal organ developmental failure in premature neonates. This review introduces a concept-forming hypothesis: Mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction is a fundamental mechanism of organs maturation failure in premature infants. Data collected in support of this hypothesis are relevant to two major diseases of prematurity: white matter injury and broncho-pulmonary dysplasia. In these diseases, totally different clinical manifestations are defined by the same biological process, developmental failure of the main functional units-alveoli in the lungs and axonal myelination in the brain. Although molecular pathways regulating alveolar and white matter maturation differ, proper bioenergetic support of growth and maturation remains critical biological requirement for any actively developing organ. Literature analysis suggests that successful postnatal pulmonary and white matter development highly depends on mitochondrial function which can be inhibited by sublethal postnatal stress. In premature infants, sublethal stress results mostly in organ maturation failure without excessive cellular demise.

  2. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author)

  3. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  4. Regional white matter development in very preterm infants: perinatal predictors and early developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Smyser, Tara; Smyser, Christopher D; Shimony, Joshua; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for white matter (WM) injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from very preterm infants (N = 78) born regions of interest for infants with ≥2 scans (N = 50). Sixty-five children underwent neurodevelopmental testing at 2 y of age. FA slope for the posterior limb of the internal capsule was greater than other regions. The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), corpus callosum, and optic radiations demonstrated greater FA slope with increasing gestational age. Infants with patent ductus arteriosus had lower FA slope in the ALIC. MD slope was lower with prolonged ventilation or lack of antenatal steroids. At 2 y of age, lower motor scores were associated with lower FA in the left but higher FA in the right inferior temporal lobe at term-equivalent age. Better social-emotional competence was related to lower FA in the left cingulum bundle. This study demonstrates regional variability in the susceptibility/sensitivity of WM maturation to perinatal factors and relationships between altered diffusion measures and developmental outcomes in preterm neonates.

  5. Developmental changes rather than repeated administration drive paracetamol glucuronidation in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekels, Elke H J; van Ham, Saskia; Allegaert, Karel; de Hoon, Jan; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2015-09-01

    Based on recovered metabolite ratios in urine, it has been concluded that paracetamol glucuronidation may be up-regulated upon multiple dosing. This study investigates paracetamol clearance in neonates and infants after single and multiple dosing using a population modelling approach. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed in NONMEM VI, based on paracetamol plasma concentrations from 54 preterm and term neonates and infants, and on paracetamol, paracetamol-glucuronide and paracetamol-sulphate amounts in urine from 22 of these patients. Patients received either a single intravenous propacetamol dose or up to 12 repeated doses. Paracetamol and metabolite disposition was best described with one-compartment models. The formation clearance of paracetamol-sulphate was 1.46 mL/min/kg(1.4), which was about 5.5 times higher than the formation clearance of the glucuronide of 0.266 mL/min/kg. The renal excretion rate constants of both metabolites was estimated to be 11.4 times higher than the excretion rate constant of unchanged paracetamol, yielding values of 0.580 mL/min/kg. Developmental changes were best described by bodyweight in linear relationships on the distribution volumes, the formation of paracetamol-glucuronide and the unchanged excretion of paracetamol, and in an exponential relationship on the formation of paracetamol-sulphate. There was no evidence for up-regulation or other time-varying changes in any of the model parameters. Simulations with this model illustrate how paracetamol-glucuronide recovery in urine increases over time due to the slower formation of this metabolite and in the absence of up-regulation. Developmental changes, described by bodyweight-based functions, rather than up-regulation, explain developmental changes in paracetamol disposition in neonates and infants.

  6. Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsivos ZL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoe-Lydia Tsivos,1 Rachel Calam,1 Matthew R Sanders,1,2 Anja Wittkowski1 1School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Parenting and Family Support Center, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Postnatal depression (PND has negative effects on maternal well-being as well as implications for the mother–infant relationship, subsequent infant development, and family functioning. There is growing evidence demonstrating that PND impacts on a mother’s ability to interact with sensitivity and responsiveness as a caregiver, which may have implications for the infant’s development of self-regulatory skills, making the infant more vulnerable to later psychopathology. Given the possible intergenerational transmission of risk to the infant, the mother–infant relationship is a focus for treatment and research. However, few studies have assessed the effect of treatment on the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and investigate effect sizes of interventions for PND, which assess the quality of the mother–infant dyad relationship and/or child outcomes in addition to maternal mood. Nineteen studies were selected for review, and their methodological quality was evaluated, where possible, effect sizes across maternal mood, quality of dyadic relationship, and child developmental outcomes were calculated. Finally, clinical implications in the treatment of PND are highlighted and recommendations made for further research. Keywords: postnatal depression, infant development, intervention, dyad, mother–infant relationship, systematic review

  7. Measuring functional developmental delay in infants and young children: prevalence rates from the NHIS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gloria A; Colpe, Lisa; Greenspan, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In order to measure the prevalence of developmental delay among US infants and children, two types of questions were asked of parents in the 1994-95 National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D). To measure functional delay (FD), questions from the Functional Developmental Growth Chart (FDQ), which measures specific age-appropriate tasks, were used. General delay (GD) was defined using the general type of questions about developmental delay that had been used in previous surveys. Using a nationally representative sample of 15 291 infants and children aged 4-59 months from the NHIS-D, analyses revealed that, according to these questions, approximately 3.3% had FD and 3.4% of the children had GD. However, only one-third of the children were identified by both sets of questions. Thus, two-thirds of the children identified as having FD were not recognised by their parents as having a delay. Conversely, many parents responded to the GD questions indicating that their child had a delay, but failed to indicate that their child had a functional problem. In addition, only 17% of the children with FD and 31% of those with GD were receiving special services. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that children with both FD and GD were more likely to be male and to be living in families with incomes below 200% of the poverty level. The findings suggest that the general types of developmental delay questions used in national surveys may not identify children with functional delays. As parents failed to identify these children, it is possible that many of these children may be slipping through paediatric surveillance. Further research to evaluate the use of these measures in population surveys is recommended.

  8. Risk status for dropping out of developmental followup for very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlett, A T; Thompson, R J; Johndrow, D A; Boshkoff, M R

    1993-01-01

    Not keeping scheduled visits for medical care is a major health care issue. Little research has addressed how the interaction of demographic and biomedical parameters with psychosocial processes has an impact on appointment keeping. Typical factors are stress of daily living, methods of coping, social support, and instrumental support (that is, tangible assistance). In this study, the authors examine the role of these parameters and processes in the risk status for dropping out of a developmental followup program for very low birth weight infants. The findings suggest that the stress of daily living is a significant predictor for the mother's return when the infant is 6 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The predictors for return at 24 months corrected age include marital status, race, gestational age of the infant, maternal intelligence, and efficacy expectations. Providing transportation was found to be a successful intervention strategy for a subgroup at very high risk for dropping out due to a constellation of biomedical, demographic, and psychosocial factors.

  9. Developmental Origins of Biological Explanations: The case of infants' internal property bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda-Osorio, Hernando; Cheries, Erik W

    2017-10-01

    People's explanations about the biological world are heavily biased toward internal, non-obvious properties. Adults and children as young as 5 years of age find internal properties more causally central than external features for explaining general biological processes and category membership. In this paper, we describe how this 'internal property bias' may be grounded in two different developmental precursors observed in studies with infants: (1) an early understanding of biological agency that is apparent in infants' reasoning about animals, and (2) the acquisition of kind-based representations that distinguish between essential and accidental properties, spanning from animals to artifacts. We argue that these precursors may support the progressive construction of the notion of biological kinds and explanations during childhood. Shortly after their first year of life, infants seem to represent the internal properties of animates as more central and identity-determining that external properties. Over time, this skeletal notion of biological kinds is integrated into diverse explanations about kind membership and biological processes, with an increasingly better understanding of the causal role of internal properties.

  10. The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Mostert, Adriaan K.; Castelein, René M.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Kerkhoff, Antoon

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type

  11. Web-Based Intervention to Teach Developmentally Supportive Care to Parents of Preterm Infants: Feasibility and Acceptability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Xie, Li Feng; Peckre, Perrine; Cote, Sylvana; Karsenti, Thierry; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Gosselin, Julie

    2017-11-30

    Preterm birth affects 8% to 11% of the population and conveys a significant risk of developmental delays. Intervention programs that support child development have been shown to have a positive impact on early motor and cognitive development and on parental well-being. However, these programs are often difficult to implement in a real-life setting due to lack of resources. Hence, our multidisciplinary team developed Mieux Agir au Quotidien (MAQ) to teach developmentally supportive care to parents of preterm infants with the goal of improving child development and parental outcomes. Our intervention included 3 in-person workshops that occurred prior to hospital discharge and a Web-based platform with written and videotaped materials that addressed 5 main themes: (1) infant behavioral cues, (2) flexion positioning; (3) oral feeding support, (4) parent-infant interactions, and (5) anticipation of developmental milestones. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention by parents of preterm infants and assess clinical benefits on child neurodevelopment and parental outcomes during the first year of life. A total of 107 infants born at children and investigate how Web-based technologies can efficiently complement individualized intervention to alleviate the burden on health care resources. ©Thuy Mai Luu, Li Feng Xie, Perrine Peckre, Sylvana Cote, Thierry Karsenti, Claire-Dominique Walker, Julie Gosselin. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 30.11.2017.

  12. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL FOLLOW-UP OF A FEMALE INFANT WITH RECOMBINANT DOWN SYNDROME UP TO THREE AND A HALF YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Strah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant Down Syndrome with partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 21 represents a rare form of partial trisomy 21. The cause is mostly chromosome rearrangement- pericentric inversion of maternal or paternal homologous chromosome 21 and duplication of Down syndrome critical region p11.1q22.1, resulting in a child with phenotypical signs of classical Down syndrome with psychomotorical developmental delay. Methods: We describe a Down sydrome female infant with partial trisomy of chromosome 21. Ultra- sound screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester of pregnancy determined high risk for chromosomal abnormality. Amniocentesis showed normal prenatal karyotype. After birth a female infant started to show symptoms and signs, typical for classical Down syndrome. Postnatal karyotype revealed pericentric inversion and duplication of one chro- mosome 21 of maternal origin in the p11.1q22.1 region. The follow up of female infant up to three and a half years shows signs of psychomotorical delay with no structural defects. Therefore her developmental amelioration is less expressed compared to classical Down syndrome. Conclusions: Developmental follow up of a girl with partial trisomy 21 reveals a lot of similarities with the development of children with classical trisomy 21, but less expressed: facial gestalt, short statue, hypotonia and intellectual disabilities. Global developmental delay in spite of developmental treatment grows more and more evidently.

  14. Use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, to Assess Developmental Outcome in Infants and Young Children in an Urban Setting in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ballot, Daynia E.; Ramdin, Tanusha; Rakotsoane, David; Agaba, Faustine; Davies, Victor A.; Chirwa, Tobias; Cooper, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. Aim. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores done in the same children before and after one year of age. Methods. Cohort follow-up study. Results. 7...

  15. Parental experiences of a developmentally focused care program for infants and children during prolonged hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephanie; Rogers, Alaine; Patterson, Catherine; Drew, Wendy; Maxwell, Julia; Darch, Jane; Hoyle, Carolyn; Patterson, Sarah; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates parental experiences and perceptions of the care received during their child's prolonged hospitalization. It relates this care to the Beanstalk Program (BP), a develop-mentally focused care program provided to these families within an acute care hospital setting. A total of 20 parents (of children hospitalized between 1-15 months) completed the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) with additional questions regarding the BP. Scores rate the extent of the health-care provider's behaviour as perceived by the family, ranging from 'to a great extent' (7) to 'never' (1). Parents rated Respectful and Supportive Care (6.33) as highest, while Providing General Information (5.65) was rated lowest. Eleven parents participated in a follow-up, qualitative, semi-structured interview. Interview data generated key themes: (a) parents strive for positive and normal experiences for their child within the hospital environment; (b) parents value the focus on child development in the midst of their child's complex medical care; and (c) appropriate developmentally focused education helps parents shift from feeling overwhelmed with a medically ill child to instilling feelings of confidence and empowerment to care for their child and transition home. These results emphasize the importance of enhancing child development for hospitalized infants and young children through programs such as the BP. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Vocalization of Emotional and Social Expressions in Korean-Speaking Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Sook; Shin, Yee Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Lee, Gui Jong; Ryu, Jeong; Son, Oweol; Cho, Sook Whan

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the development of socializing and emotional expressions through vocalizations and joint attention (JA) behaviors in Korean-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared to those with developmental delay (DD). Video samples were collected from 28 toddlers with ASD and 18 age-matched toddlers with DD, and vocalizations were each coded in detail for the purpose of this retrospective research. In addition to some statistical analysis, Computerized Language Analysis was conducted to obtain the final results. Although they produced a higher number of vocalizations than the DD group, the ASD group did not engage in emotional or social interactions with their caretakers, whereas the DD group did. The children with ASD used more atypical vocalizations and socially unengaged vocalizations than the children with DD did. JA using vocalizations in the ASD group, in particular, was largely dyadic, with triadic types occurring at a significantly lower frequency than those in the DD group. Results from this study indicate the importance of assessing early vocalizations in toddlers with ASD, suggesting that some common symptoms of ASD, such as lack of typical, emotional, and social functions in early vocalizations, could be used to develop screening and intervention programs related to ASD. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  17. CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC REASONABILITY OF USING PROBIOTIC ENTEROCOCCUS STRAIN FOR THE COMPLEX DEVELOPMENTAL CARE PROGRAM FOR PREMATURE INFANTS

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    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Possibilities of using probiotic enterococci in premature neonates undergoing inpatient antibacterial therapy remains understudied. The article is aimed at analyzing clinical and pharmacoeconomic reasonability of using probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 strain in premature infants with very low body weight in the framework of complex inpatient developmental care. Patients and methods. 55 children randomized into 2 groups were observed: the control group (n = 26 was undergoing standard developmental care program, the primary group (n = 29 was introduced liquid probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 strain (titer — 108 CFU/ml or more (0.5 ml TID for 14 days after attaining the enteral feeding volume of 5.0 ml. Results. Analysis of the clinical symptoms characteristic of non-smooth course of developmental care over premature infants helped to reveal higher frequency of infectious complications in the control group children than in the primary group (14 [53.8%] vs. 6 [20.7%]; p < 0.05. Acute food intolerance was observed less frequently in the primary group than in the control group (6 [20.7%] vs. 10 [38.5%], p > 0.05. The primary group's children featured significant decrease in the frequency of monocytosis, positive changes of intestinal microbiotic composition (increase in the amount of bifidum bacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, decrease in the amount of Clostridium difficile and antibiotic-resistant clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Conclusion. Favorable outcome of developmental care over premature infants (absence of infectious complications was less expensive in the primary group's children.

  18. [Developmental parameters and vitality of newborn infants in the period 1991-2002 in the health centre in Subotica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durković, Jasmina; Pavlović, Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Infants having a birth weight of 2500 g or less are known as low birth weight infants. There are multiple factors which affect the nutritional status of newborn children: genetic potential, maternal age, parity, maternal health and maternal nutrition, drugs, alcohol, smoking, geographical situation and socioeconomic living conditions. Developmental parameters were analyzed in 15,455 live newborn infants in Subotica, from 1991 to 2002. The following parameters were registred: body mass in the first hour of life, body length, head and thorax circumference. These parameters were examined and correlated with other indicators of maturity and vitality, such as gestational age and Apgar score values. Parameter mean values are presented for each year from 1991 to 2002. Mean body mass values ranged from 3335.74 g in 1991 to 3418.01 g in 1998. Compared with the estimates provided by World Health Organization, the percentage of newborn infants with birth weight under 2500 g has increased (5.64%) in 1991, which was the first year of war and sanctions in our country. From 1994 to 1997, there was a war in neighbouring republics and a huge number of refugees from war regions arrived. The percentage of newborn infants with low birth weight has increased (the gratest percentage 5.08% has been found in 1996). During 1999, our country was bombed and since then, we have an increased number of newborn infants with low birth weight (4.46% were registred in 1999 to 5.22% in 2002). The number of children born before 37th week of gestation is greatest in 2000 (3.17%). Average Apgar score in 1992 was (9.20), showing graduate decrease since 1999, with lowest value during 2001 (8.85). Harmful environmental factors can strongly affect fetal growth. Continual follow-up of developmental parameters and vitality of infants on populatin level is an index of interactions between genetic potential and environmental factors, pointing to quality of health care and preventive services.

  19. Selecting score types for longitudinal evaluations: the responsiveness of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers in children with developmental disabilities

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    Tsai YP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Pei Tsai,1,2 Li-Chen Tung,1,3 Ya-Chen Lee,4 Yu-Lin Wang,1,5 Yun-Shan Yen,1 Kuan-Lin Chen4,6 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 2Department of Special Education, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 3School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 4Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 5Department of Sports Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT in children with developmental disabilities (DD.Methods: The responsiveness of a measure is its ability to detect change over time, and it is fundamental to an outcome measure for detecting changes over time. We compared the responsiveness of four types of scores (ie, raw scores, developmental ages [DAs], percentile ranks [PRs], and developmental quotients [DQs] in the five subtests of the CDIIT. The CDIIT was administrated three times at intervals of 3 months on 32 children with DD aged between 5 months and 64 months (mean =30.6, standard deviation [SD] =17.8. The CDIIT is a pediatric norm-referenced assessment commonly used for clinical diagnosis of developmental delays in five developmental areas: cognition, language, motor, social, and self-care skills. The responsiveness was analyzed using three methods: effect size, standardized response mean, and paired t-test.Results: The effect size results showed that at the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups, responsiveness was small or moderate in the raw scores and DAs of most of the subtest scores of the CDIIT, but the level of responsiveness varied in the PRs and DQs. The standardized response mean results of the 3-month

  20. Use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, to Assess Developmental Outcome in Infants and Young Children in an Urban Setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, Daynia E; Ramdin, Tanusha; Rakotsoane, David; Agaba, Faustine; Davies, Victor A; Chirwa, Tobias; Cooper, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores done in the same children before and after one year of age. Cohort follow-up study. 74 children had at least one Bayley III assessment at a mean age of 19.4 months (95% CI 18.4 to 20.4). The mean composite cognitive score was 92.2 (95% CI 89.4 to 95.0), the mean composite language score was 94.8 (95% CI 92.5 to 97.1), and mean composite motor score was 98.8 (95% CI 96.8 to 101.0). No child had developmental delay using a cut-off score of 70. In paired assessments above and below one year of age, the cognitive score remained unchanged, the language score decreased significantly ( p = 0.001), and motor score increased significantly ( p = 0.004) between the two ages. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a suitable tool for assessing development in urban children in southern Africa.

  1. White matter tract integrity and developmental outcome in newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, An N; Evangelou, Iordanis; Fatemi, Ali; Vezina, Gilbert; Mccarter, Robert; Glass, Penny; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether corpus callosum (CC) and corticospinal tract (CST) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures relate to developmental outcome in encephalopathic newborn infants after therapeutic hypothermia. Encephalopathic newborn infants enrolled in a longitudinal study underwent DTI after hypothermia. Parametric maps were generated for fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. CC and CST were segmented by DTI-based tractography. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association of DTI measures with Bayley-II Mental (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) at 15 months and 21 months of age. Fifty-two infants (males n=32, females n=20) underwent DTI at median age of 8 days. Two were excluded because of poor magnetic resonance imaging quality. Outcomes were assessed in 42/50 (84%) children at 15 months and 35/50 (70%) at 21 months. Lower CC and CST fractional anisotropy were associated with lower MDI and PDI respectively, even after controlling for gestational age, birth weight, sex, and socio-economic status. There was also a direct relationship between CC axial diffusivity and MDI, while CST radial diffusivity was inversely related to PDI. In encephalopathic newborn infants, impaired microstructural organization of the CC and CST predicts poorer cognitive and motor performance respectively. Tractography provides a reliable method for early assessment of perinatal brain injury. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  3. Regional Brain Biometrics at Term-Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, Launice; Murnick, Jonathan; Chang, Taeun; Glass, Penny; Massaro, An N

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate individual regional brain biometrics and their association with developmental outcome in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. This is a retrospective study evaluating term-equivalent magnetic resonance imaging (TE-MRI) from 27 ELBW infants with known developmental outcomes beyond 12 months corrected age. Regional biometric measurements were performed by a pediatric neuroradiologist blinded to outcome data. Measures included biparietal width, transcerebellar diameter (TCD), deep gray matter area (DGMA), ventricular dilatation, corpus callosum, and interhemispheric distance. The relationship between regional biometrics and Bayley-II developmental scores were evaluated with linear regression models. The study cohort had an average±standard deviation birth weight of 684±150 g, gestational age of 24.6±2 weeks and 48% males. DGMA was significantly associated with both cognitive and motor outcomes. Significant associations were also observed between TCD and corpus callosum splenium with cognitive and motor outcomes, respectively. Other biometric measures were not associated with outcome (p>0.05). DGMAbiometrics reflecting impaired deep gray matter, callosal, and cerebellar size is associated with worse early childhood cognitive and motor outcomes. DGMA may be the most robust single biometric measure to predict adverse developmental outcome in preterm survivors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Beyond the Distributional Input? A Developmental Investigation of Asymmetry in Infants' Categorization of Cats and Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Stephanie D.; Younger, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments are reported using a visual familiarization categorization procedure. In both experiments, infants were familiarized with sets of stimuli previously shown to contain asymmetric feature distributions that support an asymmetry in young infants' categorization of cats and dogs (i.e. infants' cat category excludes dogs but their dog…

  5. Promoting mother-infant interaction and infant mental health in low-income Korean families: attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Breitmayer, Bonnie; Kim, Mi Ja; Yang, Soo

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach (ACBA) to enhance mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-posttest control group design. Participants were 40 low-income, mother-infant (infant ages 12-36 months) dyads, 20 dyads per group. The ACBA group received 10 weekly 90-min sessions. Dependent variables were changes in mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. Additionally, we explored changes in mothers' attachment security. The groups differed significantly in changes in mother-infant interaction, infant mental health problems, and mothers' attachment security. ACBA may enhance mother-infant interaction and infants' mental health. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Breath-by-breath analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction for quantifying developmental maturity in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Craig G.; Hudson, John L.; Lee, Hoshik; Delos, John B.; Guin, Lauren E.; Vergales, Brooke D.; Paget-Brown, Alix; Kattwinkel, John; Lake, Douglas E.; Moorman, J. Randall

    2012-01-01

    In healthy neonates, connections between the heart and lungs through brain stem chemosensory pathways and the autonomic nervous system result in cardiorespiratory synchronization. This interdependence between cardiac and respiratory dynamics can be difficult to measure because of intermittent signal quality in intensive care settings and variability of heart and breathing rates. We employed a phase-based measure suggested by Schäfer and coworkers (Schäfer C, Rosenblum MG, Kurths J, Abel HH. Nature 392: 239–240, 1998) to obtain a breath-by-breath analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction. This measure of cardiorespiratory interaction does not distinguish between cardiac control of respiration associated with cardioventilatory coupling and respiratory influences on the heart rate associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We calculated, in sliding 4-min windows, the probability density of heartbeats as a function of the concurrent phase of the respiratory cycle. Probability density functions whose Shannon entropy had a interaction. In this way, we analyzed 18 infant-years of data from 1,202 patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at University of Virginia. We found evidence of interaction in 3.3 patient-years of data (18%). Cardiorespiratory interaction increased several-fold with postnatal development, but, surprisingly, the rate of increase was not affected by gestational age at birth. We find evidence for moderate correspondence between this measure of cardiorespiratory interaction and cardioventilatory coupling and no evidence for respiratory sinus arrhythmia, leading to the need for further investigation of the underlying mechanism. Such continuous measures of physiological interaction may serve to gauge developmental maturity in neonatal intensive care patients and prove useful in decisions about incipient illness and about hospital discharge. PMID:22174403

  7. Differing Developmental Trajectories in Heart Rate Responses to Speech Stimuli in Infants at High and Low Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Katherine L; Edwards, Laura A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-08-01

    We investigated heart rate (HR) in infants at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age, at high (HRA) and low (LRC) familial risk for ASD, to identify potential endophenotypes of ASD risk related to attentional responses. HR was extracted from functional near-infrared spectroscopy recordings while infants listened to speech stimuli. Longitudinal analysis revealed that HRA infants and males generally had lower baseline HR than LRC infants and females. HRA infants showed decreased HR responses to early trials over development, while LRC infants showed increased responses. These findings suggest altered developmental trajectories in physiological responses to speech stimuli over the first year of life, with HRA infants showing less social orienting over time.

  8. Correlation between hyperbilirubinemia in term infants and developmental delay in 2-4 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Wilar

    2010-06-01

    medical record of infants born between 2006-2007 in Division of Neonatology Prof. R.D. Kandoll General Hospital, Manado. Data from the medical record consisted of weeks of gestation, birth weight, Apgar scores, diagnosis of sepsis, congenital anomalies. Tenn infants with appropriate weight for gestational age were visited at their home to undergo developmental screening by Denver II and Vineland Social Maturity Scale test. Results Fifty one children enrolled in this study (26 children with hyperbilirubinemia and 25 without  hyperbilirubinemia consisted of 27 boys and 24 girls. Most children were 24 - 29 months old (24/51. The results of Vineland Social Maturity Scale test showed 14 children had delayed social maturation (10 Mth history of  hyperbilirubinemia. Denver II screening found 11 children had delayed language skill (10 Mth history of hyperbilirubinemia, 1 child Mth hyperbilirubinemia had delayed fine motoric and language skill. Conclusions T here is a relationship between moderate hyperbilirubinemia in tenn infants and developmental delay in 2 - 4 year old children.

  9. Developmental sequelae and neurophysiologic substrates of sensory seeking in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder

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    Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or “sensory seeking.” At 18 months, sensory seeking and social orienting were measured with the Sensory Processing Assessment, and a potential neural signature for sensory seeking (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry was measured via resting state electroencephalography. At 36 months, infants’ social symptomatology was assessed in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Sibs-ASD showed elevated sensory seeking relative to Sibs-TD, and increased sensory seeking was concurrently associated with reduced social orienting across groups and resting frontal asymmetry in Sibs-ASD. Sensory seeking also predicted later social symptomatology. Findings suggest that sensory seeking may produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD and that atypical frontal asymmetry may underlie this atypical pattern of sensory responsiveness. Keywords: Sensory, Autism, Infant siblings, Longitudinal, Frontal asymmetry, EEG

  10. Developmental Scores of Iron Deficient Infants and the Effects of Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice S.; Oski, Frank A.

    This study investigated the cognitive and behavioral functions associated with iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers and the short-term effects of therapy on such behaviors. Subjects were 24 iron deficient and anemic infants, 9 to 26 months old. The subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. The Bayley Scales of…

  11. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  12. Maternal prepregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H

    2015-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however, studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, maternal prepregnancy weight status and infants' gross motor development were examined. Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal prepregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios (HR) below one indicate a lower "risk" of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Compared to infants born to thin and normal-weight mothers (BMI obesity (BMI > 30) were slower to sit without support (HR = 0.91, P = 0.03) and crawl on hands and knees (HR = 0.86, P obesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. MicroRNAs in Breastmilk and the Lactating Breast: Potential Immunoprotectors and Developmental Regulators for the Infant and the Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsaweed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM is the optimal source of nutrition, protection and developmental programming for infants. It is species-specific and consists of various bioactive components, including microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. microRNAs are both intra- and extra-cellular and are present in body fluids of humans and animals. Of these body fluids, HM appears to be one of the richest sources of microRNA, which are highly conserved in its different fractions, with milk cells containing more microRNAs than milk lipids, followed by skim milk. Potential effects of exogenous food-derived microRNAs on gene expression have been demonstrated, together with the stability of milk-derived microRNAs in the gastrointestinal tract. Taken together, these strongly support the notion that milk microRNAs enter the systemic circulation of the HM fed infant and exert tissue-specific immunoprotective and developmental functions. This has initiated intensive research on the origin, fate and functional significance of milk microRNAs. Importantly, recent studies have provided evidence of endogenous synthesis of HM microRNA within the human lactating mammary epithelium. These findings will now form the basis for investigations of the role of microRNA in the epigenetic control of normal and aberrant mammary development, and particularly lactation performance.

