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  1. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  2. Does the Duration and Time of Sleep Increase the Risk of Allergic Rhinitis? Results of the 6-Year Nationwide Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jeoung A.; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Be...

  3. Analysis of consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents based on Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey (2006, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS Consumption frequencie...

  4. Risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents: Multilevel analysis of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjoo; Austin, S Bryn; Subramanian, S V; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Franko, Debra L; Rodgers, Rachel F; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills. Sex-stratified four-level multilevel logistic models examined potential predictors of DWCB, including age, body-mass index, puberty, perceived household economic status, parental education, living structure, school type and sex-composition, percentage of students participating in school nutrition programs, and urbanicity. Overall, 6.2% of Korean adolescents (8.9% of girls, 3.7% of boys) exhibited any DWCB. We found significant between-school variation among girls and boys and between-classroom variation among girls. Older age, overweight/obesity, pubertal maturity, high household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), and vocational schooling (vs. general) were positively associated with DWCB among girls and boys. Low household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), higher parental education, and coeducational schooling (vs. single-sex) were positively associated with DWCB among girls only. The findings suggest that DWCB are prevalent among Korean adolescents across age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social contextual factors including school and familial environmental factors, as well as individual characteristics, should be considered when developing effective prevention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Health Behavior and Factors Associated with Depression in North Korean Adolescent Defectors in South Korea: The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Joung; Yu, Seon Yeong; Kim, Sunyoung; Won, Chang Won; Choi, Hyunrim; Kim, Byung Sung

    2017-09-01

    The number of North Korean adolescent defectors entering South Korea has been increasing. The health behavior, including mental health-related behavior, and factors associated with depression in North Korean adolescent defectors residing in South Korea were investigated. Data obtained from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2011-2014) dataset were utilized. In total, 206 North Korean adolescent defectors were selected, and for the control group, 618 matched South Korean adolescents were selected. Frequency analysis was used to determine the place of birth and nationality of the parents, chi-square tests were used to compare the general characteristics of the North and South Korean subjects, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to compare the health behavior of the two sets of subjects. To determine the factors associated with depression in the North Korean subjects, a logistic regression was performed. The North Korean adolescents reported higher current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 4.35), current drinking (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.99), and drug use rates (aOR, 10.99; 95% CI, 4.04 to 29.88) than did the South Korean adolescents. The factors associated with depression in the North Korean adolescents were current smoking (aOR, 6.99; 95% CI, 1.62 to 30.06), lifetime drinking experience (aOR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 18.75), and perceived stress (aOR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.74 to 12.90). There were differences in health behavior between the North and South Korean adolescents. A specialized approach for North Korean adolescent defectors is required to promote proper health behavior and adaptation to South Korean society.

  6. [Non-linear System Dynamics Simulation Modeling of Adolescent Obesity: Using Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Eun Suk; Yu, Jae Kook; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for adolescent obesity in Korea that could be used for obesity policy analysis. On the basis of the casual loop diagram, a model was developed by converting to stock and flow diagram. The Vensim DSS 5.0 program was used in the model development. We simulated method of moments to the calibration of this model with data from The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2005 to 2013. We ran the scenario simulation. This model can be used to understand the current adolescent obesity rate, predict the future obesity rate, and be utilized as a tool for controlling the risk factors. The results of the model simulation match well with the data. It was identified that a proper model, able to predict obesity probability, was established. These results of stock and flow diagram modeling in adolescent obesity can be helpful in development of obesity by policy planners and other stakeholders to better anticipate the multiple effects of interventions in both the short and the long term. In the future we suggest the development of an expanded model based on this adolescent obesity model.

  7. [Factors that influence sexual intercourse among middle school students: using data from the 8th (2012) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Seok Hyun; Lee, Chung Yul

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence sexual intercourse among middle school students in South Korea. Using statistics from the 8th (2012) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted. The study sample comprised 37,297 middle school students aged primarily 12 to 15. The significant predictors of sexual intercourse were grade, ever smoking, ever drinking, habitual or purposeful drug use, economic status, weekly allowance, cohabitation with family, and type of school. The results suggest that intensified sex education is needed not only in the 1st grade of middle school, but also in the upper grades of elementary school. Sexual health interventions for high-risk groups may be needed, given the factors predicting sexual intercourse.

  8. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

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    Jeoung A Kwon

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18. We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  9. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  10. Analysis of consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents based on Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey (2006, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young

    2015-08-01

    This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits more than once a day significantly decreased in 2011 compared to 2006 based on Chi-square test conducted for every factor employed in the study. Analysis of factors showed that consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits were reduced in both study years as subjective income decreased, whereas intake frequencies increased with mother's education level and reduction of adolescent stress level. In general, consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits decreased in 2011 compared to those in 2006. Thus, future research needs to improve dietary guidelines for nutrition education in order for students to recognize the importance of food consumption and necessity of increasing daily serving sizes of vegetables and fruits for their balanced consumption.

  11. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its associated cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean youth: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Heeyeon Cho

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria is a known early predictive factor for renal and cardiovascular diseases, not only for patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension but also in the general population. However, the prevalence and risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in Korean youth are unknown.The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association between microalbuminuria and obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents without diabetes.This study examines data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (between 2011 and 2014. It includes a total of 1,976 participants aged between 10 and 19 years (boys 1,128 and girls 848. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR of ≥ 30 mg/g and < 300 mg/g. Association between microalbuminuria and the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including insulin resistance was evaluated.The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 3.0% in Korean children and adolescents over this time period. The mean UACR for non-obese youth was significantly greater than that found in obese youth (3.2 ± 0.1 mg/g in the non-obese group vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in the obese group; P < 0.001. In multiple logistic regression analysis, microalbuminuria was associated with hyperglycemia (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.09-6.30 and hemoglobin A1c (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.09-10.17 in the non-obese group and hypertension (OR 14.10, 95% CI 1.12-177.98 and HbA1c (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.87-23.95 in the obese group.The prevalence of microalbuminuria is not prominent in obese children and adolescents. Our findings demonstrated that the presence of hypertension and hyperglycemia was associated with microalbuminuria. Especially Hemoglobin A1c was associated with microalbuminuria in youths regardless of weight status. Microalbuminuria in pediatric population can be a helpful marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Association between asthma and physical activity in Korean adolescents: the 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-III).

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    Kim, Jae-Woo; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2012-12-01

    Asthma is the leading chronic illness among children and adolescents in several nations. This study investigated the association between asthma and physical activity (PA). The findings in this study are based on the data obtained from the 2007 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-III), a cross-sectional survey of health-risk behaviours among a representative sample of Korean middle- and high-school students aged 13-18 years. This survey is conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 72 943 study subjects were selected using the complex sampling design of the survey. The association between asthma and PA was assessed by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses of the data by using the statistical software SPSS 17.0 Complex Sample. Compared with the adolescents without current asthma, significantly fewer adolescents with current asthma had a sedentary time of 3 h or less per day (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.97). Sedentary time was defined as time spent watching television, surfing the Internet, or playing computer games and excluded the time spent doing homework or study during leisure time. The analysis was adjusted for age, gender, family affluence level (FAL), obesity, allergic rhinitis, atopy and smoking. With regard to participation in adequate vigorous or moderate PA, strengthening exercise or physical education class, no significant differences were found between the adolescent students with current asthma and those without current asthma. In addition, it was found that all PA had no significant differences in their effects on asthma severity (medication, inability to work and absence from school). Our results show that the amount of sedentary time influenced asthma prevalence; however, PA did not influence asthma prevalence in Korean adolescents.

  13. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

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    Kang-Ok Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.

  14. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.

  15. Association of atopic dermatitis with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents in Korea: the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

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    Lee, Seulki; Shin, Aesun

    2017-01-03

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease which has been known to negatively influence the mental health of patients. However, only a few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric problems among AD patients, particularly among adolescents. In this study, we aimed to assess the association of AD with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents by analyzing data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide web-based survey. Data from 72,435 adolescent middle and high school students in Korea were analyzed. Students self-reported AD diagnosed by a doctor and yes-or-no answers to questions about depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Relationships between AD and depressive symptoms or suicidal behaviors were tested by logistic regression models after controlling for potential confounding factors. The proportion of adolescents who had AD was 6.8%. The proportion of adolescents reporting depressive feelings was 31.0%, suicide ideation was 16.3%, suicide planning was 5.8%, and suicide attempts was 4.2%. Compared to adolescents without AD, adolescents with AD were significantly more likely to experience depressive feelings (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.19-1.36), suicide ideation (OR: 1.34, 95% Cl: 1.24-1.45), suicide planning (OR: 1.46, 95% Cl: 1.32-1.65), and suicide attempts (OR: 1.51, 95% Cl: 1.33-1.72). In the multivariate model, the relationships between AD and suicide ideation (OR: 1.26, 95% Cl:1.16-1.36), suicide planning (OR: 1.28, 95% Cl:1.14-1.44), and suicide attempt (OR: 1.29, 95% Cl:1.13-1.49) were statistically significant. Adolescents who have AD are associated with a higher prevalence of depression symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Adolescent AD patients may need interventions from clinicians and caregivers that use a holistic approach to prevent psychological comorbidities, although further research is needed to clarify this

  16. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  17. Seismic risk map of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Lee, Y.K.; Eum, S.H.; Yang, S.J.; Chun, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study on seismic hazard level in Korea has been performed and the main results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Historians suggest that the quality of historical earthquake data may be accurate in some degree and the data should be used in seismic risk analysis. 2. The historical damage events are conformed in historical literatures and their intensities are re-evaluated by joint researchers. The maximum MM intensity of them is VIII evaluated for 17 events. 3. The relation of earthquakes to surface fault is not clear. It seems resonable to related them to tectonic provinces. 4. Statistical seismic risk analysis shows that the acceleration expected within 50O year return period is less than 0.25G when only instrumental earthquakes are used and less than 0.10G if all of instrumental and historical earthquakes are used. The acceleration in Western Coast and Kyungsang area is higher than the other regions in Korea. 5. The maximum horizontal acceleration determined by conservative method is 0.26G when historical earthquake data are used and less than 0.20G if only instrumental earthquakes are used. The return period of 0.26G is 240 years in Kyungsang province and longer in other provinces. (Author)

  18. Smoking beliefs and behavior among youth in South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joann; Johnson, Carolyn; Rice, Janet; Warren, C Wick; Chen, Ted

    2013-09-01

    Beliefs about smoking are important predictors of smoking behavior among adolescents, and adolescents who hold positive beliefs about the benefits of smoking are at an increased risk of smoking initiation. An alarming fact is the rising smoking prevalence in Asian countries, particularly the increasing trend in smoking during adolescence. This cross-sectional study examined smoking beliefs and behavior among a nationally representative sample of youth in South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, and logistic regression methods were used to analyze data from 13-15-year-old adolescents who participated in the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in South Korea (N = 4,765) and Thailand (N = 15,420) and the 2007 GYTS in Taiwan (N = 3,955). The rate of ever smoking among youth was similar in all three countries and ranged from 26.7 to 28.0 %. The prevalence of current smoking among youth in Thailand (11.4 %) was nearly double the prevalence in South Korea (6.6 %) and Taiwan (6.5 %). Pro-tobacco advertising exposure, as well as older ages, was a positive and significant predictor of positive beliefs about smoking among youth in all three countries. Additionally, youth who reported increased positive smoking-related beliefs, greater pro-tobacco advertising exposure, and were male were more likely to be current smokers in all three countries. Results suggest that greater attention be directed to understanding beliefs and attitudes about smoking among youth. Exploring the relationship between these factors and smoking behavior can provide a strong starting point in the development of effective smoking prevention interventions and tobacco control policies in this region.

  19. A Meta-analysis of the Correlation between Maltreatment, Witnessing Domestic Violence, and Bullying among Youths in South Korea.

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    Go, Eun Joo; Kong, Jung Won; Kim, Ko Eun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine synthesized correlation outcomes between maltreatment, witnessing domestic violence, and bullying among youths in South Korea. The study examined 42 studies from between 2000 and 2015; the results showed that there is a medium effect size for this association among youths. Specifically, the effect size of the association was found to be larger for physical and verbal/emotional abuse and neglect than exposure to domestic violence for youths. The authors suggest that effective prevention and intervention for youths who are at risk of suffering maltreatment and witnessing domestic violence may help them avoid developing bullying behaviors.

  20. Rising youth suicide and the changing cultural context in South Korea.

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    Park, B C Ben; Soo Im, Jeong; Strother Ratcliff, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    South Korean society faces a serious challenge in the increasing rates of youth suicidal behavior. There is a need both to gain a better understanding of the causes of this behavior and to develop strategies for responding to this critical public health issue. This article analyzes how psychological, sociopsychological, and subcultural factors influence suicidal proneness among Korean youth as well as makes suggestions for developing social policies that could reduce Korean youth suicidal behaviors. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses on suicide proneness and depression were employed using a sample of 172 South Korean youths (aged 18-24) selected from the 2009 General Social Survey collected through face-to-face interviews. Young people's suicidal proneness is associated with depression, a tolerant attitude toward suicide, strained family relations, living in rural areas, being female, and being closely related to survivors of suicide or potential suicides. The findings from this study reveal the significance of social and cultural factors as influences on recent youth suicidal behavior in Korea. The analysis suggests that the underlying risk factors of suicidal behavior are embedded in the changing social and cultural context of Korean society. Thus, suicide prevention efforts should involve more than merely treating any underlying psychiatric disorders.

  1. The mediating effect of sleep satisfaction on the relationship between stress and perceived health of adolescents suffering atopic disease: Secondary analysis of data from the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey.

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    Oh, Won Oak; Im, YeoJin; Suk, Min Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Difficulty in sleep is one disturbing symptom in adolescents with atopic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Assuming psychological stress can affect adolescents' health status, impaired sleep quality can be one mediator that negatively impacts the health status of adolescents with atopic disease. This study aimed to identify the mediating effect of sleep satisfaction on the relationship between stress and perceived health status in Korean adolescents with atopic disease and to examine the differences among three types of atopic disease. A cross-sectional descriptive study was completed based on secondary analysis of raw data from the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The 21,154 adolescents (29.2%) ever diagnosed and treated for at least one atopic disease regardless of the symptom presence in a recent year were extracted out of 72,435 survey participants. Then, the 13,216 individuals with exclusively single atopic diseases were included in analyzing the mediation model. Variables including demographics, stress, perceived health status, and sleep satisfaction were included. Pearson correlation, one-way ANOVA, path analysis to define direct/indirect effects with bootstrapping analysis, and multi-group variance analysis were conducted. High levels of stress in adolescents with atopic diseases had a significant and direct effect on their negative health status perception for all atopic disease groups. A significant negative mediating effect of sleep satisfaction was identified on the relationship between stress and perceived health status, irrespective of the type of atopic disease. Total effect and remaining direct effect on the path from stress and perceived health status via sleep satisfaction was high in adolescents with atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis compared to those with asthma. To improve sleep satisfaction for adolescents with atopic diseases, interventions are needed to enhance the adolescents

  2. Peer Relationships: Comparison of homeless youth in the U.S. and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Kim, Jihye; McManus, Holly; Flynn, Patrick; Kim, Hyangcho

    2007-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing global concern; thus, homeless youth peer relationships in the U.S. and South Korea were examined. Although some aspects of street life transcended culture; individual and group behaviors varied according to perspectives related to individualism versus collectivism. Service delivery approaches are needed to develop culturally-specific interventions.

  3. Peer Relationships: Comparison of homeless youth in the U.S. and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Kim, Jihye; McManus, Holly; Flynn, Patrick; Kim, Hyangcho

    2007-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing global concern; thus, homeless youth peer relationships in the U.S. and South Korea were examined. Although some aspects of street life transcended culture; individual and group behaviors varied according to perspectives related to individualism versus collectivism. Service delivery approaches are needed to develop culturally-specific interventions.

  4. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  5. Youth Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  7. Editorial Remarks: Youth at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Messner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Youth must always be analysed with respect to two aspects: Firstly, as a societally shaped phase of life that varies socially and culturally across countries and regions, characterized by different chances of social integration and dangers of disintegration. Secondly, as individual biographies playing out in a specific societal dynamic of integration/disintegration, where experiences with violence as perpetrators or victims play an important role. 

    Life in particular societal constellations presents risks for certain parts of the young generation, just as the behavior of youth may itself pose risks in some societal situations. The way the general relationship varies across different national and cultural contexts is the question we have chosen to home in on in this issue of the journal. Post-war, post-dictatorial, developing, transformative, and precarious societal contexts form consistent points of reference for the contributions, which include both country-specific case studies and comparative investigations.

  8. Development, risk, and resilience of transgender youth.

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    Stieglitz, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    Transgender youth face unique and complex issues as they confront cultural expectations of gender expression and how these fit with what is natural for them. Striving for balance, learning to cope, questioning, and eventually becoming comfortable with one's gender identity and sexual orientation are of paramount importance for healthy growth and development. Ineffective management of intense challenges over time without adequate social support places youth at risk for a number of unhealthy behaviors, including risk behaviors associated with acquiring HIV. This article explores early foundations of gender identity development, challenges in the development of transgender youth, and the limited data that exist on transgender youth and HIV risks. The concept of resilience is introduced as a counterbalancing area for assessment and intervention in practice and future research with transgender youth.

  9. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Chun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.

  10. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to

  11. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.

  12. Listening to At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made…

  13. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi; Na, Seong H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  14. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  15. Type of sexual intercourse experience and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among youths: a cross-sectional study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Hee; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-12-07

    Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts) from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12-17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse). A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males) than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males) and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males). After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males), violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and to implement LGB inclusive policies and programs in order to

  16. Type of sexual intercourse experience and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among youths: a cross-sectional study in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geum Hee Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12–17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. Results The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males. After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. Conclusion The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males, violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and

  17. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  18. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  19. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  20. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  2. Youth Suicide Risk: Evaluation and Crisis Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pereira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review on child and adolescent suicidal behaviour focuses on characterizing and understanding the developmental features of these behaviours, risk and protection factors and it offers orientations about assessment and acute management of children and adolescents who present with suicidal behaviour.

  3. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  4. Beyond risk: a psychometric and cultural analysis of risk percepion in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung-Sun; Chung, Ik Jae

    2002-01-01

    A survey of technological risk perception in Korea was administered in 2001 with a special emphasis on nuclear risks. This paper summarizes the characteristics of risk perception through the analytic lens of psychometric paradigm. A group of experts identified 8 dimensions of risk; voluntariness, severity, effect manifestation, exposure pattern, controllability, familiarity, benefit and necessity. The survey with sample size of 1870 evaluates the perceived level of 25 technological risks including transportation, chemicals, environmental, industrial, as well as nuclear areas. Research findings confirm that the risk characteristics or dimensions are significant predictors of risk perception. Nuclear risks are perceived as involuntary, catastrophic, delayed, occasional, controllable, beneficiary, unfamiliar, and necessary. The paper underlines the need and the importance of nuclear power generation as an environmentally-friendly energy resource in Korea. Effective risk communication can improve the awareness and the understanding of nuclear risks as well as other technological risk, and ultimately foster the public acceptance of nuclear facilities

  5. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  6. Environmental Risk Assessment: Spatial Analysis of Chemical Hazards and Risks in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Heo, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study identified chemical hazard and risk levels in Korea by analyzing the spatial distribution of chemical factories and accidents. The number of chemical factories and accidents in 5-km2 grids were used as the attribute value for spatial analysis. First, semi-variograms were conducted to examine spatial distribution patterns and to identify spatial autocorrelation of chemical factories and accidents. Semi-variograms explained that the spatial distribution of chemical factories and accidents were spatially autocorrelated. Second, the results of the semi-variograms were used in Ordinary Kriging to estimate chemical hazard and risk level. The level values were extracted from the Ordinary Kriging result and their spatial similarity was examined by juxtaposing the two values with respect to their location. Six peaks were identified in both the hazard and risk estimation result, and the peaks correlated with major cities in Korea. Third, the estimated hazard and risk levels were classified with geometrical interval and could be classified into four quadrants: Low Hazard and Low Risk (LHLR), Low Hazard and High Risk (LHHR), High Hazard and Low Risk (HHLR), and High Hazard and High Risk (HHHR). The 4 groups identified different chemical safety management issues in Korea; relatively safe LHLR group, many chemical reseller factories were found in HHLR group, chemical transportation accidents were in the LHHR group, and an abundance of factories and accidents were in the HHHR group. Each quadrant represented different safety management obstacles in Korea, and studying spatial differences can support the establishment of an efficient risk management plan.

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

  8. Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...

  9. Analysis of the Fiscal Resources Supporting At-Risk Youth, Ages 13-24, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…

  10. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data...... -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth...... from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...

  11. Estimating cancer risks induced by CT screening for Korea population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Yang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has been used to diagnose early stages of cancer and other diseases. Since the number of CT screening has been increasing, there is now a debate about the possible benefits and risks of CT screening on asymptomatic individuals. CT screening has definite benefits, however the radiation risk of screening an asymptomatic individual is a serious problem that cannot be overlooked. Despite its potential risks, CT screening for asymptomatic individual has been gradually increased in Korea and it is attributed to increase collective effective dose. Therefore, we reported the risk level of each organ which is included in scan field for CT screening and analyzed and then evaluated the risk level of Korean population comparison to others, Hong Kong, U.S. and U.K. populations. LARs are lower with older ages for all populations of both sexes. We recommend CT screening after the age of 40 because from that age, LAR decreases and the danger of top 5 cancer increases.

  12. Risk awareness and sexual relationships among youth in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If health awareness campaigns have an effect on behavioural change, one would expect the youth to abstain from sex and be involved in stable sexual relationships. This quantitative survey, conducted among a sample of 226 Johannesburg youths, was aimed at ascertaining their exposure to sex risks and their stability in ...

  13. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  14. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  15. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  17. Suicide Risk Screening Tools and the Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    The use of suicide risk screening tools is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to suicide risk assessment. Since nurses frequently spend more time with patients than any other healthcare professional, they are in key positions to detect and prevent suicidal behavior in youth. To inform nurses about suicide risk screening tools for the youth population. Suicide risk screening tools are research-based standardized instruments that are used to identify people who may be at risk for suicide. A literature search was performed using the Athabasca University Library Resource, the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Nurses are cautioned to utilize suicide risk screening tools as only part of the suicide risk assessment in youth populations and avoid the danger of relying on tools that may result in a blind application of evidence to the detriment of clinical experience and judgement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pro-smoking apps for smartphones in the Republic of Korea: prevalence and potential risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyung Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Smartphone has become a main part of our daily lives, and its impact on human behavior has been extensively studied. In Korea, 8 out of 10 people have their own smartphone and download 48 applications on average to get and share information. Recently, tobacco marketing prevails in the smartphone application but there is limited research on this area. This study investigated the prevalence of pro-smoking applications (apps in Korea in order to understand the current status and potential risks. Methods From mid-June to early July 2017 (for 3 weeks, this study searched the Google Play store for pro-smoking apps. 8 keywords (cigarette, e-cigarette, nicotine, cigar, hookah, etc were used to identify tobacco related apps. Apps achieved a top 100 ranking for each keyword then classified and analyzed based on apps name, retailer category, content category, number of downloads, publisher names, and content rating. Results Among a total of 675 apps identified for 8 keywords, 511 were analyzed for this study to avoid duplication. Although some anti-smoking apps (n=119, 23.3% provided information on health effects of smoking or smoking cessation, majority were classified as pro-smoking apps (n=392, 76.7% containing information about how to make tobacco, advertisement on tobacco products and shops, places where smoking is allowed, game to simulate smoking behavior or to run tobacco company by selling cigarette, and smoking advocacy. More importantly, 99.7% of these pro-smoking apps were rated as minors under 18 year-old can use them without any restrictions. Conclusions Pro-smoking apps prevail in the market while there is no restriction on access, install and use. Considering its cross-border characteristics, this would pose great challenge against tobacco control policies where smartphone use is increasing. Strategic approach to deal with novel tobacco marketing tactics needs to be developed with special attention to youth population.

  19. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  20. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  1. Hand Hygiene and Tuberculosis Risk in Korea: An Ecological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2018-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a basic but effective strategy against infectious disease. This study investigated an ecological association between hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) risk in Korea. Hand hygiene data were obtained from the 2015 Community Health Survey. Information on TB incidence and mortality in 2015 were obtained from the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System and death monitoring database, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, frequent hand washing rates after using the restroom (B = -0.78, P = .037), after returning from the outdoors (B = -0.28, P = .049), and with soap or hand sanitizer (B = -0.54, P = .018) were negatively associated with TB incidence. TB mortality were associated with frequent hand washing rates after returning from the outdoors (B = -0.05, P = .035), and with soap or hand sanitizer (B = -0.10, P = .010), respectively. Hand washing was associated with lower TB incidence and mortality at the community level. These results could contribute to develop community-based health promotion strategies.

  2. Safe spaces for youth "At Risk"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Wistoft, Karen

    as different motivations, strategies and outcomes from participation in the program activities that can be identified in two main trajectories: network building and job training and emerging activist identities engaging youth in food justice issues and movement building in local communities. The research shows...... for learning, democratic participation and citizenship education through farming and gardening. Keywords: Food Systems, Transformative Learning, Youth Empowerment Stream: Food Policies, Politics and Cultures Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in a Themed Session in English Paper: A paper has not yet been...

  3. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jina; Connor, Annemarie; Kosciulek, John F.; Landon, Trenton; Park, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011), but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues,…

  4. Clinical Perspective Youth violence risk assessment: gaps in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International literature on violence risk assessment indicates that although a number of instruments designed to assess youth violence risk exist, many primarily focus on identifying psychopathic tendencies in young people, which has stimulated much debate amongst scholars. In addition to paying careful attention to the ...

  5. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  6. Review Youth violence: A review of risk factors, causal pathways ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a review of theoretical and empirical research on risk factors for: 1) the development of violent and other antisocial behaviour; 2) international interventions targeting antisocial, including violent youths; and 3) outcome evaluations and meta-analyses of interventions targeting antisocial, including violent ...

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  8. Integrating Technology into the Curriculum for "At-Risk" Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Denise

    2009-01-01

    This Independent Learning Project (ILP) discusses the best practices in educational technology to improve the behavior, instruction, and learning of at-risk youth, for whom technology offers unique opportunities. Research is compiled from numerous scholarly print and online sources. A guide for teachers provides detailed strategies, software…

  9. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  10. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durec Tamara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (≤ 18 years who used MA to those who did not. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. For discrete risk factors, odds ratios (OR were calculated and when appropriate, a pooled OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center. Results Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8–87.8, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46 and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.3, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8–5.6, and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6–12.9. Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Conclusion Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated

  11. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 3. Working with Youth at Risk: Behavioral Issues and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempley, Frances A.; And Others

    This document consists of Part 3 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. It includes six readings, each dealing with a specific behavior that places a young person at risk. "The Secret and…

  12. Cross-cultural validation and psychometric evaluation of the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunwha; Law, Mary; Stratford, Paul; DeMatteo, Carol; Kim, Hwan

    2016-11-01

    To develop the Korean version of the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (KPEM-CY) and examine its psychometric properties. The PEM-CY was cross-culturally translated into Korean using a specific guideline: pre-review of participation items, forward/backward translation, expert committee review, pre-test of the KPEM-CY and final review. To establish internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity of the KPEM-CY, 80 parents of children with disabilities aged 5-13 years were recruited in South Korea. Across the home, school and community settings, 76% of participation items and 29% of environment items were revised to improve their fit with Korean culture. Internal consistency was moderate to excellent (0.67-0.92) for different summary scores. Test-retest reliability was excellent (>0.75) in the summary scores of participation frequency and extent of involvement across the three settings and moderate to excellent (0.53-0.95) in all summary scores at home. Child's age, type of school and annual income were the factors that significantly influenced specific dimensions of participation and environment across all settings. Results indicated that the KPEM-CY is equivalent to the original PEM-CY and has initial evidence of reliability and validity for use with Korean children with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation Because 'participation' is a key outcome of the rehabilitation, measuring comprehensive participation of children with disabilities is necessary. The PEM-CY is a parent-report survey measure to assess comprehensive participation of children and youth and environment, which affect their participation, at home, school and in the community. A cross-cultural adaptation process is mandatory to adapt the measurement tool to a new culture or country. The Korean PEM-CY has both reliability and validity and can therefore generate useful clinical data for Korean children with disabilities.

  13. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  14. Long-Term Mentors' Perceptions of Building Mentoring Relationships with At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy Ann; Newman-Thomas, Cathy; Stormont, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Youth mentoring, defined within this study, as the pairing of a youth at risk with a caring adult, is an intervention that is often used for youth at risk for academic and social failure. We sought to understand mentors' perspectives of the fundamental elements that foster positive mentor--mentee relationships that build resiliency and increase…

  15. A Critical Constructionist View of "At-Risk" Youth in Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzard, Rachelle Silverstein

    2010-01-01

    Family therapists and school counselors are increasingly called upon to provide services for youth in alternative education (Carver, Lewis, & Tice, 2010). Alternative education systems are programs for youth who have been defined as at risk. This study explored the at-risk discourse and asked the questions (a) how do youth and staff define the…

  16. Default Risk and Firm Value of Shipping & Logistics Firms in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Nam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As shipping and logistics industry is one of the core industries in Korea, the volume was ranked in the fifth highest in the world. However, shipping and logistics industry of Korea has suffered from default risk since Global Financial Crisis in 2008. This study examines the relationship between the default risk, as measured by the Altman K-Score, and firm value, as measured by the Return on Assets (ROA, of shipping and logistics firms in Korea and compares the impact of default risk on firm value between good financial health firms and poor financial health firms. As the trends of KScores over a ten-year periods, shipping and logistics firms in Korea register weak-to-moderate financial healthy rage. We find that Altman K-Score is significantly linked with firm value and also higher performing firms as measured by the ROA exhibit higher financial health as measured by KScore. Although nine years have been passed since Global Financial Crisis 2008, Korean shipping and logistics industry is still under the financial depression. This study proposes that systematic financial alert system of Korean shipping and logistics industry should be required to decrease default risk reflecting significance of Korean economy.

  17. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  18. Is Privacy at Risk when Commercial Websites Target Primary School Children? A Case Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses privacy risk factors when commercial web sites target primary school children in Korea. Specifically, the authors examined types of personal information required for membership subscriptions and whether privacy policies at commercial sites for children abide by privacy guidelines. A total of 159 commercial sites targeting…

  19. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School - Excluding Sexual Identity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  20. Risk factors and characteristics of youth living with, or at high risk for, HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huba, GJ; Melchior, LA; Panter, AT; Trevithick, L; Woods, ER; Wright, E; Feudo, R; Tierney, S; Schneir, A; Tenner, A; Remafedi, G; Greenberg, B; Sturdevant, M; Goodman, E; Hodgins, A; Wallace, M; Brady, RE; Singer, B

    2000-01-01

    Over 8,000 adolescents and young adults (4,111 males; 4,085 females) reported on several HIV-related risk behaviors during enrollment into 10 service demonstration projects targeted to youth living with, or at risk for, HIV. Distinct risk patterns emerged by gender when predicting HIV serostatus

  1. The prevalence and risk factor control associated with noncommunicable diseases in China, Japan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Defu; Sakai, Hiromichi; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Kwon, Jong-Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Qiaoqin; Sasao, Kumiko; Ito, Kanade; Nishihara, Ken; Wang, Peiyu

    2017-12-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) has become the leading cause of mortality and disease burden worldwide. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of NCDs and risk factor control on dietary behaviors and dietary intake in China, Japan, and Korea. There were significant differences among the three countries on the prevalence of hypertension (24.5% in China, 17.6% in Korea, and 15.2% in Japan), diabetes (8.9% in China, 5.7% in Korea, and 4.8% in Japan), hyperlipidemia (13.1% in China, 9.2% in Korea, and 6.9% in Japan), and angina pectoris (3.6% in China, 1.7% in Korea, and 1.5% in Japan). The prevalence rate of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris was highest in China and lowest in Japan. However, 82.2%, 48.4%, and 64.4% of Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese presented good dietary behavior, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that sex, age, and marital status were predictors of good dietary behavior. In addition, in comparison with subjects without hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia significantly improved their dietary behaviors and controlled their intake of salt, sugar, and oil. The prevalence of NCDs and trends in major modifiable risk factor control in China, Korea, and Japan remain troubling. Public efforts to introduce healthy lifestyle changes and systematic NCDs prevention programs are necessary to reduce the epidemic of NCDs in these three Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NOURISHMENT OF TEENAGE AND YOUTHFUL, POSSIBLE RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    DOLÉNKOVÁ, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Nutrition of adolescents, possibly hazards My bachelor work draws attention to possible hazards on inappropriate nutrition of adolescents especially on obesity risk, mental anorexia and mental bulimia. The theoretical section is focused on fundamental information about rational nutrition, alternative nutrition and problems with occurence of obesity, mental anorexia and mental bulimia. Rational nutrition is characterized by suitable and adequate food input, ideally qualitatively and ...

  3. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  4. Psychological, Family, and Social Factors Linked with Juvenile Theft in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DongHun; Han, Yoonsun; Park, ManSik; Roh, SeakZoon

    2015-01-01

    The absence of an approach which encompasses several micro-systems in Korea may leave important factors of youth risk behaviors undetected. Thus, an examination of a broad set of ecological factors within the micro-system--including individual characteristics as well as immediate family, peer, and school environments surrounding the youth--that is…

  5. Engaging at-risk youth through self-directed learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieme Hennis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The large number of young people in Europe who lack formal qualifications constitutes a considerable concern in terms of individual, social and economic consequences. The influx of young migrants into Europe is making this issue even more significant. To avoid social exclusion and youth unemployment, and to ensure economic progress, the European Union (EU and national governments are providing a variety of educational opportunities for these young people. As traditional approaches have not proved particularly successful, an alternative approach has been developed that seems to overcome previous limitations. This approach is characterized by a focus on learners’ agency and identity, and offers young at-risk learners a different, more intrinsically motivating learning experience. The approach was implemented in 12 pilots in six different European countries, including several with migrant youth from different regions of the world. The main result presented here is a comprehensive design framework developed on the basis of a cross-case analysis. The framework includes design principles concerning the organization, as well as the pedagogy, of engaging at-risk youth.

  6. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  7. Risk factors of future smoking among Thai youth: a secondary analysis of the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.

  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome risk perception among students at a university in South Korea, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-06-01

    The 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea was a serious threat to public health, and was exacerbated by the inappropriate responses of major institutions and the public. This study examined the sources of confusion during the MERS outbreak and identified the factors that can affect people's behavior. An online survey of the risk perception of university students in South Korea was performed after the epidemic had peaked. The questionnaire addressed the major social determinants in South Korea during the MERS epidemic. The analysis included data from 1,470 subjects who provided complete answers. The students had 53.5% of the essential knowledge about MERS. Women showed higher risk perception than men, and trust in the media was positively associated with risk perception (P level of risk led to overreaction. Risk perception was associated with most of the social factors examined and overreaction by the public. Therefore, providing accurate information and data to the public, establishing trust, and facilitating the development of an attitude will all be important in future crises. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the transportation risks for the spent fuel in Korea for different transportation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Cho, D.K.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. At the start of the operation of the final repository (FR), by the year 2065, transport will then take place between the CISF and the FR. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios for a maritime transportation by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for the spent fuels in Korea. And, we estimated and compared the transportation risks for these four transportation scenarios. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from accidents during the transportation of PWR and PHWR spent fuels by road trailers from the CISF and the FR. From the results of this study, we found that risks resulting from accidents during the transportation of the spent fuels have a very low radiological risk activity with a manageable safety and health consequences. The results of this study can be used as basic data for the development of safe and economical logistics for a transportation of the spent fuels in Korea by considering the transportation costs for the four scenarios which will be needed in the near future.

  10. Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

  11. What Makes Youth Harass Their Immigrant Peers? Understanding the Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…

  12. Low muscle fitness is associated with metabolic risk in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the independent associations of muscle fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered metabolic risk in youth. METHODS: In 2005-2006, a cohort of 9- and 15-yr-olds (N = 2818) was randomly selected from all regions of Norway. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among...... the 9-and 15-yr-olds, respectively. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Risk factors included in the composite risk factor score (sum of z......-scores) were systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Muscle fitness was negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness, and after adjustment for age, sex, and pubertal stage...

  13. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis according to age in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Kim, K O; Baek, I H; Choi, M H; Jang, H J; Kae, S H; Kim, J B; Baik, G H; Shin, W G; Kim, K H; Kim, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea has been believed to be low, but the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea is expected to increase because of the longer life expectancy and more ingestion of westernized food. The aim of this study was to report differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis (RE) according to age in Korea. We prospectively recruited the subjects who had RE among those who visited a health promotion center for upper gastrointestinal cancer surveillance at Hallym Medical Center (five institutions) between January 2008 and February 2009. The enrolled study participants comprised 742 subjects with RE and 1484 healthy controls. The independent risk factors of RE in young and adult group were male sex, smoking, coffee, body mass index ≥ 25, hiatal hernia, and Helicobacter pylori negativity. The risk factors of RE in elderly group were smoking, coffee, and hiatal hernia. The risk factors for RE according to age group were found to differ. In elderly group, Helicobacter pylori infection was not a significant protective factor contrary to young and adult groups. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. Approach for seismic risk analysis for CANDU plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B-S; Kim, T; Kang, S-K [Korea Power Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S-Y; Roh, S-R [Korea Electric Power Corp., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Centre

    1996-12-31

    A seismic risk analysis for CANDU type plants has never been performed. The study presented here suggested that the approach generally applied to LWR type plants could lead to unacceptable result, if directly applied to CANDU plants. This paper presents a modified approach for the seismic risk analysis of CANDU plants. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Work procedures and risk factors for high rdiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Yeong Chull [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Radiologic technologists currently consist of 31.5% among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea. Among diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists receive the highest annual and collective doses in South Korea. Comprehensive assessment of the work practices and associated radiation doses from diagnostic radiology procedures should be undertaken for effective prevention for radiologic technologists. Using the national survey, this study aimed (1) to explore the distribution of the work procedures performed by gender, (2) to evaluate occupational radiation exposure by work characteristics and safety compliance, (3) to identify the primary factors influencing high radiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea. This study provided detailed information on work practices, number of procedures performed on weekly basis, and occupational radiation doses among radiologic technologists in South Korea. Average radiation dose for radiologic technologists is higher than other countries, and type of facility, work safety, and wearing lead apron explained quite a portion of increased risk in the association between radiology procedures and radiation exposure among radiologic technologists.

  17. Work procedures and risk factors for high rdiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Yeong Chull; Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic technologists currently consist of 31.5% among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea. Among diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists receive the highest annual and collective doses in South Korea. Comprehensive assessment of the work practices and associated radiation doses from diagnostic radiology procedures should be undertaken for effective prevention for radiologic technologists. Using the national survey, this study aimed (1) to explore the distribution of the work procedures performed by gender, (2) to evaluate occupational radiation exposure by work characteristics and safety compliance, (3) to identify the primary factors influencing high radiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea. This study provided detailed information on work practices, number of procedures performed on weekly basis, and occupational radiation doses among radiologic technologists in South Korea. Average radiation dose for radiologic technologists is higher than other countries, and type of facility, work safety, and wearing lead apron explained quite a portion of increased risk in the association between radiology procedures and radiation exposure among radiologic technologists.

  18. Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two risk models. ... The analysis is based on data from the 2003 Demographic and Health survey ... multiple partners, Nigeria, risk perception, sexual behaviour, vulnerability to HIV ...

  19. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum

  20. Reduced reward anticipation in youth at high-risk for unipolar depression: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A; Williamson, Douglas E; Dahl, Ronald E; Ryan, Neal D; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA) may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR) relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR). Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for) disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced reward anticipation in youth at high-risk for unipolar depression: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Olino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed.

  2. Current products and future plan of regulatory research for risk-informed regulation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Key Yong; Lee, Chang Ju; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2003-01-01

    The first phase of a regulatory research project for risk-informed regulation (RIR) and applications (RIA) was finished in March of 2002. Various results that could be useful for preparing Korean RIR system have been developed. One of the remarkable outputs is development of reactor safety goals and acceptance criteria for RIR and RIA in Korea. The Safety Goal has a 4-tier hierarchical structure and each tier has specified goals classified for their usage. Regulatory review guides for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) including level-1, level-2 and low power and shutdown PSA have been updated by reflecting new information obtained from not only the overseas documents but also experience and insights from regulatory review in Korea. In addition, draft regulatory guides for risk-informed in-service inspection, in-service testing, importance ranking of motor-operated valves, and AOT/STI change of Technical Specifications have been developed for preparing ongoing and future licensing work. Risk-based inspection guides with inspection items selected from a viewpoint of risk importance have been suggested for Korean standard NPPs as well. In the second phase of a research project (April of 2002 to March of 2005), two regulatory research projects on RIR were initiated. One is a study on institutionalization of risk-informed and performance-based regulation. Main topics of this project are evaluation of benefit and characteristics of RIR, development of optimized Korean RIR model, impact analysis for the change of current regulation framework, and suggestion of RIR-related laws and rules. The other is focusing on the development in the areas of a regulatory audit PSA model and regulatory guides for risk monitoring, and application techniques of risk information to the significance determination of plant performance indicators and inspection findings. It is expected that a concrete scheme and detailed regulatory techniques for embodiment of RIR system in Korea will be

  3. The Effect of Managerial Ability on Future Stock Price Crash Risk: Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of managerial ability on subsequent stock price crash risk using listed firm data in Korea. Compared to some financially advanced countries, the influence of managers is particularly more powerful in Korea, as ownership and management are not effectively separate in most Korean firms. In addition, we considered the effect of large business groups called Chaebol, which is family-run conglomerates with unique corporate governance system that hugely affect the Korean economy. It is important to recognize determinants of the stock price crash risk which would result in doubt on going concern to enhance the company’s sustainable management. Hence, this study focuses on the managerial ability as one of the main factors of the stock price crash risk. We use the measures of firm-specific stock price crash risk based on Hutton et al. (2009. Managerial ability is estimated through a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and tobit regressions following Demerjian et al. (2012. From the empirical tests, there is a negative association between managerial ability and stock price crash risk. This suggests that managers with a higher ability release more voluntary disclosure to signal their ability, ultimately lowering the subsequent stock price crash risk. We also find that firms in large business groups, Chaebol, weaken the negative association between managerial ability and subsequent stock price crash risk.

  4. Gender-specific differences in risk for intimate partner violence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjee; Stefani, Katherine M; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-05-01

    Various risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been found to vary by gender. South Korea has one of the highest prevalences of IPV in the world; however, little is known about potential risk factors of IPV and whether gender influences this relationship. Using data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study, 8,877 married participants (4,545 men and 4,332 women) aged ≥30 years were included. Reported IPV was categorized as verbal or physical IPV and the association between IPV and related factors was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Women were significantly more likely than men were to report IPV victimization (verbal 28.2% vs. 24.4%; physical 6.9% vs. 3.4%). Wor odds of physical perpetration than women satisfied with their family. Moreover, alcohol intake was significantly associated with IPV perpetration and victimization in both genders. Significant gender-specific differences were found among factors related to perpetrating violence and being a victim of violence among adults in heterosexual relationships in South Korea.

  5. Awareness, attitudes, and use of crisis hotlines among youth at-risk for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby Budinger, Meghan; Cwik, Mary F; Riddle, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    Crisis hotlines have been central to suicide prevention efforts; however, utilization among youth remains low. A sample of at-risk youth was surveyed about their awareness, utilization, and attitudes toward local and national crisis hotlines. Youth reported low rates of awareness and utilization, yet expressed a strong interest in phone hotlines (41% vs. 59% for new media categories combined). Youth reported stigma, but that help-seeking could be positively influenced by peers and adults in their support system. Implications include making crisis services available across several mediums and the importance of engaging trusted others in youth suicide awareness campaigns and prevention efforts. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. The Impact of Youth Risk on Mentoring Relationship Quality: Do Mentor Characteristics Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Rhodes, Jean E; Herrera, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Although mentoring is a widely used intervention strategy, effect sizes for at-risk youth remain modest. Research is therefore needed to maximize the impact of mentoring for at-risk youth who might struggle to benefit from mentoring relationships. This study tested the hypothesis that different types of youth risk would have a negative impact on mentoring relationship quality and duration and explored whether mentor characteristics exacerbated or mitigated these negative effects. Results showed that elevated environmental stress at a youth's home and/or school predicted shorter match duration, and elevated rates of youth behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance or misconduct, predicted greater youth dissatisfaction and less positive mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Mentors with greater self-efficacy and more previous involvement with youth in their communities were able to buffer the negative effects of environmental stress on match duration. Similarly, mentors' previous involvement with youth buffered the negative effects of youth behavioral problems on mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Findings have important implications for the matching of mentors and at-risk youth in a way that improves mentoring outcomes. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  7. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.

  8. Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey: Association Between Part-time Employment and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. © 2014 APJPH.

  9. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  10. High-Risk Behaviors among Youth and Their Reasons for Not Getting Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…

  11. Biological indicators of suicide risk in youth with mood disorders: what do we know so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Doucette, Sarah; Seemüller, Florian; Grof, Paul; Duffy, Anne C

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal behaviour in youth is a major public health concern worldwide, and youth in the early stages of a primary mood disorder are an identifiable high-risk population. Neurobiological research in youth at risk for suicidality has sought to investigate the most promising parameters from research in adults. The present paper provides an overview of the current findings of neurobiological research in children and adolescents with mood disorders and suicidality including genetic/epigenetic findings, neuro-hormonal and immunological investigations. Longitudinal research in high-risk youth is a powerful way to investigate the influences and their pathways in determining suicidal risk in the context of a developing mood disorder. In the meantime, there are clear clinical indicators of risk to help identify youth who would benefit from close surveillance and early intervention.

  12. Substance Use and Sexual Behaviors of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the substance use and sexual behavior of adolescents in multicultural families compared with adolescents in Korean families in South Korea. Data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey collected from 66,591 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 14.89±1.76 years) were analyzed. We classified the adolescents into four groups: those whose father and mother were born in South Korea, those whose father was born in South Korea but whose mother was not, those whose mother was born in South Korea but whose father was not, and those whose father and mother were not born in South Korea. Experiences with alcohol, cigarette, and drug use and sexual relations were investigated. Compared with adolescents whose fathers and mothers were born in Korea, adolescents whose fathers were born in Korea but whose mothers were not were less likely to use alcohol and cigarettes. Adolescents whose mothers were born in Korea but whose fathers were not and adolescents whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea were more likely to use cigarettes and drugs and to have sexual relations. These results indicate that adolescents whose fathers were not born in Korea and whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea are at greater risk for cigarette and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. For these high risk groups, health education should include dependency prevention program, safety issue, and health screening as well as programs aimed at preventing substance use and sexual activity.

  13. Multiple Identification and Risks: Examination of Peer Factors Across Multiracial and Single-Race Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth. PMID:22395776

  14. Preparing At-Risk Youth for a Changing World: Revisiting a Person-in-Context Model for Transition to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…

  15. Impact of Severe Obesity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarsky, Gali; Beek, Cherise; Hagman, Emilia; Pierpont, Bridget; Caprio, Sonia; Weiss, Ram

    2018-01-01

    To compare cardiovascular risk factor clustering (CVRFC) in severely obese youth with those with lower degrees of obesity. We divided a childhood obesity clinic derived cohort into the degrees of obesity (class I, II, and III) and added a "class IV" category corresponding to >160% of the 95th centile of body mass index (BMI) for age and sex. In a cross-sectional analysis, we investigated the presence of CVRFC in 2244 participants; in 621 who were followed longitudinally, we investigated the determinants of endpoint CVRFC. Class IV obesity was associated with increased risk for CVRFC compared with overweight (OR = 17.26, P obesity (OR = 17.26, P obesity. Baseline class IV obesity was associated with increased risk compared with overweight of having CVRFC at follow-up (OR = 5.76, P = .001), to a similar extent as class III obesity (OR = 5.36, P = .001). Changes in the degree of obesity were significant predictors of CVRFC on follow-up (OR = 1.04, P obesity in childhood is conferred prior to reaching class IV obesity. An individualized risk stratification approach in children with severe obesity should be based on presence of complications rather than simple BMI cutoffs. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01967849. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil; Choi, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  17. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  18. Encouraging the Disuse of Illicit Drugs Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-05-01

    Youth at risk of illicit drug abuse and other delinquent acts are the target of social work services. Preventing or discouraging the use of illicit drugs among at-risk youth is a long-standing practical and research concern. For this reason, the preventive function of courage is a research gap the present study seeks to fill. The study collected data from 169 at-risk youths and their social workers with two-wave panel surveys. Results show that courage in Wave 1 presented a strong negative effect on illicit drug use in Wave 2 in the youth, controlling for illicit drug use in Wave 1 and background characteristics. Moreover, the negative effect was stronger when Wave 1 drug use was more likely. These results imply the helpfulness of encouraging at-risk youth to gather courage to resist the temptation to use illicit drugs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  20. The Length of Residence is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Foreign-English Teachers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obounou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers from Europe and the USA living in Korea. English teachers were defined as those who reported their profession as “English Teacher”. Only English teachers from Europe (UK, and Ireland, n = 81 and North America (Canada and USA, n = 304 were selected. The length of residence and eating Korean ethnic food were used as proxy indicators for acculturation. Gender was associated with hypertension: 17.6% of males self-reported to have the cardiovascular risk factor when compared to females (7.4%. The length of residence in Korea was associated with hypertension (p = 0.045, BMI (p = 0.028, and physical inactivity (p = 0.046. English teachers who had been residing in Korea for more than five years were more likely to report hypertension (OR = 2.16; p = 0.011, smoking (OR = 1.51; p = 0.080, and overweight/obesity (OR = 1.49; p = 0.009 than participants who had been living in Korea for less than five years. This study found evidence of the healthy immigrant effect and less favorable cardiovascular risk profiles among English teachers who have lived in Korea for over five years.