  14. Treadmill training of infants with Down syndrome: evidence-based developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, D A; Ulrich, B D; Angulo-Kinzler, R M; Yun, J

    2001-11-01

    On average, infants with Down syndrome (DS) learn to walk about 1 year later than nondisabled (ND) infants. The purpose of this study was to determine if practice stepping on a motorized treadmill could help reduce the delay in walking onset normally experienced by these infants. Thirty families of infants with DS were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. All infants were karyotyped trisomy 21 and began participation in the study when they could sit alone for 30 seconds (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition 1993, item 34). Infants received traditional physical therapy at least every other week. In addition, intervention infants received practice stepping on a small, motorized treadmill, 5 days per week, for 8 minutes a day, in their own homes. Parents were trained to support their infants on these specially engineered miniature treadmills. Every 2 weeks research staff went into the homes and tested infants' overall motor progress by administering the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, monitored growth status via a battery of 11 anthropometric measures, and checked parents' compliance with physical therapy and treadmill intervention. The primary measures of the intervention's effectiveness were comparisons between the groups on the length of time elapsed between sitting for 30 seconds (entry into the study) and 1) raising self to stand; 2) walking with help; and 3) walking independently. The experimental group learned to walk with help and to walk independently significantly faster (73.8 days and 101 days, respectively) than the control group, both of which also produced large effect size statistics for the group differences. The groups were not statistically different for rate of learning to raise self to stand but there was a moderate effect size statistic suggesting that the groups were meaningfully different in favor of the experimental group. These results provide evidence that, with training and support

  15. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Talebian; A. Honarpishe; A. Taghavi; E. Fakharian; M. Parsa; GA. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

     AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age gr...

  16. Infant Motor Skills After a Cardiac Operation: The Need for Developmental Monitoring and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzark, Karen; Smith, Cynthia; Donohue, Janet; Yu, Sunkyung; Romano, Jennifer C

    2017-08-01

    Neurodevelopmental dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a common outcome of congenital heart defects and their treatment in infancy. The effects of the intensive care unit (ICU) experience and environment on these infants are unknown and potentially modifiable, but no validated metric is available for objective evaluation of early motor impairments in the ICU/hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the motor status of hospitalized infants after cardiac operations, including the development and field-testing of the Congenital Heart Assessment of Sensory and Motor Status (CHASMS) metric. CHASMS item generation was based on review of the literature, focused interviews with parents, and expert consensus. A nurse administered CHASMS to 100 infants aged younger than 10 months old undergoing cardiac operations. Preoperative and postoperative CHASMS scores were compared, and associations between CHASMS scores and patient characteristics were examined. Physical therapists assessed neuromotor skills by using the Test of Infant Motor Performance or the Alberta Infant Motor Scales for correlation with CHASMS scores. CHASMS gross motor scores declined postoperatively in 64% (25 of 39). Lower CHASMS scores, after adjusting for age, were associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p motor CHASMS scores were significantly correlated with Test of Infant Motor Performance (r = 0.70, p Motor Scales scores (r = 0.88, p Motor impairments in infants after cardiac operations are common and may be exacerbated by longer intubation and prolonged exposure to the ICU environment. The feasibility, reliability, and validity of CHASMS were supported for the evaluation of motor skills in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental outcome of very low birth weight infants in a developing country

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    Ballot Daynia E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from units in developed countries. This study provides follow up data on a population of very low birth weight (VLBW infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods The study sample included all VLBW infants born between 01/06/2006 and 28/02/2007 and discharged from the neonatal unit at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Version 111 (BSID 111 were done to assess development. Regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with poor outcome. Results 178 infants were discharged, 26 were not available for follow up, 9 of the remaining 152 (5.9% died before an assessment was done; 106 of the remaining 143 (74.1% had a BSID 111 assessment. These 106 patients form the study sample; mean birth weight and mean gestational age was 1182 grams (SD: 197.78 and 30.81 weeks (SD: 2.67 respectively. The BSID (111 was done at a median age of 16.48 months. The mean cognitive subscale was 88.6 (95% CI: 85.69 - 91.59, 9 (8.5% were Conclusion Although the neurodevelopmental outcome of this group of VLBW infants was within the normal range, with a low incidence of cerebral palsy, these results may reflect the low survival of babies with a birth weight below 900 grams. In addition, mean subscale scores were low and one third of the babies were identified as "at risk", indicating that this group of babies warrants long-term follow up into school going age.

  18. Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is

  19. Infants' Early Visual Attention and Social Engagement as Developmental Precursors to Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human…

  20. Long-Term Hospitalization of Failure-to-Thrive Infants: Developmental Outcome at Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Lynn

    1986-01-01

    Follow-up of three-year-olds (N=29) who received extensive hospitalization as infants for Failure to Thrive showed that most of the children manifested persistent intellectual delays. More than half suffered from chronic health problems, and a large percentage of children had been removed from parental custody by the time of follow-up. (Author/CB)

  1. Developmental changes rather than repeated administration drive paracetamol glucuronidation in neonates and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Krekels (Elke); S. Van Ham (Saskia); K.M. Allegaert (Karel); J.N. de Hoon; D. Tibboel (Dick); M. Danhof (Meindert); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Based on recovered metabolite ratios in urine, it has been concluded that paracetamol glucuronidation may be up-regulated upon multiple dosing. This study investigates paracetamol clearance in neonates and infants after single and multiple dosing using a population modelling

  2. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothe...

  3. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  4. Developmental Changes in Infants' Categorization of Anger and Disgust Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruba, Ashley L.; Johnson, Kristin M.; Harris, Lasana T.; Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore

    2017-01-01

    For decades, scholars have examined how children first recognize emotional facial expressions. This research has found that infants younger than 10 months can discriminate negative, within-valence facial expressions in looking time tasks, and children older than 24 months struggle to categorize these expressions in labeling and free-sort tasks.…

  5. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Developmental dynamics of the preterm infant gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Molly K; Wang, Bin; Ahmadi, Sara; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Tarr, Phillip I; Warner, Barbara B; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-03-07

    Development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging as a critical research priority(1). Since preterm infants almost universally receive early and often extended antibiotic therapy(2), it is important to understand how these interventions alter gut microbiota development(3-6). Analysis of 401 stools from 84 longitudinally sampled preterm infants demonstrates that meropenem, cefotaxime and ticarcillin-clavulanate are associated with significantly reduced species richness. In contrast, vancomycin and gentamicin, the antibiotics most commonly administered to preterm infants, have non-uniform effects on species richness, but these can be predicted with 85% accuracy based on the relative abundance of only two bacterial species and two antibiotic resistance (AR) genes at treatment initiation. To investigate resistome development, we functionally selected resistance to 16 antibiotics from 21 faecal metagenomic expression libraries. Of the 794 AR genes identified, 79% had not previously been classified as AR genes. Combined with deep shotgun sequencing of all stools, we find that multidrug-resistant members of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella and Enterobacter, genera commonly associated with nosocomial infections, dominate the preterm infant gut microbiota. AR genes that are enriched following specific antibiotic treatments are generally unique to the specific treatment and are highly correlated with the abundance of a single species. The most notable exceptions include ticarcillin-clavulanate and ampicillin, both of which enrich for a large number of overlapping AR genes, and are correlated with Klebsiella pneumoniae. We find that all antibiotic treatments are associated with widespread collateral microbiome impact by enrichment of AR genes that have no known activity against the specific antibiotic driver.

  7. Social visual engagement in infants and toddlers with autism: early developmental transitions and a model of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Shultz, Sarah; Jones, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to determine and understand the causes of autism are currently hampered by a large disconnect between recent molecular genetics findings that are associated with the condition and the core behavioral symptoms that define the condition. In this perspective piece, we propose a systems biology framework to bridge that gap between genes and symptoms. The framework focuses on basic mechanisms of socialization that are highly-conserved in evolution and are early-emerging in development. By conceiving of these basic mechanisms of socialization as quantitative endophenotypes, we hope to connect genes and behavior in autism through integrative studies of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and epigenetic changes. These changes both lead to and are led by the accomplishment of specific social adaptive tasks in a typical infant's life. However, based on recent research that indicates that infants later diagnosed with autism fail to accomplish at least some of these tasks, we suggest that a narrow developmental period, spanning critical transitions from reflexive, subcortically-controlled visual behavior to interactional, cortically-controlled and social visual behavior be prioritized for future study. Mapping epigenetic, neural, and behavioral changes that both drive and are driven by these early transitions may shed a bright light on the pathogenesis of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Balancing preterm infants' developmental needs with parents' readiness for skin-to-skin care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymre, Ingjerd Gåre; Bondas, Terese

    2013-07-11

    The aim of this article is to articulate the essence and constituents of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses' experiences in enacting skin-to-skin care (SSC) for preterm newborns and their parents. SSC is commonly employed in high-tech NICUs, which entails a movement from maternal-infant separation. Parents' opportunities for performing the practice have been addressed to NICU staff, with attitude and environment having crucial influence. The study was carried out with a reflective lifeworld research approach. Data were collected in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by open-dialogue interviews with a purposive sample of 18 NICU nurses to achieve the essence of and variation within the phenomenon. NICU nurses experience balancing what they consider preterm newborns' current and developmental needs, with readiness in both parents for SSC. They share an experience of a change in the history of NICU care to increased focus on the meaning of proximity and touch for the infants' development. The phenomenon of enacting SSC is characterized by a double focus with steady attention to signals from both parents and newborns. Thereby, a challenge emerges from the threshold of getting started as the catalyst to SSC.

  9. Developmental Outcome of Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage at One and Two Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostek, Anita Miller; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined developmental outcome at 1 and 2 years in relation to the presence and severity of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Intraventricular hemorrhage related to Bayley mental and motor scores and neurologic ratings at 1 year but not at 2 years. Significant associations were found between the 1- and 2-year measures but not…

  10. Is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Developmental Screening Test, Valid and Reliable for Persian Speaking Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farin; Azari, Nadia; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Shahshahani, Soheila; Karimi, Hossein; Kraskian, Adis; Shahrokhi, Amin; Teymouri, Robab; Gharib, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development. The psychometric properties examined included the face and content validity of the scale, in addition to cultural and linguistic modifications to the scale and its test-retest and inter-rater reliability. An expert team changed some of the test items relating to cultural and linguistic issues. In almost all the age groups, cultural or linguistic changes were made to items in the communication domains. According to Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, the reliability of the cognitive scale was r = 0.79, and the reliability of the receptive scale was r = 0.76. The reliability for expressive communication, fine motor, and gross motor scales was r = 0.81, r = 0.80, and r = 0.81, respectively. The construct validity of the tests was confirmed using a factor analysis and comparison of the mean scores of the age groups. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley Scales were good-to-excellent. The results indicated that the Bayley Scales had a high level of reliability in the present study. Thus, the scale can be used in a Persian population.

  11. Linking the Developmental and Degenerative Theories of Schizophrenia: Association Between Infant Development and Adult Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Isohanni, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative theories may be viewed as incompatible accounts that compete to explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, it is possible that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes could both reflect common underlying causal mechanisms. We hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction would gradually deteriorate over time in schizophrenia and the degree of this deterioration in adulthood would be predicted by an infant measure of neurodevelopment. We a...

  12. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The cost of selective attention in category learning: Developmental differences between adults and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914

  14. The Cues and Care Trial: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety and improve developmental outcomes in very low birthweight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunkley David

    2008-09-01

    provide important information on the efficacy of a brief, skills-based intervention to reduce anxiety and increase sensitivity in mothers of very low birthweight infants. A brief intervention of this nature may be more readily implemented as part of standard neonatal intensive care than broad-based, multi-component interventions. By intervening early, we aim to optimize developmental outcomes in these high risk infants. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00918472 The Cues and Care Trial: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety and improve developmental outcomes in very low birthweight infants

  15. The Cues and Care Trial: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety and improve developmental outcomes in very low birthweight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Feeley, Nancy; Shrier, Ian; Stremler, Robyn; Westreich, Ruta; Dunkley, David; Steele, Russell; Rosberger, Zeev; Lefebvre, Francine; Papageorgiou, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    on the efficacy of a brief, skills-based intervention to reduce anxiety and increase sensitivity in mothers of very low birthweight infants. A brief intervention of this nature may be more readily implemented as part of standard neonatal intensive care than broad-based, multi-component interventions. By intervening early, we aim to optimize developmental outcomes in these high risk infants. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00918472 The Cues and Care Trial: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety and improve developmental outcomes in very low birthweight infants PMID:18822128

  16. Neuro-developmental outcome at 18 months in premature infants with diffuse excessive high signal intensity on MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Anthony; Whitby, Elspeth; Paley, Martyn; Wilkinson, Stuart; Smith, Michael; Alladi, Sathya

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) may represent damage to the white matter in preterm infants, but may be best studied alongside quantitative markers. Limited published data exists on its neuro-developmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preterm children with DEHSI at term-corrected age have abnormal neuro-developmental outcome. This was a prospective observational study of 67 preterm infants with MRI of the brain around term-equivalent age, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Images were reported as being normal, overtly abnormal or to show DEHSI. A single observer placed six regions of interest in the periventricular white matter and calculated the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). DEHSI was defined as (1) high signal on T2-weighted images alone, (2) high signal with raised ADC values or (3) raised ADC values independent of visual appearances. The neuro-development was assessed around 18 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd Edition). Standard t tests compared outcome scores between imaging groups. No statistically significant difference in neuro-developmental outcome scores was seen between participants with normal MRI and DEHSI, regardless of which definition was used. Preterm children with DEHSI have similar neuro-developmental outcome to those with normal brain MRI, even if the definition includes objective markers alongside visual appearances. (orig.)

  17. Developmental aspects of English argument structure constructions for Korean-speaking second language learners: Usage-based constructional approaches to language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates developmental aspects of English Argument Structure Constructions (ASCs for Korean-speaking second language (L2 learners, providing evidence of how they manifest human domain-general cognitive systems during language acquisition via usage-based constructional approaches to language development. Participants were instructed on six English ASC types with their representative verbs for three months. The data from grammaticality preference tasks, writing tests, and free-writing tasks were analysed. Comprehension data from the grammaticality preference tasks showed significant improvement in understanding ASCs after instruction, supporting sentence-level generalisations for language comprehension independent of individual verbs. The production data from the writing tests demonstrated more frequent use of two-argument constructions than three-argument ones, which indicates the internal complexity between ASC types. The results of the writing tests also displayed skewed exploitation of verbs representative of the target ASCs, implying a frequency-sensitive nature of language acquisition. All production data further revealed active use of prefabricated chunks and incorporation of new and old language items. Taken all together, these observations suggest language learners’ merging narrowly stabilised L2 routines with other (non-linguistic resources as necessary, sustaining efficiency in a sentence-building process, under the superintendence of cognitive factors when satisfying communicative intents.

  18. Developmental changes in anterior corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Sherrill, Duane; Messer, Dawn H; Dobson, Velma

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe change in corneal astigmatism in infants and children of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Longitudinal measurements of corneal astigmatism were obtained in 960 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to <8 years. Change in corneal astigmatism (magnitude (clinical notation), J0, J45) across age in children with high astigmatism (≥2 diopter (D) corneal astigmatism) or low/no astigmatism (<2 D corneal astigmatism) at their baseline measurement was assessed. Regression analyses indicated that early in development (6 months to <3 years), astigmatism magnitude decreased in the high astigmatism group (0.37 D/year) and remained stable in the low/no astigmatism group. In later development (3 to <8 years), astigmatism decreased in the high (0.11 D/year) and low/no astigmatism groups (0.03 D/year). In 52 children who had data at all three of the youngest ages (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years) astigmatism decreased after infancy in those with high astigmatism (p = 0.021), and then remained stable from age 1-2 years, whereas astigmatism was stable from infancy through age 1 year and increased from age 1-2 years in the low/no astigmatism group (p = 0.026). J0 results were similar, but results on J45 yielded no significant effects. The greatest change occurred in highly astigmatic infants and toddlers (0.37 D/year). By age 3 years, change was minimal and not clinically significant. Changes observed were due primarily to change in the J0 component of astigmatism.

  19. [Locomotor development in infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip or idiopathic clubfoot undergoing orthopedic treatment. Prospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquijo, J J; Campos, L; Torres-Gómez, A; Allende, V

    2013-10-01

    Several disorders of early childhood, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and clubfoot, requires orthopedic treatment that limits active mobility of the lower extremities for a period of time. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact on locomotor development of the orthopedic treatment in infants less than one year-old. The study included a prospective cohort of consecutive patients diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (Group A, 24 patients), and clubfoot (Group B, 32 patients) treated from January 2007 to June 2009. A third group (Group C) of 50 healthy children was used as control. The variables evaluated were: months with a brace, age to sit without support, age at the start of crawling, and age at the beginning of walking. The results obtained were analyzed. Comparisons between the three groups were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. We chose a value of P<.05 as level of statistical significance. The analysis of independent samples showed that the mean age at which the patients began to sit were similar: 6.12, 6.42 and 6.19 months, respectively (P=.249). The mean age for crawling was similar, although with a slight trend toward statistical significance: 8.84, 9.38 and 9.17 months, respectively (P=.08). The age at which they started walking was different between the three groups: 12.14, 13.21 and 12.41 months, respectively (P<.001). Orthopedic treatment of DDH and clubfoot in children less than one year-old slightly slows down the course of normal locomotor development. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. How insights from cardiovascular developmental biology have impacted the care of infants and children with congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alvin J.; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2012-01-01

    To illustrate the impact developmental biology and genetics have already had on the clinical management of the million infants born worldwide each year with CHD, we have chosen three stories which have had particular relevance for pediatric cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiac anesthesiologists, and cardiac nurses. First, we show how Margaret Kirby’s finding of the unexpected contribution of an ectodermal cell population – the cranial neural crest – to the aortic arch arteries and arterial pole of the embryonic avian heart provided a key impetus to the field of cardiovascular patterning. Recognition that a majority of patients affected by the neurocristopathy DiGeorge syndrome have a chromosome 22q11 deletion, have also spurred tremendous efforts to characterize the molecular mechanisms contributing to this pathology, assigning a major role to the transcription factor Tbx1. Second, synthesizing the work of the last two decades by many laboratories on a wide gamut of metazoans (invertebrates, tunicates, agnathans, teleosts, lungfish, amphibians, and amniotes), we review the >20 major modifications and additions to the ancient circulatory arrangement composed solely of a unicameral (one-chambered), contractile myocardial tube and a short proximal aorta. Two changes will be discussed in detail – the interposition of a second cardiac chamber in the circulation and the septation of the cardiac ventricle. By comparing the developmental genetic data of several model organisms, we can better understand the origin of the various components of the multicameral (multi-chambered) heart seen in humans. Third, Martina Brueckner’s discovery that a faulty axonemal dynein was responsible for the phenotype of the iv/iv mouse (the first mammalian model of human heterotaxy) focused attention on the biology of cilia. We discuss how even the care of the complex cardiac and non-cardiac anomalies seen in heterotaxy syndrome, which have long seemed impervious to

  1. Developmental dynamics of radial vulnerability in the cerebral compartments in preterm infants and neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica eKostović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3T MRI (in vivo and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 PCW to 3 years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic and preterms with lesions were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a periventricular, with periventricular fibre system; (b intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and centrum semiovale; (c superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamo-cortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibres, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and perinatal

  2. Low Birth Weight, Very Low Birth Weight Rates and Gestational Age-Specific Birth Weight Distribution of Korean Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. ...

  3. Poor infant soothability and later insecure-ambivalent attachment: developmental change in phenotypic markers of risk or two measures of the same construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Barnett, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Using data from the Durham Child Health and Development Study (n=148), the current study examines the associations between child and parenting variables at 6 months and child attachment quality at 12 months of age and maternal report of child self regulation at 24 months of age. Child and parent variables predicted distinct forms of insecure attachment relationships. Observations of infant soothability during the reunion session of the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm at 6 months differentially predicted children with later insecure-ambivalent attachments from those with secure attachments. Observations of maternal negative intrusiveness at 6 months of age differentially predicted children with insecure-avoidant attachments from those with secure attachments. Maternal sensitivity at 6 months was associated with maternal report of child affective problems at 24 months, but this association was moderated by infant negativity during soothing and later moderated by child attachment quality. Collectively, these results suggest the following two mutually exclusive possibilities regarding infant soothability and later ambivalent attachment quality: either infant soothability is a unique and distinct predictor of later ambivalent attachment quality and this cascade represents a developmental shift in child risk during the first year of life, or that infant soothability following a stressful task at 6 months of age is itself an early indicator of ambivalent attachment behavior with the mother. The data from the current study could not provide differential support for one possibility over the other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Things Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  5. Accuracy of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to detect developmental delay of gross motor skills in preterm infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Plínio Luna; Lemos, Andrea; Guerra, Miriam Queiroz de Farias; Eickmann, Sophie Helena

    2015-02-01

    To assess, through a systematic review, the ability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to diagnose delayed motor development in preterm infants. Systematic searches identified five studies meeting inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: participants' characteristics, main results and risk of bias. The risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies--second edition (QUADAS-2). All five studies included a high risk of bias in at least one of the assessed fields. The most frequent biases included were presented in patient selection and lost follow up. All studies used the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the diagnostic capability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. None of the assessed studies used psychometric measures to analyze the data. Given the evidence, the research supporting the ability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale to diagnose delayed motor development in preterm infants presents limitations. Further studies are suggested in order to avoid the above-mentioned biases to assess the Alberta Infant Motor Scale accuracy in preterm babies.

  6. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and neurological developmental outcome at 18 months in healthy term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, H; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Boehm, G; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ; Hadders-Algra, M

    Aim: Previously, we found a beneficial effect of 2 mo supplementation of infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) on neurological condition at 3 mo in healthy term infants. The aim of the present follow-up study was to evaluate whether the effect on neurological condition

  7. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  8. Ilfeld abduction orthosis is an effective second-line treatment after failure of Pavlik harness for infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Nduaguba, Afamefuna; Flynn, John M

    2015-02-18

    Closed reduction and spica casting is the most commonly recommended choice for infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) for whom Pavlik harness treatment has failed, but it requires general anesthesia in addition to the challenges of spica cast care. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Ilfeld bracing for infants for whom Pavlik harness treatment is unsuccessful and to compare these results with those for a similar cohort of patients directly undergoing closed reduction and spica casting. We reviewed the cases of a consecutive series of children with DDH who had failure of Pavlik harness treatment and were subsequently managed with Ilfeld bracing (the BR cohort) and compared this cohort with a similar historical group of infants who had failure of Pavlik harness treatment but had standard closed reduction and spica casting (the CR cohort). The cohorts were compared with respect to clinical and ultrasonographic data at the time of Pavlik discontinuation. At one year, the hip stability and acetabular index were assessed; the presence of osteonecrosis was graded according to the criteria described by Salter et al. Twenty-eight hips (nineteen infants) made up the BR cohort and twenty-two hips (sixteen infants) made up the CR cohort. Ultrasonographic indices (including the alpha angle and the percentage of femoral head coverage) were comparable between the two cohorts (p=0.66 and 0.19, respectively). Following treatment, a stable reduction was achieved in twenty-three (82%) of twenty-eight hips in the BR cohort compared with twenty (91%) of twenty-two hips in the CR cohort. At one year, acetabular indices were similar between both cohorts (mean and standard deviation, 27°±6° for the BR cohort versus 27°±5° for the CR cohort; p=0.62); however, osteonecrosis developed in three hips in the CR cohort compared with none in the BR cohort. In our series of infants with DDH for whom Pavlik harness treatment had failed, Ilfeld

  9. Developmental trajectories of infants and toddlers with good initial presentation following moderate or severe traumatic brain injury: a pilot clinical assessment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Geneviève; Hurteau, Anne-Marie; Parent, Line; Doucet, Katrine; Corbin-Berrigan, Laurie-Ann; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the feasibility and usefulness of instituting a clinical protocol of scheduled assessments for children after a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained before the age of 2 years and showing no immediate deficits at hospital discharge, as well as to explore the early developmental trajectories of these children. Exploratory analytical cohort study. Pediatric Trauma Center Out-patient services. 31 children were followed within the clinical protocol of scheduled assessments. The protocol included an immediate post-injury clinical assessment of infants who sustained a TBI and follow-up assessments at the ages of 9 months, 18 months (if injured prior to that age), 30 months, and 42 months. Domains assessed at each scheduled visit included hearing, speech and language, motor performance, personal social abilities, and adaptive behaviors. Clinicians reported few difficulties with scheduling or administering the assessments, maintaining a 67% participation rate at the end of the follow-up period, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the protocol in this population. Scores on the majority of formal tests showed high variability and 15-20% of children presented with clinically significant motor and/or language delays. By 42 months of age, difficulties with adaptive behavior and personal social abilities were identified in our sample of children when compared to published norms. Qualitative clinical findings from professionals identified between 25-50% of children with potential attentional difficulties throughout the follow-up period. Findings from this study demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a clinical protocol of assessment for infants and toddlers who sustain a TBI before the age of 2 years and present with no impairments at the time of discharge from hospital. Developmental problems in this population appear to be easier to identify later in the toddler years as opposed to immediately following the TBI

  10. Improving the utility of the fine motor skills subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers: a computerized adaptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Chou, Willy; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed at improving the utility of the fine motor subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) by developing a computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills. We built an item bank for the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills using the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT items fitting the Rasch model. We also examined the psychometric properties and efficiency of the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills with simulated computerized adaptive tests. Data from 1742 children with suspected developmental delays were retrieved. The mean scores of the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT increased along with age groups (mean scores = 1.36-36.97). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills contains 31 items meeting the Rasch model's assumptions (infit mean square = 0.57-1.21, outfit mean square = 0.11-1.17). For children of 6-71 months, the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills had high Rasch person reliability (average reliability >0.90), high concurrent validity (rs = 0.67-0.99), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic = 0.71-1.00), and large responsiveness (effect size = 1.05-3.93). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used 48-84% fewer items than the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used fewer items for assessment but was as reliable and valid as the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. Implications for Rehabilitation We developed a computerized adaptive test based on the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) for assessing fine motor skills. The computerized adaptive test has been shown to be efficient because it uses fewer items than the original measure and automatically presents the results right after the test is completed. The computerized adaptive test is as reliable and valid as the CDIIT.

  11. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the Upstate KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, we examined maternal pre-pregnancy weight status and infants’ gross motor development. Design and Methods Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios below one indicate a lower “risk” of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Results Compared to infants born to thin and normal weight mothers (BMI obese mothers (BMI>30) were slower to sit without support [HR=0.91, p=0.03] and crawl on hands and knees [HR=0.86, pobesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. PMID:25755075

  12. Prem Baby Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of enhanced parenting capacity to improve developmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Paul; Sanders, Matthew R; Boyd, Roslyn; Pritchard, Margo; Gray, Peter; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Slaughter, Virginia; Whittingham, Koa; O'Rourke, Peter; Winter, Leanne; Evans, Tracey; Herd, Michael; Ahern, Jessica; Jardine, Luke

    2015-03-04

    Very preterm birth (parenting have the greatest potential to create sustained effects on child development and parental psychopathology. Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) has shown positive effects on child behaviour and adjustment, parenting practices and family functioning. Baby Triple P for Preterm infants, has been developed to target parents of very preterm infants. This study tests the effectiveness of Baby Triple P for Preterm infants in improving child and parent/couple outcomes at 24 months corrected age (CA). Families will be randomised to receive either Baby Triple P for Preterm infants or Care as Usual (CAU). Baby Triple P for Preterm infants involves 4 × 2 hr group sessions at the hospital plus 4 × 30 min telephone consultations soon after transfer (42 weeks C.A.). After discharge participants will be linked to community based Triple P and intervention maintenance up to 24 months C.A. Assessments will be: baseline, post-intervention (6 weeks C.A.), at 12 and 24 months C.A. The primary outcome measure is the Infant Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) at 24 months C.A. Child behavioural and emotional problems will be coded using the mother-toddler version of the Family Observation Schedule at 24 months C.A. Secondary outcome will be the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) cognitive development, language and motor abilities. Proximal targets of parenting style, parental self-efficacy, parental mental health, parental adjustment, parent-infant attachment, couple relationship satisfaction and couple communication will also be assessed. Our sample size based on the ITSEA, has 80% power, predicted effect size of 0.33 and an 85% retention rate, requires 165 families are required in each group (total sample of 330 families). This protocol presents the study design, methods and intervention to be analysed in a randomised trial of Baby Triple P for Preterm infants compared to Care as Usual (CAU) for families of very preterm

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants born before 25 weeks gestation in a Korean single neonatal intensive care unit: incidence, natural history and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mingui; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Ham, Don Il; Kang, Se Woong; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-12-01

    As younger preterm infants are able to survive, more extremely preterm infants are at risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). To investigate the incidence, progression and risk factors of ROP in extremely preterm infants in Korea, the medical records of infants born before 25 weeks gestation were retrospectively reviewed. The criteria for laser treatment agreed with type 1 ROP as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Of the 121 infants included in the analysis, 119 (98.4%) infants developed any stage ROP, including 78 infants (64.5%) with type 1 ROP. The mean postmenstrual age (PMA) at the onset of any ROP and type 1 ROP were 33.5 and 36.1 weeks, respectively. All but one infant developed type 1 ROP after 31 weeks PMA. Univariate analysis showed that duration of total parenteral nutrition and onset of any ROP (PMA) were associated with the development of type 1 ROP. In conclusion, this study shows high incidence of ROP in extremely preterm infants and suggests that, although current screening protocols are feasible for most preterm infants born before 25 weeks gestation, earlier screening before 31 weeks PMA may be necessary in infants with an unstable clinical course.

  14. Do infants retain the statistics of a statistical learning experience? Insights from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rebecca L

    2017-01-05

    Statistical structure abounds in language. Human infants show a striking capacity for using statistical learning (SL) to extract regularities in their linguistic environments, a process thought to bootstrap their knowledge of language. Critically, studies of SL test infants in the minutes immediately following familiarization, but long-term retention unfolds over hours and days, with almost no work investigating retention of SL. This creates a critical gap in the literature given that we know little about how single or multiple SL experiences translate into permanent knowledge. Furthermore, different memory systems with vastly different encoding and retention profiles emerge at different points in development, with the underlying memory system dictating the fidelity of the memory trace hours later. I describe the scant literature on retention of SL, the learning and retention properties of memory systems as they apply to SL, and the development of these memory systems. I propose that different memory systems support retention of SL in infant and adult learners, suggesting an explanation for the slow pace of natural language acquisition in infancy. I discuss the implications of developing memory systems for SL and suggest that we exercise caution in extrapolating from adult to infant properties of SL.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. A longitudinal study of basal cortisol in infants : Intra-individual variability, circadian rhythm and developmental trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerth, C.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mothers with normally developing babies were visited in their homes during 13 consecutive weeks, when the babies were around 5-8 months of age. Basal salival cortisol measures were taken for both the baby and the mother on arrival. The infants' basal cortisol decreased linearly with age, was

  16. Early prediction of typical outcome and mild developmental delay for prioritisation of service delivery for very preterm and very low birthweight infants: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Rebecca; Boyd, Roslyn N; Colditz, Paul; Cioni, Giovani; Ware, Robert S; Salthouse, Kaye; Doherty, Julie; Jackson, Maxine; Matthews, Leanne; Hurley, Tom; Morosini, Anthony; Thomas, Clare; Camadoo, Laxmi; Baer, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over 80% of very preterm (development (TD) or mild developmental delay (MDD) in multiple domains. As differentiation between TD and MDD can be difficult, infants with MDD often miss opportunities for intervention. For many clinicians, the ongoing challenge is early detection of MDD without over servicing the population. This study aims to: (1) identify early clinical biomarkers for use in this population to predict and differentiate between TD and MDD at 24 months corrected age. (2) Determine the extent to which family and caregiver factors will contribute to neurodevelopmental and behavioural outcomes. Methods and analysis Participants will be a prospective cohort of 90 infants (Toddler Development—Third Edition (Bayley III). Longitudinal trajectories of early assessment findings will be examined to determine any predictive relationship with motor and cognitive outcomes at 24 months c.a. Published data of a cohort of Australian children assessed with the Bayley III at 24 months c.a will provide a reference group of term-born controls. Ethics Ethical approval has been obtained from the Queensland Children's Health Services Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/13/QRCH/66), the University of Queensland (2013001019) and the Sunshine Coast Hospital and Health Service, SC-Research Governance (SSA/13/QNB/66). Publication of all study outcomes will be in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000480684; Pre-results. PMID:27377633

  17. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-04

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  18. Early detection of cerebral palsy in high-risk infants: diagnostic value of primitive and developmental reflexes as well as ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of cerebral palsy (CP has increased due to better survival of high-risk babies. A simple assessment method is needed for the early detection of CP, which can be performed by general practitioners and pediatricians in daily practice. Objectives To assess motor delay, primitive and developmental reflexes, and cerebral ultrasound abnormalities as simple methods for early detection of CP in high-risk infants. We also aimed to evaluate the ease and consistency of the methods for use in daily practice, as well as determine risk factors associated with CP. Methods A prospective cohort study was done on 150 high-risk babies starting from the age of 4 months up to 12 months. We obtained subjects’ histories of motor ability and assessed primitive reflexes and postural reactions at the ages of 4, 6, 9 and 10 months. The diagnosis of CP was established at 6 and 12 months of age. We also determined Kappa test for inter-rater reliability between pediatric residents and pediatric neurologist. Results In 88.7% of subjects, CP was detected in the first 6 months. At 4 months, positive palmar reflex, head lag, and fisting were predictive of CP at 6 months of age. Motor delay, positive palmar grasp reflex, head lag, fisting, and absent protective extension reflex at 6 months were predictive of CP at 12 months. At 9 to 10 months, motor delays, absent protective extension reflex, and negative parachute reaction were predictive of CP at 12 months. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities were predictive of CP at 6 and 12 months of age. Kappa test result was 0.9, indicating the ease and consistency of these methods for daily medical practice. Conclusion Cerebral palsy can be detected as early as the first 6 months of life. Assessment for motor delays, physical examination for asssessing primitive and developmental reflexes, and cerebral ultrasound can be used for this purpose.

  19. Korean Gifted Education: DomainSpecific Developmental Focus / Kore Üstün Yetenekliler Eğitimi: Alana-Özgü Gelişimde Odaklanma

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    Seokhee Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current Korean gifted education system is designed to help gifted children have a balance between excellence and emotional and social wellbeing. In this article, the current status of Korean gifted education is presented, reflecting on the history, purpose, theoretical foundation, infrastructure, and state of art of gifted education with statistics. This article concludes with the obstacles that gifted education faces and recommendations for expansion and diversification. Key Words: gifted education, Korea, history, Confucian culture, intra-structure Öz Yürürlükte olan Kore üstün yetenekliler eğitim sistemi, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin mükemmeliyet, duygusal ve sosyal iyi olma hallerini dengelemelerine yardımcı olacak şekilde tasarlanmıştır. Bu makalede güncel Kore üstün yetenekliler eğitimi, tarihine, amaçlarına, teorik temellerine, altyapısına ve gelişim seviyesine ışık tutacak istatistiklerle birlikte sunulmuştur. Ayrıca üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimlerinde karşılaşılan güçlükler ve önerilere yer verilmiştir. Anahtar Sözcükler: üstün yetenekliler eğitimi, Kore, tarih, Konfüçyüs kültürü, altyapı

  20. Infants of Narcotic Addicted Mothers: Developmental Status, Maternal Care, Home Environments and Interventive Efforts During the First Three Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Sara M.; Hock, Ellen

    This study compared infants born to narcotic addicted mothers with infants born to nonaddicted mothers and described the potential of an intervention program. Infants of five addicted women were matched with infants of five nonaddicted women on the basis of age and socioeconomic class of the mothers and on the basis of gestational ages, birth…

  1. Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women With Moderate to Severe Alcohol Consumption Is Related to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Donald

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD have an estimated global prevalence of 2–5% of births, but prevalence is reported to be as high as 15.5% for FASD in certain high-risk communities in South Africa. Preclinical studies demonstrate that alcohol consumption during pregnancy interferes with thyroid hormone availability and function and negatively impacts exposed offspring. Very little is currently reported on this phenomenon in humans.MethodsThis pilot study was embedded in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a multi-disciplinary longitudinal birth cohort study investigating the early biological and psychosocial determinants of child health in South Africa. Twenty one mothers and their children with moderate–severe prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE and 19 mothers and their children with no alcohol exposure were investigated. Maternal exposure history and blood samples were collected in mid-pregnancy and analyzed for serum-free thyroxin (FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Children were assessed with formally measured growth parameters and development was evaluated using the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III at 6 and 24 months of age.ResultsWhile there were no significant differences in serum TSH and FT4 between groups, FT3 levels were significantly higher in mothers with moderate–severe prenatal alcohol use. In abstinent pregnant women, levels of FT4 were significantly correlated with infants’ scores on cognitive measures at 6 and 24 months of age and with levels of gross motor skills at 24 months. However, in mothers with alcohol use, FT4 levels were not correlated with any cognitive or motor skills, but FT3 levels were significantly associated with scores on children’s social-emotional development at 24 months of age.DiscussionThyroid function in PAE is sufficiently disrupted to lead to alterations in serum FT3 levels. The contrast in findings between

  2. [Application of Vojta's method for early detection of developmental disturbances in very low birthweight infants with regard to Apgar score and asymmetric body positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the usefulness of assessment based on seven body positions according to Vojta for early detection of developmental abnormalities of the central nervous system. As additional factors, Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute of life, as well as asymmetry of head or of whole body at the time of investigation (usually third month of life) were analyzed in correlation with subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy usually established after the first year of life. The study group consisted of 57 children with birthweight lower than 1500 grams. Seven children were diagnosed with cerebral palsy at the age of one year. The following conclusions were drawn: Vojta's diagnostic method is very sensitive in detecting injury of the central nervous system early in life; high correlation was found between cerebral palsy and asymmetry of the body, but not of the head; low Apgar score at 5th but not at 1st minute is highly predictive for progression to cerebral palsy in infants with very low birthweight.

  3. Probabilistic maps of the white matter tracts with known associated functions on the neonatal brain atlas: Application to evaluate longitudinal developmental trajectories in term-born and preterm-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Kentaro; Chang, Linda; Yamakawa, Robyn; Hayama, Sara; Buchthal, Steven; Alicata, Daniel; Andres, Tamara; Castillo, Deborrah; Oishi, Kumiko; Skranes, Jon; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of the neonatal and infant brain, and deviations related to various diseases or medical conditions like preterm birth. In this study, we created a probabilistic map of fiber pathways with known associated functions, on a published neonatal multimodal atlas. The pathways-of-interest include the superficial white matter (SWM) fibers just beneath the specific cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas, which were difficult to evaluate with existing DTI analysis methods. The Jülich cytoarchitectonic atlas was applied to define cortical areas related to specific brain functions, and the Dynamic Programming (DP) method was applied to delineate the white matter pathways traversing through the SWM. Probabilistic maps were created for pathways related to motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and limbic functions, as well as major white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle, by delineating these structures in eleven healthy term-born neonates. In order to characterize maturation-related changes in diffusivity measures of these pathways, the probabilistic maps were then applied to DTIs of 49 healthy infants who were longitudinally scanned at three time-points, approximately five weeks apart. First, we investigated the normal developmental pattern based on 19 term-born infants. Next, we analyzed 30 preterm-born infants to identify developmental patterns related to preterm birth. Last, we investigated the difference in diffusion measures between these groups to evaluate the effects of preterm birth on the development of these functional pathways. Term-born and preterm-born infants both demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in diffusivity, indicating postnatal maturation in these pathways, with laterality seen in the corticospinal tract and the optic radiation. The comparison between term- and preterm

  4. Low birth weight,very low birth weight rates and gestational age-specific birth weight distribution of korean newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-04-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. The mean birth weight and GA of a crude population are 3,188 +/-518 g and 38.7+/-2.1 weeks, respectively. The LBW and the VLBW rates are 7.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The preterm birth rate (less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) is 8.4% and the very preterm birth rate (less than 32 completed weeks of gestation) is 0.7%. The mean birth weights for female infants, multiple births, and births delivered by cesarean section were lower than those for male, singletons, and births delivered vaginally. The risk of delivering LBW or VLBW infant was higher for the teenagers and the older women (aged 35 yr and more). We have also obtained the percentile distribution of GA-specific birth weight in infants over 23 weeks of gestation.

  5. Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, Margriet; De Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-06-15

    -centered approach in well-child care to assess infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context. Agreement was reasonable to excellent regarding protective factors, but lower regarding risk factors. Netherlands Trialregister, NTR2681. Date of registration: 05-01-2011, URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2681 .

  6. School-age effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I; Warfield, Simon K; Butler, Samantha C; Alidoost, Moona; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Robertson, Richard; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2013-02-19

    The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants' neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother's intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks' lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore, executive function, spectral coherence

  7. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  8. EARLY DISTANCE INTERVENTION AND FOLLOW-UP FOR FAMILIES OF INFANTS AND TODDLERS AT RISK FOR DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES AND SEVERE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oyama-Ganiko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X9946A major barrier to meeting the needs of low-income children and families with disabilities is distance from a center providing the diagnostics and treatment. In the U.S. several innovative ways of overcoming this difficulty have emerged, e.g. Call-In, Come-In Services in a Pediatric Psychology Practice, diagnostics and consultation via telemedicine, use of the Internet for webcasting conferences, library resources over the Internet, etc. These services are not yet available in many developing countries or in rural areas of the U.S., however.  We report below an inexpensive and effective method of early distance intervention using workshops every two months and monthly telephone follow-up at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru. While many poor families may not have regular access to radio, television, or the Internet, we and others (Bigelow, Carta, & LeFever, 2008 have found that almost all have cell phones, and they can be followed regularly. In our project on early prevention of severe aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior among infants and toddlers at risk for developmental disabilities, monthly telephone follow-up attendance remained high throughout the one-year follow-up period (92%, while family attendance at the six bi-monthly workshops dropped off (75% to 28%. Mean BPI frequency scores decreased significantly over the year. BPI scores were significantly higher, and they decreased more in the high-attendance group than in the low-attendance group.  Family stress was reduced by 65%. Consumer satisfaction was 98%.A very similar workshop package has been given to many orphanages and to remote areas in Peru, where there is not any kind of education about disabilities and where parents have to be the best teachers. Having such tools gives them knowledge of what their children can achieve, so they would not relinquish them to government orphanages.  

  9. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  10. Mother-Infant and Extra-Dyadic Interactions with a New Social Partner: Developmental Trajectories of Early Social Abilities during Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Roberta; Lucarelli, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Mother-infant interactions during feeding and play are pivotal experiences in the development of infants' early social abilities (Stern, 1985, 1995; Biringen, 2000). Stern indicated distinctive characteristics of mother-infant interactions, respectively, during feeding and play, suggesting to evaluate both to better describe the complexity of such early affective and social experiences (Stern, 1996). Moreover, during the first years of life, infants acquire cognitive and social skills that allow them to interact with new social partners in extra-dyadic interactions. However, the relations between mother-child interactions and infants' social skills in extra-dyadic interactions are still unknown. We investigated longitudinally the relations between mother-child interactions during feeding and play and child's pre-verbal communicative abilities in extra-dyadic interactions during play. 20 dyads were evaluated at T 1 (infants aged between 9-22 months) and 6 months later, at T 2 . The interdyadic differences in mother-infant interactions during feeding and play were evaluated, respectively, with the "Feeding Scale" (Chatoor et al., 1997) and with the "Play Scale" (Chatoor, 2006) and the socio-communicative abilities of children with a new social partner during play were evaluated with the "Early Social Communication Scales" (Mundy et al., 2003). We distinguished the dyads into two categories: dyads with functional interactions (high dyadic reciprocity, low dyadic conflict) and dyads with dysfunctional interactions (lower dyadic reciprocity, higher dyadic conflict). At T 1 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Joint Attention" and in "Responding to Joint Attention" in interaction with a new social partner compared to the infants belonging to dyads with functional interactions. At T 2 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Social Interactions" with

  11. Developmental change in tone perception in Mandarin monolingual, English monolingual, and Mandarin-English bilingual infants: Divergences between monolingual and bilingual learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Seet, Xian Hui; Tong, Ashley P Y; Wang, Joelle L; Best, Catherine T

    2018-09-01

    Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle. Discrimination was investigated in three groups: Mandarin-English bilinguals, English monolinguals, and Mandarin monolinguals at 6 months and 9 months of age in a cross-sectional design. Results demonstrated relatively strong Mandarin tone discrimination in Mandarin monolinguals, with salient tone discrimination at 6 months and both salient and subtle tone discrimination at 9 months. English monolinguals discriminated neither contrast at 6 months but discriminated the salient contrast at 9 months. Surprisingly, there was no evidence for tone discrimination in Mandarin-English bilingual infants. In a second experiment, 12- and 13-month-old Mandarin-English bilingual and English monolingual infants were tested to determine whether bilinguals would demonstrate tone sensitivity at a later age. Results revealed a lack of tone sensitivity at 12 or 13 months in bilingual infants, yet English monolingual infants were sensitive to both salient and subtle Mandarin tone contrasts at 12 or 13 months. Our findings provide evidence for age-related convergence in Mandarin tone discrimination in English and Mandarin monolingual infants and for a distinct pattern of tone discrimination in bilingual infants. Theoretical implications for phonetic category acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. K-pop in Korea: How the Pop Music Industry is Changing a Post-Developmental Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ingyu Oh; Hyo-Jung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Korean popular songs, or kayo, are evolving from a musical genre created and performed only by Koreans into K-pop, a global musical genre produced and enjoyed by Koreans and those of other nationalities. This new development has revolutionized the perception of the popular music industry in Korea’s post-developmental society, as Korean children dream of becoming K-pop idols rather than entering traditionally esteemed careers in politics, medicine, or academia. The Korean government is also ac...

  13. The relationship between race and challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Kozlowski, Alison M; Sipes, Megan

    2011-01-01

    To examine the contributions of race and diagnostic category to endorsement rates of challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with autism, PDD-NOS and atypical development without ASD, using the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part-3 (BISCUIT Part-3). Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) on each sub-scale of the BISCUIT Part-3. Follow-up univariate analyses and post-hoc tests as needed. Scores on the BISCUIT Part-3 were compared for 453 Caucasian and 409 African-American infants and toddlers, grouped by race and diagnosis. Significant differences between races were found on five out of 10 aggressive behaviours, while no significant differences were found on self-injurious or stereotypic behaviours. Significant differences between diagnostic groups were found on all behaviours. Cultural factors should be taken into account when examining challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with ASD.

  14. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  15. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  16. Mortality, Morbidity, and Developmental Outcomes in Infants Born to Women Who Received Either Mefloquine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rupérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp on the health of sub-Saharan African infants. We have evaluated the safety of IPTp with mefloquine (MQ compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for important infant health and developmental outcomes.In the context of a multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of IPTp with MQ compared to SP in pregnancy carried out in four sub-Saharan countries (Mozambique, Benin, Gabon, and Tanzania, 4,247 newborns, 2,815 born to women who received MQ and 1,432 born to women who received SP for IPTp, were followed up until 12 mo of age. Anthropometric parameters and psychomotor development were assessed at 1, 9, and 12 mo of age, and the incidence of malaria, anemia, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, and mortality were determined until 12 mo of age. No significant differences were found in the proportion of infants with stunting, underweight, wasting, and severe acute malnutrition at 1, 9, and 12 mo of age between infants born to women who were on IPTp with MQ versus SP. Except for three items evaluated at 9 mo of age, no significant differences were observed in the psychomotor development milestones assessed. Incidence of malaria, anemia, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, and mortality were similar between the two groups. Information on the outcomes at 12 mo of age was unavailable in 26% of the infants, 761 (27% from the MQ group and 377 (26% from the SP group. Reasons for not completing the study were death (4% of total study population, study withdrawal (6%, migration (8%, and loss to follow-up (9%.No significant differences were found between IPTp with MQ and SP administered in pregnancy on infant mortality, morbidity, and nutritional outcomes. The poorer performance on certain psychomotor development milestones at 9 mo of age in children born to women in the MQ group compared to those in the SP group may deserve

  17. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Margriet; De Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-centered care seems promising in preventive pediatrics, but evidence is lacking as to whether this type of care is also valid as a means to identify risks to infants' social-emotional development. We aimed to examine the validity of such a family-centered approach. Methods: We

  19. Cuidado ao desenvolvimento: intervenções de proteção ao desenvolvimento inicial de recém-nascidos pré-termo Developmental care: protection approach for early development of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Gaspardo

    2010-03-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To review randomized clinical trials published from 2002 to 2009 focusing on the efficacy of Developmental Care interventions in preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. DATA SOURCE: Randomized trials were selected from Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, and SciELO databases using the keywords "developmental care" and "neonate". A critical methodological analysis of the studies was performed based on the following criteria: random allocation, estimate of sample size, drop-out sample, inclusion and exclusion criteria, control of confounding variables, validity of instruments, researcher "blind" condition for intervention group, presence of follow-up, external and ecological validities, and ethical approval. DATA SYNTHESIS: The Developmental Care interventions improved short-term outcomes as physiological, behavioral, neurological and clinical status of newborns. Decreased infants' pain reactivity was noted during weighing and diaper change procedures. Parents exposed to Developmental Care interventions showed higher sense of competence to take care of the newborns. The staff trained in Developmental Care interventions showed better performance when looking after infants and paid more attention to the environmental, physical and social stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The Developmental Care interventions in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit promoted beneficial effects on development and health of preterm infants in the neonatal period and the first year of life. In future studies, a higher methodological control of blindness of intervention and confusion variables is recommended. Prospective-longitudinal studies should address the evaluation of this intervention on medium- and long-term developmental outcomes

  20. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  1. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  2. Maternal perceptions of sibling adaptation in Korean families of children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Van Riper, M

    2014-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 500 infants with Down syndrome (DS) are born each year in Korea. DS affects not only these individuals, but family members as well. Some siblings deal successfully with the challenges of living with a child with DS and adapt well while others struggle or fail to adapt. The aims of this descriptive study were to explore how Korean mothers of children with DS perceive the adaptation of their typically developing (TD) children aged 4 to 19 and how family variables contribute to sibling adaptation. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 105 Korean mothers. Most mothers indicated that their TD children were not experiencing psychological or behavioural problems; however, many described problems in the sibling relationship. It was found that family factors (i.e. condition management effort, condition management ability, child's daily life, parental mutuality, family hardiness and social support) were strong predictors of sibling psychological, behavioural and relational adaptation. Demographic characteristics of the child with DS, the mother and the family appeared to significantly influence sibling adaptation. These findings highlight the importance of familial contexts in understanding sibling adaptation. Knowledge of family factors associated with better adaptation in Korean siblings of child with DS will facilitate the development of culturally appropriate interventions for these children and their families. In addition, an awareness of demographic characteristics associated with sibling adaptation will help health care professionals identify siblings who are at increased risk of experiencing difficulties in adapting. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security in Korea: cross-cultural validation of the Strange Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mi Kyoung; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to analyze infant and maternal behavior both during the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and a free play session in a Korean sample (N = 87) to help understand whether mother-infant attachment relationships are universal or culture-specific. Distributions of attachment classifications in the Korean sample were compared with a cross-national sample. Behavior of mothers and infants following the two separation episodes in the SSP, including mothers' proximity to their infants and infants' approach to the caregiver, was also observed, as was the association between maternal sensitivity observed during free play session and infant security. The percentage of Korean infants classified as secure versus insecure mirrored the global distribution, however, only one Korean baby was classified as avoidant. Following the separation episodes in the Strange Situation, Korean mothers were more likely than mothers in Ainsworth's Baltimore sample to approach their babies immediately and sit beside them throughout the reunion episodes, even when their babies were no longer distressed. Also, Korean babies less often approached their mothers during reunions than did infants in the Baltimore sample. Finally, the link between maternal sensitivity and infant security was significant. The findings support the idea that the basic secure base function of attachment is universal and the SSP is a valid measure of secure attachment, but cultural differences in caregiving may result in variations in how this function is manifested.