  1. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths' Involvement in Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…

  3. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Njue (Carolyne); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); P. Remes (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya.

  4. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  5. Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs. Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).

    This booklet is an overview and summary of the publication "Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs" which reviews programs and services for migrant and refugee youth in Australia. The unemployment rate for this group is higher than for their Australian-born peers, and their participation in governmental…

  6. Risk and Nostalgia: The Problem of Education and Youth Unemployment in Australia--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…

  7. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Drug Abuse Risk Reduction Project for Runaway/Homeless Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Stuart W.; Jarvis, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the Drug Prevention in Youth risk reduction program that was implemented in shelters for runaway/homeless youths in the southeastern United States. An evaluation strategy was developed allowing for comparisons between peer-led, adult-led and nonintervention groups. Well-trained and motivated peer/near-peer leaders made particularly…

  8. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  9. Screening youth for suicide risk in medical settings: time to ask questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Pao, Maryland; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's Aspirational Goal 2 (screening for suicide risk) as it pertains specifically to children, adolescents, and young adults. Two assumptions are forwarded: (1) strategies for screening youth for suicide risk need to be tailored developmentally; and (2) we must use instruments that were created and tested specifically for suicide risk detection and developed specifically for youth. Recommendations for shifting the current paradigm include universal suicide screening for youth in medical settings with validated instruments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Individual and Parental Risk Factors for Sexual Exploitation Among High-Risk Youth in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Culbreth, Rachel; Wilson, Rebecca; Armistead, Lisa; Kasirye, Rogers; Swahn, Monica H

    2018-04-01

    This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex. Analyses included those who self-reported sexually active adolescents ( n = 593) of whom 39% reported CSEC history. CSEC was significantly associated with being female (odds ratio [ OR] = 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [4.22, 11.12]), living on the streets ( OR = 2.68; 95% CI = [1.65, 4.36]), using social media ( OR = 1.48; 95% CI = [0.94, 2.35]), being a victim of physical dating violence ( OR = 1.74; 95% CI = [1.08, 2.80]), and ever being raped ( OR = 4.03; 95% CI = [2.51, 6.47]). Further analyses suggested differential risk associates among females and males. This study contributes to our knowledge of risk factors for CSEC among adolescents living in high-risk circumstances in low-resource countries and suggests that preventive efforts should prioritize adolescents with a history of living on the streets who engage in social media, use alcohol, and have a history of trauma.

  11. Social Reward in Youth at Risk for Depression: A Preliminary Investigation of Subjective and Neural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Silk, Jennifer S; Osterritter, Catherine; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-11-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for developing depression at rates higher than the general population. One potential mechanism linking parent and offspring depression involves attenuated reward function. Despite the importance of social incentives for adolescents, no previous studies have relied on active social incentive reward paradigms in youth at risk for depression. The present study examined differences in youth self- and parent-report measures of and neural response to social reward between youth of mothers with and those of mothers without a history of depression. Imaging data were collected on 10 youth with a depressed parent and 23 youth without depressed parent, which included a task examining neural response to social rewards. Youth and parents also completed self-report measures of social reward. Offspring of depressed parents had lower levels of parent-reported affiliation and reduced neural response to social reward in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex than offspring of parents without a history of depression. Higher parent-reported affiliation was associated with greater ventral striatal response to social reward. Data suggest that risk status differences in ventral striatal response to social acceptance may be accounted for by affiliation. No differences were found in youth self-reports of behavior. The results suggest that attenuated response to social reward, assessed through neurobiology and behavior, may be mechanistically linked to the etiology and pathophysiology of depression. Targeting social interest and engagement may be a new direction in preventing the onset of depressive disorders in youth.

  12. Employment and risk of injection drug use initiation among street involved youth in Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lindsey; DeBeck, Kora; Feng, Cindy; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2014-09-01

    Youth unemployment has been associated with labour market and health disparities. However, employment as a determinant of high-risk health behaviour among marginalized young people has not been well described. We sought to assess a potential relationship between employment status and initiation of intravenous drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth. We followed injecting naïve youth in the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada, and employed Cox regression analyses to examine whether employment was associated with injection initiation. Among 422 injecting naïve youth recruited between September 2005 and November 2011, 77 participants transitioned from non-injection to injection drug use, for an incidence density of 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0-12.6) per 100 person years. Results demonstrating that employment was inversely associated with injection initiation (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33-0.85) were robust to adjustment for a range of potential confounders. A lack of employment among street-involved youth was associated with the initiation of injection drug use, a practice that predisposes individuals to serious long-term health consequences. Future research should examine if reducing barriers to labour market involvement among street-involved youth prevents transitions into high-risk drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disordered eating behaviors among transgender youth: Probability profiles from risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-05-01

    Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Parenting and youth sexual risk in context: The role of community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M; Armistead, Lisa P; Tully, Erin C; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Black South African youth are disproportionately affected by HIV, and risky sexual behaviors increase youths' vulnerability to infection. U.S.-based research has highlighted several contextual influences on sexual risk, but these processes have not been examined in a South African context. In a convenience sample of Black South African caregivers and their 10-14-year-old youth (M age  = 11.7, SD = 1.4; 52.5% female), we examined the relation between parenting and youth sexual risk within the context of community-level processes, including neighborhood quality and maternal social support. Hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that better neighborhood quality and more social support predicted positive parenting, which in turn predicted less youth sexual risk. There was a significant indirect effect from neighborhood quality to youth sexual risk via parenting. Results highlight the importance of the community context in parenting and youth sexual risk in this understudied sample. HIV prevention-interventions should be informed by these contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Horses and At-Risk Youth: An Equine Facilitated Learning Program Focusing on Authentic Leadership Skill Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Adams-Pope

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesting and innovative youth development programs are important to further youth education. Programs focused on developing leadership skills in youth, specifically at-risk youth, are important when thinking of the future of our communities. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the impact of an equine facilitated, authentic leadership program on at-risk youth. Youth participated in a three-day equine facilitated learning program based on authentic leadership with focus groups conducted three days before and three days after the program. In this article, we describe the development and methodology of the program and specific implications for practice.

  16. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkook Roh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  17. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seung Kook; Lee, Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance

  18. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [Policy Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Won [School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2017-08-15

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  19. A direction to adopting risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Sung, K.Y.; Lee, C.J.; Choi, Y.H.; Choi, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The USNRC has pursued the incorporation of new regulatory approach of risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) into nuclear safety regulation, as an alternative to improve existing nuclear safety regulation of nuclear power plants, which is deterministic and prescriptive. It focuses on the use of risk insight from probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Recently, it becomes necessary to find a way to improve regulatory efficiency and effectiveness in order to cover the increasing regulatory needs in Korea. Also, the utility has optimized design and operation of the plant using PSA insight and equipment performance information. According to the increase of the necessity for regulatory improvement using risk and performance information, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) is developing, as a part of mid- and long-term project of Nuclear development program, how to adopt the RIPBR in Korean nuclear regulation. This paper presents the interim result of the study that comprises the assessment of feasibility to adopt the RIPBR, and basic directions and principles for implementing RIPBR model. It is concluded that adopting RIPBR is essential for risk management of the plant, public acceptance to nuclear safety, improvement of existing regulation, minimization of unnecessary regulatory burden, and effective use of regulatory resources, etc. Three basic directions and several principles that are necessary to implement RIPBR model are identified from the study. The application of the directions and principles to the assessment of RIPBR model to be established in the near future is expected to result in making the adoption of new regulatory system more objective and consistent. (authors)

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  1. Substance use among adolescents in special education and residential youth care : Prevalence, onset and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepper, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents attending special education for learning disabilities (SEL), special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents living in a residential youth care (RYC) institution present a complex risk profile including severe behavioural and emotional problems, deviant peer networks,

  2. "The Finest 'Bunch' of Children to Be Found Anywhere": Educating European and American Youths in Korea, 1880s-1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…

  3. Sex difference in risk period for completed suicide following prior attempts: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Eun-Young; Hyun Kim, Se; Ha, Kyooseob; Shin Kim, Young; Leventhal, Bennett L; Min Ahn, Yong

    2018-02-01

    We provide an opportunity for implementing preventive interventions to decrease suicide mortality among prior suicide attempters. We aim to identify sex-specific high risk periods and factors for later suicide death among suicide attempters. 8537 suicide attempters of Korea National Suicide Survey were collected from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011 and data on suicide death was obtained as of December 31, 2012. The risk period and risk factors for later suicide death was computed by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and by plotting the hazard function using the Epanechnikov Kernal smoothing method and cox proportional hazard regression modeling. The hazard for later suicide death was significant up to 10 months for females and 20 months for males. Age 50-69 years (HR, 3.29; [CI: 1.80-6.02] and not being intoxicated with alcohol (HR, 1.94 [1.27-2.97])) in male attempters were significant risk factors for later suicide death. Risk for later suicide death was significantly increased during the first full year following index attempts for all with an addition 8 months of risk for males, especially those of advanced age who were sober at the time of attempt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing drought risk in large-dam basins of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I. W.; Shin, Y.; Park, J.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, South Korea suffered one of the worst droughts in recent years. Seoul and Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces experienced severe drought conditions, receiving less than 43 percent of the annual precipitation average of the past 30 years. Additionally, the 2015 summer precipitation was less than half of the average. The lack of summer precipitation induced serious shortages in dam storages, which are important supplies for the dry season. K-water, a public company managing South Korea's public water supply system, is fighting to secure public water supply and minimize potential damage that may occur before the subsequent wet season. This study detected significant decreasing trends (95% confidence interval) in dry-seasonal runoff rates (=dam inflow / precipitation) in three dams basins (Soyang, Chungju, and Andong). Changes in potential evapotranspiration (PET) and precipitation indices were examined to investigate potential causes of decreasing runoff rates trends. However, there were no clear relations among changes in runoff rates, PET, and precipitation indices. Runoff rate reduction in the three dams may increase the risk of dam operational management and long-term water resource planning. Therefore, it will be necessary to perform a multilateral analysis to better understand decreasing runoff rates.AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  5. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F.; Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined t...

  6. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  7. Exploring Contextual Factors of Youth Homelessness And Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Narendorf, Sarah C; Ha, Yoonsook; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    HIV disproportionately affects homeless youth, and interventions to date have had minimal success in reducing sexual risk behaviors in this population. Few qualitative studies have been conducted to provide insight into the influence of homelessness-related factors on sexual risk behaviors. A qualitative study with a quantitative component was conducted with a nonprobability sample of 64 homeless youth aged 14-24; participants were recruited from a variety of venues in Houston between October 2013 and March 2014. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted; thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to HIV risk. Participants were predominantly black (75%), sheltered (67%) and aged 18 or older (77%). Youth discussed how the circumstances of their homelessness and the struggle to meet their immediate needs led to behaviors and experiences that put them at risk for HIV. Three themes emerged: Homeless youth frequently engage in risky sexual behavior, sometimes as a way to cope with stress; they often trade sex, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for such necessities as money or a place to sleep; and many experienced childhood sexual victimization or have been victimized since becoming homeless. Youth also described how stress, stigma and self-reliance contributed to their involvement in HIV risk behaviors. HIV prevention methods that target stress and stigma while respecting youths' self-reliance may help reduce sexual risk behaviors. Further research is needed to determine suitable behavioral change techniques to address these potentially modifiable factors. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Garvey, Katharine C; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E; Wisk, Lauren E; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  9. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Levy

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  10. Health risk behaviours of Palestinian youth: findings from a representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Al-Khammash, Umaiyeh; Shaheen, Mohammed; Brown, Ryan; Goutam, Prodyumna; Karam, Rita; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Massad, Salwa

    2018-05-03

    There is little systematic information about health risk behaviours among youth in Middle Eastern countries, leaving public health authorities unprepared to deal with emerging public health threats at a time of major social change. The Palestinian Youth Health Risk study investigates patterns of risk behaviours among Palestinian youth, their perceptions of the risks and benefits of such behaviours, and the relationship of exposure to violence with mental health and engagement in risk behaviours. We conducted a representative survey among 2500 individuals aged 15-24 years in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, permitting reliable comparison across sex and rural-urban divisions. A stratified 2-stage random sample was drawn from the 2007 population census, with strata formed by crossing the 12 governorates with urban, rural and refugee camp locations. Within strata, 208 survey clusters were sampled with probability proportional to size. Within each cluster, 14 households with youth of the appropriate age were sampled. Among youth aged 20-24 years, 22.4% of males and 11.6% of females reported trying alcohol; 10.5% of males and 4.3% of females reported trying drugs. Almost one quarter of unmarried youth aged 20-24 years reported any sexual experience. Tobacco use is high, even among younger youth (45.4% of males and 21.2% of females aged 15-19 smoke). Risk behaviours are higher among males, older youth and in urban areas and refugee camps. While smoking is of particular concern, prevention outreach for all behaviours should be directed at subgroups and areas identified as highest risk. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  11. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Identifying Predictors of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil Rodriguez, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality. Beyond associations with demographic factors and depression, do anxiety disorders increase risk for suicidality in youth? Given that not all anxiety-disordered youth experience suicidal ideation, potential predictors of risk also require investigation. Method The present study examined (a) the independent relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation and (b) emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance as predictors of risk for suicidal ideation in a sample of anxiety-disordered youth aged 7-17 (N = 86, M = 11.5). Youth and their parents reported on suicidality, emotion dysregulation, and distress intolerance. Distress tolerance was also measured by a computerized behavioral task. Results Results support an independent relationship between anxiety symptomatology and youth-reported suicidal ideation, controlling for depressive symptoms. Youth self-report of emotion dysregulation and distress intolerance predicted higher levels of suicidal ideation in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis including all significant predictors, only anxiety symptomatology uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. Conclusions Results provide recommendations for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in anxiety-disordered youth. Suggestions for future research investigating the relationship between anxiety and suicidal ideation are offered. PMID:24156368

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and risk assessment for food from service facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Woong; Jeong, Jun-Hyun; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, levels of benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene in 412 food items collected from food service facilities in Korea were analysed. The concentrations of the eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged 0.13-0.48 μg/kg. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in all food samples were foods regulated by European Union legislation. PAH contents were employed to conduct exposure and risk assessment. The chronic daily intake of PAHs from 412 food samples was 5.48 × 10 -6 -4.70 ×x 10 -4  µg-TEQ BaP /kg/day with margins of exposure of 1.04 × 10 9 -1.16 × 10 11 .

  13. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  14. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  15. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  16. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  17. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134 of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590. Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590, 13.7% (n = 81 reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81 and 22.5% (n = 18 among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4, being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0, and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5. Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  18. A Multigroup, Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths, Marijuana Use, Depression, and STD-Associated Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; M. Krupa, Julie; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2017-01-01

    Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. Previous research involving non-truant youths has found sexual risk behaviors to be related to marijuana use and depression, with differential effects for male and female youths. Using data collected in a National Institute on Drug Abuse…

  19. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…

  20. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Beom Choi; Wanhyung Lee; Jin-Ha Yoon; Jong-Uk Won; Deok Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20?years and older who had suicidal ideation from the...

  1. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among never-smokers in Korea

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    Lee SJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seok Jeong Lee,1 Seo Woo Kim,1 Kyoung Ae Kong,2 Yon Ju Ryu,1 Jin Hwa Lee,1 Jung Hyun Chang1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Trial Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients include those who have never smoked. However, risk factors other than smoking in never-smokers have not been elucidated sufficiently. This study investigated the risk factors for COPD among never-smokers in Korea using population-based data. Methods: The data were retrieved from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV conducted from 2007 to 2009. Among subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent appropriate pulmonary function tests, never-smokers not diagnosed with asthma and not showing a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests were enrolled. Risk factors of COPD in never-smokers were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Among 24,871 participants in the representative Korean cohort, 3,473 never-smokers were enrolled. COPD patients accounted for 7.6% of the never-smokers. In the logistic regression analysis, low education status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–3.2, occupational exposure (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3–5.3, a history of tuberculosis (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3–8.7, bronchiectasis (OR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4–25.4, male sex (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.6–6.7, advanced age (60–69 years vs 40–49 years; OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0–7.0, and being underweight (body mass index <18.5 vs 18.0–24.9 kg/m2; OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.0–9.4 were associated with the development of COPD. Conclusion: Low education status, manual labor, a history of tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, as well as male sex, advanced age and being underweight were risk factors for COPD in Korean never-smokers. Keywords: socioeconomic status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, never-smoker

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler H T; Nam, Jae S; Choi, Moonjung; Lee, Sung C; Lee, Christopher S

    2014-06-01

    To describe the age, gender specific prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a total 14 924 randomly selected national representative participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent additional ophthalmologic examinations by the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Best Corrected Distance Visual Acuity was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale (Jin's vision chart). Independent risk factors for visual impairment were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of visual impairment (≤20/40) of adults 40 years and older was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.6-4.6) based on the better seeing eye. The overall prevalence of blindness (≤20/200) for adults 40 years and older was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1-0.3). Risk indicators of visual impairment were increasing age, low education status, living in rural area, being unemployed, being without spouse and the absence of private health insurance. The visually impaired were more likely to have eye diseases compared with the normal subjects, and they were less likely to utilize eye care. The prevalence of visual impairment was demonstrated to be higher while that of blindness was similar to previous population studies in Asia or U.S. Sociodemographic disparities are present in the prevalence of visual impairment and more targeted efforts are needed to promote vision screening in high risk groups. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sexual risk behavior among youth: modeling the influence of prosocial activities and socioeconomic factors.

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    Ramirez-Valles, J; Zimmerman, M A; Newcomb, M D

    1998-09-01

    Sexual activity among high-school-aged youths has steadily increased since the 1970s, emerging as a significant public health concern. Yet, patterns of youth sexual risk behavior are shaped by social class, race, and gender. Based on sociological theories of financial deprivation and collective socialization, we develop and test a model of the relationships among neighborhood poverty; family structure and social class position; parental involvement; prosocial activities; race; and gender as they predict youth sexual risk behavior. We employ structural equation modeling to test this model on a cross-sectional sample of 370 sexually active high-school students from a midwestern city; 57 percent (n = 209) are males and 86 percent are African American. We find that family structure indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty, parental involvement, and prosocial activities. In addition, family class position indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty and prosocial activities. We address implications for theory and health promotion.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Eun; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. Methods A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5–18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD). Results Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.1): 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0–1.7) for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1–0.6) for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14–19.44), family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71–14.08) and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13–2.98). Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31–113.04) and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12–19.81). Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus. Conclusion This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea. PMID:29444106

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Eun; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD). Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.1): 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7) for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.6) for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14-19.44), family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71-14.08) and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98). Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31-113.04) and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12-19.81). Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus. This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Han

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea.A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD] and esodeviation (≥10 PD.Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.1: 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7 for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.6 for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14-19.44, family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71-14.08 and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98. Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31-113.04 and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12-19.81. Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus.This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea.

  7. Lost in transition? Substance abuse and risk of labour market exclusion from youth to adulthood

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    Torild Hammer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite low levels of youth unemployment in Norway, concerns have been raised about the high numbers of youth in inactivity, receiving health related social security benefits. It is argued that parts of the system of social security may work as welfare traps. OECD recommends welfare policies with the overall aim of fostering youth employability, not benefit dependency. In this article we use a unique combination of register data and survey data from the panel survey “work, lifestyle and health”. This survey follows a representative sample of the cohorts born between 1965 and 1968 from 1985 through follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2003. This allows us to follow individual life trajectories from ages 17-20 to 35-39. The aim of the article is first to study the impact of substance abuse upon risk of receiving social assistance, since previous research has found that receiving social assistance increases the probability of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Second, we analyse the impact of receiving social assistance, to have mental health problems and substance abuse in youth and consequences for labour market integration in adulthood. Analyses reveal that neither cannabis use nor alcohol consumption in youth have a direct effect on the risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. However, cannabis use increases the probability of receiving social assistance, which in turn increases risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Mental health problems in youth increase risk for later labour market exclusion, but these effects are mediated through factors like problem behaviour related to alcohol abuse and the use of illegal drugs other than cannabis. Receiving social assistance in youth has long time effects on the risk of labour market exclusion, especially for individuals from the lower socioeconomic groups.

  8. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hispanic youth with dysglycemia: Risk for subclinical atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obese Hispanic adolescents (OHAs) with dysglycemia have increased cardiovascular disease risk burden. To investigate if nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers added risk for endothelial dysfunction in these youth. Cross-sectional study. Academic institution. Thirty-six OHAs (15.360.4 years...

  10. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  11. Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

  12. High- and Low-Risk Characteristics of Youth: The Five Cs of Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J. Jeffries; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Identifies and discusses five basic skill strengths or skill deficits that mark critical difference between low-risk and high-risk youth. The "Five Cs of Competency" described include critical school competencies, concept of self and self-esteem, communication skills, coping ability, and control. Contends that these characteristics discriminate…

  13. Mexican-Origin Youth's Risk Behavior from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Familism Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Rodríguez de Jesús, Sue A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.

    2017-01-01

    Engagement in risk behavior has implications for individuals' academic achievement, health, and well-being, yet there is a paucity of developmental research on the role of culturally relevant strengths in individual and family differences in risk behavior involvement among ethnic minority youth. In this study, we used a longitudinal…

  14. Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  16. A Charter School in Partnerships for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Marion D.; Belcher, Sandi

    This report describes and evaluates the Raven School, a charter school established in 1998 to serve adjudicated youths ages 16 to 18. The school is administered by the Gulf Coast Trades Center, a private nonprofit organization located in the Sam Houston National Forest in rural Texas. In addition to academics and GED preparation, other program…

  17. Educational Policy and Foster Youths: The Risks of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Nora; MacEachron, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent child welfare legislation requires agencies to address the educational well-being of foster youths. Schools face new accountability standards through No Child Left Behind and the Obama "Blueprint for Reform" as they move toward the goal of ensuring that all children receive a quality education. Both of these pieces of legislation…

  18. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aesun Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. METHODS: Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. RESULTS: Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  19. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Joo, Jungnam; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Bak, Jeongin; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Jae Hwan; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  20. Family Functioning and Predictors of Runaway Behavior Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Stephanie Brooks; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent runaway behavior is associated with a host of negative outcomes in young adulthood. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that predict running away in youth. Longitudinal data from 111 at-risk families were used to identify proximal predictors of runaway behavior over a 12-week period. On average, youth were 14.96 years old, and 45% were female. Ten percent of youth ran away during the 12-week follow-up period. In bivariate analyses, running away was predicted by poorer youth- and parent-rated family functioning, past runaway behavior, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance use, delinquency), but not poorer perceived academic functioning. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression revealed a relationship between youth-rated family functioning and runaway behavior. However, this effect became non-significant after accounting for past runaway behavior and other problem behaviors, both of which remained significant predictors in the multivariable model. These findings suggest that youth who run away may be engaged in a more pervasive pattern of problematic behavior, and that screening and prevention programs need to address the cycle of adolescent defiant behavior associated with running away. Recommendations for clinical practice with this at-risk population are discussed.

  1. Risk assessment of bisphenol A migrated from canned foods in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu

    2009-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) was conducted on consumption of canned foods in Korean adults. Sixty-one canned food items with different brands purchased from retail outlets in markets were analyzed for BPA concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection. Limits of detection (LOD) were 3 microg/kg for solid and 2 microg/kg for liquid foods. BPA was detected from 7 groups of food items, such as tuna (n = 8), fish (n = 11), fruits (n = 9), vegetables (n = 12), meats (n = 13), coffee (n = 5), and tea (n = 3) in the range from not detected (ND) to 136.14 microg/kg. Mean concentrations of BPA were 3.1 microg/kg (ND-21.5 microg/kg) for vegetables, 8.3 microg/kg (ND-14.26) for tea, 8.6 microg/kg (ND-54.56 microg/kg) for fruits, 24.49 microg/kg (ND-98.30 microg/kg) for meats, 39.78 microg/kg (ND-125.25 microg/kg) for fish, 43.7 microg/kg (ND-116.88 microg/kg) for tuna, and 45.51 microg/kg (ND-136.14 microg/kg) for coffee, in the order of magnitude. Based on daily dietary intake of canned food items and concentrations of BPA, human exposure level to BPA was estimated to be 1.509 microg/kg body weight (bw)/d, well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) or reference dose (RfD) of 50 microg/kg, bw/d set by the European Commission, U.S.EPA, and South Korea. Therefore, the potential risk for BPA contamination due to consumption of each canned food items was calculated to be (1.509 microg/kg bw/d)/(50 microg/kg bw/d) = 0.03, which is the hazard index [HI = exposure level/(RfD or TDI)]. Evidence indicates that the levels of BPA levels in canned foods are not likely to constitute a safety concern for consumers in Korea.

  2. Perceived health status and cardiometabolic risk among a sample of youth in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Morales, Leo S.; Salmerón, Jorge; Skalicky, Anne M.; Edwards, Todd C.; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status (PHS), as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life (QoL), perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL). Results Nearly 50% of participants were female, 21% had a normal BMI, 39% were overweight, and 40% were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of PHS and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared to normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. Conclusions In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25648756

  3. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV Related Risk and Protective Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  4. Suicide Risk in Youth with Intellectual Disability: The Challenges of Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), often diagnosed with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted: 1) to estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; 2) to describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; 3) to identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID. PMID:22668827

  5. Suicide risk in youth with intellectual disabilities: the challenges of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, Erica; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Greenbaum, Rachel; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey; Reynolds, William; Horowitz, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (IDs), often diagnosed with comorbid psychiatric disorders, are a vulnerable population who may be at risk for developing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that direct suicide screening can rapidly and effectively detect suicide risk and facilitate further clinical evaluation and management. Currently, there are no measures that screen for suicide risk designed specifically for individuals with ID. A review of the literature was conducted to (1) estimate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and deaths by suicide in children and adolescents with ID; (2) describe associations between youth with ID and suicide risk; and (3) identify the limitations of commonly used suicide screening measures developed for non-ID youth. The literature review confirms that suicide risk exists in this population; youth with ID think about, attempt, and die by suicide. Standardized suicide risk screening is challenged by the lack of measures developed for this population. A summary of the findings is followed by a discussion of the practical clinical considerations surrounding the assessment of suicide risk in youth with ID.

  6. Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. Methods We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. Results The significant linear...

  7. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexu...

  8. Emotional processing and brain activity in youth at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-07-01

    Even in the absence of heavy alcohol use, youth with familial alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) exhibit atypical brain functioning and behavior. Although emotional and cognitive systems are affected in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), little attention has focused on whether brain and behavior phenotypes related to the interplay between affective and executive functioning may be a premorbid risk factor for the development of AUDs in FHP youth. Twenty-four FHP and 22 family history negative (FHN) 12- to 16-year-old adolescents completed study procedures. After exclusion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms and those who did not meet performance criteria during an Emotional Go-NoGo task, 19 FHP and 17 FHN youth were included in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. Resting state functional connectivity MRI, using amygdalar seed regions, was analyzed in 16 FHP and 18 FHN youth, after exclusion of participants with excessive head movement. fMRI showed that brain activity in FHP youth, compared with FHN peers, was reduced during emotional processing in the superior temporal cortex, as well as during cognitive control within emotional contexts in frontal and striatal regions. Group differences in resting state amygdalar connectivity were seen bilaterally between FHP and FHN youth. In FHP youth, reduced resting state synchrony between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was related to poorer response inhibition, as measured during the fMRI task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine emotion-cognition interactions and resting state functional connectivity in FHP youth. Findings from this research provide insight into neural and behavioral phenotypes associated with emotional processing in familial alcoholism, which may relate to increased risk of developing AUDs. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Dust exposure and the risk of cancer in cement industry workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seunghee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Cement is used widely in the construction industry, though it contains hazardous chemicals such as hexavalent chromium. Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between cement dust exposure and cancer, but these associations have proved inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the association between dust exposure and cancer in cement industry workers in Korea. Our cohort consisted of 1,324 men who worked at two Portland cement manufacturing factories between 1997 and 2005. We calculated cumulative dust exposures, then categorized workers into high and low dust exposure groups. Cancer cases were identified between 1997 and 2005 by linking with the national cancer registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all workers and the high and low dust exposure groups, respectively. The SIR for overall cancers in all workers was increased (1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.78). The SIR for stomach cancer in the high dust exposure group was increased (2.18, 95% CI: 1.19-3.65), but there was no increased stomach cancer risk in the low dust exposure group. The SIR for rectal cancer in all workers was increased (3.05, 95% CI: 1.32-6.02). Rectal cancer risk was similar in the high and low exposure groups. Our findings suggest a potential association between exposure in the cement industry and an increased risk of stomach and rectal cancers. However, due to the small number of cases, this association should be further investigated in a study with a longer follow-up period and adjustment for confounders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Estimate of lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor exposure to natural radon-222 daughters in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Young Chang; Jeong-Ho Lee; Chung-Woo Ha

    1993-01-01

    Lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor 222 Rn daughters exposure in Korea was quantitatively estimated by a modified relative risk projection model proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Science and the recent Korean life table data. The lifetime excess risk of lung cancer death attributable to annual constant exposure to Korean indoor radon daughters was estimated to be about 230/10 6 per WLM, which seemed to be nearly in the median of the range of 150-450/10 6 per WLM reported by the UNSCEAR in 1988. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  11. Intervention Research with Youths at Elevated Risk for Suicide: Meeting the Ethical and Regulatory Challenges of Informed Consent and Assent

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Kramer, Anne C.

    2008-01-01

    Intervention research with youths at elevated risk for suicidal behavior and suicide--a vulnerable and high risk population--presents investigators with numerous ethical challenges. This report specifically addresses those challenges involving the informed consent and assent process with parents/guardians and youths. The challenges are delineated…

  12. Cigarette pack design and perceptions of risk among UK adults and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Dockrell, Martin; Arnott, Deborah; Lee, Alex; McNeill, Ann

    2009-12-01

    It is illegal in the EU for tobacco packaging to suggest that some cigarettes are safer than others. This study examined consumer perceptions of cigarette packs in the UK, including perceptions of 'plain packaging', in which colour and other design elements are removed, whilst retaining the brand name. 516 adult smokers and 806 youth aged 11-17 participated in an online survey. Participants were asked to compare pairs of cigarette packs on five measures: taste, tar delivery, health risk, attractiveness and either ease of quitting (adult smokers) or brand they would choose if trying smoking (youth). Adults and youth were significantly more likely to rate packs with the terms 'smooth', 'silver' and 'gold' as lower tar, lower health risk and either easier to quit smoking (adults) or their choice of pack if trying smoking (youth). For example, more than half of adults and youth reported that brands labelled as 'smooth' were less harmful compared with the 'regular' variety. The colour of packs was also associated with perceptions of risk and brand appeal: compared with Marlboro packs with a red logo, Marlboro packs with a gold logo were rated as lower health risk by 53% and easier to quit by 31% of adult smokers. Plain packs significantly reduced false beliefs about health risk and ease of quitting, and were rated as significantly less attractive and appealing to youth for trying smoking. Current regulations have failed to remove potentially misleading information from tobacco packaging. Removing colours from packs (plain packaging), as well as terms such as 'smooth' 'gold' and 'silver' would significantly reduce false beliefs and increase compliance with existing legislation.

  13. OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH: A HEALTH RISK WE CANNOT AFFORD

    OpenAIRE

    Serge P. von Duvillard

    2012-01-01

    Ample observational and empirical evidence has been provided that indicates that childhood metabolic syndrome risk factors inevitably lead to significantly more profound health risk factors of developing potent adulthood metabolic syndrome. Much of these data has been provided from medical, nutritional, health, pediatric, physical education and associated communities. Perhaps the most visible and observable health risk factor among children (here referred to as youth) is the childhood obesit...

  14. Youth Drug Offenders: An Examination of Criminogenic Risk and Juvenile Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Jordan; Campbell, Christina; Onifade, Eyitayo; Anderson, Valerie; Davidson, William; Foster, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs of juvenile drug offenders is important because of the myriad negative outcomes that befall juveniles that are involved in drugs. A widely used juvenile risk assessment tool, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) was utilized to explore criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs to predict recidivism. Demographic differences between drug and nondrug offenders were also examined. Results ...

  15. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  16. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  17. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M

    2017-03-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.

  18. Service Use by At-Risk Youth after School-Based Suicide Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program, and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youth and parents. Method We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youth identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools in New York State. The at-risk teenagers and their parents were interviewed approximately two years after the initial screen to assess service use during the intervening period and identify barriers that may have interfered with seeking treatment. Results At the time of the screen, 72% of the at-risk students were not receiving any type of mental health service. Of these students, 51% were deemed in need of services and subsequently referred by us to a mental health professional. Nearly 70% followed through with the screening’s referral recommendations. Youth and their parents reported perceptions about mental health problems, specifically relating to the need for treatment, as the primary reasons for not seeking service. Conclusions Screening appears to be effective in enhancing the likelihood that students at risk for suicidal behavior will get into treatment. Well developed and systematic planning is needed to ensure that screening and referral services are coordinated so as to facilitate access for youth into timely treatment. PMID:19858758

  19. Health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds exposure near Daegu dyeing industrial complex in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianfei; Kim, Sunshin; Ryu, Hyeonsu; Park, Jinhyeon; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Geun-Bae; Ultra, Venecio U; Yang, Wonho

    2018-04-20

    Studying human health in areas with industrial contamination is a serious and complex issue. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on the health implications of large industrial complexes. A variety of potential toxic chemicals have been produced during manufacturing processes and activities in industrial complexes in South Korea. A large number of dyeing industries gathered together in Daegu dyeing industrial complex. The residents near the industrial complex could be often exposed to volatile organic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate VOCs levels in the ambient air of DDIC, to assess the impact on human health risks, and to find more convincing evidences to prove these VOCs emitted from DDIC. According to deterministic risk assessment, inhalation was the most important route. Residential indoor, outdoor and personal exposure air VOCs were measured by passive samplers in exposed area and controlled area in different seasons. Satisfaction with ambient environments and self-reported diseases were also obtained by questionnaire survey. The VOCs concentrations in exposed area and controlled area was compared by t-test. The relationships among every VOC were tested by correlation. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) and life cancer risk were estimated. The concentrations of measured VOCs were presented, moreover, the variety of concentrations according the distances from the residential settings to the industrial complex site in exposed area. The residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of toluene, DMF and chloroform in exposed area were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations in controlled area both in summer and autumn. Toluene, DMF, chloroform and MEK had significantly positive correlations with each other in indoor and outdoor, and even in personal exposure. The HQ for DMF exceeded 1, and the life cancer risk of chloroform was greater than 10 - 4 in exposed area. The prevalence of respiratory diseases

  20. Is ambient temperature associated with risk of infant mortality? A multi-city study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-10-01

    Although numerous studies have shown increased risk of mortality from elevated temperatures for adults, limited studies have examined temperature's effect on mortality for infants. Our study investigated the city-specific and overall effects of ambient temperature on infant mortality in seven major cities in Korea, 2004-2007. Birth cohort using a linked birth and death records included 777,570 births with 557 all-cause deaths. We estimated city-specific hazard ratios for each city using an extended Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Then we combined city-specific hazard ratios to generate overall hazard ratio across the seven cities using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Stratified analyses were conducted by cause of death (total and SIDS), exposure period (whole gestation, each trimester, lifetime, 1 month before death, and 2 weeks before death), sex, and maternal characteristics. Overall across the cities, we found significantly positive associations between ambient temperature during 1 month before death or 2 weeks before death and infant mortality from total or SIDS. The overall hazard ratio of infant mortality from total deaths and SIDS for a 1°C increase during 1 month before death was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.57) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.35-1.66), respectively. We also found suggestive evidence that some factors such as mother's age may modify the association. Our findings have implications for establishment of policy to reduce the risk of infant mortality from high ambient temperature under climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk and protective factors of internet addiction: a meta-analysis of empirical studies in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction.

  2. Risk and Protective Factors of Internet Addiction: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoon Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Results The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. Conclusion The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction. PMID:25323910

  3. Social Media Use and Sexual Risk Reduction Behavior Among Minority Youth: Seeking Safe Sex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer

    Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p < .05) and 2.49 times (p < .08) more likely to have used contraception or a condom at last intercourse, respectively. Parents, schools, or traditional media as information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.

  4. Elevated risk of incarceration among street-involved youth who initiate drug dealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Hoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods Between September 2005 and November 2014, data were collected through the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs, in Vancouver, Canada. An extended Cox model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the relationship between recent incarceration and initiation into drug dealing, controlling for relevant confounders. Results Among 1172 youth enrolled, only 194 (16.6% were drug dealing naïve at baseline and completed at least one additional study visit to facilitate the assessment of drug dealing initiation. Among this sample, 56 (29% subsequently initiated drug dealing. In final multivariable Cox regression analysis, recent incarceration was significantly associated with initiating drug dealing (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–4.42, after adjusting for potential confounders. Measures of recent incarceration lagged to the prior study follow-up were not found to predict initiation of drug dealing (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% CI 0.66–3.42. Conclusions These findings suggest that among this study sample, incarceration does not appear to significantly propel youth to initiate drug dealing. However, the initiation of drug dealing among youth coincides

  5. Sexting, Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Adolescents: An Examination of 2015 Pennsylvania Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Anne S.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Patterson, Freda; Dai, Ting; Brown, Deanna

    2018-01-01

    Background: Sexting, the sharing of sexually suggestive photos, may be a gateway behavior to early sexual activity and increase the likelihood of social ostracism. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 6021) data from 2015 among Pennsylvania 9th-12th grade students were used to examine associations between consensual and nonconsensual sexting…

  6. Clinical epidemiology of long-term suicide risk in a nationwide population-based cohort study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyewon; Myung, Woojae; Lee, Chunsoo; Choi, Junbae; Kim, Ho; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a large range of clinical factors on the long-term risk of suicide in the general population of South Korea. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) database in South Korea. A total of 300,232 individuals were followed for up to 12 years. We obtained information on demographic variables (age and sex), lifestyle variables (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise), psychiatric and physical disorders, laboratory examination results and physical examination findings. We conducted a competing risk survival analysis to estimate the risk of completed suicide. 725 individuals (241/100,000) died by suicide in the follow-up period. After Bonferroni correction, we found a significant suicide risk associated with 6 variables: Parkinson's disease, depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (inverted association), elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels, male gender and age. Before Bonferroni correction, variables such as cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, psychotic disorder, other psychiatric disorder, benzodiazepine use and higher fasting glucose showed some significant association. In addition, body mass index and height were inversely related to completed suicide before Bonferroni correction. However, only the 6 variables listed above were robust predictors of suicide in the fully adjusted analyses with multiple test correction. Common medical conditions had no clear influence on suicide. Diverse clinical factors influenced the long-term risk of completed suicide in this general population sample. Comprehensive assessment of these risk factors will facilitate more focused suicide surveillance measures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Proximal risk factors and suicide methods among suicide completers from national suicide mortality data 2004-2006 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of cardiovascular risk factors between Hispanic/Latino parents and youth: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Bishop, Virginia; Daviglus, Martha L; Delamater, Alan M; Gallo, Linda C; Perreira, Krista; Pulgaron, Elizabeth; Reina, Samantha; Talavera, Gregory A; Van Horn, Linda H; Isasi, Carmen R

    2017-04-01

    Hispanic/Latinos have a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which may begin at young ages. We tested the association of CVD risk factors between Hispanic/Latino parents and their children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Youth study. Girls (n = 674) and boys (n = 667) aged 8 to 16 years (mean age 12.1 years) and their parents (n = 942) had their CVD risk factors measured. CVD risk factors in parents were significantly positively associated with those same risk factors among youth. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, diet and physical activity, obese parents were significantly more likely to have youth who were overweight (odds ratios [ORs], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.76) or obese (OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 3.23-11.77) versus normal weight. Dyslipidemia among parents was associated with 1.98 higher odds of dyslipidemia among youth (95% CI, 1.37-2.87). Neither hypertension nor diabetes was associated with higher odds of high blood pressure or hyperglycemia (prediabetes or diabetes) in youth. Findings were consistent by sex and in younger (age parents, which portends high risk for adult CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Formative Evaluation of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…

  10. Global Self-Worth in Latino Youth: The Role of Acculturation and Acculturation Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapke, Theresa L.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Lawton, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite Latino youth being at increased risk of developing mental health problems, they are less likely to receive adequate treatment (Gonzales et al. in "Handbook of U.S. Latino psychology: developmental and community-based perspectives." Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 115-134, 2009; Romero et al. in "Ethn Health"…

  11. Are Blogs Putting Youth at Risk for Online Sexual Solicitation or Harassment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In light of public concern about the dangers to young people from maintaining online journals or "blogs," this exploratory paper examines whether bloggers are at increased risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment. Method: A national telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10-17, conducted between March and June…

  12. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  13. Improving the Economic and Life Outcomes of At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivry, Robert; Doolittle, Fred

    This paper outlines ideas and strategies to engage alienated and disaffected young people and help them acquire skills, gain work experience, and improve their lives. Based on lessons learned from three decades of demonstrations and evaluations concerning at-risk youth, the paper presents ideas that government agencies and private foundations…

  14. The effects of gender and socioeconomic status on youth sexual-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV and AIDS remains one of the most serious problems facing youths in many sub-Saharan African countries. Among young people in South Africa, gender is linked with a number of HIV-risk behaviours and outcomes. The literature suggests that factors such as socioeconomic status, intimate partner violence, and several ...

  15. Improving Test-Taking Performance of Secondary At-Risk Youth and Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India

    2014-01-01

    Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…

  16. Preventing Family and Educational Disconnection through Wilderness-Based Therapy Targeting Youth at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…

  17. Risk Behaviors of Youth Living With HIV: Pre- and Post-HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Comulada, W. Scott; Weiss, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the transmission behavior among youth living with HIV (YLH), pre- and post-HAART. Methods: Two cohorts were recruited: (1) 349 YLH during 1994 to 1996 and (2) 175 YLH during 1999 to 2000, after the wide availability of HAART. Differences in sexual and substance-use risk acts and quality of life were examined. Results:…

  18. Targeting Family Risk Factors in the Context of Treating Youth Depression: A Survey of Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Olsen, James P.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.; Gamble, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and perceptions of psychologists related to targeting family risk factors when treating youth depression. Participants were practicing psychologists recruited through the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (N = 279). Psychologists completed a brief anonymous survey about addressing…

  19. Youth Engagement and Suicide Risk: Testing a Mediated Model in a Canadian Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…

  20. MODEL OF SOCIAL RISK FACTORS FOR SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR AMONG YOUTH FROM THE ALTAI TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Ivanovna Cherepanova

    2018-02-01

    The obtained empirical data of the sociological research, as well as the results of the regression analysis of the indicators, represent the basic determinants of the suicide risk of youth in the Altai square. Economic, social, and psychological factors determining the growth of suicides in the region are analyzed.

  1. Self-Regulation Programs for At-Risk Youth: Are Teachers Affected Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtinger, Einat; Leichtentritt, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes experienced by teachers of youth at socioeconomic risk during and after conducting self-regulation programs with their students. Participants' self-reports were classified into 3 change models. Teachers in the 1st model reported changes in their interaction with the school, their role with the students, and their own…

  2. Using Horses to Teach Authentic Leadership Skills to At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brittany Lee

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an equine-facilitated authentic leadership development program on at-risk youth. Participants were asked to participate in two focus groups and a 3-day equine-facilitated authentic leadership development program based on Bill George's Model of Authentic Leadership. Participants were…

  3. Offsetting Risks: High School Gay-Straight Alliances and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…

  4. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  5. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  6. Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Louw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (, factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents ( with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa.

  7. Factors Influencing Risk of Homelessness among Youth in Transition from Foster Care in Oklahoma: Implications for Reforming Independent Living Services and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brandon L; McDaniel, Jacqueline; Moxley, David; Salehezadeh, Zohre; Cahill, Alisa West

    Research suggests that youth aging out of foster care may be at higher risk of experiencing homelessness than other youth. Among this already at-risk population there may be certain characteristics that further exacerbate the risk. This paper uses data collected from various local and state agencies to further examine significant predictors of homelessness among youth who have aged out of foster care.

  8. Preventive risk assessment in forensic child and youth care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment is central to the work of forensic mental health professionals, since it serves as a guide for prevention and intervention strategies. For effective risk assessment, knowledge on risk factors and their effects as well as the availability of valid and reliable instruments for risk

  9. Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accident risk associated with smartphone addiction: A study on university students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The smartphone is one of the most popular devices, with the average smartphone usage at 162 min/day and the average length of phone usage at 15.79 hr/week. Although significant concerns have been made about the health effects of smartphone addiction, the relationship between smartphone addiction and accidents has rarely been studied. We examined the association between smartphone addiction and accidents among South Korean university students. Methods A total of 608 college students completed an online survey that included their experience of accidents (total number; traffic accidents; falls/slips; bumps/collisions; being trapped in the subway, impalement, cuts, and exit wounds; and burns or electric shocks), their use of smartphone, the type of smartphone content they most frequently used, and other variables of interests. Smartphone addiction was estimated using Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, a standardized measure developed by the National Institution in Korea. Results Compared with normal users, participants who were addicted to smartphones were more likely to have experienced any accidents (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.26-2.86), falling from height/slipping (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.10-3.91), and bumps/collisions (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16-2.87). The proportion of participants who used their smartphones mainly for entertainment was significantly high in both the accident (38.76%) and smartphone addiction (36.40%) groups. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that smartphone addiction was significantly associated with total accident, falling/slipping, and bumps/collisions. This finding highlighted the need for increased awareness of the risk of accidents with smartphone addiction.

  11. Firearm Violence Among High-Risk Emergency Department Youth After an Assault Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A.; Roehler, Douglas R.; Goldstick, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown. METHODS: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months). RESULTS: A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth. PMID:25847808

  12. Suicide mortality and risk factors in the 12 months after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care in Korea: 1989-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Choi, Jae Won; Kyoung Yi, Ki; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-07-30

    This study aimed to determine the suicide mortality within 1 year after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care and identify the risk factors for suicide completion during this period. A total of 8403 patients were admitted to general hospitals in Seoul, Korea, for psychiatric disorders from January 1989 to December 2006. The suicide mortality risk of these patients within 1 year of discharge was compared with that of gender- and age-matched subjects from the general population of Korea. The standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide in the year following discharge were 49.7 for males and 45.5 for females. Patients aged 15-24 years had the highest risk for suicide. Among the different diagnostic groups, patients with personality disorders, schizophrenia, or affective disorders had the highest risk for suicide completion. Suicidal ideation at admission and inpatient stay more than 1 month were also associated with increased risk of suicide. In Korean psychiatric patients, the SMR is much higher in young female patients, a high percentage of patients commit suicide by jumping, and there is a stronger association of long duration of hospitalization and suicide. These factors should be considered in the development and implementation of suicide prevention strategies for Korean psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Differentiated influences of benefit and risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance levels. Evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seungkook; Lee Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    The perceived benefit and risk of nuclear power generation have received considerable attention as determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance. However, the contingency of the relative importance of these benefit and risk has been less explored. Using Korea as an example, this study explores the possibility that the relative importance of perceived benefit and risk on nuclear power acceptance depends on acceptance levels. Our results from latent class analysis and multinomial probit show that, in determining whether an individual shows a moderate level of nuclear power acceptance rather than a low level, perceived risk plays a dominant role compared to perceived benefit; however, regarding whether he/she shows a high level of nuclear power acceptance rather than a moderate level, this relative importance is reversed. These results carry practical implications for risk governance of nuclear power, particularly with regard to communication with the public. (author)

  14. OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH: A HEALTH RISK WE CANNOT AFFORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge P. von Duvillard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample observational and empirical evidence has been provided that indicates that childhood metabolic syndrome risk factors inevitably lead to significantly more profound health risk factors of developing potent adulthood metabolic syndrome. Much of these data has been provided from medical, nutritional, health, pediatric, physical education and associated communities. Perhaps the most visible and observable health risk factor among children (here referred to as youth is the childhood obesity. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in western industrialized countries and is also becoming significantly more prevalent in Slovenia. The youth inactivity is attributed directly to epidemic and perhaps exponential occurrence of obesity in pediatric and youth populations. The symptoms and signs of metabolic syndrome have previously been attributed mostly to the adult population; however, similar observations have been identified and observed in young and very young segment of population. The typical risk factors of metabolic syndrome in youth, in adolescents, and in adulthood have been commonly identified to be: stress, overweight and obesity, sedentary life cycle, aging, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, lipodystrophy and several others. This presentation will review and address several well known risk factors of developing metabolic syndrome in young years that directly contributes to adult obesity and are exhibited in significantly higher rates of hypertension, dyslipidemias, and insulin resistance, which are all risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in North America and may also apply to Slovenia. Many of these risk factors are modifiable (nutrition, smoking, sedentary life style, vigorous physical activity, reduction in TV and computer game times, etc. with specific emphasis on very young, young, adolescents and profound consequences for adulthood. Several recommendations will be proposed that may

  15. Theory of Mind Impairments in Youth at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, TianHong; Tang, YingYing; Cui, HuiRu; Lu, Xi; Xu, LiHua; Liu, XiaoHua; Li, HuiJun; Chow, Annabelle; Du, YaSong; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2016-01-01

    The normal maturational processes of theory of mind (ToM) capacity are ongoing during adolescence and even early adulthood. However, research has shown that ToM ability also declines among adults suffering from prodromal psychotic experiences. The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of ToM performance in youth with clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The Reading Mind in Eyes Task (RMET), including own-race and other-race eyes, was administered to 40 CHR youth; 42 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs); and 62 adult patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Nine-month follow-up data were collected from 31 CHR subjects, of whom 7 (22.6%) had made the transition to psychosis. CHR youth showed significant impairment in RMET performance compared to HC youth but performed better than did SZ patients. Moreover, they were significantly slower than were HC youth in responding to the RMET, with a response time similar to that of SZ patients. In particular, they had significantly poorer accuracy in interpreting positive and neutral eye expressions compared to the HC group, but not in interpreting negative eye expressions. Preliminary follow-up data showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.079) for RMET performance between those who transitioned to psychosis and those who did not. Our findings illustrate that deficits in ToM capacity, specifically the ability to interpret people's mental state from eye expressions, occur early on in prodromal psychosis in youth. Early interventions for CHR youth focusing on ToM enhancement may halt progress toward psychosis.