  4. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  5. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  6. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  7. Effect of provision of an integrated neonatal survival kit and early cognitive stimulation package by community health workers on developmental outcomes of infants in Kwale County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Lisa G; Bassani, Diego G; Nyaga, Lucy; Njagi, Isaac; Wanjiku, Catherine; Thiruchselvam, Thulasi; Macharia, William; Minhas, Ripudaman S; Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia; Lakhani, Amyn; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Armstrong, Robert; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-09-08

    Each year, more than 200 million children under the age of 5 years, almost all in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), fail to achieve their developmental potential. Risk factors for compromised development often coexist and include inadequate cognitive stimulation, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, infection and complications of being born low birthweight and/or premature. Moreover, many of these risk factors are closely associated with newborn morbidity and mortality. As compromised development has significant implications on human capital, inexpensive and scalable interventions are urgently needed to promote neurodevelopment and reduce risk factors for impaired development. This cluster randomized trial aims at evaluating the impact of volunteer community health workers delivering either an integrated neonatal survival kit, an early stimulation package, or a combination of both interventions, to pregnant women during their third trimester of pregnancy, compared to the current standard of care in Kwale County, Kenya. The neonatal survival kit comprises a clean delivery kit (sterile blade, cord clamp, clean plastic sheet, surgical gloves and hand soap), sunflower oil emollient, chlorhexidine, ThermoSpot(TM), Mylar infant sleeve, and a reusable instant heater. Community health workers are also equipped with a portable hand-held electric scale. The early cognitive stimulation package focuses on enhancing caregiver practices by teaching caregivers three key messages that comprise combining a gentle touch with making eye contact and talking to children, responsive feeding and caregiving, and singing. The primary outcome measure is child development at 12 months of age assessed with the Protocol for Child Monitoring (Infant and Toddler version). The main secondary outcome is newborn mortality. This study will provide evidence on effectiveness of delivering an innovative neonatal survival kit and/or early stimulation package to pregnant women in Kwale County

  8. Risk factors for infant developmental problems Factores de riesgo para problemas de desarrollo infantil Fatores de risco para problemas de desenvolvimento infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose Santa Maria-Mengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-correlational study aimed to detect risks for child developmental problems in the first four years of age, to identify the protective resources in the familiar environment, and to verify the best predictive variables of the development at risk. The non-clinical sample was composed by 120 children registered in a Family Health Program. The assessment instruments for global development, expressive language and familiar environment were used. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower the father's educational level, the higher the risk for developmental problems. Both the history of low nutritional state at six months of age and the psychosocial risk in the family environment increased the chances of having expressive language problems. It is concluded that screening tests of risk for developmental problems and the analysis of the psychosocial factors in the familiar context should be considered as preventive intervention procedure in the Family Health Programs.El estudio descriptivo-correlacional objetiva detectar riesgos para problemas del desarrollo del niño en los cuatro primeros años, identificar recursos protectores en el ambiente familiar, verificar las mejores variables antedichas del desarrollo en riesgo, en una muestra no-clínica de 120 niños registrados en un Programa de Salud de la Familia. Fueron utilizados instrumentos de evaluación del desarrollo global, lenguaje expresivo del niño y ambiente familiar. El análisis de regresión logística indicó que cuanto menor escolaridad del padre, mayor chance de riesgo para problemas de desarrollo. El histórico del estado nutricional debajo de lo normal a los seis meses de edad y el riesgo psicosocial en el ambiente familiar aumentaba la probabilidad de problemas de lenguaje expresivo. Concluyendo, la selección de riesgos para problemas de desarrollo del niño y el análisis de factores psicosociales del contexto familiar deben incluirse como

  9. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  10. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  11. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  12. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Screen Cultures sets out to redress this imbalance with a broad selection of essays spanning both North and South as well as different methodological approaches, from ethnographic and audience studies to cultural materialist readings. The first section of the book, «The South», highlights popular media...... new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  13. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  14. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  15. Growth and developmental parameters and behavioral characteristics of infant rhesus monkeys%恒河猴幼猴出生后生长发育参数背景数据及其行为学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志刚; 曾文; 吴明玲; 曾利才; 姚尊伟; 易思瑞; 李蓉; 曹东; 毕凤均; 龚立

    2016-01-01

    记忆优于雄性幼猴。本研究建立了恒河猴幼猴出生后12个月生长发育参数的背景数据及神经行为学特征,为恒河猴生殖发育毒性评价提供了参考依据及数据支持。%Objective To explore the growth and developmental parameters and behavioral characteristics of rhesus monkeys during the first year of birth and to establish the background data.Methods A total of 18 (♂=11,♀=7 ) infant rhesus monkeys born from individually caged mothers and with known genetic background and postnatal days were monitored monthly for body weight, body height, head circumference, chest circumference, forelimb length, hind limb length, crown-rump length, tail length and anal-genital distance from postnatal day ( PND) 1 to 360, while hematology, blood chemistry and lymphocyte subsets were examined on PND 28, 175 and 360, and finger maze test was carried out on PND 208.Results The body weight showed linear growth with no significant difference between genders (P>0.05). Except for the anal-genital distance of male infants was significantly greater than that of female infants ( P0.05).Compared with that at PND28, TP and BUN were significantly increased (P0.05) at PND 175 and 360.Compared with that at PND28, CD4 +and CD4 +/CD8 +were significantly decreased ( P<0.01) while CD8+significantly increased ( P<0.01) at PND175 and 360.The number of sessions to solve task 2 in learning test was significantly greater than other tasks with females significantly less than males ( P<0.05) .The females had higher correct rate than males in the 2-day random memory test (P<0.05).Conclusions Body weight and morphological parameters show a linear growth.The PND.The RBC, HGB, LYMPH, TP, BUN, ALP, CD4 +, CD8 +and CD4 +/CD8+in hematology, blood chemistry and lymphocyte subsets show relevant changes to the growth and development of organs and systems in infants, which should be highly concerned in drug evaluation.The finger maze test indicates that female infants

  16. Effect of situation on mother infant interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that the early parent–infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother–infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables

  17. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  18. Korean Affairs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-20

    Pyongyang station, the South Korean delegation boarded 16 Mercedes Benz sedans and seven buses, then headed for the Koryo Hotel. The South Korean...money-making, loudly advertising "relief of hungry children, "relief of the destitute" and "programme for the rebirth of narcotic addicts. It was with... market are twin pains these days. When they convert what they earned on the bearish stock exchange into dol- lars, their returns show minus gains

  19. On Being There: Korean in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, John C.; Kawanishi, Yumiko

    1995-01-01

    Examines the experiences of ethnic Koreans and the Korean language in Japan since 1945, focusing on Japanese attitudes toward Koreans and the Korean language, provisions for Korean and bilingual education, and the increasing influence of Koreans in Japanese society. (18 references) (MDM)

  20. Babies at Double Jeopardy: Medically Fragile Infants and Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullar, Suzanne A.

    2008-01-01

    Medically fragile infants, those born prematurely or with other complex medical or genetic problems, are at risk of long-term health and developmental problems. When a medically fragile infant comes home to a family with significant social problems such as domestic violence, mental illness, or substance abuse, the infant is at double jeopardy--at…

  1. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  2. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  3. Infant sleep and paternal involvement in infant caregiving during the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Glickman-Gavrieli, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess: (a) the involvement of fathers and mothers in overall and nighttime infant caregiving; (b) the links between paternal involvement in infant care and infant sleep patterns during the first 6 months. Fifty-six couples recruited during their first pregnancy, participated in the study. After delivery (1 and 6 months), both parents completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. Infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Mothers were significantly more involved than fathers in daytime and nighttime caregiving. A higher involvement of fathers in overall infant care predicted and was associated with fewer infant night-wakings and with shorter total sleep time after controlling for breastfeeding. The findings highlight the importance of including fathers in developmental sleep research. Future studies should explore mechanisms underlying the relations between paternal involvement and infant sleep.

  4. Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Sik; Han, Jungho; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Soon Min; Eun, Ho Seon; Park, Min-Soo; Park, Kook-In; Namgung, Ran

    2017-03-01

    The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved. We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24 months. Growth failure was defined as weight and height below the 10th percentile at 24 months. For the subgroup analysis, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants were evaluated. The growth patterns based on the Korean, World Health Organization (WHO), or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard were serially compared over time. At postconception age (PCA) 40 weeks, 47 (58%) and 45 infants (55%) showed growth failure in terms of weight and height, respectively. At PCA 24 months, 20 infants (24%) showed growth failure for weight and 14 (18%) for height. Growth failure rates were higher for the SGA infants than for the appropriate-weight-for-gestational age infants at PCA 24 months ( P =0.045 for weight and P =0.038 for height). Growth failure rates were higher for the ELBW infants than for the non-ELBW infants at PCA 24 months ( P <0.001 for weight and P =0.003 for height). Significant differences were found among the WHO, CDC, and Korean standards ( P <0.001). Advancements in neonatal care have improved the catch-up growth of VLBW infants, but this is insufficient. Careful observation and aggressive interventions, especially in SGA and ELBW infants, are needed.

  5. A South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the recent changes in international environment security structures suited for specific situations should be conceived. In order to achieve the way to regional security in North-East Asia the outstanding issue left over from the cold war, divided Korean peninsula, and other subregional disputes have to be solved. In building confidence between the two countries the recently adopted security related accords ('The Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-aggression and Exchange and Cooperation between the South and the North' and the 'Joint declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula') provide a framework for improvements of relations

  6. Urinary tract infection caused by community‐acquired extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase‐producing bacteria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hee Kim

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of UTI caused by ESBL‐producing bacteria has increased in Korean infants. Recognition of the clinical course and risk factors for ESLB‐producing UTI may help to determine appropriate guidelines for its management.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of a pre-school screening instrument: comparison of Korean and US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, K H; Squires, J; Yovanoff, P

    2008-03-01

    Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. The ASQ was translated into Korean and necessary cross-cultural adaptations were made. The translated version was then distributed and completed by 3220 parents of young children between the ages of 4 months and 5 years. Reliability was studied including domain correlations, internal consistency, and performance of identification cut-off scores for the Korean population. Rasch analyses including tests of Differential Item Functioning, contrasting Korean and US samples were also performed. In general, internal consistency of the Korean ASQ was high, with overall correlations 0.75 for communication, 0.85 for gross motor, 0.74 for fine motor, 0.72 for problem solving, and 0.65 for personal-social. Validity, including concurrent validity, also had strong evidence. Mean scores of children on the Korean translation of the ASQ and the US normative sample were generally similar. Rasch analyses indicated the majority of items functioned similarly across the Korean sample. In general, the ASQ was translated with cultural appropriateness in mind and functioned as a valid and reliable parent-completed screening test to assist in early identification of young children with developmental delays. Further research is needed to confirm these results with a larger and more diverse Korean sample.

  8. Conceptualizing physical activity behavior of older Korean-Americans: an integration of Korean culture and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Choon; Waters, Catherine M; Froelicher, Erika S; Kayser-Jones, Jeanie S

    2008-01-01

    People can live longer and healthier lives by engaging in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this article is to assess the social cognitive theory (SCT) in relation to its relevance to produce cultural-specific directions for gerontological nursing practice in order to guide the design of PA interventions for Korean-American elders. SCT is compared to the Korean cultural, social, and health belief system and is analyzed and evaluated based on 3 criteria: assumptions of the theory, completeness and consistency, and essence of nursing. Within the Korean culture, as presumed in the SCT and the nursing paradigm, health-promoting behavior, such as PA, is conceptualized as the desire for a higher level of health rather than a fear of disease as is proposed by other health behavior theories. SCT with the integration of Korean culture recognizes cultural, developmental, societal, and other external constraints that may help in formulating interventions and better understanding of the limits faced by older Korean-Americans (OKAs) in their pursuit of routine PA.

  9. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  10. Individual and job-related variation in infant feeding practices among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Tucker, Jenna; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    To document working mothers' infant feeding practices and delineate factors that may shape infant feeding. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a community sample of working women with 8-month old infants (n=199). Nearly all working mothers used commercially prepared foods like infant cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Approximately one-fifth fed infants french fries, sweetened beverages, and sweetened desserts. Unhealthy infant feeding was elevated among unmarried mothers, those with less education, and those with a nonstandard work schedule. Working mothers use commercially prepared foods for infant feeding. Socially disadvantaged working mothers' infant feeding may pose health and developmental risks.

  11. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  12. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  13. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  14. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  15. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  16. The Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon Bu-Guan

    1994-01-01

    A realistic approach to North-South arms control and disarmament would require a step-by-step formula encompassing measures for political and military confidence building, arms limitation and reduction. The most fundamental and important condition for achieving meaningful results in disarmament talks is securing political and military confidence. The problem which arose on the Korean peninsula originates from relations of North Korea and IAEA. North Korean position poses a serious threat to the Non-proliferation Treaty, in particular to the IAEA Safeguards regime. Nuclear non-proliferation and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are the primary concerns of the post-cold war era. The Government of South Korea hopes that this issue can be solved through dialogue and negotiations

  17. Korean soft weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the development of nuclear weapons in the Korean People Democratic Republic (North Korea), which was crowned in October 2006 with the first successful underground detonation of nuclear charge. The North Korea so walked into the elite club and became de facto the nuclear great power. Nuclear disarmament negotiations with North Korea misfired. Relationships between the North Korea and the Republic of Korea as well as the China are discussed

  18. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  19. The Effects of Relationship Focused Intervention on Korean Parents and Their Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Mee; Mahoney, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of Relationship Focused Intervention (RFI) on a sample of Korean mothers and their preschool-aged children with disabilities. Subjects were 18 mothers of children with developmental problems (ages 3-8 years). Ten of these mothers were assigned to an RFI Treatment group and eight to a No RFI Control…

  20. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  1. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  2. Koreans in Japan: Their Influence on Korean-Japanese Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    1963. 31. The Republic of Korea National Red Cross, The Dispersed Families in Korea, Seoul, 1977. 32. Sato , Shoki, Koreans in Japan - The...1975. 34. Sumiya, Mikio , Kankoku no Keizai (The Korean Economy), Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo, Japan, 1974. 35. U.S. Government Printing Office, U.S. Army Area

  3. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  4. Individual Meaning and Increasing Complexity: Contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Considers contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to developmental psychology. Freud's contributions include his observations about play, perspectives on developmental processes, and ideas about unconscious mental activity. Spitz's contributions include his assessments of infants, perspectives on developmental processes, and his concept of…

  5. Early neurological signs in preterm infants with unilateral intraparenchymal echodensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cioni, G; Bos, AF; Einspieler, C; Ferrari, F; Martijn, A; Paolicelli, PB; Rapisardi, G; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document the early developmental course of neurological signs in a group of preterm infants at risk for hemiplegia due to unilateral intraparenchymal echodensity (UIPE). Sixteen preterm infants with UIPE and sixteen controls were given serial neurological examinations,

  6. Neurologic Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Undergoing Surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for magnetic resonance imaging and developmental follow-up. The infants were categorized retrospectively into either a nonsurgical group (n=178) or a surgical group (n=30). Nineteen infants were excluded because of incomplete or unsuitable data. The surgical and nonsurgical groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data, white matter injury, and brain volume at term. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at age 2 years. RESULTS: Compared with the nonsurgical group, the infants in the surgical group were smaller and more growth-restricted at birth, received more respiratory support and oxygen therapy, and had longer hospital stays. They also had smaller brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Infants who underwent bowel surgery had greater white matter injury. Mental Developmental Index scores were lower in the surgical group, whereas Psychomotor Developmental Index scores did not differ between the groups. The Mental Developmental Index difference became nonsignificant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exposed to surgery and anesthesia had greater white matter injury and smaller total brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Surgical exposure in the preterm infant should alert the clinician to an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcome.

  7. Prenatal intraventricular hemorrhage in a term infant with congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs rarely in term infant, since subependymal area is a transient structure in fetal life. IVH in term infant indicates generally that it happened prenatally. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is frequent, occurring in 1% of live births. It is a severe infection leading to developmental ...

  8. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of…

  9. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  10. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  11. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  12. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your infant has symptoms of botulism. Prevention In theory, the disease might be avoided by preventing exposure ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Resting heart rate in infants and toddlers: variations associated with early infant diet and the omega 3 fatty acid DHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although early postnatal nutrition can have long-term effects on developmental processes, the influence of infant diet on the maturation of cardiac development has not been documented. To study this relationship we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) in awake, healthy infants and toddlers exclusively b...

  14. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large

  15. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    by Kim’s former Japanese chef , Kenji Fujimoto, reveal that Kim could get just about anything he wanted in his personal life, from foreign delicacies...for his table to Japanese jet skis and Sony home electronics.9 Likewise, the account of Yi Nam-oak (Li Nam-ok), who grew up as a companion to Kim’s...title Kin Seinichi no Ryoryinin [Kim Jong-il’s Chef ], Tokyo: Fusosha, 2003. The title of the Korean edition is Kim Jong-il ui yorisa. FBIS translated

  16. Korean Affairs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-09

    U.S. Volvo 13. Other 14. Subtotal 15. Toyota 16. Nissan 17. Honda 18. Mazda 19. Mitsubishi 20. Fujitsu 21. Isuzu 22. Suzuki 23. Japanese...cars & Percent Unit=1,000 3. Company 4. U.S.-Made Cars 5. Imported Cars 6. GM 7. Ford 8. Chrysler 9. AMC 10. U.S. Nissan 11. U.S. Honda 12...24 percent. This is a surprisingly large increase compared with the current 1.7 percent. Until 1983, the prospect of Korean automobile exports was

  17. Infants, Mothers, and Dyadic Contributions to Stability and Prediction of Social Stress Response at 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L.; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social…

  18. Applying Intuition to Predict Maladaptive Interpersonal Outcomes in Mother-Infant Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Paul V.

    1994-01-01

    This article proposes that intuitive behaviors may be used to detect and resolve potential conflict in mother-infant relationships. Previewing, in which the caregiver introduces the infant to the physical sensations and interpersonal meaning of a new developmental skill, is suggested as a way of moving the mother-infant relationship in the…

  19. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedijk, Maaike A.; Voortman, Gardi; van Beek, Ron H. T.; Baartmans, Martin G. A.; Wafelman, Leontien S.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be sufficiently synthesized

  20. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Riedijk (Maaike); G.J. Voortman (Gardi); R.H.Th. van Beek (Ron); M.G.A. Baartmans (Martin); L.S. Wafelman (Leontien); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); R.H.Th. van Beek (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE. Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older Infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be

  1. Infants with Down Syndrome and Their Interactions with Objects: Development of Exploratory Actions after Reaching Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    During infant development, objects and their functions are learned by means of active exploration. Factors that may influence exploration include reaching and grasping ability, object properties and the presence of developmental disorders. We assessed the development of exploratory actions in 16 typically-developing (TD) infants and 9 infants with…

  2. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Single Center’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chieh Lin

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: ELBW infants have a high incidence of growth and developmental delay at corrected age of 2 years, particularly in male infants or those with BW less than 750 g. This study reveals that ELBW infants require well predischarge planning and postdischarge follow-up.

  3. Development of Korean EDMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yunjung; Jee, Moonhak; Kim, Inhwan; Park, Munhee [Nuclear Safety Technology Research Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moonoh [Atomic Creative Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Safety feature is also needed to more effectively cope with site-wide events affecting multiple units. In this study, the accident mitigation approaches in US are reviewed. The most effective ways to strengthen the defense-in-depth of nuclear power installations are presented as EDMG(Extensive Damage Mitigation Guideline) and FLEX against extreme hazards such as a beyond-design-basis external event (BDBEE) that took place at Fukushima. A combination of the US EDMG and FLEX is applied to develop Korean EDMG, which will be developed to have two different types of EDMGs : 'Site EDMG' to be used for effective technical support to activated TSCs and management of corporate emergency response resources in coordination with the EOF as necessary; and 'Plant-Specific EDMG (for Extreme Event)' to be used by the Technical Support Center (TSC) of a unit where a total loss of control has occurred or plant control cannot be established from the Control Room and Remote Shutdown Panel. The development of Korean EDMG is expected to further enhance mitigation and coping capabilities against site-wide extreme hazard in Korea where a relatively large number of units are assembled on each nuclear power plant site.

  4. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our

  5. Early social communication in infants with fragile X syndrome and infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J; Brady, Nancy C; McCary, Lindsay; Rague, Lisa; Roberts, Jane E

    2017-12-01

    Little research in fragile X syndrome (FXS) has prospectively examined early social communication. To compare early social communication in infants with FXS, infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASIBs), and typically developing (TD) infants. Participants were 18 infants with FXS, 21 ASIBs, and 22 TD infants between 7.5-14.5 months. Social communication was coded using the Communication Complexity Scale during the administration of Autism Observation Scale for Infants. Descriptively different patterns were seen across the three groups. Overall infants with FXS had lower social communication than ASIBs or TD infants when controlling for nonverbal cognitive abilities. However, infants with FXS had similar levels of social communication as ASIBs or TD infants during peek-a-boo. No differences were observed between ASIBs and TD infants. For all infants, higher social communication was related to lower ASD risk. Findings provide insight into the developmental course of social communication in FXS. The dynamic nature of social games may help to stimulate communication in infants with FXS. Language interventions with a strong social component may be particularly effective for promoting language development in FXS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  7. The developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-05-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them when they were 12 and 15 months old. The results indicated a reliable developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in infants with typical development. In Study 2, we explored the emergence sequence of social-communicative skills of 23 children with autism and 23 children with developmental delay between the ages of 2 and 4 years. The results demonstrated that the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism and children with developmental delays was different.

  8. Korean Unification: Opportunities and Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bundy, Richard B

    1992-01-01

    .... in addition, they agreed to support the Korean peninsula as a nuclear free zone. The two countries have existed in fact since the partition of the peninsula after the allied victory over Japan In 1945...

  9. Trace of Korean mechanical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This book reports 50 years of Korean mechanical engineers, which includes birth and history, remembrance and future of Korean society of mechanical engineers, current situation and development of mechanical industry such as national industry and 50 years of mechanical industry, track, airline industry, ship and marine engine, a precision instrument, cutting work, casting, welding, plastic working freeze and air handling nuclear power and textile machinery.

  10. Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Health and Development of African American Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Jada; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Weaver, Mark A.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Engelke, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessm...

  11. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modern approaches to preterm infants feeding, principles of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The importance of adequate control of deficit status in preterm infants at different periods of developmental care is marked. Arguments for using the enriched milk or specialized formulas for prematurity during the in-clinic and out-clinic periods of care are provided.Key words: premature infants, enteral nutrition, formulas for premature infants, breast milk, breast milk enriches.

  12. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  13. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  14. The Moderating Effects of Intellectual Development on Core Symptoms of Autism and PDD-NOS in Toddlers and Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dempsey, Timothy; LoVullo, Santino V.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Knight, Cheryl; Sevin, Jay A.; Sharp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on whether deficits in developmental functioning affect the range of core symptoms for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study represents a first attempt to determine whether developmental level has an effect on the expression of ASD symptoms in infants and toddlers. Eight hundred and fifty-three infants were…

  15. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  16. RECOGNIZING INFANTS' EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS: ARE ADOLESCENTS LESS SENSITIVE TO INFANTS' CUES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Anke; Konrad, Kerstin; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mothers interact less sensitively with their infants than do adult mothers. This difference might be due to developmental difficulties in the recognition of infants' emotional states in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore differences in the recognition of infant signals between nonparous adolescent girls and boys as compared to female and male adults. To this end, we examined 54 childless adolescents and 54 childless adults (50% female). Participants were shown a series of 20 short videos of infants aged 3 to 6 months presenting different emotional states ranging from very distressed to very happy. In addition, participants were asked to report their own parental experiences using the German version, Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (J. Schumacher, M. Eisemann, & E. Brähler, ), of the Egna Minnen Befräffande Uppfostran (Own Memories of Parental Rearing Experiences in Childhood; C. Perris, L. Jacobsson, H. Lindstrom, L. von Knorring, & H. Perris, ). Adolescents rated distressed infants as more distressed than did the adults. Furthermore, female participants rated the very distressed infants as more distressed than did male participants. These data suggest that adolescents, in general, are not impaired in recognizing infant emotional states, as compared to adults. Thus, we suggest that more extreme ratings of infant signals of discomfort together with immature sociocognitive regulation processes during adolescence might contribute to reduced sensitivity observed in adolescent mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk Pedersen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark......Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark...

  18. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  19. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age: the Infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) cohort study among Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya; Hanlon, Charlotte; Ritz, Christian; Wibaek, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan C; Andersen, Gregers S; Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-06-01

    Early nutrition and growth have been found to be important early exposures for later development. Studies of crude growth in terms of weight and length/height, however, cannot elucidate how body composition (BC) might mediate associations between nutrition and later development. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during infancy were followed up for outcome variable, and were included in the statistical analysis. The study sample was restricted to mothers living in Jimma town who gave birth to a term baby with a birth weight ≥1500 g and no evident congenital anomalies. The relationship between the exposure and outcome variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression. Intervention studies are needed to assess whether nutrition interventions increasing FFM also increase cognitive development.

  20. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  1. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  2. Early dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Moessinger, Adrien; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2006-07-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental and socioemotional outcomes. The quality of the early mother-infant relationship has been noted as 1 of the factors that may exacerbate or soften the potentially adverse impact of preterm birth, particularly concerning the infant's later competencies and development. The first purpose of the study was to identify at 6 months of corrected age whether there were specific dyadic mother-infant patterns of interaction in preterm as compared with term mother-infant dyads. The second purpose was to examine the potential impact of these dyadic patterns on the infant's behavioral and developmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age. During a 12-month period (January-December 1998), all preterm infants who were compliance, difficult, and passivity). At 18 months, behavioral outcomes of the children were assessed on the basis of a semistructured interview of the mother, the Symptom Check List. The Symptom Check List explores 4 groups of behavioral symptoms: sleeping problems, eating problems, psychosomatic symptoms, and behavioral and emotional disorders. At the same age, developmental outcomes were evaluated using the Griffiths Developmental Scales. Five areas were evaluated: locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, eye-hand coordination, and performance. Among the possible dyadic patterns of interaction, 2 patterns emerge recurrently in mother-infant preterm dyads: a "cooperative pattern" with a sensitive mother and a cooperative-responsive infant (28%) and a "controlling pattern" with a controlling mother and a compulsive-compliant infant (28%). The remaining 44% form a heterogeneous group that gathers all of the other preterm dyads and is composed of 1 sensitive mother-passive infant; 10 controlling mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant; and 10 unresponsive mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant. Among the term control

  3. Leptomeningeal neurons are a common finding in infants and are increased in sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Christian H.; Gross, Oliver; Nolte, Kay W.; Vennemann, Mechtild; Bajanowski, Thomas; Brinkmann, Bernd

    Developmental abnormalities of the brain, in particular, the brainstem potentially affecting centers for breathing, circulation and sleep regulation, are thought to be involved in the etiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In order to investigate whether leptomeningeal neurons could serve

  4. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  5. Factors associated with developmental concern and intent to access therapy following discharge from the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Roberta G; Castellano, Alison; Rogers, Cynthia; Neil, Jeffrey J; Inder, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    To determine factors associated with mothers' concern about infant development and intent to access therapy services following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. Infant medical factors, magnetic resonance imaging results, neurobehavior at term, maternal factors, and maternal perceptions about developmental concern and intent to access therapy at NICU discharge were prospectively collected in 84 infants born premature (concern and intent to access therapy at NICU discharge. Decreased developmental concern was reported by mothers with more children (P = .007). Infant stress signs (P = .038), higher maternal education (P = .047), reading books (P = .030), and maternal depression (P = .018) were associated with increased developmental concern. More maternal education was associated with more intent to access services (P = .040). Maternal factors, rather than infant factors, had important associations with caregiver concern. In contrast, abnormal term neurobehavior and/or the presence of cerebral injury were not associated with caregiver concern about development.

  6. Congenital Malformations in Singleton Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Singleton Infants by Natural Conception in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mozafari Kermani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies occur more frequently in assisted reproductive technology (ART compared to normal conception (NC. It is known that the risk of congenital malformations in a multiple pregnancy are higher than single pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare congenital malformations in singleton infants conceived by ART to singleton infants conceived naturally. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, we performed a historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM in 820 singleton births from January 2012 to December 2014. The data for this analysis were derived from Tehran’s ART linked data file. The risk of congenital malformations was compared in 164 ART infants and 656 NC infants. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for the independent association of ART on each outcome. Results: We found 40 infants with MCM 29 (4.4% NC infants and 14 (8.3% ART infants. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 2-fold increased risk of MCM (P=0.046. After adjusting individually for maternal age, infant gender, prior stillbirth, mother’s history of spontaneous abortion, and type of delivery, we did not find any difference in risk. In this study the majority (95.1% of all infants were normal but 4.9% of infants had at least one MCM. We found a difference in risk of MCMs between in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. We excluded the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Conclusion: This study reported a higher risk of MCMs in ART singleton infants than in NC singleton infants. Congenital heart disease, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and urogenital malformations were the most reported major malformations in singleton ART infants according to organ and system classification.

  7. Very preterm/very low birthweight infants' attachment: infant and maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Gutbrod, Tina

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether there are differences in attachment security and disorganisation between very preterm or very low birthweight (VP/VLBW) (infants (37-42 weeks gestation) and whether the pathways to disorganised attachment differ between VP/VLBW and full-term infants. The sample with complete longitudinal data consisted of 71 VP/VLBW and 105 full-term children and their mothers matched for twin status, maternal age, income and maternal education. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Assessment at 18 months of age. Maternal sensitivity in the VP/VLBW and full-term samples was rated by neonatal nurses and community midwives in the neonatal period, respectively, and mother-infant interaction was observed at 3 months. Infant difficultness was assessed by maternal report at 3 months and infant's developmental status was assessed with the Bayley Scales (BSID-II). Most VP/VLBW (61%) and full-term (72%) children were found to be securely attached. However, more VP/VLBW (32%) than full-term children (17%) had disorganised attachment. Longitudinal path analysis found that maternal sensitivity was predictive of attachment disorganisation in full-term children. In contrast, infant's distressing cry and infant's developmental delay, but not maternal sensitivity, were predictive of disorganised attachment in VP/VLBW children. A third of VP/VLBW children showed disorganised attachment. Underlying neurodevelopmental problems associated with VP/VLBW birth appear to be a common pathway to a range of social relationship problems in this group. Clinicians should be aware that disorganised attachment and relationship problems in VP/VLBW infants are frequent despite sensitive parenting.