  16. Predictors of medication adherence in high risk youth of color living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonell, Karen E; Naar-King, Sylvie; Murphy, Debra A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Harper, Gary W

    2010-07-01

    To test predictors of medication adherence in high-risk racial or ethnic minority youth living with HIV (YLH) using a conceptual model of social cognitive predictors including a continuous measure of motivational readiness. Youth were participants in a multi-site clinical trial examining the efficacy of a motivational intervention. Racial-minority YLH (primarily African American) who were prescribed antiretroviral medication were included (N = 104). Data were collected using computer-assisted personal interviewing method via an Internet-based application and questionnaires. Using path analysis with bootstrapping, most youth reported suboptimal adherence, which predicted higher viral load. Higher motivational readiness predicted optimal adherence, and higher social support predicted readiness. Decisional balance was indirectly related to adherence. The model provided a plausible framework for understanding adherence in this population. Culturally competent interventions focused on readiness and social support may be helpful for improving adherence in YLH.

  17. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Sweeney, Allison M.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St. George, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth’s behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family and social-environmental level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and health care providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth. PMID:28229248

  18. Voluntary sport and highway risks in adolescents and youths (following current French and Canadian periodical publications of 2000th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinovich M.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss some personal traits of adolescents and young people, disposed to different types of risky behavior. We describe correlations between different types of risky behavior in one individual. We discuss also the gender aspect of risk taking in adolescents and youth. Some modern theories of risk taking are recapitulated. Finally, we discuss the organizational question about the preventive work with adolescents and youth, aimed on minimization of sportive and highway risk.

  19. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 55, Number SS-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk…

  20. Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…

  1. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  2. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  3. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  4. Factors associated with the risk perception and purchase decisions of Fukushima-related food in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalnim Lee

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the risk level perceived by Koreans on the radioactive contamination of Japanese food that is being distributed in Korea remains high. Many of these perceptions are based on subjective risk perception rather than an objective measure with scientific evidence, which makes communicating risks more difficult; therefore, it is critical to understand factors associated with risk perception for effective risk communication. In this study, we identified variables that are associated with buying tendencies and opinions about the regulatory policy of Japanese seafood after the accident. A survey was conducted with 1045 adults aged over 20 years in Korea. The majority (68.8% responded that they would not purchase Japanese seafood when radioactivity levels in the food were non-detectable. Moreover, 82.2% responded that the current levels of import restrictions on Japanese seafood must be maintained. Despite many concerns regarding the exposure to radiation and the effects from food products following the Fukushima accident, the opportunities to encounter and to collect correct information remain limited and average radioactive knowledge scores were low (3.63 out of 9. Of the various characteristics associated with purchase decisions and agreement on the current import restraints of Japanese seafood, trust levels in the government and the mass media for providing information on radioactivity were major factors that influenced risk perception. While the scope of this study was limited to seafood, it is very closely tied to daily lives, where we revealed differences about risk perceptions and agreement on import restraints of Japanese seafood per a complex mixture of individual characteristics and the surrounding environment. These results provide useful information to understand the risk perception of the potential radioactive contamination of food and to predict the public's responses to food consumption

  5. Factors associated with the risk perception and purchase decisions of Fukushima-related food in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dalnim; Seo, Songwon; Song, Min Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Ki; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2017-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the risk level perceived by Koreans on the radioactive contamination of Japanese food that is being distributed in Korea remains high. Many of these perceptions are based on subjective risk perception rather than an objective measure with scientific evidence, which makes communicating risks more difficult; therefore, it is critical to understand factors associated with risk perception for effective risk communication. In this study, we identified variables that are associated with buying tendencies and opinions about the regulatory policy of Japanese seafood after the accident. A survey was conducted with 1045 adults aged over 20 years in Korea. The majority (68.8%) responded that they would not purchase Japanese seafood when radioactivity levels in the food were non-detectable. Moreover, 82.2% responded that the current levels of import restrictions on Japanese seafood must be maintained. Despite many concerns regarding the exposure to radiation and the effects from food products following the Fukushima accident, the opportunities to encounter and to collect correct information remain limited and average radioactive knowledge scores were low (3.63 out of 9). Of the various characteristics associated with purchase decisions and agreement on the current import restraints of Japanese seafood, trust levels in the government and the mass media for providing information on radioactivity were major factors that influenced risk perception. While the scope of this study was limited to seafood, it is very closely tied to daily lives, where we revealed differences about risk perceptions and agreement on import restraints of Japanese seafood per a complex mixture of individual characteristics and the surrounding environment. These results provide useful information to understand the risk perception of the potential radioactive contamination of food and to predict the public's responses to food consumption and import

  6. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Beom Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Results Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. Conclusions It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  7. Factors associated with the risk perception and purchase decisions of Fukushima-related food in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Ki; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2017-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the risk level perceived by Koreans on the radioactive contamination of Japanese food that is being distributed in Korea remains high. Many of these perceptions are based on subjective risk perception rather than an objective measure with scientific evidence, which makes communicating risks more difficult; therefore, it is critical to understand factors associated with risk perception for effective risk communication. In this study, we identified variables that are associated with buying tendencies and opinions about the regulatory policy of Japanese seafood after the accident. A survey was conducted with 1045 adults aged over 20 years in Korea. The majority (68.8%) responded that they would not purchase Japanese seafood when radioactivity levels in the food were non-detectable. Moreover, 82.2% responded that the current levels of import restrictions on Japanese seafood must be maintained. Despite many concerns regarding the exposure to radiation and the effects from food products following the Fukushima accident, the opportunities to encounter and to collect correct information remain limited and average radioactive knowledge scores were low (3.63 out of 9). Of the various characteristics associated with purchase decisions and agreement on the current import restraints of Japanese seafood, trust levels in the government and the mass media for providing information on radioactivity were major factors that influenced risk perception. While the scope of this study was limited to seafood, it is very closely tied to daily lives, where we revealed differences about risk perceptions and agreement on import restraints of Japanese seafood per a complex mixture of individual characteristics and the surrounding environment. These results provide useful information to understand the risk perception of the potential radioactive contamination of food and to predict the public’s responses to food consumption and import

  8. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Kim, Deok Won

    2017-06-15

    Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  9. Sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors among Hispanic/Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista M; Daviglus, Martha L; Elder, John P; Marchante, Ashley N; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in US Hispanic/Latino youth and examine whether there are disparities by sex in cardiometabolic risk factors. Study design SOL Youth is a population-based cross-sectional study of 1466 Hispanic/Latino youth (8-16 years old) who were recruited from four urban US communities (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA) in 2012-2014. The majority of children were US-born (78%) and from low-income and immigrant families. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined using national age- and sex-specific guidelines. Results The prevalence of obesity was 26.5%. The prevalence of class II-III obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia was high (9.7%, 16.5%, and 23.3%, respectively). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors increased with severity of obesity in both, boys and girls. Boys had a higher prevalence of diabetes and of elevated blood pressure than girls (20.9% vs. 11.8% and 8.5% vs. 3.3%). In multivariable analyses, younger boys were more likely to have obesity class II-III than girls (OR = 3.59; 95% CI 1.44, 8.97). Boys were more likely to have prediabetes than girls (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.35, 3.02), and the association was stronger at older ages. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high in this sample of Hispanic youth. Boys had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with girls that may put them at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Reasons for this disparity and the long-term clinical implications remain to be elucidated. PMID:27344220

  10. Sex Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Hispanic/Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista M; Daviglus, Martha L; Elder, John P; Marchante, Ashley N; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in US Hispanic/Latino youth and examine whether there are disparities by sex in cardiometabolic risk factors. Study of Latino Youth is a population-based cross-sectional study of 1466 Hispanic/Latino youth (8-16 years old) who were recruited from 4 urban US communities (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA) in 2012-2014. The majority of children were US-born (78%) and from low-income and immigrant families. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined by the use of national age- and sex-specific guidelines. The prevalence of obesity was 26.5%. The prevalence of class II-III obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was high (9.7%, 16.5%, and 23.3%, respectively). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors increased with severity of obesity in both boys and girls. Boys had a greater prevalence of diabetes and of elevated blood pressure than girls (20.9% vs 11.8% and 8.5% vs 3.3%). In multivariable analyses, younger boys were more likely to have obesity class II-III than girls (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.44-8.97). Boys were more likely to have prediabetes than girls (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.35-3.02), and the association was stronger at older ages. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high in this sample of Hispanic youth. Boys had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with girls that may put them at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Reasons for this disparity and the long-term clinical implications remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, pHaiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  12. Social Networking Sites and Contact Risks among Flemish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoninck, Sofie; d'Haenens, Leen; De Cock, Rozane; Donoso, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how teenagers use social networking sites (SNS) and other online communication applications, to what extent they are exposed to online contact risks related to the use of these online tools and how they cope with these risks. A written survey was administered among 815 Flemish adolescents aged 14-19. The study controls for…

  13. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  14. Maternal depression and trajectories of adolescent depression: The role of stress responses in youth risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jennifer D; Rudolph, Karen D

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the independent and interactive contributions of maternal depression and youth stress responses to trajectories of youth depression in adolescence. Youths (n = 165, M age = 12.43, SD = 1.18) and their maternal caregivers participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers and youths were administered diagnostic interviews assessing depression, and youths provided reports of their responses to peer stress. Consistent with an interactive model, adaptive responses to stress (high effortful engagement and low involuntary disengagement) buffered the effect of maternal depression on initial levels and trajectories of youth depression, with gender differences emerging. Consistent with a dual-risk model, maternal depression and maladaptive responses to stress (high effortful disengagement and involuntary engagement) contributed additive risks such that youths displayed the highest levels of depression when they were exposed to maternal depression and showed maladaptive stress responses. This research provides novel evidence that responses to stress contribute to individual differences in depression among offspring of depressed mothers, and suggests that responses to stress are an important target for efforts to promote resilience in at-risk youth.

  15. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Sibilski, Piotr; Lepczyńska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been given to determine risk factors for suicide among adults with bipolar disorder. Such studies concerning children and youths, which would also take into account the specificity of the developmental age, are still too few. The ability to identify risk factors for children and youths with mood disorders, as well as the possibility to monitor them, is an essential element in preventing suicidal behaviours. Previous studies have clearly indicated that in the group of patients with an early onset of the bipolar disorder the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and intentions were significantly increased. Identifying the risk of suicide is hindered further by the complexity of the phenomenon, which is a compound interaction of various factors: biological, environmental, sociological, psychological and clinical. This is especially true with young adults suffering from mental illness and presenting a number of other psychopathological symptoms. The following paper introduces and reviews the results of current studies, which analysed the risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum or already diagnosed with bipolar disorder. For this purpose we conducted the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  16. Longitudinal Youth-At-Risk Study (LYRIKS): outreach strategies based on a community-engaged framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Natasha; Nah, Guo Quan Ryan; Bong, Yioe Ling; Lee, Jimmy; Chong, Siow-Ann

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia and psychoses are debilitating disorders often leading to serious functional impairments. Early detection efforts have shifted focus to the prodromal phase and the emphasis is now on individuals at risk of developing psychosis. The Longitudinal Youth-At-Risk Study (LYRIKS) seeks to elucidate the biological markers of psychosis. This paper describes the application of a community-engaged framework to the outreach strategies of LYRIKS. It describes the outreach goals, strategies used and their impact, as well as the various challenges faced by the research team and community partners. The target population was defined. Community organizations having close ties with the target population were identified and approached for collaboration. These included educational and healthcare institutions, and government and welfare organizations. Strategies were categorized as active or passive. Active strategies included clinical screening and recruitment, workshops, roadshows and student internships. Passive strategies included utilizing print and social media. Three thousand three hundred twenty-one youth were approached and 401 called the hotline to find out more about the study. Three thousand five hundred one were pre-screened; 864 were further screened using the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State. One hundred seventy-eight and 346 were eventually recruited as subjects and controls, respectively. Challenges encountered included differing priorities, maintaining collaborative relationships, stigmatization and inadequate understanding of the profile of at risk youth. Future community-engaged research should be conducted more comprehensively to generate maximum benefits. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13-17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96-1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01-54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42-1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.

  18. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  19. Averting the perfect storm: addressing youth substance use risk from social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimian, Parissa K; Chunara, Rumi; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents are developmentally sensitive to pathways that influence alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. In the absence of guidance, their routine engagement with social media may add a further layer of risk. There are several potential mechanisms for social media use to influence AOD risk, including exposure to peer portrayals of AOD use, socially amplified advertising, misinformation, and predatory marketing against a backdrop of lax regulatory systems and privacy controls. Here the authors summarize the influences of the social media world and suggest how pediatricians in everyday practice can alert youth and their parents to these risks to foster conversation, awareness, and harm reduction. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Demographic, psychosocial, and genetic risk associated with smokeless tobacco use among Mexican heritage youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Yu, Robert K; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Kohl, Harold W; Spitz, Margaret R; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-26

    Despite well-established negative health consequences of smokeless tobacco use (STU), the number and variety of alternative non-combustible tobacco products on the market have increased tremendously over the last 10 years, as has the market share of these products relative to cigarettes. While STU among non-Hispanic white youth has decreased over the last 10 years, the prevalence has remained constant among Hispanic youth. Here we examine demographic, psychosocial, and genetic risk associated with STU among Mexican heritage youth. Participants (50.5 % girls) reported on psychosocial risk factors in 2008-09 (n = 1,087, mean age = 14.3 years), and smokeless tobacco use in 2010-11 (mean age = 16.7 years). Participants provided a saliva sample that was genotyped for genes in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid pathways. Overall 62 (5.7 %) participants reported lifetime STU. We identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms that increased the risk for lifetime use. Specifically, rs2023902 on SERGEF (OR = 1.93; 95 % CI: 1.05-3.53), rs16941667 on ALDH2 (OR = 3.14; 95 % CI: 1.65-5.94), and rs17721739 on TPH1 (OR = 1.71; 95 % CI: 1.00-2.91) in the dopamine pathway, rs514912 on TRH-DE (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI: 1.25-2.71) in the serotonin pathway, and rs42451417 on the serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4 (OR = 3.53; 95 % CI: 1.56-7.97). After controlling for genetic risk, being male (OR = 1.86; 95 % CI: 1.02-3.41), obesity status (OR = 2.22; 95 % CI: 1.21-4.09), and both higher levels of anxiety (OR = 1.04; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.08) and social disinhibition (OR = 1.26; 95 % CI: 1.07-1.48) were associated with increased use. High subjective social status (OR = 0.78; 95 % CI: 0.64-0.93) was protective against use, while higher parental education (OR = 2.01; 95 % CI: 1.03-3.93) was associated with increased use. These data suggest that use of genetic risk, along with psychosocial, demographic, and behavioral risk factors may increase our ability to identify youth at increased risk for STU

  2. New Media Practices in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ok, Hyeryoung

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at new media practices in Korea, such as the Internet, mobile phones, gaming, and new media production. In spite of Korea's reputation for achieving the most advanced IT and digital media culture, Korean youths' concrete practices of navigating this new techno-sphere are not well known to the rest of the world. To fill this gap in knowledge, this piece synthesizes findings from academic as well as popular sources in Korean and English on Korean digital youth. Studies of Kor...

  3. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV-Related Risk and Protective Behaviors Among Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-07-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.

  4. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  5. Evaluating methamphetamine use and risks of injection initiation among street youth: the ARYS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaner Julio SG

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many Canadian cities are experiencing ongoing infectious disease and overdose epidemics among injection drug users (IDU. These health concerns have recently been exacerbated by the increasing availability and use of methamphetamine. The challenges of reducing health-related harms among IDU have led to an increased recognition that strategies to prevent initiation into injection drug use must receive renewed focus. In an effort to better explore the factors that may protect against or facilitate entry into injection drug use, the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS has recently been initiated in Vancouver, Canada. The local setting is unique due to the significant infrastructure that has been put in place to reduce HIV transmission among active IDU. The ARYS study will seek to examine the impact of these programs, if any, on non-injection drug users. In addition, Vancouver has been the site of widespread use of methamphetamine in general and has seen a substantial increase in the use of crystal methamphetamine among street youth. Hence, the ARYS cohort is well positioned to examine the harms associated with methamphetamine use, including its potential role in facilitating initiation into injection drug use. This paper provides some background on the epidemiology of illicit drug use among street youth in North America and outlines the methodology of ARYS, a prospective cohort study of street youth in Vancouver, Canada.

  6. Assessment of exposure to heavy metals and health risks among residents near abandoned metal mines in Goseong, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungkon; Lee, Minjung; Park, Soyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Paek, Do-Hyun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-01-01

    Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants. In the present study, we investigated the levels of Cd, Cu, As, Pb, and Zn in environmental samples and foodstuffs grown in the vicinity of the mines in Goseong, Korea, and evaluated potential health risks among local residents. Soils near the mines exceeded the soil quality standard values of Cu, As, and Zn contamination. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in crop samples collected from the study area were significantly higher than those of the reference area. Some rice samples collected from the study area exceeded the maximum permissible level of 0.2 mg Cd/kg. The intake of rice was identified as a major contributor (≥75%) to the estimated daily intake among the residents. The average estimated daily intakes of metals were, however, below the provisional tolerable daily intake. -- Highlights: •Area near the abandoned mines was significantly contaminated with metals. •Some rice grains exceeded the maximum permissible level of Cd. •The estimated daily intake of metals was below the provisional tolerable daily intake. •Intake of rice was constituted the major proportion of estimated daily intake. -- Cadmium was detected relatively high in rice, and was identified as a chemical of potential concern in an area near abandoned copper mines of Goseong, Korea

  7. Risk factors for postpartum endometritis and the effect of endometritis on reproductive performance in dairy cows in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Hwa; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for postpartum endometritis by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the effect of endometritis on the subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including health status, parity and body condition score (BCS) of cows, and calving date, were collected from 320 cows in eight dairy herds calving from January 2001 to October 2002. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on endometritis. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and parity are the important risk factors for endometritis. The mean intervals from calving to first service and conception were prolonged (Pconception rate was lower (Pconception was higher (P<0.05) in the endometritis group (1.9) than in the non-endometritis group (1.6). We conclude that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and cow parity are strongly correlated with the development of postpartum endometritis, which decreases reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea.

  8. Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034

  9. Comparison of three lifecourse models of poverty in predicting cardiovascular disease risk in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Séguin, Louise; Lambert, Marie; Gauvin, Lise; Nikiema, Béatrice; Paradis, Gilles

    2013-08-01

    Childhood poverty heightens the risk of adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying pathways are poorly understood. Three lifecourse models have been proposed but have never been tested among youth. We assessed the longitudinal association of childhood poverty with CVD risk factors in 10-year-old youth according to the timing, accumulation, and mobility models. The Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development birth cohort was established in 1998 (n = 2120). Poverty was defined as annual income below the low-income thresholds defined by Statistics Canada. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for gender, pubertal stage, parental education, maternal age, whether the household was a single parent household, whether the child was overweight or obese, the child's physical activity in the past week, and family history. Approximately 40% experienced poverty at least once, 16% throughout childhood, and 25% intermittently. Poverty was associated with significantly elevated triglycerides and insulin according to the timing and accumulation models, although the timing model was superior for predicting insulin and the accumulation model was superior for predicting triglycerides. Early and prolonged exposure to poverty significantly increases CVD risk among 10-year-old youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk and Protective Factors of Internet Addiction: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and...

  11. Transport PPP decisions in Korea: value for money assessment and risk quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Hong

    2014-01-01

    Value for money (VFM) assessment has been adopted worldwide as a public private partnership (PPP) decision methodology. In terms of quantitative assessment, this method considers only the public sector cost, assuming completion delay does not occur between delivery alternatives, so it is difficult to use where systematic completion delays in the conventional delivery are expected to occur like in Korea. Therefore, in this research a Modified VFM methodology was developed to consider completio...

  12. Youth, Risk, and Equity in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Glynda; Zacher, Jessica; Hibbert, Liesel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews educational literatures that should be relevant to helping individuals understand and improve the lot and life chances of girls and boys who are at risk in a global world. The authors began this review with a vignette from India, a country whose linguistic and ethnic diversity, whose international reputation for advances in…

  13. Goal Setting and Decision Making by At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.; Gustafon, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Typically, adolescence is a time when individuals begin to make consequential, life-framing decisions. However, much of the decision-making literature focuses on high-risk decisions, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, while much less is known about how adolescents make positive decisions, for example, regarding their educational or career…

  14. Youth Participation and Injury Risk in Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Koutures, Chris

    2016-12-01

    The martial arts can provide children and adolescents with vigorous levels of physical exercise that can improve overall physical fitness. The various types of martial arts encompass noncontact basic forms and techniques that may have a lower relative risk of injury. Contact-based sparring with competitive training and bouts have a higher risk of injury. This clinical report describes important techniques and movement patterns in several types of martial arts and reviews frequently reported injuries encountered in each discipline, with focused discussions of higher risk activities. Some of these higher risk activities include blows to the head and choking or submission movements that may cause concussions or significant head injuries. The roles of rule changes, documented benefits of protective equipment, and changes in training recommendations in attempts to reduce injury are critically assessed. This information is intended to help pediatric health care providers counsel patients and families in encouraging safe participation in martial arts. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  16. Educators and Programs Reaching Out to At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. Linda

    1990-01-01

    Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…

  17. Risk versus direct protective factors and youth violence: Seattle social development project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J David

    2012-08-01

    Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in 5th grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10-12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13-14 years and 15-18 years. Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13-14 years and 15-18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10-12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10-12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the measures and methods that were applied. Implications provide

  18. Evaluation of a chemical risk assessment method of South Korea for chemicals classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2017-12-12

    Chemicals were used in various fields by the development of industry and science and technology. The Chemical Hazard Risk Management (CHARM) was developed to assess the risk of chemicals in South Korea. In this study, we were to evaluate the CHARM model developed for the effective management of workplace chemicals. We used 59 carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR) materials, which are both the work environment measurement result and the usage information among the manufacturer data. The CHARM model determines the risk to human health using the exposure level (based on working environment measurements or a combination of the quantity used and chemical physical properties (e.g., fugacity and volatility)), hazard (using occupational exposure limit (OEL) or Risk phrases (R-phrases)/Hazard statements (H-statements) from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)). The risk level was lower when using the results of the work environment measurement than when applying the chemical quantity and physical properties in the exposure level evaluation method. It was evaluated as grade 4 for the CMR material in the hazard class determination. The risk assessment method by R-phrases was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by OEL. And the risk assessment method by H-statements was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by R-phrases. The CHARM model was gradually conservatively assessed as it proceeded in the next step without quantitative information for individual workplaces. The CHARM is expected to help identify the risk if the hazards and exposure levels of chemicals were identified in individual workplaces. For CMR substances, although CHARM is highly evaluated for hazards, the risk is assessed to be low if exposure levels are assessed low. When evaluating the risk of highly hazardous chemicals such as CMR substances, we believe the model should be adapted to be more conservative and classify these as higher risk. This work is

  19. How do youth with experience of violence victimization and/or risk drinking perceive routine inquiry about violence and alcohol consumption in Swedish youth clinics? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Anna; Danielsson, Ingela; Högberg, Ulf; Norbergh, Karl-Gustav

    2017-10-01

    To explore perceptions and experiences among youth who underwent structured questions about violence victimization and alcohol consumption when visiting Swedish youth clinics. This study is part of a larger research project examining the effect of including routine inquiry about violence victimization and alcohol consumption for youth visiting youth clinics. Fifteen youth with experiences of victimization and/or risk drinking (AUDIT-C≥5) were interviewed. Content analysis was used. The findings were grouped into three main categories: The first; "Disclosure - talking about violence" reflected the participants' experiences of being asked about victimization. Participants were in favor of routine inquiry about violence victimization, even when questions caused distress. The questions helped participants reflect on prior victimization and process what had happened to them. The second; "Influence on the life situation" demonstrated that many of the participants still were effected by prior victimization, but also how talking about violence sometimes led to the possibility of initiating change such as leaving a destructive relationship or starting therapy. In the third; "One's own alcohol consumption in black and white" participants considered it natural to be asked about alcohol consumption. However, most participants did not consider their drinking problematic, even when told they exceeded guidelines. They viewed risk drinking in terms of immediate consequences rather than in quantity or frequency of alcohol intake. Routine inquiry about violence victimization and risk drinking at youth clinics was well received. Questions about violence helped participants to interpret and process prior victimization and sometimes initiated change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  1. Suicide risk in relation to social class: a national register-based study of adult suicides in Korea, 1999-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Sang-Yi; Kwak, Young-Sook; Lee, Chang-In; Hwang, Seung-Wook; Shin, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Min; Shin, Ji-Nam

    2006-03-01

    Few controlled studies have examined social class as a risk factor for suicide in Korea. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of social class on suicide risk in Korea. A case-control design was constructed from cause-of-death statistics for the period 1999 to 2001, in Korea, as published by the Korean National Statistical Office. The cases were defined as people aged between 20 and 64 who died by suicide, while the controls were defined as those who died of natural causes in the same age groups. The proportions and odds ratios for suicide were higher in young people than in elderly people, and higher for divorced subjects than for cohabitants. They were also higher for residents of rural areas, as opposed to residents of Seoul and other metropolitan areas, and for people in social classes III and IV, than they were for those in social class I. To control the variables that influence risk of suicide, such as age, marital status and area of residence, we used multiple logistic regression. Compared with class I, risk of suicide was higher in social classes III and IV, in both sexes. The principal conclusion of this study is that, regardless of sex, lower social class constitutes a high risk for suicide in Korea, even after controlling for variables such as age, marital status and area of residence. We conclude that a well-controlled and balanced social welfare system could reduce suicide risk, especially among people in lower social class.

  2. The Effectiveness of an Interactive Multimedia Psychoeducational Approach to Improve Financial Competence in At-Risk Youth: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a growing number of initiatives have been aimed at increasing financial literacy among youth in America. However, these efforts have tended to target mainstream populations, and failing to adequately address the backgrounds, learning, and psychological needs of at-risk youth. This study piloted a curriculum on money management that presented a basic set of financial skills via story situations and characters that are meaningful to at-risk youth using a dynamic interactive multimedia online delivery to heighten youths’ interest to learn. The approach also helped at-risk youth gain insight into their money beliefs and psychological barriers to success, integrating change theory and techniques designed to enhance their motivation to change. Eighty-eight Job Corps participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Results showed that the interactive multimedia curriculum produced significant gains in youth’s financial knowledge and confidence in money management skills.

  3. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Helene ACM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls

  4. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Carolyne; Voeten, Helene A C M; Remes, Pieter

    2011-08-08

    Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should

  5. Periodontal Microorganisms and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes and Without Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Nahhas, Georges J; Wadwa, R Paul; Zhang, Jiajia; Tang, Yifan; Johnson, Lonnie R; Maahs, David M; Bishop, Franziska; Teles, Ricardo; Morrato, Elaine H

    2016-04-01

    A subset of periodontal microorganisms has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading complication of type 1 diabetes (t1DM). The authors therefore evaluated the association between periodontal microorganism groups and early markers of CVD in youth with t1DM. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among youth aged 12 to 19 years at enrollment; 105 had t1DM for ≥5 years and were seeking care at the Barbara Davis Center, University of Colorado, from 2009 to 2011, and 71 did not have diabetes. Subgingival plaque samples were assessed for counts of 41 periodontal microorganisms using DNA-DNA hybridization. Microorganisms were classified using cluster analysis into four groups named red-orange, orange-green, blue/other, and yellow/other, modified from Socransky's color scheme for periodontal microorganisms. Subsamples (54 with t1DM and 48 without diabetes) also received a periodontal examination at the University of Colorado School of Dental Medicine. Participants were ≈15 years old on average, and 74% were white. Mean periodontal probing depth was 2 mm (SE 0.02), and 17% had bleeding on probing. In multivariable analyses, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was inversely associated with the yellow/other cluster (microorganisms that are not associated with periodontal disease) among youth with t1DM. Blood pressure, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were not associated with microorganism clusters in this group. HbA1c was not associated with periodontal microorganism clusters among youth without diabetes. Among youth with t1DM who had good oral health, periodontal microorganisms were not associated with CVD risk factors.

  6. The mental health of married immigrant women in South Korea and its risk and protective factors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeeun; Park, Subin

    2018-02-01

    Married immigrant women in South Korea undergo a wide array of psychosocial challenges in the process of adapting to a new culture and marriage with a Korean husband. For an integrative understanding of women's mental health status and to determine the key risk and protective factors, we systematically reviewed empirical articles about the mental health of married immigrant women. We searched and reviewed articles from nine online databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, KoreaMed and RISS, which were published up until January 2017. We identified 38 quantitative studies that examined psychiatric symptoms and pertinent factors for this population. The relative risks of psychiatric symptoms among married immigrant women varied across diverse samples. We summarized the associated factors existing prior to and after marriage migration that may moderate their mental health consequences. We identified five key risk factors: acculturative stress, country of origin, family stress, domestic violence and extended family structure, and two protective factors: social support and marriage satisfaction, which were consistently supported by the included studies. With the paucity of prospective studies, longitudinal research is needed that addresses the long-term processes of married immigrant women's psychological adaptation and the underlying risk and protective factors at diverse settlement phases. Furthermore, we suggest that future research should focus on how women's personal attributes interact with macro-level, socio-cultural contexts, including familial relationship and the community social-support system. Future evidence-based policy and interventions should comprehensively address married immigrant women's socio-cultural, economic and mental health needs.

  7. Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse.

  8. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth-What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P

    2017-08-01

    Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.

  9. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A human immunodeficiency virus risk reduction intervention for incarcerated youth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Eudice; Millson, Peggy; Rivers, Stephen; Manning, Stephanie Jeanneret; Leslie, Karen; Read, Stanley; Shipley, Caitlin; Victor, J Charles

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate, by gender, the impact of a structured, comprehensive risk reduction intervention with and without boosters on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in incarcerated youth; and to determine predictors of increasing HIV knowledge and reducing high-risk attitudes and behaviors. This randomized controlled trial involved participants completing structured interviews at 1, 3, and 6 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze changes over time. The study was conducted in secure custody facilities and in the community. The study sample comprising 391 incarcerated youth, 102 female and 289 male aged 12-18, formed the voluntary sample. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: education intervention; education intervention with booster; or no systematic intervention. The outcome and predictor measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report, Drug Use Inventory, and HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Scale. The 6-month retention rate was 59.6%. At 6 months, males in the education and booster groups sustained increases in knowledge scores (p variations by gender underline the importance of gender issues in prevention interventions. Predictors of success were identified to inform future HIV education interventions.

  11. Reducing injury risk from body checking in boys' youth ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison; Loud, Keith J; Brenner, Joel S; Demorest, Rebecca A; Halstead, Mark E; Kelly, Amanda K Weiss; Koutures, Chris G; LaBella, Cynthia R; LaBotz, Michele; Martin, Stephanie S; Moffatt, Kody

    2014-06-01

    Ice hockey is an increasingly popular sport that allows intentional collision in the form of body checking for males but not for females. There is a two- to threefold increased risk of all injury, severe injury, and concussion related to body checking at all levels of boys' youth ice hockey. The American Academy of Pediatrics reinforces the importance of stringent enforcement of rules to protect player safety as well as educational interventions to decrease unsafe tactics. To promote ice hockey as a lifelong recreational pursuit for boys, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the expansion of nonchecking programs and the restriction of body checking to elite levels of boys' youth ice hockey, starting no earlier than 15 years of age.

  12. Identification of Suicide Risk Among Rural Youth: Implications for the Use of HEADSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887

  13. Theoretical foundations of the Study of Latino (SOL) Youth: implications for obesity and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Carnethon, Mercedes; Arredondo, Elva; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista; Van Horn, Linda; Himes, John H; Eckfeldt, John H; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Santisteban, Daniel A; Isasi, Carmen R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual model developed for the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth, a multisite epidemiologic study of obesity and cardiometabolic risk among U.S. Hispanic/Latino children. Public health, psychology, and sociology research were examined for relevant theories and paradigms. This research, in turn, led us to consider several study design features to best represent both risk and protective factors from multiple levels of influence, as well as the identification of culturally relevant scales to capture identified constructs. The Socio-Ecological Framework, Social Cognitive Theory, family systems theory, and acculturation research informed the specification of our conceptual model. Data are being collected from both children and parents in the household to examine the bidirectional influence of children and their parents, including the potential contribution of intergenerational differences in acculturation as a risk factor. Children and parents are reporting on individual, interpersonal, and perceived organizational and community influences on children's risk for obesity consistent with Socio-Ecological Framework. Much research has been conducted on obesity, yet conceptual models examining risk and protective factors lack specificity in several areas. Study of Latino Youth is designed to fill a gap in this research and inform future efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Injury risk is different in team and individual youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain

    2013-05-01

    This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; psports, with additionally previous injury being a risk and age a protective factor. The number of competitions per 100 days was significantly higher in team sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; psports the number of competitions per 100 days had a protective effect (HR=0.940; CI95% [0.893; 0.989]; p=0.017). Team sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors and the economic impact of ovarian cysts on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Doek; Ki, Kwang-Sook; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for development of postpartum ovarian cysts by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the economic impact of ovarian cysts on subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including cow parity, abnormal puerperium, endometritis, body condition score (BCS), and breeding status were collected from 634 cows in 9 dairy herds. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on ovarian cysts. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that cow parity was the most important risk factor for ovarian cyst development within 8 weeks postpartum, while development of endometritis and BCS loss>or=1 from the dry period to 8 weeks postpartum were the most important risk factors for ovarian cyst development beyond 8 weeks postpartum. The occurrence of ovarian cysts beyond 8 weeks postpartum prolonged (Pconception (77 days), and increased (Prate (7.8%), while ovarian cyst development within 8 weeks postpartum did not affect (P>0.05) the mean intervals from calving to first service and conception or the culling rate. The economic loss resulting from the occurrence of ovarian cysts was estimated at approximately 823,996 won ($687) due to effects on the cost of nutrition, average growth of calves, labor and medical costs, and culling. These results suggest that cow parity is correlated with the development of ovarian cysts within 8 weeks postpartum, and endometritis and BCS loss>or=1 from the dry period to 8 weeks postpartum are correlated with the development of ovarian cysts after 8 weeks postpartum, which decreases reproductive performance and results in economic loss in dairy herds in Korea.

  16. Delinquent Risks of Parental Abuse at the Age of 11 Years among At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2014-01-01

    Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…

  17. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  18. The effects of out-of-school time on changes in youth risk of obesity across the adolescent years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrett, Nicole; Bell, Bethany A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of out-of-school time (OST) activities on youth weight-status through mid-to-late adolescence. First, using pattern-centered methods, we identified the prominent ways in which youth allocate their OST across 12 common active and sedentary activities available to them. Second, through multi-level modeling procedures we examined the relation of OST activity patterns to: 1) BMI-status during the 11th grade, and; 2) within-person change in BMI-status across the adolescent years. After accounting for race, gender, SES, pubertal-status, and gaming, youth who participated in a sports-dominant activity pattern for 2 or more years had significantly lower 11th grade odds of being at-risk for overweight/obesity compared to youth in all other activity patterns. Youth of all other activity patterns had similar odds of being at-risk as Low-Activity youth and each other. Understanding the relations of OST to youth healthy weight is a critical first step in developing healthy OST settings. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  20. An evaluation of the exemption level for the radiation protection regulation based on the social risk acceptance in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Don

    1998-02-01

    Radiation protection is based not only on the science but also on the political, social, economical and emotional factors, so a policy decision for a factor like the exemption level in this field must be considered social expectation and valuation as well as scientific evaluation. In this paper, an attempt was made to get a rationale on the exemption level, which has a significant meaning in radiation protection, by means of surveying the social risk acceptance in Korea. Risk perception data were collected by mail surveys to the respondents randomly selected in the city of Seoul. A poor response rate, 156 out of 400, was observed. The result showed that the majority of the respondents agreed upon setting a de mini mis level of risk and the favoured de mini mis level appeared to be in the range of 10 -6 yr -1 to 10 -7 yr -1 , which is consistent with the level suggested by other organizations: ICRP, EPA and NRPB. Approximately the same risk level, unfortunately, was obtained for the risk limits against a harmful agent, which makes no sense. It can be attributed to mis-communication due to the questionnaires inadequately designed. The acceptable risk level for a single practice was selected to be 1/100 or less of the risk limits, which seemed overly conservative, but could be understood in the light of the public attitude of outrage. There seems to be tendency that the public recognize the risk significant if it is not de mini mis. This study should not be regarded as one giving a satisfactory conclusion but a preliminary attempt to evaluate the acceptable risk level. More endeavors in design of questionnaires are needed to communicate successfully with the members of the public

  1. Preliminary psychometric properties of the brief Negative Symptom Scale in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Chapman, Hannah C

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Relationships between prevalence of youth risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Chie; Nozu, Yuji; Kudo, Masako; Sato, Yuki; Kubo, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Naoko; Iwata, Hideki; Watanabe, Motoi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify relationships between prevalence of risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students. Data from a national survey, the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 (the subjects were 9,778 students: 5,027 males, 4,751 females, in the first grade to the third grade of 102 schools randomly selected among high schools throughout Japan) was used for this analysis. We focused on nine items of risk behavior in JYRBS: "lack of vigorous physical activity," "skipping breakfast," "current cigarette use," "current alcohol use," "lifetime thinner use," "ever had sexual intercourse," "rarely or never wore seatbelts," "in a physical fight," and "seriously considered attempting suicide." Students with less than six hours of sleep duration accounted for approximately 40% of males and females. The odds ratios of prevalence of each of the nine risk behaviors were calculated on the basis of the group "six hours or more and less than eight hours" of sleep, whose prevalence of risk behaviors was the lowest. In the group with "four hours or more and less than six hours," the odds ratios of "lack of vigorous physical activity" and "skipping breakfast" for both males and females were significantly high. Furthermore, in the group with shorter sleep duration of "less than four hours," the odds ratios of all nine risk behaviors for males (odds ratios: 1.47-3.28) and eight risk behaviors (except for "rarely or never wore seatbelts") for females (1.54-4.68) were significantly high. On the other hand, in the group with long sleep duration of "10 hours or more," the odds ratios of "current cigarette use" and "lifetime thinner use" for both males and females were significantly high. It was shown that short sleep duration of less than six hours and long sleep duration of 10 hours or more related to the prevalence of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. It was suggested that sleep duration should be considered as an important category

  3. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study.

  4. Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (pgender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Paik

    Full Text Available To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and percentage body fat (BF, according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis.The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05. As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1 decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women; the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders; the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ≤0.001 for both genders. Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.32-3.47; and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97 and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease.The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.

  6. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2018-01-01

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings (pshypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Victimization as a mediator of alcohol use disparities between sexual minority subgroups and sexual majority youth using the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Turner, Blair; Salamanca, Paul; Birkett, Michelle; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Newcomb, Michael E; Marro, Rachel; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth is a significant public health concern. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is the "drug of choice" among adolescents, meaning more youth use and abuse alcohol than any other substance. Prevalence of alcohol use is disproportionately higher among sexual minority youth (SMY) than among their heterosexual peers. We examined sexual identity and sexual behavior disparities in alcohol use, and the mediational role of bullying in a sample of high school students. Data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to assess the association between sexual minority status (identity and behavior) and alcohol use with weighted logistic regression. Due to well-documented differences between males and females, we stratified models by gender. Physical and cyberbullying were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual minority status and alcohol use. We detected associations between certain subgroups of sexual minority youth and alcohol use across all four drinking variables (ever drank alcohol, age at first drink, current alcohol use, and binge drinking). Most of these associations were found among bisexual-identified youth and students with both male and female sexual partners; these individuals had up to twice the odds of engaging in alcohol use behaviors when compared with sexual majority students. Associations were strongest among females. Bullying mediated sexual minority status and alcohol use only among bisexual females. As disparities in alcohol use differ by gender, sexual identity, and sexual behavior, interventions should be targeted accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early interventions for youths at high risk for bipolar disorder: a developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarous, Xavier; Consoli, Angèle; Milhiet, Vanessa; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, ongoing research programmes on primary prevention and early identification of bipolar disorder (BD) have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the principal forms of evidence that support preventive interventions for BD in children and adolescents and the main challenges associated with these programmes. We performed a literature review of the main computerised databases (MEDLINE, PUBMED) and a manual search of the literature relevant to prospective and retrospective studies of prodromal symptoms, premorbid stages, risk factors, and early intervention programmes for BD. Genetic and environmental risk factors of BD were identified. Most of the algorithms used to measure the risk of developing BD and the early interventions programmes focused on the familial risk. The prodromal signs varied greatly and were age dependent. During adolescence, depressive episodes associated with genetic or environmental risk factors predicted the onset of hypomanic/manic episodes over subsequent years. In prepubertal children, the lack of specificity of clinical markers and difficulties in mood assessment were seen as impeding preventive interventions at these ages. Despite encouraging results, biomarkers have not thus far been sufficiently validated in youth samples to serve as screening tools for prevention. Additional longitudinal studies in youths at high risk of developing BD should include repeated measures of putative biomarkers. Staging models have been developed as an integrative approach to specify the individual level of risk based on clinical (e.g. prodromal symptoms and familial history of BD) and non-clinical (e.g. biomarkers and neuroimaging) data. However, there is still a lack of empirically validated studies that measure the benefits of using these models to design preventive intervention programmes.

  9. Risk for Arrest: The Role of Social Bonds in Protecting Foster Youth Making the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17–18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed. PMID:22239390

  10. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  11. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  12. Travel characteristics and risk-taking attitudes in youths traveling to nonindustrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pauline; Balaban, Victor; Marano, Cinzia

    2010-01-01

    International travel to developing countries is increasing with rising levels of disposable income; this trend is seen in both adults and children. Risk-taking attitude is fundamental to research on the prevention of risky health behaviors, which can be an indicator of the likelihood of experiencing illness or injury during travel. The aim of this study is to investigate whether risk-taking attitudes of youths are associated with travel characteristics and likelihood of experiencing illness or injury while traveling to nonindustrialized countries. Data were analyzed from the 2008 YouthStyles survey, an annual mail survey gathering demographics and health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from 9 through 18 years of age. Travelers were defined as respondents who reported traveling in the last 12 months to a destination other than the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia, or New Zealand. Risk-taking attitude was measured by using a four-item Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale. All p values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Of 1,704 respondents, 131 (7.7%) traveled in the last 12 months. Females and those with higher household income were more likely to travel (odds ratio = 1.6,1.1). Of those who traveled, 16.7% reported seeking pretravel medical care, with most visiting a family doctor for that care (84.0%). However, one-fifth of respondents reported illness and injury during travel; of these, 83.3% traveled with their parents. Males and older youths had higher mean sensation-seeking scores. Further, travelers had a higher mean sensation-seeking score than nontravelers. Those who did not seek pretravel medical care also had higher mean sensation-seeking scores (p = 0.1, not significant). Our results show an association between risk-taking attitudes and youth travel behavior. However, adult supervision during travel and parental directives prior to travel should be taken into consideration. Communication messages should emphasize the

  13. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  14. Early Intervention for Symptomatic Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Trial of Family-Focused Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J.; Schneck, Christopher D.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Taylor, Dawn O.; George, Elizabeth L.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Howe, Meghan E.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Garber, Judy; Chang, Kiki D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored…

  15. Effects of Familial Attachment, Social Support, Involvement, and Self-Esteem on Youth Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.

    2010-01-01

    A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F; Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18-24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses on HIV education, contributors to HIV transmission, and pre-sex HIV status disclosure. The 68 participants had the following characteristics: mean age 21.5 years (standard deviation: 1.8 years), 85% male, 90% black, 68% HIV-infected. HIV risk behaviors included the perception of condomless sex (Likert scale mean: 8.0) and transactional sex (88% of participants); no differences were noted by HIV status. Qualitative analyses revealed two main themes: (1) HIV risk factors among AYAs, and (2) barriers to discussing HIV status before sex. Participants felt the use of social media, need for immediate gratification, and lack of concern about HIV disease were risk factors for AYAs. Discussing HIV status with sex partners was uncommon. Key reasons included: fear of rejection, lack of confidentiality, discussion was unnecessary in temporary relationships, and disclosure negatively affecting the mood. HIV prevention strategies for AYAs should include improving condom use frequency and HIV disclosure skills, responsible utilization of social media, and education addressing HIV prevention including the risks of transactional sex.

  17. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  18. Shared risk: who engages in substance use with American homeless youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D; de la Haye, Kayla; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    To identify characteristics of social network members with whom homeless youth engage in drinking and drug use. A multi-stage probability sample of homeless youth completed a social network survey. Forty-one shelters, drop-in centers and known street hangouts in Los Angeles County. A total of 419 homeless youth, aged 13-24 years (mean age = 20.09, standard deviation = 2.80). Respondents described 20 individuals in their networks, including their substance use and demographics, and the characteristics of the relationships they shared, including with whom they drank and used drugs. Dyadic, multi-level regressions identified predictors of shared substance use. Shared drinking was more likely to occur with recent sex partners [odds ratio (OR) = 2.64, confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 4.18], drug users (OR = 4.57, CI: 3.21, 6.49), sexual risk takers (OR = 1.71, CI: 1.25, 2.33), opinion leaders (OR = 1.69, CI: 1.42, 2.00), support providers (OR = 1.41, CI: 1.03, 1.93) and popular people (those with high degree scores in the network) (OR = 1.07, CI: 1.01, 1.14). Shared drug use was more likely to occur with recent sex partners (OR = 2.44, CI: 1.57, 3.80), drinkers (OR = 4.53, CI: 3.05, 6.74), sexual risk takers (OR = 1.51, CI: 1.06, 2.17), opinion leaders (OR = 1.24, CI: 1.03, 1.50), support providers (OR = 1.83, CI: 1.29, 2.60) and popular people (OR = 1.16, CI: 1.08, 1.24). Homeless youth in the United States are more likely to drink or use drugs with those who engage in multiple risk behaviors and who occupy influential social roles (popular, opinion leaders, support providers, sex partners). Understanding these social networks may be helpful in designing interventions to combat substance misuse. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prolonged sitting and markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in children and youth: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Goldfield, Gary S; Colley, Rachel C; Kenny, Glen P; Doucet, Eric; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that short bouts of uninterrupted sedentary behavior reduce insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while increasing triglyceride levels in both healthy and overweight/obese adults. To date no study has examined the acute impact of uninterrupted sitting in children and youth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether 8 h of uninterrupted sitting increases markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in healthy children and youth, in comparison to 8 h of sitting interrupted by light intensity walk breaks or structured physical activity. 11 healthy males and 8 healthy females between the ages of 10 and 14 years experienced 3 conditions in random order: (1) 8 h of uninterrupted sitting (Sedentary); (2) 8 h of sitting interrupted with a 2-min light-intensity walk break every 20 min (Breaks); and (3) 8 h of sitting interrupted with a 2-min light-intensity walk break every 20 min as well as 2×20 min of moderate-intensity physical activity (Breaks+Physical Activity). Insulin, glucose, triglyceride, HDL and LDL cholesterol area under the curve were calculated for each condition. We observed no significant differences in the area under the curve for any marker of cardiometabolic disease risk across the 3 study conditions (all p>0.09). These results suggest that in comparison to interrupted sitting or structured physical activity, a single bout of 8 h of uninterrupted sitting does not result in measurable changes in circulating levels of insulin, glucose, or lipids in healthy children and youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vigorous physical activity and longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, V; Rinaldi, R L; Torrance, B; Maximova, K; Ball, G D C; Majumdar, S R; Plotnikoff, R C; Veugelers, P; Boulé, N G; Wozny, P; McCargar, L; Downs, S; Daymont, C; Lewanczuk, R; McGavock, J

    2014-01-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between different physical activity (PA) intensities and cardiometabolic risk factors among a sample of Canadian youth. The findings are based on a 2-year prospective cohort study in a convenience sample of 315 youth aged 9-15 years at baseline from rural and urban schools in Alberta, Canada. Different intensities (light, moderate and vigorous) of PA were objectively assessed with Actical accelerometers. The main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure at 2-year-follow-up and conditional BMI z-score velocity. A series of linear regression models were conducted to investigate the associations after adjusting for potential confounders. At follow-up, cardiorespiratory fitness increased (quartile 1 vs quartile 4=43.3 vs 50.2; P(trend)trend)=0.04; boys only) in a dose-response manner across quartiles of baseline vigorous-intensity PA. A similar trend was observed for systolic blood pressure (quartile 1 vs quartile 4=121.8 vs 115.3; P(trend)=0.07; boys only). Compared with quartile 1 of vigorous-intensity PA, BMI z-score at follow-up and conditional BMI z-score velocity were significantly lower in the quartile 2 and 3 (Ptrend)=0.04) across quartiles of baseline moderate-intensity PA. Time spent in vigorous-intensity PA was associated with several positive health outcomes 2 years later. These findings suggest that high-intensity activities in youth help to reduce the risk for several chronic diseases.