  8. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  9. Aesthetics of Korean foods: The symbol of Korean culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Kyung Chung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in transportation and communication have broken down critical barriers within the global economy, pushing us towards a more unified world. In keeping with this trend, processes of communication, transportation, and production are becoming increasingly standardized, mechanized, and automated. Yet as this global era of uniformity progresses, people and individuals will inevitably encounter identity confusion. Numerous individuals, ethnicities, nationalities, and countries around the world are working to counteract such identity confusion. As globalization progresses, groups and nationalities that fail to preserve their identities will dwindle and become absorbed by stronger entities. Therefore, many societies are investing great efforts into rediscovering and revamping their indigenous traditions, cultures, and customs. When travelers visit another country, one of the simplest avenues for them to experience the local culture is food. Unlike other cultural elements, many of which have become diluted because of globalization, native cuisines are still perceived as retaining the traditions, uniqueness, and diversity of individual cultures. It is more important than ever for people and countries to expand and preserve their respective cultural currencies. In this respect, taking a cultural approach to Korean cuisine is a fascinating and meaningful endeavor. In light of the recent publication of a few articles dealing with the symbolic significance and meaning behind Korean cuisine, an effort to compile a list of the distinctive cultural properties of Korean food seems vital. Furthermore, presenting the aesthetics of Korean food through a method that integrates science and culture is a very significant task. The authors of this paper firmly believe in its potential to advance the globalization of Korean food.

  10. The Development of Infant Detection of Inauthentic Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A.; Campos, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Appreciating authentic and inauthentic emotional communication is central to the formation of trusting and intimate interpersonal relationships. However, when infants are able to discriminate and respond to inauthentic emotion has not been investigated. The present set of studies was designed to investigate infant sensitivity to three specific cues of inauthenticity: the contextual congruency of the emotion, the degree of exaggeration of the emotion, and the clarity with which the emotion is communicated. In each experiment, 16- and 19-month-old infants were presented with an emotional communication in which an inauthentic cue was present or absent. Infant behavioral responding to the emotional context was observed and coded. In all three experiments, 19-month-old infants, but not 16-month-old infants, detected inauthentic emotional communication and differentially responded to the environment accordingly. These findings demonstrate that infants do not simply take all emotional communication at face value and are sensitive to features of emotional contexts beyond what is expressively communicated by the adult. Possible developmental mechanisms that may account for the observed developmental shift in infant emotional development are proposed, and implications for the present findings on future research in emotion and emotional development are highlighted. PMID:24512249

  11. The Developing Infant Creates a Curriculum for Statistical Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda B; Jayaraman, Swapnaa; Clerkin, Elizabeth; Yu, Chen

    2018-04-01

    New efforts are using head cameras and eye-trackers worn by infants to capture everyday visual environments from the point of view of the infant learner. From this vantage point, the training sets for statistical learning develop as the sensorimotor abilities of the infant develop, yielding a series of ordered datasets for visual learning that differ in content and structure between timepoints but are highly selective at each timepoint. These changing environments may constitute a developmentally ordered curriculum that optimizes learning across many domains. Future advances in computational models will be necessary to connect the developmentally changing content and statistics of infant experience to the internal machinery that does the learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  13. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  14. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  15. A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Developmental Dimensions in Object Permanence and Tracking Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Rosenwein, Linda

    This paper discusses a longitudinal, exploratory study of developmental dimensions related to object permanence theory and explains how multidimensional scaling techniques can be used to identify developmental dimensions. Eighty infants, randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups and one of four counterbalanced orders of stimuli, were…

  16. Methylmercury and brain development: imprecision and underestimation of developmental neurotoxicity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury is now recognized as an important developmental neurotoxicant, though this insight developed slowly over many decades. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in a Swedish case report in 1952, and from a serious outbreak in Minamata, Japan, a few years later. Whereas the infant...

  17. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  18. Congenital anomalies in infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari Kermani, Ramin; Nedaeifard, Leila; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Osia, Mohammad Ali; Jafarzadehpour, Ebrahim; Nouri, Soudabeh

    2012-04-01

    Many studies show that congenital defects in infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are more than infants of normal conception (NC). The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of congenital anomalies in ART infants from Royan Institute and to compare congenital anomalies between two ART techniques.  In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 400 ART infants from Royan Institute who resided in Tehran were selected by non-random, consecutive sampling. Infants were examined twice (until 9 months of age) by a pediatrician. Infants' congenital anomalies were described by each body system or organ and type of ART. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and Fisher's exact test. The frequency of different organ involvement in the two examinations were: 40 (10%) skin, 25 (6.2%) urogenital system, 21 (5.2%) gastrointestinal tract, 13 (3.2%) visual, and 8 (2%) cardiovascular system. Major congenital defects in infants conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were hypospadiasis, inguinal hernia, patent ductus arteriosus plus ventricular septal defect (PDA + VSD), developmental dysplasia of the hip, lacrimal duct stenosis during the first year of life, hydronephrosis and urinary reflux over grade III, undescending testis, ureteropelvic junction stenosis, and torticoli. Two-thirds of ART infants had no defects. A total of 7% of IVF and ICSI infants had one of the major abovementioned congenital anomalies. This rate was higher than NC infants (2%-3%). There was no difference between the ICSI and IVF group.

  19. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  20. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  1. Comparison of skin-to-skin (kangaroo) and traditional care: parenting outcomes and preterm infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I; Sirota, Lea; Weller, Aron

    2002-07-01

    To examine whether the kangaroo care (KC) intervention in premature infants affects parent-child interactions and infant development. Seventy-three preterm infants who received KC in the neonatal intensive care unit were matched with 73 control infants who received standard incubator care for birth weight, gestational age (GA), medical severity, and demographics. At 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction, maternal depression, and mother perceptions were examined. At 3 months' corrected age, infant temperament, maternal and paternal sensitivity, and the home environment (with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) were observed. At 6 months' corrected age, cognitive development was measured with the Bayley-II and mother-infant interaction was filmed. Seven clusters of outcomes were examined at 3 time periods: at 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction and maternal perceptions; at 3-month, HOME mothers, HOME fathers, and infant temperament; at 6 months, cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. After KC, interactions were more positive at 37 weeks' GA: mothers showed more positive affect, touch, and adaptation to infant cues, and infants showed more alertness and less gaze aversion. Mothers reported less depression and perceived infants as less abnormal. At 3 months, mothers and fathers of KC infants were more sensitive and provided a better home environment. At 6 months, KC mothers were more sensitive and infants scored higher on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index (KC: mean: 96.39; controls: mean: 91.81) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (KC: mean: 85.47; controls: mean: 80.53). KC had a significant positive impact on the infant's perceptual-cognitive and motor development and on the parenting process. We speculate that KC has both a direct impact on infant development by contributing to neurophysiological organization and an indirect effect by improving parental mood, perceptions, and interactive behavior.

  2. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4- 60 months. Methods: ...

  3. Learning to walk changes infants' social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W

    2011-02-01

    The onset of crawling marks a motor, cognitive and social milestone. The present study investigated whether independent walking marks a second milestone for social behaviors. In Experiment 1, the social and exploratory behaviors of crawling infants were observed while crawling and in a baby-walker, resulting in no differences based on posture. In Experiment 2, the social behaviors of independently walking infants were compared to age-matched crawling infants in a baby-walker. Independently walking infants spent significantly more time interacting with the toys and with their mothers, and also made more vocalizations and more directed gestures compared to infants in the walker. Experiment 3 tracked infants' social behaviors longitudinally across the transition from crawling and walking. Even when controlled for age, the transition to independent walking marked increased interaction time with mothers, as well as more sophisticated interactions, including directing mothers' attention to particular objects. The results suggest a developmental progression linking social interactions with milestones in locomotor development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  5. Effects of Maternal Anxiety Disorders on Infant Self-Comforting Behaviors: The Role of Maternal Bonding, Infant Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit

    We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Adaptation to Childhood Disability in Korean Immigrant and Korean Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Je; Singer, George H. S.; Brenner, Betsy (Mary)

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the variables that exacerbated or buffered the impact of child problem behaviors and/or physical differences on 16 Korean mothers and 16 Korean American mothers of children with disabilities. Overall findings from data analyses were consistent with qualitative findings that Korean mothers experienced more difficulties than their…

  8. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  9. Color-Function Categories that Prime Infants to Use Color Information in an Object Individuation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca; Chapa, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence for developmental hierarchies in the type of information to which infants attend when reasoning about objects. Investigators have questioned the origin of these hierarchies and how infants come to identify new sources of information when reasoning about objects. The goal of the present experiments was to shed light on this debate…

  10. Development of a Quantitative Tool to Assess the Content of Physical Therapy for Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Dirks, Tineke; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The study aim was to describe and quantify physical therapy interventions for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. Methods: An observation protocol was developed based on knowledge about infant physical therapy and analysis of directly observable physiotherapeutic (PT) actions.

  11. Development of Spontaneous Grandparent-Infant Imitation across the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Theano; Germanakis, Ioannis; Pratikaki, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and compare systematically the developmental patterns of certain aspects of imitation, longitudinally from 2 to 10 months, in interactions of infants with grandfathers and grandmothers. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome: A Prospective Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Abigail L.; Caravella, Kelly E.; Ezell, Jordan; Rague, Lisa; Hills, Kimberly; Roberts, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    No studies to date have prospectively examined early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) markers in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are at elevated risk for ASD. This paper describes the developmental profiles of eight infants with FXS from 9 to 24 months of age. Four meet diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24 months of age, and four do not.…

  13. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  14. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was…

  15. Korean society of mechanical engineers 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This book introduces 60 years of Korean society of mechanical engineers with birth, foundation, development process, change of enforcement regulation and articles of association, important data of this association, 60 years of parts, committee and branch, business of association like academic event, publication, technical development business, supporting research centers, bond Korean society of mechanical engineers and mechanical industry and development of related organizations, development for industrial fields and development direction of Korean society of mechanical engineers.

  16. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  17. Focusing the lens: The infant's point of view. Discussion of "Brief interventions with parents, infants, and young children: A Framework for thinking".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brigid

    2011-11-01

    This is a discussion of the article "Brief Interventions With Parents, Infants, and Young Children: A Framework for Thinking by Louise Emmanuel." Questions of symptom formation, the difference between a defense and developmental phenomena, and different therapeutic techniques are explored from the perspective of The Baby as Subject (an infant-parent psychotherapy approach developed at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia). The relationship between feeding difficulties and the dynamics of the infant-parent attachment relationship are discussed with reference to whether the infant's apparent self-sufficiency is interpersonally generated and whether bids for autonomy are a sign of healthy, age-appropriate developmental drives at play. The use of representational toys in infant-parent psychotherapy to enable infants and toddlers to represent their experience or for the therapist to visually express what he or she understands the infant's experience to be and thus to work directly with the infant's representations is outlined. In addition to the linguistic content of verbal interpretations, the infant is receptive to the experience of another thinking mind and the emotional language, facial expressions, and gestures that also convey to the baby the experience of being understood or misunderstood. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Organizational factors in Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D. J.; Kim, Y. I.; Jeong, C. H.; Kim, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational factors are referred to as the factors that influence the achievement of a goal of an organization. Latent problems of an organization could contribute to causing human errors in such stages as design, operation and maintenance, and furthermore, leading to an severe accident. In order to evaluate an organization from the safety viewpoint, it is necessary to identify the organizational factors in a systematic fashion. In this paper, some efforts to identify the organizational factors in Korean NPPs are presented. The study was performed in the following steps: 1) Reviewing the definitions and range of the organizational factors used by the previous 13 researches, 2) Structuring the organizational factors by screening and collating factors, 3) Analysing the organizational factors that is considered to have contributed to the trip events based on the trip report of Korean NPPs, 4) Suggesting a more reliable taxonomy of organizational factors for event analysis by applying the Onion Structure Model to the selected factors

  19. Biological embedding of perinatal social relationships in infant stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenna C; Letourneau, Nicole; Bryce, Crystal I; Campbell, Tavis S; Giesbrecht, Gerald F

    2017-05-01

    Whereas significant advances have been made in understanding how exposure to early adversity "gets under the skin" of children to result in long term changes in developmental outcomes, the processes by which positive social relationships become biologically embedded remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the pathways by which maternal and infant social environments become biologically embedded in infant cortisol reactivity. Two hundred seventy-two pregnant women and their infants were prospectively assessed during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. In serial mediation analyses, higher perceived social support from partners during pregnancy was associated with lower infant cortisol reactivity or larger decreases in cortisol in response to a stressor at 6 months of age via lower self-reported prenatal maternal depression and higher mother-infant interaction quality. The findings add to our understanding of how perinatal social relationships become biologically embedded in child development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald G

    2012-10-16

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant's caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant-caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally.

  1. Music in Korean shaman ritual.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Simon R.S.

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to sum up Korean Shamanism in a few sentences but, in short, it could be described as the traditional syncretic folk religion of Korea. It mixes together ritual practices, beliefs, symbols and myths from Buddhism, Taoism, and folklore and adds elements commonly associated with nature religions and shamanism – including the use of techniques such as divination, trance, and mediumship. As with many other syncretic folk religions around the globe, there is very little in the way o...

  2. Korean Affairs Report No. 215.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-25

    21 Aug 81 p 2] 89 ROMANIAN FILM SHOW—The following attended the opening of a Romanian film week on 20 August at the Nagwon Cinema , in honor of the...decoration of the Pyongyang City Sosong District General Restaurant with the title of Guard Commerce. Premier Li and his party confer with the Malaysian ...National Power transmission workers’ meeting closes a two-day meeting held in Moranbong Theater. The (north) Korean and Malaysian governments sign

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive Coding Strategies for Developmental Neurorobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Cheol; Lim, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hansol; Kim, Dae-Shik

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, predictive coding strategies have been proposed as a possible means by which the brain might make sense of the truly overwhelming amount of sensory data available to the brain at any given moment of time. Instead of the raw data, the brain is hypothesized to guide its actions by assigning causal beliefs to the observed error between what it expects to happen and what actually happens. In this paper, we present a variety of developmental neurorobotics experiments in which minimalist prediction error-based encoding strategies are utilize to elucidate the emergence of infant-like behavior in humanoid robotic platforms. Our approaches will be first naively Piagian, then move onto more Vygotskian ideas. More specifically, we will investigate how simple forms of infant learning, such as motor sequence generation, object permanence, and imitation learning may arise if minimizing prediction errors are used as objective functions. PMID:22586416

  5. Predictive Coding Strategies for Developmental Neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Cheol ePark

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, predictive coding strategies have been proposed as a possible way of how the brain might make sense of the truly overwhelming amount of sensory data available to the brain at any given moment of time. Instead of the raw data, the brain is hypothesized to guide its actions by assigning causal believes to the observed error between what it expected to happen, and what actually happens. In this paper we present a potpourri of developmental neurorobotics experiments in which minimalist prediction-error based encoding strategies are utilize to elucidate the emergence of infant-like behavior in humanoid robotic platforms. Our approaches will be first naively Piagian, then move onto more Vygotskian ideas. More specifically, we will investigate how simple forms of infant learning such as motor sequence generation, object permanence, and imitation learning may arise if minimizing prediction errors are used as objective functions.

  6. Dentofacial transverse development in Koreans according to skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soonshin; Noh, Yoonjeong; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the normative data of dentofacial transverse dimensions according to the skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion, assess gender differences and determine correlations between transverse variables. A total of 577 Korean subjects between ages 7 to 19 years and exhibiting skeletal Class I occlusion were categorized by skeletal maturation index (SMI) of Fishman using hand-wrist radiographs. Dentofacial transverse dimensions were assessed using posteroanterior cephalograms. Independent two-sample t -tests were used to analyze differences between genders. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between transverse measurements. Dentofacial transverse norms relevant to skeletal maturation stages were established. The average maxillomandibular width difference and ratio at growth completion was 22.16 mm and 77.01% for males; 23.70 mm and 74.06% for females, respectively. Males had greater facial, maxillary and mandibular widths compared to females at every SMI stage. The maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed the strongest correlation for both sexes (r = 0.826 for males, r = 0.725 for females). Dentofacial transverse norms of Korean adolescents were established according to developmental stage. All dentofacial widths were greater in males at growth completion. Maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were strongly correlated. This study may serve as a guideline for the assessment of dentofacial transverse growth according to skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion.

  7. Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI.

  8. K-pop in Korea: How the Pop Music Industry is Changing a Post-Developmental Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Korean popular songs, or kayo, are evolving from a musical genre created and performed only by Koreans into K-pop, a global musical genre produced and enjoyed by Koreans and those of other nationalities. This new development has revolutionized the perception of the popular music industry in Korea’s post-developmental society, as Korean children dream of becoming K-pop idols rather than entering traditionally esteemed careers in politics, medicine, or academia. The Korean government is also actively promoting Hallyu and K-pop, as though they constitute new export industries that could feed the entire nation in the twenty-first century. While the K-pop revolution has a lot to do with YouTube and other digital means of distributing music on a global scale, Korean television stations are now eager to tap into the booming market by showcasing live K-pop auditions in order to circumvent declining television loyalty among K-pop fans, who prefer watching music videos on YouTube. K-pop in Korea therefore illustrates three important aspects of social change: changes in social perceptions of the popular music industry, massive government support, and television stations actively recruiting new K-pop stars. All three aspects of social change reinforce one another and fuel the aspirations of young Koreans to become the next K-pop idols.

  9. Infants' Sensitivity to the Congruence of Others' Emotions and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Westermann, Gert

    2013-01-01

    As humans, we are attuned to the moods and emotions of others. This understanding of emotions enables us to interpret other people's actions on the basis of their emotional displays. However, the development of this capacity is not well understood. Here we show a developmental pattern in 10- and 14-month-old infants' sensitivity to others'…

  10. The Assessment of Cognitive Development in Blind Infants and Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, M.; Troster, H.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Preschoolers by comparing cognitive performance of blind and sighted children (ages three and four). Results indicated that even this test (with "blind-neutral" items) did not permit a fair comparative assessment, though it did prove suitable for within-group…

  11. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  12. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  13. Handbook for Teaching Korean-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This handbook is designed for teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. It provides an explanation of the sociocultural and linguistic characteristics of Korean-Americans so educators can address their needs more effectively and orchestrate a better teaching environment by understanding and supporting the Korean-American cultural…

  14. Characterization of the fecal microbiota differs between age groups in Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Kook

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims : Tens of trillions of microorganisms constitute the gut microbiota of the human body. The microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining host immunity and metabolism. Analyses of the gut microbial composition in Korea are limited to a few studies consisting of small sample sizes. To investigate the gut microbial community in a large sample of healthy Koreans, we analyzed the 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium. Methods : A total of 378 DNA samples extracted from 164 infants and 214 adults were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results : Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium showed that the gut microbiota in infants had higher relative abundances of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus than that in adults, which was dominated by Bacteroides and Clostridium. Conclusions : To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study evaluating the distinct characteristics of the microbial community of Korean infants and adults. The differences between the 2 populations suggest that external factors such as age, diet, and the environment are important contributing factors to the change in gut microbial composition during development.

  15. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  16. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  17. Acculturation and Health of Korean American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing cultural diversity in the United States and significant health disparities among immigrant populations make acculturation an important concept to measure in health research. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine acculturation and health of Korean American adults. A convenience sample of 517 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city completed a survey in either English or Korean. All four groups of Berry's acculturation model were identified using cluster analysis with Lee's Acculturation Scale. Assimilation, integration, and separation were found in the English survey sample, whereas integration, separation, and marginalization were found in the Korean survey sample. Moreover, the findings revealed that acculturation is a bidimensional process, and the unique nature of samples may determine acculturation groups. Physical health and mental health were significantly related to acculturation in the English survey sample. However, there was not a significant relationship between health and acculturation in the Korean survey sample. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  19. Korean species of the genus Perlomyia Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Leuctridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murányi, Dávid; Jeon, Mi Jeong; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Seo, Hong Yul

    2014-11-04

    Eight species of the genus Perlomyia (Plecoptera: Leuctridae) are reported from Korea, six are new records for the Korean Peninsula. Two species, known only as unassociated females are described under informal unnamed designations. Previous Korean records are discussed, taxonomic characters of the Korean specimens and Korean distribution are presented for these species. Zoogeographic notes on the Asian Perlomyia are also given.

  20. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Koh, Yun-Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun-Chung; Park, Jee In

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Materials and Methods Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6–12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Results Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. Conclusion K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created. PMID:28120577

  1. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun Joo; Cheon, Keun Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun Chung; Park, Jee In; Kim, Young Shin

    2017-03-01

    Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6-12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created.

  2. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  4. History of Korean gochu, gochujang, and kimchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Kwon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The gochu (Korean red pepper that goes into Korean traditional fermented foods such as kimchi (fermented cabbage and gochujang (spicy red pepper paste should have a mild spiciness and its Scoville heat unit (the unit that measures spiciness is <1,000. The kimchi and gochujang that are fermented only with Korean gochu can be eaten. Kimchi and gochujang cannot be prepared even with cheongyangkochu (Scoville heat unit is approximately 3,000, which is a hybrid of Korean gochu and Thai gochu. When these foods are prepared with other spicier gochu, such as Thai pepper, Southern Asian red pepper, Central American red pepper, or Mexico's aji (which is 500 times spicier than Korean gochu, they will be too spicy to consume. Biologically, Korean gochu is different from the red peppers of Central American countries (such as Mexico and Colombia, Indonesia, India, and Thailand. Therefore, the statement that the Central American red pepper came to Korea during the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592 is not true. We can refer to a research paper in the magazine “Nature” that Korea's gochu arrived at the Korean peninsula millions of years ago, having been spread by birds. It states that gochu has evolved for millions of years, therefore, we can infer that Korean gochu existed as a completely different variety. In addition, gochujang and kimchi can be made using gochu only, which proves that people in Korea cultivated gochu thousands of years ago and have been eating it since then. Furthermore, many old Korean documents support the fact that Koreans have been planting and harvesting gochu for the last 1,500 years.

  5. Standard bone-age of infant and children in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the developmental status of children and adolescents, bone-age chart based on the radiograph of hand and wrist has been used in many countries. The bone-age reflects not only the functional status of various hormones but also the influence of chronic disease, and it has been used more widely than other indices such as height-weight-age table. As the standard bone-age chart has not been established in Korea, the foreign bone-age chart has been used radiographs in the clinics. To make Korean standard bone-age chart, we took the radiographs of the left hand in about 5400 children covering the whole country, and 3407 radiographs of 1830 boys and 1577 girls ranging from two months to 16 years of age were selected and analyzed for bone maturity scores by TW2-20 method. The range of age were divided into 27 groups, and the radiographs of 50th percentile score were chosen as the standard bone-ages for the median age of each group. The youngest and oldest chronological age which had the same TW2-20 score of the standard bone-age were decided as the range of variation from the median age. We hope that Korean standard bone-age chart be used as the radiological criteria in the evaluation of the developmental status in Korean children and adolescents

  6. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  7. 236 children with developmental hydrocephalus: causes and clinical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed MRIs and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to one of five subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics, developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth. 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. 53% of surgically-treated patients experienced at least one shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms. PMID:26184484

  8. Sensory integration intervention and the development of the premature infant: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lecuona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are at risk of sensory processing difficulties and developmental delays due to an immature central nervous system and possible episodes of medical instability, discomfort, pain and stress during the first weeks or months after birth.Objective. To investigate the effect of Ayres Sensory Integration (ASI on the development of premature infants in the first 12 months of life.Methods. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used to randomly divide 24 premature infants from a low socioeconomic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, into experimental and control groups after being matched by corrected age and gender. Developmental status was determined with the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile. The experimental group received 10 weeks of ASI intervention.Results. ASI intervention had a positive effect on the sensory processing and development of premature infants, especially in terms of cognitive, language and motor development.Conclusions. ASI intervention at an early age enhances the developmental progress of premature infants. 

  9. Infant Attachment Moderates Paths From Early Negativity to Preadolescent Outcomes for Children and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna; Jonas, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Although infant attachment has been long seen as key for development, its long-term effects may be complex. Attachment may be a catalyst or moderator of future developmental sequelae rather than a source of main effects. In 102 mothers, fathers, and infants, attachment was assessed at 15 months; children's negativity (rejection of parental rules and modeling attempts) at 25, 38, 52, and 67 months; and developmental outcomes (the child's parent-rated externalizing problems and the parent-child observed relationship quality) at ages 10 and 12. In both mother-child and father-child relationships, children's higher negativity was associated with more detrimental outcomes but only in dyads with formerly insecure infants. Infant insecurity appears to amplify detrimental cascades, whereas infant security appears to defuse such risks. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Influence of father-infant relationship on infant development: A father-involvement intervention in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Rempel, John K; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi

    2017-10-01

    We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group. Intervention fathers received group and individual counseling before and after birth, an interactive print resource, community messages about fathering, and the opportunity to participate in a Fathers Club. Couples from 12 comparable communes in a noncontiguous district were recruited to the control group. Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires at the prebirth recruitment and at 1-, 4-, and 9-months postbirth. Intervention fathers demonstrated greater increase in knowledge and attitudes regarding father-infant relationships. Both fathers and mothers reported that fathers engaged in more affection, care-taking, and play in the early months of their infants' lives and fathers felt more attached to their infants right from birth. A developmental assessment at 9 months showed that intervention infants demonstrated higher levels of motor, language, and personal/social development. This study demonstrated that fathers can be taught to interact more sensitively, responsively, and effectively with their newborn infants. Their increased interaction and emotional attachment appears to lay the foundation for enhanced infant development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Efeito da intervenção em esteira motorizada na aquisição da marcha independente e desenvolvimento motor em bebês de risco para atraso desenvolvimental Efecto de la intervención en caminadora automática en la adquisición de la marcha independiente y desarrollo motor en bebés de riesgo para retraso de desarrollo Treadmill training effects on walking acquisition and motor development in infants at risk of developmental delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Xavier C. Schlittler

    2011-03-01

    ática para el grupo experimental. Todos los bebés fueron evaluados mensualmente por la Alberta Infant Motor Scale y los del grupo experimental fueron filmados realizando los pasos en la caminadora. Comparaciones entre los grupos a lo largo del tiempo fueron realizadas utilizando análisis de variancia (ANOVA y de multivariancia (MANOVA. RESULTADOS: Los bebés del grupo experimental adquirieron la marcha independiente a los 12,8 y los del grupo control de riesgo a los 13,8 meses de edad corregida, siendo que la adquisición del grupo control de riesgo ocurrió más tarde que en el grupo control típico (1,1 meses; pOBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of motorized treadmill intervention on independent walking acquisition and other motor milestones in infants at risk of developmental delay. METHODS: Experimental study with 15 infants, observed since the 5th month of age: five infants at risk of developmental delay submitted to both physiotherapy sessions and intervention in motorized treadmill (Experimental Group; five infants at risk of developmental delay submitted to physiotherapy sessions only (Risk Control Group; and five infants without risks of developmental delay (Typical Control Group. Physiotherapy sessions occurred twice a week, followed by motorized treadmill intervention for the Experimental Group. Motorized treadmill intervention began when infants acquired cephalic control and was interrupted by independent walking or at 14 months post-conceptual age. All babies were monthly assessed with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Experimental Group was filmed during the exercise on the motorized treadmill. Comparisons among groups and months were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and multivariance (MANOVA. RESULTS: Experimental Group infants acquired independent walking at 12.8 months and the Risk Control Group infants at 13.8 months of corrected age, which was delayed compared to the Typical Control Group (1.1 months; p<0.05. Experimental Group of infants

  12. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  13. The North Korean nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    The current nuclear crisis, the second one in ten years, erupted when North Korea expelled international nuclear inspectors in December 2002, then withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and claimed to be building more nuclear weapons with the plutonium extracted from the spent fuel rods heretofore stored under international inspection. These actions were triggered by a disagreement over U.S. assertions that North Korea had violated the Agreed Framework (which froze the plutonium path to nuclear weapons to end the first crisis in 1994) by clandestinely developing uranium enrichment capabilities providing an alternative path to nuclear weapons. With Stanford University Professor John Lewis and three other Americans, I was allowed to visit the Yongbyon Nuclear Center on Jan. 8, 2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage building, and the radiochemical laboratory. We concluded that North Korea has restarted its 5 MWe reactor (which produces roughly 6 kg of plutonium annually), it removed the 8000 spent fuel rods that were previously stored under IAEA safeguards from the spent fuel pool, and that it most likely extracted the 25 to 30 kg of plutonium contained in these fuel rods. Although North Korean officials showed us what they claimed was their plutonium metal product from this reprocessing campaign, we were not able to conclude definitively that it was in fact plutonium metal and that it came from the most recent reprocessing campaign. Nevertheless, our North Korean hosts demonstrated that they had the capability, the facility and requisite capacity, and the technical expertise to produce plutonium metal. On the basis of our visit, we were not able to address the issue of whether or not North Korea had a 'deterrent' as claimed - that is, we were not able to conclude that North Korea can build a nuclear device and that it can integrate nuclear devices into suitable delivery systems. However

  14. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  16. Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

  17. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  18. Differences Between the Family-Centered "COPCA" Program and Traditional Infant Physical Therapy Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background. Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is

  19. The development of postural adjustments during reaching in 6-to 18-month-old infants - Evidence for two transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Fits, IBM; Klip, AWJ; Van Eykern, LA; Hadders-Algra, M

    The present study focused on the developmental changes of postural adjustments accompanying reaching movements in healthy infants. We made a longitudinal study of ten infants between 6 and 18 months of age. During each session multiple surface electromyograms of arm, neck, trunk and leg muscles at

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental areas: (i) Cognitive development. (ii) Physical development, including vision and hearing. (iii... Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities and Their Families A Appendix A to Part 57... Appendix A to Part 57—Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers...