  2. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  3. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  4. The Hip Hop peer crowd: An opportunity for intervention to reduce tobacco use among at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew W; Navarro, Mario A; Hoffman, Leah; Wagner, Dana E; Stalgaitis, Carolyn A; Jordan, Jeffrey W

    2018-07-01

    Peer crowds, peer groups with macro-level connections and shared norms that transcend geography and race/ethnicity, have been linked to risky health behaviors. Research has demonstrated that Hip Hop peer crowd identification, which is common among multicultural youth, is associated with increased risk of tobacco use. To address this, the FDA Center for Tobacco Products created Fresh Empire, the first national tobacco education campaign tailored for Hip Hop youth aged 12-17 who are multicultural (Hispanic, African American, Asian-Pacific Islander, or Multiracial). As part of campaign development, peer crowd (Hip Hop, Mainstream, Popular, Alternative, Country) and cigarette smoking status were examined for the first time with a nationally recruited sample. Youth were recruited via targeted social media advertisements. Participants aged 13-17 (n = 5153) self-reported peer crowd identification via the I-Base Survey™ and cigarette smoking status. Differences in smoking status by peer crowd were examined using chi-square and followed up with z-tests to identify specific differences. Alternative youth were most at risk of cigarette smoking, followed by Hip Hop. Specifically, Hip Hop youth were significantly less likely to be Non-susceptible Non-triers than Popular, Mainstream, and Country youth, and more likely to be Experimenters than Popular and Mainstream youth. Representative studies show that Alternative is relatively small compared to other high-risk crowds, such as the Hip Hop peer crowd. The current research underscores the potential utility of interventions tailored to larger at-risk crowds for campaigns like Fresh Empire. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Risk factors for HIV-AIDS among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbayi, Leickness C; Kalichman, Seth C; Jooste, Sean; Cherry, Charsey; Mfecane, Sakhumzi; Cain, Demetria

    2005-03-01

    South Africa is in the midst of a devastating HIV-AIDS epidemic and most new HIV infections occur among young adults and adolescents. The current study examined risk behaviors and HIV risk factors among young people living in a Black South African township. Using community-based outreach methods of street intercept and facility-based surveying, 113 men and 115 women age 25 and younger responded to an anonymous survey. Results showed that men (68%) and women (56%) reported HIV-related high risk sexual behaviors. Although knowledge about HIV transmission was generally high, there was evidence that misconceptions about AIDS persist, particularly myths related to HIV transmission. For young men, HIV risk factors were associated with fewer years of education, lower levels of AIDS-related knowledge, condom attitudes, and Dagga (marijuana) use. Among young women, HIV risk factors were associated with beliefs that condoms get in the way of sex and rates of unprotected vaginal intercourse. Despite adequate general AIDS knowledge and risk sensitization, South African youth demonstrated high rates of sexual practices that place them at risk for HIV infection. There is an urgent need for behavioral interventions targeted to young South Africans living in the most economically disadvantaged areas.

  6. Minority Youth's Mastery of Academic Vocabulary and Its Implications for Their Educational Achievements: The Case of "Multicultural Adolescents" in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaran

    2018-01-01

    As a way to examine the validity of deficit perspectives on multicultural children in South Korea--namely, children of mixed parentage who are said to suffer from speech problems and school failure, this study examined their everyday and academic Korean proficiency and its association with their educational achievements. The primary data sources…

  7. Multiple violence victimisation associated with sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in Swedish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.

  8. Shoe and field surface risk factors for acute lower extremity injuries among female youth soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W.; Gray, Kristen E.; Levy, Marni R.; Neradilek, Moni; Tencer, Allan F.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Describe acute lower extremity injuries and evaluate extrinsic risk factors in female youth soccer Design Nested case-control study Setting Youth soccer clubs in Washington State, USA. Participants Female soccer players (N= 351) ages 11 to 15 years randomly selected from 4 soccer clubs from which 83% of their players were enrolled with complete follow-up for 92% of players. Interventions Injured players were interviewed regarding injury, field surface, shoe type, and position. Uninjured controls, matched on game or practice session, were also interviewed. Main Outcome Measures The association between risk factors and acute lower extremity injury using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results One hundred seventy-three acute lower extremity injuries occurred involving primarily the ankle (39.3%), knee (24.9%), and thigh (11.0%). Over half (52.9%) recovered within 1 week, while 30.2% lasted beyond 2 weeks. During practices, those injured were approximately 3-fold ( OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.49-5.31) more likely to play on grass than artificial turf and 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.03-5.96) more likely to wear cleats on grass than other shoe and surface combinations. During games injured players were 89% (95% CI 1.03-4.17) more likely to play defender compared to forward. Conclusions Half of the acute lower extremity injuries affected the ankle or knee. Grass surface and wearing cleats on grass increased training injuries. PMID:26327288

  9. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  10. A risk-factor analysis of medical litigation judgments related to fall injuries in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insook; Won, Seonae; Lee, Mijin; Lee, Won

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors through analysis of seven medical malpractice judgments related to fall injuries. The risk factors were analysed by using the framework that approaches falls from a systems perspective and comprised people, organisational or environmental factors, with each factor being comprised of subfactors. The risk factors found in each of the seven judgments were aggregated into one framework. The risk factors related to patients (i.e. the people factor) were age, pain, related disease, activities and functional status, urination state, cognitive function impairment, past history of fall, blood transfusion, sleep endoscopy state and uncooperative attitude. The risk factors related to the medical staff and caregivers (i.e. people factor) were observation negligence, no fall prevention activities and negligence in managing high-risk group for fall. Organisational risk factors were a lack of workforce, a lack of training, neglecting the management of the high-risk group, neglecting the management of caregivers and the absence of a fall prevention procedure. Regarding the environment, the risk factors were found to be the emergency room, chairs without a backrest and the examination table. Identifying risk factors is essential for preventing fall accidents, since falls are preventable patient-safety incidents. Falls do not happen as a result of a single risk factor. Therefore, a systems approach is effective to identify risk factors, especially organisational and environmental factors.

  11. Family Members of Cancer Patients in Korea Are at an Increased Risk of Medically Diagnosed Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdae Cho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Family members are often cancer patients’ primary source of social and emotional support and make a major contribution to how well patients manage their illness. We compared the prevalence of depression in the family members of cancer patients and the general population. Methods This study used the data from the fourth, fifth, and sixth rounds of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The variable of interest was the presence of a cohabitating cancer patient in the family and the dependent variable was the presence of diagnosed depression. Results The odds of having medically diagnosed depression in those with a cohabitating cancer patient in the family were significantly higher than among those who did not have cancer patients in their families (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.17; p=0.009. The OR for females was 1.59, and this increase was statistically significant (95% CI, 1.09 to 2.31; p=0.02. Conclusions We need to invest more effort into diagnosing and managing depression in the family members of cancer patients. This will have an impact both on their quality of life and on the well-being of patients, as supporters and caregivers play an instrumental role in helping patients manage their illness.

  12. Self-Efficacy About Sexual Risk/Protective Behaviors: Intervention Impact Trajectories Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M; Kaufman, Carol E; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Keane, Ellen M

    2017-09-01

    For adolescents, normative development encompasses learning to negotiate challenges of sexual situations; of special importance are skills to prevent early pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Disparities in sexual risk among American Indian youth point to the importance of intervening to attenuate this risk. This study explored the impact of Circle of Life (COL), an HIV prevention intervention based on social cognitive theory, on trajectories of self-efficacy (refusing sex, avoiding sexual situations) among 635 students from 13 middle schools on one American Indian reservation. COL countered a normative decline of refusal self-efficacy among girls receiving the intervention by age 13, while girls participating at age 14 or older, girls in the comparison group, and all boys showed continuing declines. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Structural characteristics of the online social networks of maltreated youth and offline sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Valente, Thomas W

    2018-02-07

    Maltreated youth are at risk for exposure to online sexual content and high-risk sexual behavior, yet characteristics of their online social networks have not been examined as a potential source of vulnerability. The aims of the current study were: 1) to test indicators of size (number of friends) and fragmentation (number of connections between friends) of maltreated young adults' online networks as predictors of intentional and unintentional exposure to sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior and 2) to test maltreatment as a moderator of these associations. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study on the effects of child maltreatment (n = 152; Mean age 21.84 years). Data downloaded from Facebook were used to calculate network variables of size (number of friends), density (connections between friends), average degree (average number of connections for each friend), and percent isolates (those not connected to others in the network). Self-reports of intentional and unintentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior were the outcome variables. Multiple-group path modeling showed that only for the maltreated group having a higher percent of isolates in the network predicted intentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior. An implication of this finding is that the composition of the Facebook network may be used as a risk indicator for individuals with child-welfare documented maltreatment experiences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. High school youth and suicide risk: exploring protection afforded through physical activity and sport participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J

    2008-10-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of hopelessness and suicidality associated with physical activity and sport participation. Data from the CDC's 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was used to compare the odds of hopelessness and suicidality in students who engaged in various levels of physical activity to inactive students. Similar analyses were performed comparing risks of athletes to nonathletes, and the risks of highly involved athletes to nonathletes. Findings showed that frequent, vigorous activity reduced the risk of hopelessness and suicidality among male adolescents. However, low levels of activity actually increased the risk of feeling hopeless among young females. Yet, for both males and females, sport participation protected against hopelessness and suicidality. These findings indicate that involvement in sport confers unique psychosocial benefits that protect adolescents against suicidality. Findings suggest that mechanisms other than physical activity contribute to the protective association between sport and reduced suicidality. Social support and integration may account for some of the differences found in suicidality between athletes and nonathletes.

  15. Incidence and Risk of Concussions in Youth Athletes: Comparisons of Age, Sex, Concussion History, Sport, and Football Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Chang, Bolin L; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-03-15

    This study was designed to determine concussion incidence, risk, and relative risk among middle and high school athletes participating in various sports. Data were retrospectively obtained from 10,334 athletes of 12 different sports in Hawaii. In addition to determining the overall concussion incidence, comparisons of incidence, risk, and relative risk were made according to age, sex, concussion history, sport, and football position. The overall incidence of concussion among youth athletes was 1,250 (12.1%). The relative risk for a concussion was almost two times greater in 18-year olds than in 13-year-old athletes. In comparable sports, girls had a 1.5 times higher concussion risk than boys. Athletes with a prior concussion had 3-5 times greater risk to sustain a concussion than those with no history of a concussion. Among varied sports, wrestling and martial arts had the highest relative risk of a concussion, followed by cheerleading, football, and track and field. No differences in concussion risks were found among the football players in different positions. Older youths, females, those with a history of concussion, and those participating in high contact sports were found to have higher risks of sustaining a concussion. The findings increase awareness of concussion patterns in young athletes and raise concerns regarding protective strategies and concussion management in youth sports.

  16. Associated Risk Factors of STIs and Multiple Sexual Relationships among Youths in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Chialepeh N

    Full Text Available Having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (MSP is the greatest risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs among youths. Young people with MSPs are less likely to use a condom and the greater the risk for STIs. This study examines the associated risk factors of STIs and multiple sexual partnerships among youths aged 15-24 years.The Malawi Demographic Health Survey 2010 data was used. Out of a sample of 2,987 males and 9,559 females aged 15-24 years, 2,026 males and 6,470 females were considered in the study. Chi square test and logistic regression techniques were performed. Analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.The results indicate that 1,399 (69.0% males and 2,290 (35.4% females reported multiple sexual partnerships (MSP. Within the rural area, females (n = 1779 were more likely to report MSP than males (n = 1082 and within the urban areas, a higher proportion of females (n = 511 still reported MSP, with males (n = 316. About 78% rural females aged 20-24 years, and about 79% rural males aged 15-19 years reported MSP. The likelihood of MSP was higher among females in the poorest households (OR = 1.31, being married (OR = 5.71 and Catholic males (OR = 1.63, who were married (OR = 1.59. Catholic males (OR = 1.82 in the rural areas, who were married (OR = 1.80 and rural females in the northern region (OR = 1.26 were more likely to have MSP. The odds ratios were higher among urban females in the poorest (OR = 3.45 households who were married (OR = 4.22.Having more than one sexual partner increases the risk of STIs and sexuality education programs should be introduced that emphasize the danger that surrounds MSP.

  17. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  18. An odor-specific threshold deficit implicates abnormal cAMP signaling in youths at clinical risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Moberg, Paul J; Calkins, Monica E; Borgmann-Winter, Karin; Conroy, Catherine G; Gur, Raquel E; Kohler, Christian G; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2012-07-01

    While olfactory deficits have been reported in schizophrenia and youths at-risk for psychosis, few studies have linked these deficits to current pathophysiological models of the illness. There is evidence that disrupted cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. As cAMP mediates olfactory signal transduction, the degree to which this disruption could manifest in olfactory impairment was ascertained. Odor-detection thresholds to two odorants that differ in the degree to which they activate intracellular cAMP were assessed in clinical risk and low-risk participants. Birhinal assessments of odor-detection threshold sensitivity to lyral and citralva were acquired in youths experiencing prodromal symptoms (n=17) and controls at low risk for developing psychosis (n=15). Citralva and lyral are odorants that differ in cAMP activation; citralva is a strong cAMP activator and lyral is a weak cAMP activator. The overall group-by-odor interaction was statistically significant. At-risk youths showed significantly reduced odor detection thresholds for lyral, but showed intact detection thresholds for citralva. This odor-specific threshold deficit was uncorrelated with deficits in odor identification or discrimination, which were also present. ROC curve analysis revealed that olfactory performance correctly classified at-risk and low-risk youths with greater than 97% accuracy. This study extends prior findings of an odor-specific hyposmia implicating cAMP-mediated signal transduction in schizophrenia and unaffected first-degree relatives to include youths at clinical risk for developing the disorder. These results suggest that dysregulation of cAMP signaling may be present during the psychosis prodrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sexual abuse and substance abuse increase risk of suicidal behavior in Malaysian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Risk and uncertainty assessment for a potential HLW repository in Korea: TSPA 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.; Kang, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    , the web based QA system in associated with documentation system and the visual MASCOT-K programme are integrated into the new system, CYPRUS. Once completed the CYPRUS system will be a platform not only for the daily R and D but also as the information provider for general public. The issues of stakeholders are the key for the successful TSPA. At this moment, KAERI is working on understanding characteristics of stakeholders and the optimum solution to accommodate opinions of stakeholders over TSPA. To illustrate the safety of a Korean reference disposal system (KRDS) some specific scenarios are identified. Results show that under given conditions the safety of the KRDS suits the guidelines given by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), the sole regulators in Korea. Results clearly point out that the future R and D in data acquisition should be focused on the understanding of the major water conducting features (MWCF.) The integrated results of TSPA and the KRDS development will be published in 2006. (authors)

  2. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  3. Reanalysis of Epidemiological Investigation of Cancer Risk among People Residing near Nuclear Power Plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Ju, Young-Su; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Mina; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Zoh, Kyung Ehi; Paek, Domyung

    2018-03-09

    Background : A 20-year follow-up study on cancer incidence among people living near nuclear power plants in South Korea ended in 2011 with a finding of significantly, but inconsistently, elevated thyroid cancer risk for females. Reanalysis of the original study was carried out to examine the dose-response relationship further, and to investigate any evidence of detection bias. Methods : In addition to replicating the original Cox proportional hazards models, nested case-control analysis was carried out for all subjects and for four different birth cohorts to examine the effects of excluding participants with pre-existing cancer history at enrollment. The potential for detection bias was investigated using the records of medical utilization and voluntary health checks of comparison groups. Results : The overall risk profile of the total sample was similar to that of the original study. However, in the stratified analysis of four birth cohorts, the cancer risk among people living near nuclear power plants became higher in younger birth cohorts. This was especially true for thyroid cancers of females (hazard ratio (HR) 3.38) and males (HR 1.74), female breast cancers (HR 2.24), and radiation-related cancers (HR 1.59 for males, HR 1.77 for females), but not for radiation-insensitive cancers (HR 0.59 for males, HR 0.98 for females). Based on medical records and health check reports, we found no differences between comparison groups that could have led to detection bias. Conclusions : The overall results suggest elevated risk of radiation-related cancers among residents living near nuclear power plants, controlling for the selective survival effect. This is further supported by the lack of evidence of detection bias and by records of environmental exposure from radiation waste discharge.

  4. Reanalysis of Epidemiological Investigation of Cancer Risk among People Residing near Nuclear Power Plants in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Min Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 20-year follow-up study on cancer incidence among people living near nuclear power plants in South Korea ended in 2011 with a finding of significantly, but inconsistently, elevated thyroid cancer risk for females. Reanalysis of the original study was carried out to examine the dose–response relationship further, and to investigate any evidence of detection bias. Methods: In addition to replicating the original Cox proportional hazards models, nested case-control analysis was carried out for all subjects and for four different birth cohorts to examine the effects of excluding participants with pre-existing cancer history at enrollment. The potential for detection bias was investigated using the records of medical utilization and voluntary health checks of comparison groups. Results: The overall risk profile of the total sample was similar to that of the original study. However, in the stratified analysis of four birth cohorts, the cancer risk among people living near nuclear power plants became higher in younger birth cohorts. This was especially true for thyroid cancers of females (hazard ratio (HR 3.38 and males (HR 1.74, female breast cancers (HR 2.24, and radiation-related cancers (HR 1.59 for males, HR 1.77 for females, but not for radiation-insensitive cancers (HR 0.59 for males, HR 0.98 for females. Based on medical records and health check reports, we found no differences between comparison groups that could have led to detection bias. Conclusions: The overall results suggest elevated risk of radiation-related cancers among residents living near nuclear power plants, controlling for the selective survival effect. This is further supported by the lack of evidence of detection bias and by records of environmental exposure from radiation waste discharge.

  5. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  6. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  7. Types of household humidifier disinfectant and associated risk of lung injury (HDLI) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Lim, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Choi, Ye-Yong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lee, Eun; Hong, Sang-Bum; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Lim; Bae, Mun-Joo; Shin, Dong-Chun; Paek, Do-Myung; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-10-15

    From 2002 through 2015, hundreds of people died of fatal lung injuries associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs) in Korea. Several chemical disinfectants used for household humidifiers were later clinically confirmed to cause HD-associated lung injury (HDLI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the registered lung disease cases and to compare the distribution of HDLI patients, including deaths, by HD use characteristics including types of HD and HD brands categorized by age group. A total of 530 registered were clinically examined through two rounds of investigations conducted from July 2013 until April 2015. Information on HD use was obtained from a structured questionnaire and home investigations. Approximately one-half of the patients (n=221) were clinically confirmed to be associated with the use of HDs. Pregnant women (n=35, 16%) and pre-school children≤6years old (n=128, 58%) accounted for most of the HD-associated lung injury patients (n=163, 74%). Sixty-seven percent of HDLI patients developed HDLI after less than one year of HD use. HD products containing polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG) were the most frequently used among confirmed HDLI patients (n=123, 55.7%), followed by oligo (2-(2-ethoxy) ethoxyethyl guanidinium (PGH) (n=24, 10.9%) and a mixture of chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) (n=3, 1.4%). Other HDs did not appear to be linked to HDLI. The majority of the HDLI patients (n=85, 38.5%) was found to use only Oxy Saksak® products containing PHMG. The development of HDLI was clinically found to be associated with the use of several HD products containing PHMG and PGH, and to lesser extent, CMIT/MIT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of risk factors associated with suicide ideation/attempts in American Indian and White youth in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Karen; Tiesman, Hope; Stewart, Jera; Hobbs, Gerald R; Knox, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic and gender-specific associations between suicide ideation/attempts and risky behaviors, sadness/hopelessness, and victimization in Montana American Indian and White youth using 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in stratified racial/ethnic-gender groups. The primary results of this study show that although the American Indian youth had more statistically significant suicidal thoughts and attempts than the White youth, they had fewer statistically significant predictors compared to the White youth. Sadness/hopelessness was the strongest, and the only statistically significant, predictor of suicide ideation/attempts common across all four groups. The unhealthy weight control cluster was a significant predictor for the White youth and the American Indian/Alaska Native girls; the alcohol/tobacco/marijuana cluster was a significant predictor for the American Indian boys only. Results show important differences across the groups and indicate directions for future research targeting prevention and intervention.

  9. Motivational Interviewing Targeting Risk Behaviors for Youth Living with HIV in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Wang, Bo; Panthong, Apirudee; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Phonphithak, Supalak; Koken, Juline A.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2013-01-01

    Healthy Choices, a four-session motivational interviewing-based intervention, reduces risk behaviors among US youth living with HIV (YLWH). We randomized 110 Thai YLWH (16–25 years) to receive either Healthy Choices or time-matched health education (Control) over 12 weeks. Risk behaviors were assessed at baseline, 1, and 6 months post-session. The pilot study was not powered for between-group differences; there were no statistical differences in sexual risks, alcohol use, and antiretroviral adherence between the two groups at any visit. In within-group analyses, Healthy Choices group demonstrated decreases in the proportion of HIV-negative partners (20 vs 8.2 %, P = 0.03) and HIV sexual risk scores (4.3 vs 3.3, P = 0.04), and increased trends in the proportion of protected sex (57 vs 76.3 %, P = 0.07) from baseline to 1 month post-session. These changes were not sustained 6 months later. No changes were observed in Control group. Healthy Choices has potential to improve sexual risks among Thai YLWH. PMID:23325376

  10. Associations between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth.

  11. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Ki Moon; Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert's risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public's risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts' radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual's opinions have often exacerbated the public's confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years' research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects perception of radiation exposure.

  12. Alcohol consumption among high-risk Thai youth after raising the legal drinking age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  14. Cook It Up! A community-based cooking program for at-risk youth: overview of a food literacy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heather MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6 completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society.