  1. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-02-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants' graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan's stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life.

  2. Black and Korean: Racialized Development and the Korean American Subject in Korean/American Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Lim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the encounters and exchanges between Asian and black Americans in Sŏk-kyŏng Kang’s “Days and Dreams,” Heinz Insu Fenkl’s Memories of My Ghost Brother, and Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life. While one popular mode of looking at Asian and black Americans relationally in the postwar era is to compare the success of Asian American assimilation to the failure of black Americans, Lim argues that such a mode of comparison cannot account for the ways in which Asian American racialization takes places within the global currents of militarism and migration. Against the popular view that attributes Asian American success to cultural difference, Lim relies on political scientist Claire Kim’s understanding of culture as something that is constructed in the process of racialization to explore how the above texts imagine the terms of comparative racialization between black and Asian Americans. The black-Korean encounters in these texts demand a heuristic of comparative racialization that goes beyond the discussion of the black-white binary as a national construct and seeks the reification and modification of this racial frame as it travels along the routes of US military and economic incursions in the Pacific. Lim suggests that the literary imagining of black-Korean encounters across the Pacific illustrates race and racialization as effects of a regime of economic development that is supported by military aggression.

  3. Fine Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Infants Corrected Aged 8 to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor development between Low Birth Weight (LBW infants and Normal Birth Weight infants (NBW at the age of 8-12 months by using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2 . Methods: This was a non experimental and cross sectional study which was conducted on the 18 LBW infants and 14 normal infants. By referring to the profile of infants in NICU of Aliasghar Hospital, those with defined inclusion criteria was recognized (case group. The normal weight infants, randomly selected from Health Center of that hospital, matched with case group for date of birth. After completing the questionnaire about demographic variables, their gross motor development was assessed with PDMS-2. Finally the scores of the motor quotient were analyzed by independent t-test statistical method. Results: There was a significant difference between Fine motor quotient of groups (P=0.007. Discussion: This study showed that LBW infants are significantly lower than normal weight infants in attaining Fine motor skills. It means that the LBW infants are more prone to developmental difficulties.

  4. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  5. A psychometric study of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition for term and preterm Taiwanese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chen, Li-Chiou; Lee, Wang-Tso; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Wu, Ying-Chin; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) was updated to enhance its usefulness for contemporary child developmental assessment. However, recent data in Western countries have implicated the overestimation of child development by the new instrument. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric features of the Bayley-III for term and preterm infants in Taiwan. Forty-seven term infants and 167 preterm infants were prospectively examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 2nd Edition (BSID-II) and the Bayley-III at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The psychometric properties examined included reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley-III were good to excellent. The correlations between the BSID-II and Bayley-III raw scores were good to excellent for the cognitive and motor items and low to excellent for the language items. Term infants achieved higher composite scores than preterm infants on all of the Bayley-III scales (pcognitive, language, and motor delay, respectively, as defined by the BSID-II index score<70. The Bayley-III is a reliable instrument that extends its previous edition, especially in early language assessment. However, the upward adjustment of its cut-off score is recommended for the accurate identification of developmental delay in term and preterm Taiwanese infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical feasibility of pre-operative neurodevelopmental assessment of infants undergoing open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Miranda; Rabbidge, Bridgette; Ziviani, Jenny; Sakzewski, Leanne

    2017-08-01

    Assessing the neurodevelopmental status of infants with congenital heart disease before surgery provides a means of identifying those at heightened risk of developmental delay. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting clinical feasibility of pre-operative neurodevelopmental assessment of infants undergoing early open heart surgery. Infants who underwent open heart surgery prior to 4 months of age participated in this cross-sectional study. The Test of Infant Motor Performance and Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements were undertaken on infants pre-operatively. When assessments could not be undertaken, reasons were ascribed to either infant or environmental circumstances. Demographic data and Aristotle scores were compared between groups of infants who did or did not undergo assessment. Binary logistic regression was used to explore associations. A total of 60 infants participated in the study. Median gestational age was 38.78 weeks (interquartile range: 36.93-39.72). Of these infants, 37 (62%) were unable to undergo pre-operative assessment. Twenty-four (40%) could not complete assessment due to infant-related factors and 13 (22%) due to environmental-related factors. For every point increase in the Aristotle Patient-Adjusted Complexity score, the infants likelihood of being unable to undergo assessment increased by 35% (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.77, P = 0.03). Over half of the infants undergoing open heart surgery were unable to complete pre-operative neurodevelopmental assessment. The primary reason for this was infant-related medical instability. Findings suggest further research is warranted to investigate whether the Aristotle Patient-Adjusted Complexity score might serve as an indicator to inform developmental surveillance with this medically fragile cohort. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Greater Caregiving Risk, Better Infant Memory Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Quan, Jeffry; Richmond, Jenny; Goh, Shaun Kok Yew; Sim, Lit Wee; Chong, Yap Seng; Francois-Bureau, Jean; Chen, Helen; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-04-16

    Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments. Subsequent analyses suggest that the association between memory and these risks may specifically be apparent amongst infants spending at least 50% of their waking hours in the presence of their mothers. Our findings echo neuroimaging research concerning similar risk exposure and larger infant hippocampal volume, and likewise underscore the importance of considering developmental context in understanding early life experience. With this in mind, these findings caution against the use of cognitive outcomes as indices of experienced risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Infant media exposure and toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha; Fierman, Arthur H; Brockmeyer, Carolyn; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether duration and content of media exposure in 6-month-old infants are associated with development at age 14 months. Longitudinal analysis of 259 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development, from November 23, 2005, through January 14, 2008. An urban public hospital. Mothers with low socioeconomic status and their infants. Duration and content of media exposure at age 6 months. Cognitive and language development at age 14 months. Of 259 infants, 249 (96.1%) were exposed to media at age 6 months, with mean (SD) total exposure of 152.7 (124.5) min/d. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, duration of media exposure at age 6 months was associated with lower cognitive development at age 14 months (unadjusted: r = -0.17, P development (r = -0.16, P cognitive and language development at age 14 months. No significant associations were seen with exposure to young child-oriented educational or noneducational content. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to have longitudinally assessed associations between media exposure in infancy and subsequent developmental outcomes in children from families with low socioeconomic status in the United States. Findings provide strong evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of no media exposure prior to age 2 years, although further research is needed.

  9. The internationalization of the Korean radiological society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Kun Sang

    1995-01-01

    Toward the beginning of the twenty-first century, the world experiences the dramatic changes in politics, economics and culture, and it is evident that the Korean medical field will not be able to survive provided it doesn't prepare ourselves to adapt to those changes. The Korean Medical Society held a forum for the active operation of the medical society, inviting several leading affiliated societies, to meet the needs of the times. This review describes the summary of the presentation that the authors made on behalf of the Korean Radiological Society in the forum, including the organization, current status of academic activity, current status of international communication, and problems encountered in the internationalization of the Korean Radiological Society

  10. Sustainment Stocks for the Korean Theater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St

    1998-01-01

    .... This study concludes that the Army intends to provide theater Class VII combat loss replacements, in the Korean theater, in the early stage of conflict or war from Army Pre-positioned Stocks-Sustainment 4 (APS-S 4...

  11. The Role of China in Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Dae

    2003-01-01

    ...) was the Republic of Korea (ROK)'s primary enemy state, and the United States became the ROK's only military alliance state, particularly due to their intervention in the Korean War in the Cold War era, the PRC, coupled...

  12. The Korean nuclear ODA policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Min, Kim Yoo; Park, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    Korean nuclear Official Development Assistance (ODA) is established with support from institutes such as the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KOICA's grant aid mainly made through the activities including IAEA's training program, and KAERI currently runs the inter-regional education and training cooperation called Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which aimed to achieve the goal of encouraging web based education training network via cooperation with IAEA. Yet now these programs are focusing more on assisting nuclear infrastructure rather than highlighting nuclear education and training. This paper aims to, first, do a self-evaluation about the Korean ODA policy; second, to study the transition of the international nuclear atmosphere; and third, by apprehending the trend of the subjects of Korean nuclear ODA policy, to discuss the overall appropriate trajectory of Korean nuclear ODA

  13. North Korean Crime-for-Profit Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael; Nanto, Dick K

    2007-01-01

    ... and counterfeiting of cigarettes expanding. Overall, the reported scale of this activity is significant and arguably provides important foreign currency resources to the military-oriented North Korean state...

  14. [Emotional display rules of Japanese and Koreans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-jin; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki

    2011-12-01

    Hypothetical stories designed to arouse feelings of happiness, sadness, or anger were presented to Japanese (n = 310) and Koreans (n = 286) university students. They were asked to rate the intensity of the emotion experienced, and to select the corresponding facial expression to display in an individual situation and in a social situation. Analyses of covariance were conducted on the rating scores of facial expression using the intensities of emotion as the covariance, except for happiness where the within-class regression coefficients were not homogeneous. The results showed that Japanese and Koreans shared the emotional display rules about the expressions of emotions in individual situations more than in social situations. Japanese thought that they should suppress emotions more than Koreans did. Moreover, the differences in facial expressions between Japanese and Koreans were greater in the individual situations than in the social situations.

  15. The Economic Implications of Korean Reunification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shaughnessy, Karlynn

    2003-01-01

    ...) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula will offer many challenges for the two countries, as well as for every entity with interests in the region...

  16. Developmental programming of appetite/satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is often attributed to a Western lifestyle, a high-fat diet and decreased activity. While these factors certainly contribute to adult obesity, compelling data from our laboratory and others indicate that this explanation is oversimplified. Recent studies strongly argue that maternal/fetal under- or overnutrition predisposes the offspring to become hyperphagic and increases the risk of later obesity. Both infants small for gestational age (SGA) or infants born to obese mothers who consume a high-fat diet are at a markedly increased risk of adult obesity. Specific alterations in the fetal metabolic/energy environment directly influence the development of appetite regulatory pathways. Specifically, SGA infants demonstrate (1) impaired satiety and anorexigenic cell signaling, (2) enhanced cellular orexigenic responses, (3) programmed dysfunction of neuroprogenitor cell proliferation/differentiation, and (4) increased expression of appetite (NPY) versus satiety (POMC) neurons. In both hypothalamic tissue and ex vivo culture, SGA newborns exhibit increased levels of the nutrient sensor SIRT1, signifying reduced energy, whereas maternal high-fat-exposed newborns exhibit reduced levels of pAMPK, signifying energy excess. Via downstream regulation of bHLH neuroproliferation (Hes1) and neurodifferentiation factors (Mash1, Ngn3), neurogenesis is biased toward orexigenic and away from anorexigenic neurons, resulting in excess appetite, reduced satiety and development of obesity. Despite the developmental programming of appetite neurogenesis, the potential for neuronal remodeling raises the opportunity for novel interventions.

  17. Women Workforce in the Korean Context

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeonu

    2017-01-01

    The social participation of women workforce in the labour market is now more prevalent than ever, however the promotion opportunities for women employees are limited compared to men in the Korean context. The article explores the impact of the Confucian tradition on women employees and as a result the traditional value causes difficulties for women employees to gain promotion than men in organisations. Also this article discusses why Korean women need to overcome the ‘glass ceiling’ more comp...

  18. Financial Restraints in the South Korean Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Panicos O Demetriades; Kul B Luintel

    2000-01-01

    We provide novel empirical evidence on the effects of financial restraints on South Korean financial development. The evidence is linked to a simple model of the Korean banking system that encapsulates its cartelised nature, which predicts a positive association between financial development and (i) the degree of state control over the banking system, (ii) mild repression of lending rates. The model also predicts that in the presence of lending rate controls, increases in the level of the adm...

  19. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jongbae Park

    2003-01-01

    Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented...

  20. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birt...

  1. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Massage in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Niemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Most studies evaluating the effect of massage in weight gain in premature infants suggest a positive effect on weight gain. Increase in vagal tone has been reported in infants who receive massage and has been suggested as a possible mechanism for improved weight gain. More studies are needed on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of massage therapy on weight gain in preterm infants. While some trials suggest improvements in developmental scores, decreased stress behavior, positive effects on immune system, improved pain tolerance and earlier discharge from the hospital, the number of such studies is small and further evidence is needed. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed on the effects of massage in preterm infants.

  2. Hemodynamics in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The author in an attempt to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the clinical stages of Korean hemorrhagic fever measured plasma volume, cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow utilizing radioisoto as during various phases of the disease. Cardiac output was measured by radiocardiography with external monitoring method using RIHSA. Effective renal plasma flow was obtained from blood clearance curve drawn by external monitoring after radiohippuran injection according to the method described by Razzak et al. The study was carried out in thirty-eight cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever and the following conclusions were obtained. 1) Plasma volume was increased in the patients during the oliguric and hypertensive-diuretic phases, while it was normal in the patients during the normotensive-diuretic phase. 2) Cardiac index was increased in the patients during the oliguric phase and was slightly increased in the patients at the hypertensive diuretic phase. It was normal in the other phases. 3) Total peripheral resistance was increased in the hypertensive patients during diuretic phase, while it was normal in the rest of phases. 4) Effective renal plasma flow was significantly reduced in the patients during the oliguric and diuretic phases as well as at one month after the oliguric onset. There was no significant difference between the oliguric and the early diuretic phases. Renal plasma flow in the group of patients at one month after the oliguric onset was about 45% of the normal, however, it returned to normal level at six months after the onset. 5) Clinical syndrome of relative hypervolemia was observed in some patients during the oliguric phase or hypertensive diuretic phase. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were high cardiac output and normal to relatively increased peripheral resistance these cases. Relatively increased circulating blood volumes due to decreased effective vascular space was suggested for the mechanism of relative hypervolemia. 6) Cardiac

  3. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  4. Trajectories of mothers' emotional availability: relations with infant temperament in predicting attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Ram; Chow, Sy-Miin; Bray, Bethany; Teti, Douglas M

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined observations of parenting quality (mothers' emotional availability - EA) during infant bedtimes at 4 points across the infants' first year, assessing relations between levels and trajectories of EA and infant attachment at 12 months and the role of infant temperament in moderating these associations. The sample (N = 128) was predominantly Euro-American (82.5%) and at low socioeconomic risk. Latent growth curve modeling with latent basis coefficients indicated substantial individual differences in initial levels and slopes in EA trajectories across the first year. Both levels of maternal EA and EA trajectories across the first year predicted 12-month infant attachment security. Although maternal EA tended to decrease across the first year in the full sample, EA trajectories that showed a "bounce-back" between 6 and 12 months, suggesting more successful maternal adaptation to an expanding infant developmental repertoire, predicted greater infant security at 12 months. In addition, linkages between latent EA trajectories and 12-month attachment were moderated by 3-month infant temperamental reactivity and regulation. These findings indicate that infant attachment security is sensitive to both static and dynamic aspects of parenting quality across the first year, and that infant temperament can interact with both in predicting infant attachment.

  5. Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie Thomas, Julianne H; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-05-01

    The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23-32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29-32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  7. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  8. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  9. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  10. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  11. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  12. Reliability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale Using Recorded Video Observations Among the Preterm Infants in India: A Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kirthika S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of motor function is a vital characteristic of infant development. Alberta Infant Motor scale (AIMS is considered to be one of the tool available for screening the developmental delays, but this scale was formulated by using western samples. Every country has its own ethnic and cultural background and various differences are observed in the culture and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to obtain reliability for the use of AIMS in south Indian population. Purpose: To find the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS on pre-term infants using the recorded video observations in Indian population. Method: 30 preterm infants in three age groups, 0-3 months (10 infants, 4-7 months (10 infants, 8-18 months (10 infants were recruited for this reliability study. The AIMS was administered to the preterm infants and the performance was videotaped. The performance was then rescored by the same therapist, immediately from the video and on another two consecutive months to estimate intra-rater reliability using ICC (3,1, two-way mixed effects model. For reporting inter-rater reliability, AIMS was scored by three different raters, using ICC (2,k two-way random effects model and by two other therapists to examine the inter and intra-rater reliability. Results: The two-way mixed effects model for intra-rater reliability of AIMS, ICC (3,1 = 0.99 and for reporting inter-rater reliability of AIMS by two-way random effects model, ICC (2,k = 0.96. Conclusion: AIMS has excellent intra and inter-rater reliability using recorded video observations among the preterm infants in India

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  14. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong-kyu, Lee

    This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

  15. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Jung Jae; Moon, Duk-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Min A; Min, Seonyeong; Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Seo Koo; Chung, Un-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (PKaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ(2)=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents.

  16. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  17. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  18. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parladé, Meaghan V.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 9 infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to 13 HR infants with language delay, 28 HR infants with no diagnosis, and 30 low risk infants. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that ASD infants exhibited significantly slower growth in coordinations overall and in gestures coordinated with vocalizations, even relative to HR infants with language delay. Disruption in the development of gesture-vocalization coordinations may result in negative cascading effects that negatively impact later social and linguistic development. PMID:25689930

  19. Feeding infants and toddlers study: Improvements needed in meeting infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Reidy, Kathleen; Karwe, Vatsala; Devaney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    To assess adherence to infant feeding recommendations among a sample of infants and toddlers four to 24 months of age in the United States. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls collected with the Nutrition Data System for Research of the University of Minnesota. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age four to 24 months, including 2,024 infants age four to 11 months. Breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and adherence to infant feeding recommendations. Means and standard errors, percentile distributions, and percentages by age group (four to six months, seven to eight months, and nine to 11 months). About 76% of infants and toddlers were fully or partly breastfed at birth. This percentage declined to 30% at six months and 16% at 12 months-short of Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% and 25%, respectively. The average duration of breastfeeding was 5.5 months for all who initiated breastfeeding. About two-thirds of infants had been introduced to complementary foods between four and six months-the period recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 17% consumed juice before the AAP recommended age of six months or later. Twenty-two percent of infants nine to 11 months consumed cow's milk on a daily basis before the recommended age of 12 months or later, and one in 10 consumed french fries and/or sweetened beverages on any given day. More parents and caregivers can benefit from guidance about the introduction of developmentally appropriate, micronutrient-rich first solid foods such as iron-rich infant cereals, iron-fortified grain products, meats, soft fruits, and cooked vegetables and the importance of breastfeeding through the first year of life. A smaller proportion of parents and caregivers require guidance on delaying the introduction of juices until six months of age and cow's milk other than formula

  20. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbae Park

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented briefly here including 1 Quality of Life of liver cancer patients after 8 Constitutional acupuncture; 2 Developing a Korean version of Measuring yourself Medical Outcome profile (MYMOP; and 3 Survey on 5 Shu points: a pilot In the first study, we have included 4 primary or secondary liver cancer patients collecting their diagnostic X-ray film and clinical data f개m their hospital, and asked them to fill in the European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire before the commencement of the treatment. The acupuncture treatment is set up format but not disclosed yet. The translation and developing a Korean version of outcome measures that is Korean clinician friendly has been sought for MYMOP is one of the most appropriate one. The permission was granted, the translation into Korean was done, then back translated into English only based on the Korean translation by the researcher who is bilingual in both languages. The back translation was compared by the original developer of MYMOP and confirmed usable. In order to test the existence of acupoints and meridians through popular forms of Korean acupuncture regimes, we aim at collecting opinions from 101 Korean clinicians that have used those forms. The questions asked include most effective symptoms, 5 Shu points, points those are least likely to use due to either adverse events or the lack of effectiveness, theoretical reasons for the above proposals, proposing outcome measures

  1. Psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults: a modified replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have shown interest in the development of psychological essentialism among children; that is, a belief that certain psychological characteristics (such as personality) are relatively stable and unchanging. Although previous studies have shown that children are essentialistic about human traits, and the coherence among various essentialism dimensions increases with age, moderating cultural factors in the development of essentialism, especially among Asian children, have received little attention. Using the methodologies of Gelman, Heyman, and Legare (2007), levels of psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults were measured, and compared with the original US data. Results demonstrated cross-cultural similarity in the development of coherence in essentialistic thought, and difference in the level of essentialism among adult participants. The present findings imply that different cultural values between Asians and Westerners can play a role in the developmental trajectory of psychological essentialism.

  2. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  3. A Developmental Learning Approach of Mobile Manipulator via Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqi Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by infant development theories, a robotic developmental model combined with game elements is proposed in this paper. This model does not require the definition of specific developmental goals for the robot, but the developmental goals are implied in the goals of a series of game tasks. The games are characterized into a sequence of game modes based on the complexity of the game tasks from simple to complex, and the task complexity is determined by the applications of developmental constraints. Given a current mode, the robot switches to play in a more complicated game mode when it cannot find any new salient stimuli in the current mode. By doing so, the robot gradually achieves it developmental goals by playing different modes of games. In the experiment, the game was instantiated into a mobile robot with the playing task of picking up toys, and the game is designed with a simple game mode and a complex game mode. A developmental algorithm, “Lift-Constraint, Act and Saturate,” is employed to drive the mobile robot move from the simple mode to the complex one. The experimental results show that the mobile manipulator is able to successfully learn the mobile grasping ability after playing simple and complex games, which is promising in developing robotic abilities to solve complex tasks using games.

  4. How Evolution May Work Through Curiosity-Driven Developmental Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Smith, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Infants' own activities create and actively select their learning experiences. Here we review recent models of embodied information seeking and curiosity-driven learning and show that these mechanisms have deep implications for development and evolution. We discuss how these mechanisms yield self-organized epigenesis with emergent ordered behavioral and cognitive developmental stages. We describe a robotic experiment that explored the hypothesis that progress in learning, in and for itself, generates intrinsic rewards: The robot learners probabilistically selected experiences according to their potential for reducing uncertainty. In these experiments, curiosity-driven learning led the robot learner to successively discover object affordances and vocal interaction with its peers. We explain how a learning curriculum adapted to the current constraints of the learning system automatically formed, constraining learning and shaping the developmental trajectory. The observed trajectories in the robot experiment share many properties with those in infant development, including a mixture of regularities and diversities in the developmental patterns. Finally, we argue that such emergent developmental structures can guide and constrain evolution, in particular with regard to the origins of language. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Korean kimchi: promoting healthy meals through cultural tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Hongu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The availability and many varieties of kimchi exist in the US. Despite new trends and changes in the US, kimchi continues to be a significant important staple in many Korean and non-Korean families in the US.

  6. The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-26

    rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean economy can be...2006. processing done under contract) by North Koreans.119 The companies included Daewoo (jackets, bags), Samsung Electronics (communications

  7. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  8. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  9. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  10. Term-equivalent functional brain maturational measures predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ters, Nathalie M; Vesoulis, Zachary A; Liao, Steve M; Smyser, Christopher D; Mathur, Amit M

    2018-04-01

    Term equivalent age (TEA) brain MRI identifies preterm infants at risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. But some infants may experience neurodevelopmental impairments even in the absence of neuroimaging abnormalities. Evaluate the association of TEA amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) measures with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24-36 months corrected age. We performed aEEG recordings and brain MRI at TEA (mean post-menstrual age of 39 (±2) weeks in a cohort of 60 preterm infants born at a mean gestational age of 26 (±2) weeks. Forty-four infants underwent Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd Edition (BSID-III) testing at 24-36 months corrected age. Developmental delay was defined by a score greater than one standard deviation below the mean (neurodevelopmental outcomes was assessed using odds ratio, then adjusted for confounding variables using logistic regression. Infants with developmental delay in any domain had significantly lower values of SEF 90 . Absent cyclicity was more prevalent in infants with cognitive and motor delay. Both left and right SEF 90  neurodevelopmental outcomes. Therefore, a larger study is needed to validate these results in premature infants at low and high risk of brain injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. DECISION OF TURKEY SENDING SOLDIER TO KOREAN IN NATIONAL PRESS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, Tülay

    2014-01-01

    After the World War II, Korean Peninsula was divided among two contrary different states in terms of ideology. In 25 June 1950, the war started between two states, Democratic People's Republic of Korea ( North Korean), Republic of Korean (South Korean). Following this development, The United Nations' Security Council held an emergency meeting with attempt of The U.S. and invited to participate in studies to conduct by states connected with its. Turkish governmet, founded by Democrat...

  12. Validation of a Korean version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yun-A; Lee, Shin-Seok; Park, Kyeongsoo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Korean and to evaluate its reliability and validity for use with Korean-speaking patients with fibromyalgia (FM). After translating the FIQ into Korean, we administered it to 55 patients with FM (28 patients filled out the questionnaire again 7 days later) together with a Korean version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). The tender-point count (TP...

  13. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  14. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  15. Korean American males' interracial contact experiences during serious leisure activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    KangJae Jerry Lee; David. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated serious leisure among Korean Americans and examined the ways in which Koreans' marginalized status impact their pursuit of serious leisure and participation patterns in the context of recreational sports. Face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Korean basketball players and 4 soccer players.

  16. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  17. Screening for autistic spectrum disorder at the 18-month developmental assessment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenHeuvel, A; Fitzgerald, M; Greiner, B; Perry, I J

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of administering the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) at the 18-month developmental check, estimate the prevalence of screening positive for autism at the first and second administrations of the CHAT and estimate the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism. A cross-sectional study design was utilised and data was collected at child developmental screening clinics in counties Cork and Kerry. The sample group consisted of infants attending the routine 18-month developmental assessment, who were broadly representative of infants in the catchment area. The main outcome measure was a medium or high-risk score following two administrations of the CHAT screening instrument and a positive diagnosis of autism after clinical assessment. The CHAT was administered to 2117 infants (79% of those approached) of whom 29 were scored at medium or high risk at first screening, resulting in a prevalence rate of 137 per 10,000 (95% CI: 87-187). A total of 7 of the 29 first screen positive infants were positive (medium or high risk) at second screening, 12 were low risk and 10 parents refused to participate. On subsequent clinical assessment of the 7 infants screening positive on first and second assessment and assessment of 5 of the 10 infants whose parents declined second screening, 7 children received a diagnosis of autism. Thus the overall prevalence of clinically diagnosed autism following this screening exercise was 33.1 per 10,000 (95% CI: 13.3 to 68.0). The CHAT instrument is a useful tool to help identify childhood autism among infants. Routine use of this instrument at 18-month developmental assessment merits consideration.

  18. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Olm, Matthew R.; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context. PMID:29636439

  19. Joint engagement in infants and its relationship to their visual impairment measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta Alfaro, Andrea; Morash, Valerie S; Lei, Daisy; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Coordination of attention between a social partner and an external focus of shared interest, called joint engagement, is associated with positive developmental outcomes such as better language, socio-emotional, and theory of mind skills in sighted infants. Current measures of joint engagement rely on an infant's visual behaviors, making it difficult to study joint engagement in infants with low or no vision. In a naturalistic observational study, 20 infants with various levels of visual impairments - mean ages: 1.08 years (N=9) and 1.62 years (N=18), were videotaped during 30-min free play sessions with their caregivers. Seven infants were tested at both ages. Videos were coded to determine the percentage of time the dyads participated in joint engagement. Results showed that all visually impaired infants participated in joint engagement, with a significant increase between earlier and later ages. Infants' visual impairment levels were described in terms of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as measured using both visual evoked potential and preferential looking techniques. Of the visual measurements, infants' reduction in contrast sensitivity measured with preferential looking, alone, predicted the infants' percentage of time in joint engagement across ages. Contrary to prior research that exclusively focused on visual acuity, this finding supports the need to include contrast sensitivity measurements in studies with visually impaired infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context.

  2. The Influence of Different Caregivers on Infant Growth and Development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinrui; Liang, Furong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Manman; Han, Ying

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of parents in China ask grandparents or babysitters to care for their children. Modern parents are often the only child in their family because of China's One-Child Policy and thus may lack interaction with siblings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore whether different caregivers affect the physical and development of infants in China. In total, 2,514 infants were enrolled in our study. We assessed their weight-for-age, supine length-for-age, weight-for-length, occipital-frontal circumference, and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) results and recorded their general parental information and their primary caregivers. The weights and lengths of 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters were significantly lower than those of infants under the care of parents or grandparents ( P  motor-adaptive and language domains. Compared to 12-month-old infants under the care of parents and babysitters, infants under the care of grandparents were more likely to be overweight or obese ( P  development of the infants. Specifically, compared with infants raised by grandparents and parents, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had partially suppressed lengths and weights and lagged cognitively. The 12-month-old infants under the care of grandparents were more overweight than those cared for by parents and babysitters.

  3. "Tangible as tissue": Arnold Gesell, infant behavior, and film analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott

    2011-09-01

    From 1924 to 1948, developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell regularly used photographic and motion picture technologies to collect data on infant behavior. The film camera, he said, records behavior "in such coherent, authentic and measurable detail that ... the reaction patterns of infant and child become almost as tangible as tissue." This essay places his faith in the fidelity and tangibility of film, as well as his use of film as evidence, in the context of developmental psychology's professed need for legitimately scientific observational techniques. It also examines his use of these same films as educational material to promote his brand of scientific child rearing. But his analytic techniques - his methods of extracting data from the film frames - are the key to understanding the complex relationship between his theories of development and his chosen research technology.

  4. [Extremely Low Birthweight Infants in Iceland. Health and development.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsdóttir, Ingibjœrg; Sæmundsen, Evald; Símonardóttir, Ingibjœrg; Halldórsson, Jónas G; Egilson, Snæfríður Thorn; Leósdóttir, Thornóra; Ingvarsdóttir, Brynhildur; Sindrason, Einar; Dagbjartsson, Atli

    2003-01-01

    Survival of extremely low birthweight infants (BWastma (p=0.001), convulsions (p=0.001), difficulties in swallowing (p=0.001) and weight gaining (p=0.005). At five years of age significantly more ELBW children born in 1991-95 compared to control children had abnormal general physical examination (pdevelopmental testing were significantly lower (p=0.002). The proportion of ELBW children with disabilities was 16% in 1982-90 and 14% in 1991-95. The two groups of ELBW infants born in 1982-90 and 1991-95 are similar regarding problems during pregnancy, birth and newborn period. The proportion of children with disabilities is similar in both periods although survival was significantly increased. When compared to matched control children, ELBW children born in 1991-95 suffer significantly more longterm health and developmental problems.

  5. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  6. Health Inequalities Among Korean Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsuk Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social status might be a determinant of occupational health inequalities. This study analyzed the effects of social status on both work environments and health outcomes. Methods: The study sample consisted of 27,598 wage employees aged 15 years and older from among the Korean Working Condition Survey participants in 2011. Work environments included atypical work, physical risks, ergonomic risks, work demands, work autonomy, social supports, and job rewards. Health outcomes comprised general health, health and safety at risk because of work, the World Health Organization-5 Well-being Index, work-related musculoskeletal disease, and work-related injury. Multivariable logistic-regression models were used to identify the associations between social status and work environments and health outcomes. Results: Employees in the demographically vulnerable group had lower occupational status compared with their counterparts. Low social status was largely related to adverse work environments. Especially, precarious employment and manual labor occupation were associated with both adverse work environments and poor health outcomes. Conclusion: Precarious and manual workers should take precedence in occupational health equity policies and interventions. Their cumulative vulnerability, which is connected to demographics, occupational status, adverse work environments, or poor health outcomes, can be improved through a multilevel approach such as labor market, organizations, and individual goals. Keywords: employee health, health equity, social status

  7. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  8. An Infant Development-inspired Approach to Robot Hand-eye Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel developmental learning approach for hand-eye coordination in an autonomous robotic system. Robotic hand-eye coordination plays an important role in dealing with real-time environments. Under the approach, infant developmental patterns are introduced to build our robot's learning system. The method works by first constructing a brain-like computational structure to control the robot, and then by using infant behavioural patterns to build a hand-eye coordination learning algorithm. This work is supported by an experimental evaluation, which shows that the control system is implemented simply, and that the learning approach provides fast and incremental learning of behavioural competence.

  9. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...... of the firm and show that the DW is different from mainstream management concepts, as the DW...

  10. Describing normal development in an African setting : The utility of the Kilifi Developmental Inventory among young children at the Kenyan coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia; Holding, Penny; Abubakar, Amina; Kvalsvig, Jane; Taylor, H. Gerry; King, Christopher L.

    The Kilifi Developmental Inventory (KDI) is a tool developed in Kenya for the assessment of psychomotor development in infants and young children. We developed age-appropriate standards against which the developmental progress of individual children could be tracked. The current report is based on

  11. Antithyroid Drugs and Congenital Malformations: A Nationwide Korean Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2018-03-20

    Untreated or insufficiently treated Graves disease in pregnancy may pose risks to both mother and fetus. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are the treatment mainstay, but the potential teratogenic effect of these drugs has prompted clinicians to question the safe management of this vulnerable population. To examine the association between maternal prescriptions for ATDs and congenital malformations in live births. Nationwide cohort study. Korean National Health Insurance database. A cohort of 2 886 970 completed pregnancies linked to live-born infants in 2 210 253 women between 2008 and 2014. Maternal prescriptions for ATDs in the first trimester. The risk for overall and organ-specific congenital malformations in offspring, with logistic regression models used to control for potential confounders. 12 891 pregnancies (0.45%) were exposed to ATDs during the first trimester. The prevalence of malformations in exposed offspring was 7.27%, compared with 5.94% in offspring of women who were not prescribed ATDs during pregnancy (P 495 mg) during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk for malformations compared with a low dose (1 to 126 mg) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87 [CI, 1.06 to 3.30]). The study used a prescription claims database to assess ATD exposure. Exposure to ATDs during the first trimester was associated with increased risk for congenital malformations, particularly for pregnancies in which women received prescriptions for MMI or both ATDs. None.

  12. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux and GERD : Reflux and GERD in Infants Reflux and GERD in Infants It’s not uncommon for a baby ... happy, healthy childhood. Quick Facts about Reflux and GERD in Infants The majority of infants do not ...

  13. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  14. Recurrent fevers and failure to thrive in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David R; Chan, Sarah; Chang, Johanna; Broderick, Lori; Hoffman, Hal M

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 2-year old boy with consanguineous parents who recently emigrated from India and presented with oral ulcers and lymphadenopathy. He also had a history of recurrent fevers, polyarticular arthritis, chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Infectious workup revealed herpes simplex virus 1 viremia and radiological evaluation revealed osteopenia and erosions involving multiple joints. We describe the immunologic and genetic evaluation of this patient and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to an infant with recurrent fevers.

  15. The Korean threat steps up a notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicheportiche, Romain; Thouverez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As North Korea announced a successful test for its first hydrogen nuclear bomb, the author first recalls the origins of the Korean conflict, and then presents the North Korean nuclear weapon programme as a result of a sense of insecurity for the North Korean regime, notably after the collapse of USSR. The nuclear weapon then became a priority and the programme has been rather quickly developed, probably with the help of the father of the Pakistani bomb. A first and second plutonium-based bombs have been tested, and then an enriched uranium-based bomb, and lastly, in January 2016, a hydrogen bomb. Doubts about this achievement are evoked. Then, the author proposes a brief overview of negotiations with the USA, and outlines the problematic behaviour of North Korea regarding the regional situation in an evolving context: a stronger Chinese economy, change in China's position towards North Korea, and Japan re-militarization

  16. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  17. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eGraf Estes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  18. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  19. Developmental Progression of Looking and Reaching Performance on the A-Not-B Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    From a neuropsychological perspective, the cognitive skills of working memory, inhibition, and attention and the maturation of the frontal lobe are requisites for successful A-not-B performance on both the looking and reaching versions of the task. This study used a longitudinal design to examine the developmental progression of infants'…

  20. Developmental Stability in Gender-Typed Preferences between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Ilksoy, Sibel D.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2018-01-01

    Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal…

  1. General movements : A window for early identification of children at high risk for developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    Detection of children with a developmental disorder, such as cerebral palsy, at an early age is notoriously difficult. Recently, a new form of neuromotor assessment of young infants was developed, based on the assessment of the quality of general movements (GMs). GMs are movements of the fetus and

  2. Korean initiatives on nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, B.-J.; Kim, W.-G.

    2006-01-01

    Korean atomic energy activities have been the vigorous and ever expanding in the peaceful use of atomic energy. However for the last ten-year period, the new recruitments have been drastically reduced. The paper presents the nuclear manpower status in each nuclear related institute, which was surveyed in 2002. The ageing problem appears but is not very serious as a whole. The research institutes show more serious ageing problems compared to the industries. The paper also summarises the initiatives taken by Korean institutes related to the nuclear knowledge management activities with focus on the NtUss (Nuclear Technology Undergraduate Student Society) programme. (author)

  3. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju

    1999-03-01

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI≥VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI≥VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps

  4. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI{>=}VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI{>=}VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps.

  5. A STUDY ON THE KOREAN IONOSPHERIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The ionosphere in accordance with solar activity can affect the transmission of radio waves. The effect of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. The present study is based on the Korean ionospheirc data obtained at the AnYang Radio Research Laboratory from January 1985 through October 1989. The data are analyzed to show the daily and the annual variations of the ionosphere. The data are also used to simulate the density distribution of the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law.

  6. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  7. A Study on the Korean Medicine Education and the Changes in the Traditional Korean Medicine during the Japanese Colonial Era: Focused on the Korean Medicine Training Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongyuan

    2018-04-01

    The modern education institutes play an important role in fostering professional talents, reproducing knowledge and studies, and forming the identities of certain academic fields and vocational communities. It is a matter of common knowledge that the absence of an official Korean medicine medical school during the Japanese colonial era was a severely disadvantageous factor in the aspects of academic progress, fostering follow-up personnel, and establishment of social capability. Therefore, the then Korean medicine circle put emphasis on inadequate official education institutes as the main factor behind oppression. Furthermore, as the measure to promote the continuance of Korean medicine, the circle regarded establishing civilian Korean medicine training schools as their long-cherished wish and strived to accomplish the mission even after liberation. This study looked into how the Korean medicine circle during the Japanese colonial era utilized civilian training schools to conduct the Korean medicine education conforming to modern medical school and examined how the operation of these training schools influenced the changes in the traditional Korean medicine. After the introduction of the Western medical science, the Korean medicine circle aimed to improve the quality of Korean medicine doctors by establishing modern Korean medicine medical schools. However, after the annexation of Korea and Japan, official Korean medicine medical schools were not established since policies were organized centered on the Western medical science. In this light, the Korean medicine circle strived to nurture the younger generation of Korean medicine by establishing and operating the civilian Korean medicine training schools after the annexation between Korea and Japan. The schools were limited in terms of scale and status but possessed the forms conforming to the modern medical schools in terms of education system. In other words, the civilian training schools not only adhered to the

  8. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  9. Developmental Education Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi; And Others

    A developmental education evaluation model designed to be used at a multi-unit urban community college is described. The purpose of the design was to determine the cost effectiveness/worth of programs in order to initiate self-improvement. A needs assessment was conducted by interviewing and taping the responses of students, faculty, staff, and…

  10. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  11. Role of toys in the development of healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-04-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu       Keywords: rehabilitation; development; gesture; toy use; parent–child interaction;       Abstract   Developmental outcomes in infants can be significantly improved thanks to promising use of approapriate toys. Objective assessment of their positive influence to functional achievements in healthy infants may completely change attitude to new generation of toys, developing motor, cognitive, and social skills. Despite advances in toys assessment their true influence remains incomplete. This study aims at assessment how current knowledge and experience influences principles of the toys selection and use in healthy infants.

  12. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  13. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  14. Female visibility through Korean literature: Feminist theological critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ok Jeong

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces Korean women’s experience as seen through the lense of social and cultural backgrounds, from the premodern through to the postmodern era. Korean literature is used as a source to investigate Korean women’s experiences and perspectives. By means of feminist critique this article explores men-centered influences in Korean literature. It aims to illustrate the importance of the issue of female visibility through Korean literature from a Korean woman’s perspective. Two texts are analyzed and critiqued: the first is the myth of Korean origin. The second is a story of Gasi Gogi (a thorny fish. The article is intended to stimulate debate on gender, voices, and authority from a feminist perspective, in order to transcend the more traditional interpretations.

  15. Korean delegation focuses on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Among the opportunities and challenges facing the ESCAP region in the 21st century is the full and equal participation of women in all sectors of society, stated one of the representatives of the Republic of Korea at the Senior Officials segment of the 53rd session of the Commission. As a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women, held at Beijing in 1995, her country passed the Women's Development Act, which entered into force in July 1996, she explained. It "provides a strong legal basis for adequate institutional and financial support towards the achievement of gender equality," which is also one of the goals of the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. In tandem with domestic efforts, enhancing cooperation at the regional and international levels is essential, she added. In a separate intervention, another member of the Korean delegation elaborated on the comments of his colleague. He pointed out that, "for the past 30 years, the Republic of Korea as a nation has done its best to alleviate the pressure of absolute poverty and has improved the quality of life through continued economic growth." He admitted, though, that rapid economic growth has brought about its own side effects -- "unsolved problems still remain such as residual absolute poverty and increasing relative poverty." Poverty alleviation policies aimed at creating equal opportunities must address four aspects, he noted: 1) maintenance and enhancement of health, 2) promotion of educational opportunities, 3) vocational training, and 4) employment promotion. full text

  16. The association of birth weight and infant growth with physical fitness at 8-9 years of age-the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, A.W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth are independently associated with childhood obesity. We hypothesized that birth weight and infant growth are associated with physical fitness in childhood, and thereby could act as a link in the developmental origins of obesity. In addition,

  17. The association of birth weight and infant growth with physical fitness at 8-9 years of age--the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, A. W.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth are independently associated with childhood obesity. We hypothesized that birth weight and infant growth are associated with physical fitness in childhood, and thereby could act as a link in the developmental origins of obesity. In addition, we assessed

  18. The origins of probabilistic inference in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Reasoning under uncertainty is the bread and butter of everyday life. Many areas of psychology, from cognitive, developmental, social, to clinical, are interested in how individuals make inferences and decisions with incomplete information. The ability to reason under uncertainty necessarily involves probability computations, be they exact calculations or estimations. What are the developmental origins of probabilistic reasoning? Recent work has begun to examine whether infants and toddlers can compute probabilities; however, previous experiments have confounded quantity and probability-in most cases young human learners could have relied on simple comparisons of absolute quantities, as opposed to proportions, to succeed in these tasks. We present four experiments providing evidence that infants younger than 12 months show sensitivity to probabilities based on proportions. Furthermore, infants use this sensitivity to make predictions and fulfill their own desires, providing the first demonstration that even preverbal learners use probabilistic information to navigate the world. These results provide strong evidence for a rich quantitative and statistical reasoning system in infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  1. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  2. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  3. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  4. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis . Diarrhea Causes Dehydration Infants and young children under age 3 can ... as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice Preventing Diaper Rash Your baby might get ...

  5. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  6. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  7. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  8. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  9. [Dentistry in Korean during the Japanese occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled

  10. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  12. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  13. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  14. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall pre...

  15. T2 Relaxometry MRI Predicts Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S

    2018-01-18

    T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  17. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsch, S.; Govaert, P.; Cowan, F.M.; Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de; Lequin, M.H.; Saliou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  18. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, S. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Neonatology, Berlin (Germany); Govaert, P. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cowan, F.M. [Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lequin, M.H. [Erasmus MC/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Saliou, G. [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2014-07-15

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  19. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  20. Working Papers on Asian American Studies: Annotated Bibliography on Koreans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher

    This classified annotated bibliography on Koreans in America includes references on the following topics: (1) Korean American directories, (2) immigration history, (3) deportation cases, (4) Korean students in the U.S., (5) Korean Americans in the Asian American Movement, (6) state and federal legislation affecting Koreans in America, (7) Korean…

  1. Atypical object exploration skills in infants at-risk for autism between 6 to 15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninderjit eKaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed after the second year of life. Early signs of ASD within the first year of life are still unclear. The main purpose of the present study was to compare object exploration skills between infants at-risk for ASD and typically developing (TD infants to determine early markers for autism within the first year of life. Sixteen at-risk infants and 16 TD infants were longitudinally followed from 6 to 15 months of age during an object exploration task involving three objects with distinct size, shape, and texture, i.e., a long rattle, a rigid circular ball, and a soft circular koosh ball. All sessions were videotaped for coding of manual, oral, and visual exploration. We also obtained follow-up outcomes using various developmental questionnaires at 18 months and email follow-up on developmental delays/ASD diagnoses after the infants’ second birthdays. Our results showed object-based differences in exploration patterns that extend across both groups. We also noticed group differences for various object exploration behaviors across objects and ages. Specifically, at 6 months, at-risk infants showed less grasping of the rigid ball as well as less mouthing and greater looking at the rattle compared to TD infants. At 9 and 12 months, at-risk infants demonstrated significantly lower levels of purposeful dropping of all objects. Lastly, at 15 months, at-risk infants looked longer at the rattle and showed persistent mouthing of the rigid ball and rattle compared to TD infants. In addition, 10 out of 16 at-risk infants developed various motor, social, and language delays or ASD diagnoses at follow-up. Taken together, early context-dependent delays/abnormalities in object exploration could be markers for future developmental delays in infants at-risk for autism. Moreover, promoting early object experiences through socially embedded object play could have implications for

  2. Family nurture intervention in preterm infants increases early development of cortical activity and independence of regional power trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Stark, Raymond I; Grieve, Philip G; Ludwig, Robert J; Isler, Joseph R; Barone, Joseph L; Myers, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Premature delivery and maternal separation during hospitalisation increase infant neurodevelopmental risk. Previously, a randomised controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the neonatal intensive care unit demonstrated improvement across multiple mother and infant domains including increased electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the frontal polar region at term age. New aims were to quantify developmental changes in EEG power in all brain regions and frequencies and correlate developmental changes in EEG power among regions. EEG (128 electrodes) was obtained at 34-44 weeks postmenstrual age from preterm infants born 26-34 weeks. Forty-four infants were treated with Standard Care and 53 with FNI. EEG power was computed in 10 frequency bands (1-48 Hz) in 10 brain regions and in active and quiet sleep. Percent change/week in EEG power was increased in FNI in 132/200 tests (p regional independence in those developmental rates of change. This study strengthens the conclusion that FNI promotes cerebral cortical development of preterm infants. The findings indicate that developmental changes in EEG may provide biomarkers for risk in preterm infants as well as proximal markers of effects of FNI. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Korean Variant Archive (KOVA): a reference database of genetic variations in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmoon; Seo, Jihae; Park, Jinman; Nam, Jae-Yong; Choi, Ahyoung; Ignatius, Jason S; Bjornson, Robert D; Chae, Jong-Hee; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Sanghyuk; Park, Woong-Yang; Baek, Daehyun; Choi, Murim

    2017-06-27

    Despite efforts to interrogate human genome variation through large-scale databases, systematic preference toward populations of Caucasian descendants has resulted in unintended reduction of power in studying non-Caucasians. Here we report a compilation of coding variants from 1,055 healthy Korean individuals (KOVA; Korean Variant Archive). The samples were sequenced to a mean depth of 75x, yielding 101 singleton variants per individual. Population genetics analysis demonstrates that the Korean population is a distinct ethnic group comparable to other discrete ethnic groups in Africa and Europe, providing a rationale for such independent genomic datasets. Indeed, KOVA conferred 22.8% increased variant filtering power in addition to Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) when used on Korean exomes. Functional assessment of nonsynonymous variant supported the presence of purifying selection in Koreans. Analysis of copy number variants detected 5.2 deletions and 10.3 amplifications per individual with an increased fraction of novel variants among smaller and rarer copy number variable segments. We also report a list of germline variants that are associated with increased tumor susceptibility. This catalog can function as a critical addition to the pre-existing variant databases in pursuing genetic studies of Korean individuals.

  4. The development of infants' use of property-poor sounds to individuate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Smith, Tracy R

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that infants as young as 4.5 months use property-rich but not property-poor sounds as the basis for individuating objects (Wilcox, Woods, Tuggy, & Napoli, 2006). The current research sought to identify the age at which infants demonstrate the capacity to use property-poor sounds. Using the task of Wilcox et al., infants aged 7 and 9 months were tested. The results revealed that 9- but not 7-month-olds demonstrated sensitivity to property-poor sounds (electronic tones) in an object individuation task. Additional results confirmed that the younger infants were sensitive to property-rich sounds (rattle sounds). These are the first positive results obtained with property-poor sounds in infants and lay the foundation for future research to identify the underlying basis for the developmental hierarchy favoring property-rich over property-poor sounds and possible mechanisms for change. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotional facial expressions in European-American, Japanese, and Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Oster, Harriet; Campos, Joseph J; Bakemand, Roger

    2003-12-01

    Charles Darwin was among the first to recognize the important contribution that infant studies could make to our understanding of human emotional expression. Noting that infants come to exhibit many emotions, he also observed that at first their repertoire of expression is highly restricted. Today, considerable controversy exists regarding the question of whether infants experience and express discrete emotions. According to one position, discrete emotions emerge during infancy along with their prototypic facial expressions. These expressions closely resemble adult emotional expressions and are invariantly concordant with their corresponding emotions. In contrast, we propose that the relation between expression and emotion during infancy is more complex. Some infant emotions and emotional expressions may not be invariantly concordant. Furthermore, infant emotional expressions may be less differentiated than previously proposed. Together with past developmental studies, recent cross-cultural research supports this view and suggests that negative emotional expression in particular is only partly differentiated towards the end of the first year.

  6. Development of a quantitative tool to assess the content of physical therapy for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H; Dirks, Tineke; Hulshof, Lily J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to describe and quantify physical therapy interventions for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. An observation protocol was developed based on knowledge about infant physical therapy and analysis of directly observable physiotherapeutic (PT) actions. The protocol's psychometric quality was assessed. Videos of 42 infant physical therapy sessions at 4 or 6 months of corrected age were analyzed. The observation protocol classified PT actions into 8 mutually exclusive categories. Virtually all PT actions during treatment could be classified. Inter- and intrarater agreements were satisfactory (intraclass correlations, 0.68-1.00). Approximately 40% of treatment time was spent challenging the infant to produce motor behavior by themselves, whereas approximately 30% of time facilitation techniques were applied. Tradition-based sessions could be differentiated from function-oriented ones. It is possible to document PT actions during physical therapy treatment of infants at high risk for cerebral palsy in a systematic, standardized, and reliable way.

  7. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frederick Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Cassasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.

  8. Korean standard of postero-anterior cephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-11-15

    The author conducted an experiment using P-A Cephalography of 242 male and female subjects of ages ranging 2-6, 7- 15, and adult group. By means of Nakago's method of measurement, the standard value of Korean was obtained. The results were as follows; 1. In the group of an age, the male value was slightly greater than female value. 2. In each age group the difference between the right and left widths could be recognizable, however, it was not much great. 3. In each group, regardless of sex, the growth relation was clearly distinguishable at PO, ARI, ARE, MG, AG, and CAW. 4. When the standard value of adult Korean was compared with that of Japanese, that of Japanese was great with respect to the width of maxillary portion and that of Korean was great with respect to the width of mandibular portion. 5. Maximum head width of white man was almost similar to that of Korean, however, maxillary alveolar base width of white man was considerably small or the dental arch was narrow.

  9. Searching for Women in Korean Scientific Societies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    III. Female Participation in S&E Societies. 16. ▫ the Committee for Women in KOFST (the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies) in 2012. Size of Responding Societies. ▫. Monitored gender ratio of committee members of its member societies in. Science and engineering. 52. 60. 80. 100. 120. Total Number.

  10. Proper Human Relationships: Korean Principals' Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Miles; Son, Jong Ho

    In an attempt to better understand the values that Korean educational administrators associate with leadership, researchers surveyed a random sample of 292 subjects in South Korea in the spring of 2000. Using several well-tested instruments, the researchers were able to report findings of relevance to scholars interested in cultural influences on…

  11. Current Trends in Korean Adolescents’ Social Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jongho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the research presented we investigated the features of Korean adolescents’ social purpose as compared with other life goals in terms of different aspects of psychological well-being (study 1. We also examine the perceptions of high achieving Korean adolescents on social purpose and factors affecting it (study 2.The results of study 1 showed that the pursuit of social purpose significantly predicted psychological well-being compared to the other two life goals. Results of study 2 showed Korean adolescents value and pursue social purpose as a life goal. They explicitly accepted their social responsibility to serve their country in line with idyllic Confucianism values and Collectivistic roles. However, further analysis revealed that they had implicitly pursued individualistic desires of materialistic wealth and fame in parallel with their explicit social purpose. Implications of the results are discussed from the socio-cultural perspective on social purpose in regards to how to understand the features of social purpose that Korean adolescents have and how to foster its development.

  12. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  13. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  14. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  15. Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Tonami, Aki

    to resources. Aki Tonami, researcher at the Nordic Institute for Asian Studies and Anders Riel Müller of the Danish Institute for International Studies seek to nuance the discussion and demystify Japanese and Korean environmental aid. Through a historical analysis of the historical trajectories...

  16. A developmental change of the visual behavior of the face recognition in the early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Okubo, Kensuke; Kato, Ikuko; Ijichi, Sonoko; Nishida, Tomoko; Kusaka, Takashi; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu; Kato, Masaharu; Konishi, Yukuo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental changes in visuocognitive function, particularly face recognition, in early infancy. In this study, we measured eye movement in healthy infants with a preference gaze problem, particularly eye movement between two face stimulations. We used the eye tracker system (Tobii1750, Tobii Technologies, Sweden) to measure eye movement in infants. Subjects were 17 3-month-old infants and 16 4-month-old infants. The subjects looked two types of face stimulation (upright face/scrambled face) at the same time and we measured their visual behavior (preference/looking/eye movement). Our results showed that 4-month-old infants looked at an upright face longer than 3-month infants, and exploratory behavior while comparing two face stimulations significantly increased. In this study, 4-month-old infants showed a preference towards an upright face. The numbers of eye movements between two face stimuli significantly increased in 4-month-old infants. These results suggest that eye movements may be an important index in face cognitive function during early infancy. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in infants with GERD-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Mark; Branham, Christina; Fraker, Cheryl; Walbert, Laura; Cox, Sibyl; Scarborough, Donna

    2013-09-01

    Symptoms of infantile gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may overlap with oropharyngeal dysphagia, but the evaluation and treatment of these conditions vary greatly. In this investigation, the incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in infants with GERD-like symptoms is determined. A retrospective chart review was performed on infants referred to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic for GERD-like symptoms. A feeding screen was performed in all infants. Standardized bedside swallow evaluation and modified barium swallow (MBS) studies were then performed when clinically indicated. A similarly aged cohort of normal participants also underwent a standard bedside swallow evaluation for group comparison. Study population included 67 infants. A swallow evaluation was recommended in 39 of 67 infants with abnormalities noted in all. Swallowing abnormalities were more frequent and clustered in infants with GERD-like symptoms vs controls. MBS was abnormal in 16 of 17 qualifying infants. Characteristics of at-risk infants included extreme prematurity, developmental delay, or symptoms refractory to antireflux medications. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is prominent in infants with GERD-like symptoms.

  18. Quantifying infant physical interactions using sensorized toys in a natural play environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vatsala; Torres, Wilson; Rai, Roshan; Shofer, Frances; Bogen, Daniel; Bryant, Phillip; Prosser, Laura; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    Infants with developmental delays must be detected early in their development to minimize the progression of motor and neurological impairments. Our objective is to quantify how sensorized toys in a natural play environment can promote infant-toy physical interactions. We created a hanging elephant toy, equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a pressure transducer, and multiple feedback sensors, to be a hand-grasping toy. We used a 3 DoF robotic model with inputs from the IMU to calculate multiple kinematic metrics and an equation to calculate haptic metrics from the pressure transducer. Six typical infants were tested in the gym set-up. Three infants interacted with the toy for more than half the trial time. The youngest infant exhibited the largest toy displacement with ΔD = 27.6 cm, while the oldest infant squeezed the toy with the largest mean pressure of 4.5 kPa. More data on on both typical and atypical infants needs to be collected. After testing atypical infants in the SmarToyGym set-up, we will be able to identify interaction metrics that differentiate atypical and typical infants.

  19. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced brain resting-state network specificity in infants compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Ross, Randal G; Hunter, Sharon K; Maharajh, Keeran; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R

    2014-01-01

    Infant resting-state networks do not exhibit the same connectivity patterns as those of young children and adults. Current theories of brain development emphasize developmental progression in regional and network specialization. We compared infant and adult functional connectivity, predicting that infants would exhibit less regional specificity and greater internetwork communication compared with adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest was acquired in 12 healthy, term infants and 17 adults. Resting-state networks were extracted, using independent components analysis, and the resulting components were then compared between the adult and infant groups. Adults exhibited stronger connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex node of the default mode network, but infants had higher connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex than adults. Adult connectivity was typically higher than infant connectivity within structures previously associated with the various networks, whereas infant connectivity was frequently higher outside of these structures. Internetwork communication was significantly higher in infants than in adults. We interpret these findings as consistent with evidence suggesting that resting-state network development is associated with increasing spatial specificity, possibly reflecting the corresponding functional specialization of regions and their interconnections through experience.

  1. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A comparison of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as unique predictors of infant social-emotional and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Melissa; Wilhelm, Mari S; Gamble, Wendy C; Card, Noel A

    2010-02-01

    Although maternal sensitivity has been shown to influence social-emotional development, the role of verbal stimulation on infant developmental outcomes has received less exploration. Recent research has focused on intentional behaviors within the context of a mother-infant interaction as a critical influence and as distinct from sensitivity. In this investigation 6377 mother-infant dyads participated in a teaching task as part of the sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Analyses focused in deciphering the role of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as contributors to the infant's social-emotional (S-E) and cognitive (Cog) development. We further hypothesized that inclusion of infant age as a moderator of maternal behaviors would illuminate any differences between younger and older infants. For the infant's S-E development, our hypothesis that maternal sensitivity would be a stronger predictor than verbal stimulation was not supported; nor did we find support for our hypothesis that the association would be moderated by age. For Cog development, only verbal stimulation had a direct positive effect on the infant's cognitive ability; our findings for moderation showed that mothers spoke more to older infants than younger infants. Identification of specific maternal behaviors associated with infant outcomes informs the child development field, and also provides strategies for early intervention to assist mothers with developing or maintaining a consistent relationship that includes sensitivity and verbal stimulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J

    2001-01-01

    We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic

  4. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF HONORIFIC USE IN KOREAN EMAIL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegu Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a relatively new field that examines how Korean culture affects Korean language use in terms of age difference in a corpus of computer mediated email discourse. The purpose of this descriptive study and experiment is to prove the close relationship between Korean language and culture. This paper shows the descriptive study of Korean culture in relation to language use. Korean culture acknowledges an inherent hierarchy with regard to age, and considers [+age] as relating socially to [+power]. When younger Koreans converse with older ones, they express different morpho-syntactic patterns, which is an age complex. The main task of the experiment was to examine the way through which the age complex is reflected by Korean honorific linguistic system in email discourse. I asked 15 Korean native speakers between the ages of 20 to 25 to write emails expressing an impositive request to [+age (46-50 years old], [-age (below 25 years old] and [=age] recipients. The results show significant differences in the use of grammatical features in emails written to [+age] recipients, as compared to emails written to [-age] and [=age] recipients. The implication of the findings is that the cultural values that are attached to age and aging in the Korean society affects Koreans’ language use, which means Korean language and culture are closely intermingled.

  5. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  6. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI.

  7. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  8. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2013-04-05

    Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Joint Attention Development in Low-risk Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Around 18 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-10-18

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental characteristics of joint attention in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a low risk of complications. Section B of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) was administered to 31 VLBW and 45 normal birth weight (NBW) infants aged 18-22 months, while the sessions were recorded with a video camera. A semi-structured observation scale was developed to assess infants' joint attention from the video footage, and was shown to be reliable. VLBW, compared to NBW, infants showed significantly poorer skills in 2 of 4 items on responding to joint attention, and in 6 of 10 items on initiating joint attention. VLBW infants need more clues in order to produce joint attention. The difficulty was attributed to insufficient verbal and fine motor function skills. Continuous follow-up evaluation is essential for both high-risk and low-risk VLBW infants and their parents.

  10. Pareidolia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  11. Pareidolia in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kato

    Full Text Available Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  12. Exporting the Saemaul spirit: South Korea’s Knowledge Sharing Program and the ‘rendering technical’ of Korean development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, Jamie; Müller, Anders Riel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical intervention into South Korea’s recent effort to promote its 1970s authoritarian-era rural modernization program, Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), as the ‘iconic’ model of its international development assistance. To better understand how this movement has...... been represented, this article examines the policy narratives that have been produced by the Korean government’s Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) and circulated through multiple development cooperation initiatives. These narratives portray Saemaul as the key to Korea’s developmental success: a mental...... questions about the ‘brand’ of development assistance that has been built upon it....

  13. Detecting violations of temporal regularities in waking and sleeping two-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, R.A.; Winkler, I.; Braeken, M.A.K.A.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; van der Stelt, O.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Correctly processing rapid sequences of sounds is essential for developmental milestones, such as language acquisition. We investigated the sensitivity of two-month-old infants to violations of a temporal regularity, by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in an auditory oddball paradigm

  14. Sensitivity to First-Order Relations of Facial Elements in Infant Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukner, Annika; Bower, Seth; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Faces are visually attractive to both human and nonhuman primates. Human neonates are thought to have a broad template for faces at birth and prefer face-like to non-face-like stimuli. To better compare developmental trajectories of face processing phylogenetically, here, we investigated preferences for face-like stimuli in infant rhesus macaques…

  15. Prevalence and Stability of Active Play, Restricted Movement and Television Viewing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kylie D.; Crawford, David A.; Abbott, Gavin; Campbell, Karen J.; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This study describes engagement in and stability of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in early life, and assesses associations with sex, maternal education and developmental stage. Maternal-report data at child age 4, 9 and 20 months were collected from 542 families in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.…

  16. Let's Get Messy!: Exploring Sensory and Art Activities with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Trudi; Luckenbill, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Infant/toddler teachers take a child-centered, emergent approach, meaning that they observe the children at play, ask themselves what they are interested in learning, and design developmentally appropriate curricula to meet and extend those interests. This curriculum development technique leads to "possibilities for the child to develop deeper…

  17. Follow up assessment of very preterm infants at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, Martin de

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous with the improved survival of very preterm and low birth weight infants, the awareness increased that not all survive without sequelae. Mild developmental disturbances that interfere with the acquisition of everyday skills and normal learning appeared to be very frequent and were not

  18. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  19. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  20. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants - a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, E.G.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  1. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF GENERAL MOVEMENTS IN ASPHYXIATED FULL-TERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRECHTL, HFR; FERRARI, F; CIONI, G

    1993-01-01

    The developmental course of spontaneous motility was investigated in a group of 26 fullterm infants, affected by mild to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Serial 1-h videorecordings were carried out from birth to 15-22 weeks and a quality assessment of general movements (GMs) was made from a

  2. Minimizing Skin Color Differences Does Not Eliminate the Own-Race Recognition Advantage in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of experience with own-race faces and limited to no experience with other-race faces has been associated with better recognition memory for own-race faces in infants, children, and adults. This study investigated the developmental origins of this other-race effect (ORE) by examining the role of a salient perceptual property of…

  3. Early Behavioral Intervention to Improve Social Communication Function in Infants with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Disability (ID) using the...infant to complete the JASPER intervention at the UCLA site, acquired during our Social Scenes Paradigm (see Figures 1 & 2). The plot demonstrates that...Theory in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities San Diego, CA • Jeste, S.S., (2016). Can rare disorders pave the way to

  4. Infants Draw on "Emotional Capital" in Early Childhood Education Contexts: A New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Andi; Sumsion, Jennifer; Harrison, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Research about infants' capacity to communicate using cries, smiles and sophisticated emotional strategies to connect with adults in their lives has predominantly emerged from the field of developmental psychology, with relatively limited attention to how babies enact such communicative practices with key adults in naturalistic settings. This…

  5. The Effects of Bilingualism on Infant Language Development : The Acquisition of Sounds and Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the influence of bilingualism on infants’ sound and word acquisition in the first two years of life. It targets the question of whether mono- and bilingual infants follow the same developmental trajectory of language acquisition, it displays similarities and differences

  6. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  7. Family Nurture Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit improves social-relatedness, attention, and neurodevelopment of preterm infants at 18 months in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Firestein, Morgan R; Austin, Judy; Hane, Amie A; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Garland, Marianne; Glickstein, Sara B; Brunelli, Susan A; Ludwig, Robert J; Myers, Michael M

    2015-11-01

    Preterm infants are at high risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is designed to counteract adverse effects of separation of mothers and their preterm infants. Here, we evaluate effects of FNI on neurobehavioral outcomes. Data were collected at 18 months corrected age from preterm infants. Infants were assigned at birth to FNI or standard care (SC). Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) were assessed for 76 infants (SC, n = 31; FNI, n = 45); the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 57 infants (SC, n = 31; FNI, n = 26); and the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was obtained for 59 infants (SC, n = 33; FNI, n = 26). Family Nurture Intervention significantly improved Bayley-III cognitive (p = .039) and language (p = .008) scores for infants whose scores were greater than 85. FNI infants had fewer attention problems on the CBCL (p Nurture Intervention is the first NICU intervention to show significant improvements in preterm infants across multiple domains of neurodevelopment, social-relatedness, and attention problems. These gains suggest that an intervention that facilitates emotional interactions between mothers and infants in the NICU may be key to altering developmental trajectories of preterm infants. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-05

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding.

  9. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Mothers singing and speaking to preterm infants in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Filippa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are at greater risk for long-term morbidities, a problem representing also a growing public health concern. Early experiences can affect infants’ brain development, especially if conducted during critical periods of important growth. Early interventions involving parents in preterm infants care improve developmental outcomes for preterm infants, minimizing also the stress of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU environment. Mother-infant separation and alteration of maternal care soon after birth can lead to a wide array of adverse physiological, emotional and behavioural consequences that can persist throughout life. It’s suggested that Maternal Vocal Intervention (MVI in NICU, as a specific form of environmental and interactional enrichment, as part of an individualized care and as a tool to involve families in early care of preterm infants, may be adopted by the health community as a standard of care. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  11. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Papas, Mia A

    2016-03-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n = 79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1-3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5-8.5-month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95 % CI 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95 % CI -0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants' RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95 % CI 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747.

  12. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  13. The representation of Asian others in Korean cinema since 2003: multiculturalism, nationalism and sub-imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Juyeon

    2016-01-01

    This thesis elucidates current industrial and representational tendencies in South Korean films that depict Asian others. Asian others such as migrant workers, marriage migrants, overseas ethnic Koreans and North Korean defectors have become increasingly important in South Korean filmic discourse and practice since 2003. This thesis examines how contemporary Korean cinema has responded to the multicultural society and how it seeks to articulate Korean nationalism in the globalised era through...

  14. The North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Outcome and Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Keun

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the North Korean nuclear crisis and how to find the best method of dismantling the North's nuclear facilities. From empirical studies of North Korean negotiating behavior, strategy, intentions and future of the regime, North Korea seems unlikely to abandon its nuclear program, if left unconstrained. This paper analyzes North Korean nuclear strategy and discusses problems concerned with the North Korean nuclear issues. It will propose some resolutions for a comprehensive approach in order to find a solution to the North Korean nuclear threat: restarting the six-party talks; preparation of a sophisticated nuclear elimination road-map; encouraging the gradual transformation of North Korea and its integration into the international community. In the long run, when North Korean nuclear strategy is considered, dialogue and engagement combined with international pressure or proper sanctions is needed

  15. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  16. Present and future of Korean nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, K-H

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' The Korean nuclear power industry has devoted itself to technological development and self-reliance over the last 30 years since Kori unit 1, the first nuclear power plant commenced its commercial operation in 1978. As a result of such efforts and accumulated experiences, the Korean nuclear power industry has developed the OPR 1000 and APR 1400 units and is almost completing the development of the APR+ as a 1,500MW class reactor with its own technologies of design and manufacturing. Also, the Korean nuclear power industry has been able to build a strong supply chain from engineering, manufacturing, construction, and fuel supply, to operation and maintenance. At present, Korea is operating 23 commercial power reactors with a total installed capacity of 20,716 MW, accounting for 25 percent of the installed capacity and one third of the nation's total electricity generation. Also, the share of nuclear power generation capacity will be 29 percent by 2035 in the Long Term Energy Development Plan and 43 GW of nuclear energy capacity will be needed. Thanks to nuclear power generation as an essential driving force, Korea has been able to supply cheap and stable electricity. However, amid the growing public concerns about nuclear safety after the Fukushima accident, the Korean government and related organizations are exerting its utmost effort in all areas, for example, enhancing nuclear safety and safety culture, carrying out management innovation, and communicating with the public in order to enhance transparency. Also, the Korean government launched the Public Engagement Commission on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in 2013, which is tasked to initiate public consultation & discussion and submit recommendation to government after in-depth review and analysis on SNF management options by the end of 2014. Nuclear power has become very essential part of national economy in Korea because Korea has virtually no indigenous energy resources and

  17. Present and future of Korean nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, K-H [Korea Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' The Korean nuclear power industry has devoted itself to technological development and self-reliance over the last 30 years since Kori unit 1, the first nuclear power plant commenced its commercial operation in 1978. As a result of such efforts and accumulated experiences, the Korean nuclear power industry has developed the OPR 1000 and APR 1400 units and is almost completing the development of the APR+ as a 1,500MW class reactor with its own technologies of design and manufacturing. Also, the Korean nuclear power industry has been able to build a strong supply chain from engineering, manufacturing, construction, and fuel supply, to operation and maintenance. At present, Korea is operating 23 commercial power reactors with a total installed capacity of 20,716 MW, accounting for 25 percent of the installed capacity and one third of the nation's total electricity generation. Also, the share of nuclear power generation capacity will be 29 percent by 2035 in the Long Term Energy Development Plan and 43 GW of nuclear energy capacity will be needed. Thanks to nuclear power generation as an essential driving force, Korea has been able to supply cheap and stable electricity. However, amid the growing public concerns about nuclear safety after the Fukushima accident, the Korean government and related organizations are exerting its utmost effort in all areas, for example, enhancing nuclear safety and safety culture, carrying out management innovation, and communicating with the public in order to enhance transparency. Also, the Korean government launched the Public Engagement Commission on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in 2013, which is tasked to initiate public consultation & discussion and submit recommendation to government after in-depth review and analysis on SNF management options by the end of 2014. Nuclear power has become very essential part of national economy in Korea because Korea has virtually no indigenous energy resources and

  18. Elimination Kinetics of Ethanol in a 5-Week-Old Infant and a Literature Review of Infant Ethanol Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Ford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ethanol metabolism occurs through alcohol dehydrogenase, but minor metabolic pathways such as the P450 enzymes CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 and the enzyme catalase exist. These enzymes have distinct developmental stages. Elimination kinetics of ethanol in the infant is limited. We report the elimination kinetics of ethanol in a 5-week-old African-American male who had a serum ethanol level of 270 mg/dL on admission. A previously healthy 5-week-old African-American male was brought to the ED with a decreased level of consciousness. His initial blood ethanol level was 270 mg/dL. Serial blood ethanol levels were obtained. The elimination rate of ethanol was calculated to be in a range from 17.1 to 21.2 mg/dL/hr and appeared to follow zero-order elimination kinetics with a R2=0.9787. Elimination kinetics for ethanol in the young infant has been reported in only four previously published reports. After reviewing these reports, there appears to be variability in the elimination rates of ethanol in infants. Very young infants may not eliminate ethanol as quickly as previously described. Given that there are different stages of enzyme development in children, caution should be used when generalizing the elimination kinetics in young infants and children.

  19. Mothers' Psychological Distress and Feeding of Their Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Estrem, Hayley; Pados, Britt F; Knafl, George J; Brandon, Debra

    To examine the change in psychological distress of mothers of preterm infants and its association with maternal feeding behaviors as the infant transitions to full oral feeding. This descriptive exploratory study used a subset of data from a study of the effects of a coregulated feeding intervention for 34 mothers and hospitalized preterm infants in a Level-III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal psychological distress was measured by maternal worry (Child Health Worry Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiology-Depression Scale), and role stress (Parental Stress Scale: NICU-Role Alteration) at three time points: within 1 week prior to the first oral feeding (T1), and at achievement of half (T2) and full oral feeding (T3). Feedings were videotaped at T2 and T3. An observational coding system measured maternal feeding behaviors. Linear mixed modeling evaluated the change in maternal psychological distress and its association with mothers' feeding behaviors as the infant transitioned to full oral feeding. Maternal depressive symptoms were highest at T1 and declined over time. Maternal worry and role stress were also highest at T1 but remained stable from T2 to T3. Increased maternal psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms and role stress, were associated with less use of developmentally supportive feeding behaviors, that is, minimizing tactile stimulation, providing steady touch to contain or stabilize the infant, and regulating milk flow. Supporting maternal psychological well-being while infants are learning to feed orally may be an appropriate target for interventions to support mother-infant early feeding interactions.

  20. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E. [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Department of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 411-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Jin Oh [Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui-Young [Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  1. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E. [Dept. of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-04-15

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  2. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young

    2015-01-01

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  3. The Power of Cinema on the Korean Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Samyel Lee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The Korean peninsula is constantly in a dynamic discussion of identity and direction. For South Korean society, it is no surprise that the Korean War and the existential threat that North Korea poses loom large over its collective conscience. Although mostly disregarded within scholarly discussions in international relations, cinema has always been, and continues to be, an insightful, powerful, and transformative forum. This essay discusses the ways in which cinema as an art form ha...

  4. South Korean historical drama : gender, nation and the heritage industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Mi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic version excludes material for which permission has not been granted by the rights holder From the dynamic landscape of contemporary South Korean cinema, one trend that stands out is the palpable revival of the historical drama (known as the ‘sageuk’ in Korean). Since the early 2000s, expensive, visually striking, and successful costumed pieces have been showcased to the audience. Now rivalling the other mainstream genres such as gangster action, romantic comedy, and the Korean b...

  5. Comparatives Korean and Mongolian Achievement In Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Uranchimeg Julia Agvaantseren; Park Sae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean higher education reform and to study of Korean and Mongolian experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. And also paper provides a description of the higher education in Mongolia in an effort to identify important financial issues and concern while comparing with Korean high education experience and tries to attract attention of policy makers for better alternative...

  6. Comparisons between Japanese and Korean Learners of German

    OpenAIRE

    吉満, たか子

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on differences and similarities between Japanese and Korean learners of German at a summer course of the University of Hamburg. A survey was conducted with the intention of gaining insights into the profiles, motivation, and difficulties which Japanese and Koreans possess when learning German and language-learning strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 15 Japanese students and 14 Korean students who participated in the summer course held at the University of ...

  7. K- Popping: Korean Women, K-Pop, and Fandom

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Korean popular music (hereafter K-pop) can be understood as an inclusive cultural phenomenon. K-pop fandom constitutes a sizeable portion of this phenomenon and is characteristic, to a large degree, of K-pop culture. However, female fans, especially in Korea, are frequently disdained in mainstream Korean culture, and their fandom has been undervalued and derided. Challenging this negative view of female fans, I autoethnographically examine Korean female K-pop fandom, based on my field researc...

  8. Siwonhan-mat: The third taste of Korean foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ah Kang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Siwonhan-mat is a unique sensation found in Korean food. Understanding siwonhan-mat is a key to learning about Korean food and its food culture. Therefore, this paper serves an important role in understanding Korean food. Siwonhan-mat is often mistranslated using words to describe temperature, such as cool. This misinterpretation has resulted in confusion over the original meaning of siwonhan-mat and contributed to the incorrect usage of the word.

  9. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seog Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results T...

  10. A Nuclear Dilemma--Korean War Deja Vu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-08

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT A NUCLEAR DILEMMA—KOREAN WAR DEJA VU by Lieutenant Colonel Trent A. Pickering United States Air Force Colonel William...Lieutenant Colonel Trent A. Pickering TITLE: A Nuclear Dilemma—Korean War Deja Vu FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 8 March 2006 WORD COUNT: 19,270...1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Dilemma--Korean War Deja

  11. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alison; Cole, Thomas; Cordes, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however, little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the 1st year of life. Parents and their 5-10 months old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents' spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the 1st year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.

  12. How Parents Read Counting Books and Non-Numerical Books to Their Preverbal Infants: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Goldstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have stressed the importance of counting with children to promote formal numeracy abilities; however little work has investigated when parents begin to engage in this behavior with their young children. In the current study, we investigated whether parents elaborated on numerical information when reading a counting book to their preverbal infants and whether developmental differences in numerical input exist even in the first year of life. Parents and their 5-10 month old infants were asked to read, as they would at home, two books to their infants: a counting book and another book that did not have numerical content. Parents’ spontaneous statements rarely focused on number and those that did consisted primarily of counting, with little emphasis on labeling the cardinality of the set. However, developmental differences were observed even in this age range, such that parents were more likely to make numerical utterances when reading to older infants. Together, results are the first to characterize naturalistic reading behaviors between parents and their preverbal infants in the context of counting books, suggesting that although counting books promote numerical language in parents, infants still receive very little in the way of numerical input before the end of the first year of life. While little is known regarding the impact of number talk on the cognitive development of young infants, the current results may guide future work in this area by providing the first assessment of the characteristics of parental numerical input to preverbal infants.

  13. Do infants find snakes aversive? Infants' physiological responses to "fear-relevant" stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Cat; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    In the current research, we sought to measure infants' physiological responses to snakes-one of the world's most widely feared stimuli-to examine whether they find snakes aversive or merely attention grabbing. Using a similar method to DeLoache and LoBue (Developmental Science, 2009, Vol. 12, pp. 201-207), 6- to 9-month-olds watched a series of multimodal (both auditory and visual) stimuli: a video of a snake (fear-relevant) or an elephant (non-fear-relevant) paired with either a fearful or happy auditory track. We measured physiological responses to the pairs of stimuli, including startle magnitude, latency to startle, and heart rate. Results suggest that snakes capture infants' attention; infants showed the fastest startle responses and lowest average heart rate to the snakes, especially when paired with a fearful voice. Unexpectedly, they also showed significantly reduced startle magnitude during this same snake video plus fearful voice combination. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives on fear acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grounded in the World: Developmental Origins of the Embodied Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Esther

    Piaget's question of how the adult mind emerges from the sensorimotor infant is still the framing issue for developmental psychology. Here I suggest that real-life skill is better understood if the sensorimotor origins of cognition are not abandoned. Skilled people are better at both abstract and logical thinking, but also at processing the world 'on-line' and most importantly, seamlessly and rapidly shifting between the two modes. I illustrate the tight coupling between action, perception, and cognition in early life and propose that this coupling remains, but becomes more flexibly adaptive. Furthermore, I show that the language of dynamics is appropriate to capture these mind-body-world interconnections.

  15. When modularization fails to occur: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-05-01

    We argue that models of adult cognition defined in terms of independently functioning modules cannot be applied to development, whether typical or atypical. The infant brain starts out highly interconnected, and it is only over developmental time that neural networks become increasingly specialized-that is, relatively modularized. In the case of atypical development, even when behavioural scores fall within the normal range, they are frequently underpinned by different cognitive and neural processes. In other words, in neurodevelopmental disorders the gradual process of relative modularization may fail to occur.

  16. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...

  17. The early Korean Protestant Churches’ impact on Korea’s democratisation: With special reference to the Korean Presbyterian Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Buhm Hwang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the significant influence of the early Korean Protestant churches in general and the Korean Presbyterian Church in particular on the early phases of Korea’s democratisation. Firstly, the Western Protestant mission works in general were visibly conducive for dissemination and cultivation of egalitarian and democratic ideals, with the mission churches becoming sites of do-it-yourself democracy. Secondly, the Nevius (Mission Methods of the Korean Presbyterian Church came to foster the democratic spirit of self-support and self-government, resulting in its rapid growth. Thirdly, with the implementation of a nationwide, representative and democratic polity (presbytery with a constitution, the church even facilitated law-binding and institutional democracy for Koreans in general and Korean Christians in particular. Fourthly, the church’s democratic working deeply inspired Korean democratic politicians, especially Mr Changho Ahn, who had an important influence on the making of the Provisional Government of Korea and its Constitution.

  18. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seog Ju

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation.

  19. ADA genetic polymorphism and the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Magrini, A; Cozzoli, E; Bergamaschi, A; Bottini, E

    2008-11-01

    Genetic variability of metabolic enzymes may influence the effect of cigarette smoking on intrauterine development and on early neonatal events. To investigate the role of adenosine deaminase genetic polymorphism on the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters. Analysis of association between adenosine deaminase phenotypes and neonatal developmental parameters. Prospective study of serum bilirubin level in relation to adenosine deaminase phenotype. We have studied 360 consecutive newborn infants from the Caucasian population of Rome. Serum bilirubin concentration was determined at birth and every 24 h for the first five days. Overall maternal smoking is associated with a slight decrease in the incidence of phototherapy (13.4% in non smoking vs 11.7% in smoking mothers) and with a reduction of birth weight (3374 g in non smoking mothers vs 3133 g in smoking mothers). There is a significant interaction between smoke and adenosine deaminase. While in non smoking mothers the incidence of phototherapy in carriers of ADA 2 allele is higher than in ADA 1 phenotype, in infants from smoking mothers the pattern is reversed and the incidence of phototherapy in carriers of ADA 2 allele is lower than in infants with ADA 1 phenotype. Other neonatal bilirubin parameters follow a similar pattern of interaction between smoking and ADA. The negative effect of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in infant with ADA 1 phenotype than in those carrying the ADA 2 allele. The data suggest that ADA phenotype modifies the effect of smoking on developmental and bilirubin parameters.

  20. Masturbation mimicking seizure in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, G; Caksen, H; Suskan, E; Gümüs, D

    2001-08-01

    A 3.5-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of infantile spasm. His developmental milestones and physical examination were normal. During the follow-up we recorded about six to nine attacks a day and the duration of attacks was changed between 15 seconds-1.5 minutes. During the episodic attacks he was flushed and had tonic posturing associated with crossing of thighs, without loss of consciousness and his eye movements were normal. Routine and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal during attack. The patient was diagnosed as masturbation according to the clinical and EEG findings. In conclusion, we would like to stress that masturbation should also be considered in infants who were admitted with complaint of seizure, and aside from EEG monitoring a detailed history and careful observation are very important factors in differential diagnosis of these two different conditions.