  15. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  16. Automated analysis of free speech predicts psychosis onset in high-risk youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Gillinder; Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Sigman, Mariano; Mota, Natália B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Javitt, Daniel C; Copelli, Mauro; Corcoran, Cheryl M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Psychiatry lacks the objective clinical tests routinely used in other specializations. Novel computerized methods to characterize complex behaviors such as speech could be used to identify and predict psychiatric illness in individuals. AIMS: In this proof-of-principle study, our aim was to test automated speech analyses combined with Machine Learning to predict later psychosis onset in youths at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods: Thirty-four CHR youths (11 females) had baseline interviews and were assessed quarterly for up to 2.5 years; five transitioned to psychosis. Using automated analysis, transcripts of interviews were evaluated for semantic and syntactic features predicting later psychosis onset. Speech features were fed into a convex hull classification algorithm with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation to assess their predictive value for psychosis outcome. The canonical correlation between the speech features and prodromal symptom ratings was computed. Results: Derived speech features included a Latent Semantic Analysis measure of semantic coherence and two syntactic markers of speech complexity: maximum phrase length and use of determiners (e.g., which). These speech features predicted later psychosis development with 100% accuracy, outperforming classification from clinical interviews. Speech features were significantly correlated with prodromal symptoms. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of automated speech analysis to measure subtle, clinically relevant mental state changes in emergent psychosis. Recent developments in computer science, including natural language processing, could provide the foundation for future development of objective clinical tests for psychiatry. PMID:27336038

  17. Adversity, emotion recognition, and empathic concern in high-risk youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A Quas

    Full Text Available Little is known about how emotion recognition and empathy jointly operate in youth growing up in contexts defined by persistent adversity. We investigated whether adversity exposure in two groups of youth was associated with reduced empathy and whether deficits in emotion recognition mediated this association. Foster, rural poor, and comparison youth from Swaziland, Africa identified emotional expressions and rated their empathic concern for characters depicted in images showing positive, ambiguous, and negative scenes. Rural and foster youth perceived greater anger and happiness in the main characters in ambiguous and negative images than did comparison youth. Rural children also perceived less sadness. Youth's perceptions of sadness in the negative and ambiguous expressions mediated the relation between adversity and empathic concern, but only for the rural youth, who perceived less sadness, which then predicted less empathy. Findings provide new insight into processes that underlie empathic tendencies in adversity-exposed youth and highlight potential directions for interventions to increase empathy.

  18. Invasion risk of the yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes under the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 climate change scenario in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Min Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes has destroyed local ecosystems in numerous countries, and their population sizes and distribution are likely to increase under global warming. To evaluate the risk of invasion by yellow crazy ant in South Korea, this study identified their potential habitats and predicted their future global distribution by modeling various climate change scenarios using CLIMEX software. Our modeling predicted that future climate conditions in South Korea will be favorable for the yellow crazy ant, and they could invade by the mid-21st century. We highlight the use of predictive algorithms to establish geographical areas with a high risk of yellow crazy ant invasion under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. Keywords: Anoplolepis gracilipes, climate change scenario, CLIMEX, invasive species, yellow crazy ant

  19. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert’s risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public’s risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts’ radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual’s opinions have often exacerbated the public’s confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years’ research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects risk perception of radiation exposure. PMID:28166286

  20. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  1. COMT Val158Met genotype as a risk factor for problem behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Albaugh (Matthew); V.S. Harder (Valerie); R.R. Althoff (Robert); D.C. Rettew (David); E.A. Ehli (Erik); T. Lengyel-Nelson (Timea); G.E. Davies (Gareth); L. Ayer (Lynsay); J. Sulman (Julie); C. Stanger (Catherine); J.J. Hudziak (James)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth

  2. Experiences and future plan for risk-informed decision making in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.W.; Ryu, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    A program for establishing regulatory framework on the use of risk information has been underway since 1995, and several trial applications have been done to evaluate the applicability and usefulness of risk-informed approach to nuclear power plant regulation. The program consists of fifteen general and/or specific items of interest and pilot applications will be initiated in 2003. In parallel, research and development program has been continued to support the regulatory implementation. A task force team has been formed and the official channel has also been opened for cooperation between regulatory body and utility-related organizations. Specifically, a couple of trial applications have been done up to now. First, the risk-based inspection (RBI) program has been implemented to improve regulatory inspection framework by utilizing risk information obtained from plant specific PSA and worldwide operating experiences. Next, optimization of technical specifications has been applied for surveillance test intervals (STIs) and allowed outage time (AOT). (author)

  3. Integrating Etiological Models of Social Anxiety and Depression in Youth: Evidence for a Cumulative Interpersonal Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, Catherine C.; Heckler, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Models of social anxiety and depression in youth have been developed separately, and they contain similar etiological influences. Given the high comorbidity of social anxiety and depression, we examine whether the posited etiological constructs are a correlate of, or a risk factor for, social anxiety and/or depression at the symptom level and the…

  4. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…

  5. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 59, Number SS-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 61, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…

  7. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  8. Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

  9. Risk factors associated with domestic abuse directed at adults with disabilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mee; Lee, Byung Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Most research on domestic abuse and disability has focused on women with disabilities, while research on abuse against men with disabilities and their risk factors is virtually non-existent. The purpose of this research is to understand domestic abuse experienced by people with disabilities by investigating its prevalence and risk factors. This research used the National Survey on Persons with Disabilities (2011). Using a stratified sampling method, 5259 respondents were identified to make up the final sample. Ordered logistic regression was used to verify risk factors for abuse. Risk factors for women with disabilities are age, educational attainment level, ADL, experiences of discrimination, awareness of disability discrimination, external support, and satisfaction with number of friends. Risk factors for men with disabilities are region, experiences of discrimination, awareness of disability discrimination, external support, and satisfaction with number of friends. For both women and men with disabilities, more experience of discrimination, greater awareness of disability discrimination, less external support, and less satisfaction with number of friends are associated with a higher likelihood of having experiences of abuse. Men with disabilities living in rural areas have a higher risk of abuse than those living in cities. Younger women, women with lower educational attainment, and those with lower physical functioning are more likely to have experienced abuse. Based on these findings, the authors make recommendations designed to protect people with disabilities from domestic abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How implicit motives and everyday self-regulatory abilities shape cardiovascular risk in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Craig K; Elder, Gavin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2012-06-01

    Tested hypotheses from social action theory that (a) implicit and explicit measures of agonistic (social control) motives and transcendence (self-control) motives differentially predict cardiovascular risk; and (b) implicit motives interact with everyday self-regulation behaviors to magnify risk. Implicit/explicit agonistic/transcendence motives were assessed in a multi-ethnic sample of 64 high school students with the Social Competence Interview (SCI). Everyday self-regulation was assessed with teacher ratings of internalizing, externalizing, and self-control behaviors. Ambulatory blood pressure and daily activities were measured over 48 h. Study hypotheses were supported: implicit goals predicted blood pressure levels but explicit self-reported coping goals did not; self-regulation indices did not predict blood pressure directly but interacted with implicit agonistic/transcendence motives to identify individuals at greatest risk (all p ≤ 0.05). Assessment of implicit motives by SCI, and everyday self-regulation by teachers may improve identification of youth at risk for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  12. Concentrations of heavy metals in marine wild fishes captured from the southern sea of Korea and associated health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dong-Woon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were determined in edible parts (muscle) of 34 marine wild fish caught from the southern sea of Korea in 2007 and 2008 in order to understand the accumulation pattern of heavy metals in wild fish and to assess the potential health risk posed by fish consumption. The highest concentrations in the muscle of 17 pelagic and 17 demersal fishes were Zn and As, respectively, while the lowest concentration in both fishes was Cd. The mean concentrations of all metals except As in wild fish were much lower than the regulatory limits for fish and fishery products applied in a number of countries. Unlike other metals, As concentration in wild fish of this study region was relatively higher than that found in other country. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of the metals was in the range of 0.05% to 22.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Similarly, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was below 1.0 for each metal. These results imply that the consumption of the investigated wild fish do not cause significant adverse health effects.

  13. Coaching at-risk youth in a school within a socially challenging environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud Eske; Maar Andersen, Mie; Stelter, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement group coaching in a school setting and examine the participants’ experiences. Participants were all males (age 12–16 years), primarily with a Middle Eastern family background and from a socioeconomically deprived area. A 2-year intervention with regular...... coaching counselling during school hours was delivered. Qualitative longitudinal interviews (n = 6) and long-term fieldwork found that group coaching enhanced social cohesion and social resilience. The study concludes that group coaching can be a valid tool for addressing at-risk youth in schools. Even...... though this study was limited to one school in a certain context, the implications can be important knowledge in other settings. An important practical finding was that bodily experience incorporated as part of the coaching sessions was highlighted as beneficial, as well as the use of a group approach...

  14. Use of Geographic Information Systems for Planning HIV Prevention Interventions for High-Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G.; Cunningham, Shayna D.; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Henry Reid, Lisa M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher–community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project’s experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions. PMID:17901452

  15. Risk Factors for Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Trans Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Claes, Laurence; Witcomb, Gemma L; Marshall, Ellen; Bouman, Walter Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has reported high levels of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans populations and younger age has been identified as a risk factor. To explore the prevalence of NSSI in a large group of young trans people and to identify risk factors for this group. Sociodemographic variables and measurements of NSSI (Self-Injury Questionnaire), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), victimization (Experiences of Transphobia Scale), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems), and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). Two hundred sixty-eight young people attending a national gender clinic completed questionnaires assessing presence and frequency of NSSI and levels of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems, self-esteem, social support, transphobia, and information on hormone treatment. A lifetime presence of NSSI was identified in 46.3% of patients and 28.73% reported currently engaging in NSSI (within at least the past few months). Analyses showed that those with a lifetime presence of NSSI had significantly greater general psychopathology, lower self-esteem, had suffered more transphobia, and experienced greater interpersonal problems than those without NSSI. Findings were similar when comparing current with non-current NSSI. Overall, natal male patients reported less social support than natal female patients, but current NSSI was more common in natal female patients. Regression analyses confirmed that natal female gender and greater general psychopathology predicted current and lifetime NSSI. Further analyses confirmed that general psychopathology itself could be predicted by transphobic experiences, low self-esteem, and interpersonal problems, but not by the use of cross-sex hormones. These findings confirm that NSSI is common in trans youth and emphasize the need for interventions that decrease transphobia, increase social

  16. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  17. Obstetric risk factors for depression during the postpartum period in South Korea: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, HyunChul; Lee, Suji; Han, Sung Won; Kim, Log Young; Lee, Tae-Seon; Oh, Min-Jeong; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Cho, Geum Joon

    2017-11-01

    Postpartum depression is related to many adverse effects in both mothers and their children; therefore, proper screening and early interventions are needed. This study aims to identify the risk factors of postpartum depression. Our primary focus is on obstetric risk factors. This study is a cross-sectional study which we extracted the data of women who gave birth between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2012 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service (HIRA) database. We analyzed the data using multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 17,483 (1.4%) women suffered from depression during the postpartum period. Younger (depression, peripartum hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization, preterm delivery, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, induced labor, and preeclampsia were found to increase the likelihood of having depression after delivery. Our findings suggest that there are several risk factors that lead women to postpartum depression. Therefore, early detection and well-management of the symptoms and risk factors for postpartum depression along with social support can help both physical and psychological conditions of women after childbirth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Communication about Nuclear Power in Korea: One-Year Descriptive Analysis on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkee

    2013-01-01

    Over the last three decades, public understanding of science (PUS) has been one of the foremost research topics in the Korean society where numerous social scientific conflicts have taken place. As a lead channel of risk communication, Twitter has been studied in experimental research designs or among target user groups, leaving the measurement of…

  19. Associations of a social network typology with physical and mental health risks among older adults in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N S; Jang, Y; Lee, B S; Chiriboga, D A; Chang, S; Kim, S Y

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) develop an empirical typology of social networks in older Koreans; and (2) examine its effect on physical and mental health. A sample of 6900 community-dwelling older adults in South Korea was drawn from the 2014 Korean National Elderly Survey. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to derive social network types using eight common social network characteristics (marital status, living arrangement, the number and frequency of contact with close family/relatives, the number and frequency of contact with close friends, frequency of participation in social activities, and frequency of having visitors at home). The identified typologies were then regressed on self-rated health and depressive symptoms to explore the health risks posed by the group membership. The LPA identified a model with five types of social network as being most optimal (BIC = 153,848.34, entropy = .90). The groups were named diverse/family (enriched networks with more engagement with family), diverse/friend (enriched networks with more engagement with friends), friend-focused (high engagement with friends), distant (structurally disengaged), and restricted (structurally engaged but disengaged in family/friends networks). A series of regression analyses showed that membership in the restricted type was associated with more health and mental health risks than all types of social networks except the distant type. Findings demonstrate the importance of family and friends as a source of social network and call attention to not only structural but also non-structural aspects of social isolation. Findings and implications are discussed in cultural contexts.

  20. Potential risk and sodium content of children's ready-to-eat foods distributed at major amusement parks in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eat foods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eat foods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eat foods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eat foods from Korean amusement parks.

  1. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  2. Adverse drug reactions to CT contrast media in south Korea: Incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Moon, Jin Il; Choi, Bo Hwa; Baek, Hye Jin; Cho, Soo Buem; Lee, Sang Min; Ha, Ji Young; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Na, Jae Beom

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, severity, and risk factors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media in computed tomography (CT), and to determine the recurrence rate after premedication in patients with a previous history of ADR. We prospectively recorded all ADR to intravenous CT contrast media in 32313 consecutive outpatients (54572 cases) who underwent contrast enhanced CT examinations. Clinical report forms and electronic medical records were reviewed to search for the incidence of ADR, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients. The risk factors of ADR to CT contrast media (age, sex, history of previous ADR, season) were evaluated using statistical analysis. Of the 54572 cases, a total of 191 (0.35%) had adverse reactions. Of the 191 cases, 157 (82%) were categorized as mild reactions, 29 (15%) were moderate, and 5 (3%) were severe. A total of 165 (86.4%) cases had acute adverse reactions (which occurred within 1 hour after administration), while 26 (13.6%) had delayed adverse reactions (occurred 1 hour after the administration). The rate of ADR was significantly higher in females [relative risk (RR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-2.75], patients under the age of 60 years (RR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), patients with a history of previous ADR (RR = 6.51, 95% CI 3.13-13.57), and in the spring season (RR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.95). The recurrence rate after premedication in patients with previous ADR to CT contrast media was 3.2% (8/247). No deaths occurred that were attributed to the contrast media. The incidence of ADR to nonionic CT contrast media was 0.35%; most of which were mild reactions. Risk factors for ADR included female gender, an age of under 60 years, a history of previous ADR, and spring season

  3. Adverse drug reactions to CT contrast media in south Korea: Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Moon, Jin Il; Choi, Bo Hwa; Baek, Hye Jin; Cho, Soo Buem [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min; Ha, Ji Young; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Na, Jae Beom [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the incidence, severity, and risk factors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media in computed tomography (CT), and to determine the recurrence rate after premedication in patients with a previous history of ADR. We prospectively recorded all ADR to intravenous CT contrast media in 32313 consecutive outpatients (54572 cases) who underwent contrast enhanced CT examinations. Clinical report forms and electronic medical records were reviewed to search for the incidence of ADR, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients. The risk factors of ADR to CT contrast media (age, sex, history of previous ADR, season) were evaluated using statistical analysis. Of the 54572 cases, a total of 191 (0.35%) had adverse reactions. Of the 191 cases, 157 (82%) were categorized as mild reactions, 29 (15%) were moderate, and 5 (3%) were severe. A total of 165 (86.4%) cases had acute adverse reactions (which occurred within 1 hour after administration), while 26 (13.6%) had delayed adverse reactions (occurred 1 hour after the administration). The rate of ADR was significantly higher in females [relative risk (RR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-2.75], patients under the age of 60 years (RR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), patients with a history of previous ADR (RR = 6.51, 95% CI 3.13-13.57), and in the spring season (RR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.95). The recurrence rate after premedication in patients with previous ADR to CT contrast media was 3.2% (8/247). No deaths occurred that were attributed to the contrast media. The incidence of ADR to nonionic CT contrast media was 0.35%; most of which were mild reactions. Risk factors for ADR included female gender, an age of under 60 years, a history of previous ADR, and spring season.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Esophageal Candidiasis in Healthy Individuals: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Chang Geun; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Lim, Chi Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is the most frequent opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised host. However, we have found EC in healthy individuals through esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 281 patients who had been incidentally diagnosed with EC. We also conducted age and sex matched case control study to identify the risk factor for EC. Results The prevalence of EC was 0.32% (281/88125). The most common coexisting EGD finding was reflux esophagitis (49/281, 17.4%). An antifungal agent was prescribed in about half of EC, 139 cases (49.5%). Follow-up EGD was undertaken in 83 cases (29.5%) and 20 cases of candidiasis was persistently found. Case control study revealed EC were more often found in user of antibiotics (p=0.015), corticosteroids (p=0.002) and herb medication (p=0.006) as well as heavy drinking (pantibiotics, corticosteroids and herb as well as heavy drinking were significant risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. PMID:23225813

  5. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  6. Suicide Risk, Meaning in Life, and Need for Life Respect in Adults and Elderly Among Public Hospital Outpatients in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kim Ellis, Hyon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect among three age groups (young adults, the middle aged, and the elderly) of 540 public hospital outpatients in South Korea. This was a cross-sectional study. Among these 3 age groups, we observed significant differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect according to education level, marital status, living arrangements, type of disease, gender, and monthly income. These findings might contribute to the prevention of suicide in the future and the implementation of better community-based nursing care.

  7. Can Designing Self-Representations through Creative Computing Promote an Incremental View of Intelligence and Enhance Creativity among At-Risk Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ina; Benolol, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Creative computing is one of the rapidly growing educational trends around the world. Previous studies have shown that creative computing can empower disadvantaged children and youth. At-risk youth tend to hold a negative view of self and perceive their abilities as inferior compared to "normative" pupils. The Implicit Theories of…

  8. Perceived risks of HIV/AIDS and first sexual intercourse among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Rajulton, Fernando; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2009-04-01

    The 'Health Belief Model' (HBM) identifies perception of HIV/AIDS risks, recognition of its seriousness, and knowledge about prevention as predictors of safer sexual activity. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey (CAPS) and hazard models, this study examines the impact of risk perception, considered the first step in HIV prevention, set within the context of the HBM and socio-economic, familial and school factors, on the timing of first sexual intercourse among youth aged 14-22 in Cape Town, South Africa. Of the HBM components, female youth who perceive their risk as 'very small' and males with higher knowledge, experience their sexual debut later than comparison groups, net of other influences. For both males and females socio-economic and familial factors also influence timing of sexual debut, confirming the need to consider the social embeddedness of this sexual behavior as well as the rational components of decision making when designing prevention programs.

  9. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  10. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  11. Neural Correlates of Rewarded Response Inhibition in Youth at Risk for Problematic Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Tervo-Clemmens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk for substance use disorder (SUD is associated with poor response inhibition and heightened reward sensitivity. During adolescence, incentives improve performance on response inhibition tasks and increase recruitment of cortical control areas (Geier et al., 2010 associated with SUD (Chung et al., 2011. However, it is unknown whether incentives moderate the relationship between response inhibition and trait-level psychopathology and personality features of substance use risk. We examined these associations in the current project using a rewarded antisaccade (AS task (Geier et al., 2010 in youth at risk for substance use. Participants were 116 adolescents and young adults (ages 12–21 from the University of Pittsburgh site of the National Consortium on Adolescent Neurodevelopment and Alcohol [NCANDA] study, with neuroimaging data collected at baseline and 1 year follow up visits. Building upon previous work using this task in normative developmental samples (Geier et al., 2010 and adolescents with SUD (Chung et al., 2011, we examined both trial-wise BOLD responses and those associated with individual task-epochs (cue presentation, response preparation, and response and associated them with multiple substance use risk factors (externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, family history of substance use, and trait impulsivity. Results showed that externalizing psychopathology and high levels of trait impulsivity (positive urgency, SUPPS-P were associated with general decreases in antisaccade performance. Accompanying this main effect of poor performance, positive urgency was associated with reduced recruitment of the frontal eye fields (FEF and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG in both a priori regions of interest and at the voxelwise level. Consistent with previous work, monetary incentive improved antisaccade behavioral performance and was associated with increased activation in the striatum and cortical control areas. However, incentives did

  12. Probabilistic risk model for staphylococcal intoxication from pork-based food dishes prepared in food service establishments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Griffiths, Mansel W; Fazil, Aamir M; Lammerding, Anna M

    2009-09-01

    Foodborne illness contracted at food service operations is an important public health issue in Korea. In this study, the probabilities for growth of, and enterotoxin production by, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat-based foods prepared in food service operations were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Data on the prevalence and concentration of S. aureus as well as compliance to guidelines for time and temperature controls during food service operations were collected. The growth of S. aureus was initially estimated by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Pathogen Modeling Program. A second model based on raw pork meat was derived to compare cell number predictions. The correlation between toxin level and cell number as well as minimum toxin dose obtained from published data was adopted to quantify the probability of staphylococcal intoxication. When data gaps were found, assumptions were made based on guidelines for food service practices. Baseline risk model and scenario analyses were performed to indicate possible outcomes of staphylococcal intoxication under the scenarios generated based on these data gaps. Staphylococcal growth was predicted during holding before and after cooking, and the highest estimated concentration (4.59 log CFU/g for the 99.9th percentile value) of S. aureus was observed in raw pork initially contaminated with S. aureus and held before cooking. The estimated probability for staphylococcal intoxication was very low, using currently available data. However, scenario analyses revealed an increased possibility of staphylococcal intoxication when increased levels of initial contamination in the raw meat, andlonger holding time both before and after cooking the meat occurred.

  13. Motion energy analysis reveals altered body movement in youth at risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek J; Samson, Alayna T; Newberry, Raeana; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-06-03

    Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities occur prior to the onset of psychosis. Innovations in technology and software provide the opportunity for a fine-tuned and sensitive measurement of observable behavior that may be particularly useful to detecting the subtle movement aberrations present during the prodromal period. In the present study, 54 youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis and 62 healthy controls participated in structured clinical interviews to assess for an UHR syndrome. The initial 15min of the baseline clinical interview was assessed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) providing frame-by-frame measures of total movement, amplitude, speed, and variability of both head and body movement separately. Result showed region-specific group differences such that there were no differences in head movement but significant differences in body movement. Specifically, the UHR group showed greater total body movement and speed of body movements, and lower variation in body movement compared to healthy controls. However, there were no significant associations with positive, negative or disorganized symptom domains. This study represents an innovative perspective on gross motor function in the UHR group. Importantly, the automated approach used in this study provides a sensitive and objective measure of body movement abnormalities, potentially guiding novel assessment and prevention of symptom development in those at risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2011-12-30

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are at significantly high risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdalar volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood adversity increases the risk of onward transmission from perinatal HIV-infected adolescents and youth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Rachel; Nachman, Sharon; Dietrich, Janan; Liberty, Afaaf; Violari, Avy

    2018-05-01

    Repeated exposure to childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and other traumas experienced before age 18) can have lifelong impacts on health. For HIV-infected adolescents and youth, such impacts may include onward transmission of HIV. To evaluate this possibility, the current study measured the burden of childhood adversity and its influence on risky health behaviors among perinatally-infected adolescents and youth. We surveyed 250 perinatally-infected adolescents and youth (13-24 years) receiving care in Soweto, South Africa. Both male and female participants reported on childhood adversity (using the ACE-IQ), sexual behavior, and psychosocial state. Viral load was also abstracted from their charts. We used logistic regressions to test the association between cumulative adversity and behavioral outcomes. Half the sample reported eight or more adversities. Overall, 72% experienced emotional abuse, 59% experienced physical abuse, 34% experienced sexual abuse, 82% witnessed domestic violence, and 91% saw someone being attacked in their community. A clear gradient emerged between cumulative adversities and behavioral risk. Having experienced one additional childhood adversity raised the odds of risky sexual behavior by almost 30% (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.48). Viral suppression was poor overall (31% had viral loads >400 copies/ml), but was not related to adversity. Adversity showed a robust relationship to depression and substance abuse. Childhood adversity is common, influences the current health of HIV-positive adolescents and youth, and puts their sexual partners at risk for HIV infection. Greater primary prevention of childhood adversity and increased access to support services (e.g., mental health) could reduce risk taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated uric acid and obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors among hypertensive youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Lauren D; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Loeffler, Lauren F; Holmes, Kathryn W; Appel, Lawrence J; Brady, Tammy M

    2015-12-01

    Uric acid (UA) is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. We sought to determine if UA is independently associated with CVD risk factors and left ventricular mass (LVM) over time in hypertensive youth. This was a 1-year prospective observational study of hypertensive children aged 3-19 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum UA with CVD risk factors and LVM were explored. Of the 49 children who completed both the baseline and 12-month assessments, at baseline the mean age was 13.8 years and mean UA was 5.5 mg/dL; 24% had elevated UA, 51% were overweight/obese and 39% had LVH. Measures of adiposity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LVM and LVH were all significantly associated with elevated UA at baseline, but not with change over time. Each 1 mg/dL increase in baseline UA was associated with a 2.5 g/m(2.7) increase in the LVM index at follow-up (95% confidence interval 0.64, 4.39; p = 0.01); after adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index z-score, change in UA, time, blood pressure and medication use, this association was no longer significant. Hypertensive children with elevated UA have a higher prevalence of obesity-related CVD risk factors. Among hypertensive children, UA may be a marker of adiposity and not an independent CVD risk factor.

  17. Multi-temporal analysis of forest fire risk driven by environmental and socio-economic change in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, G. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of forest fire risk is important in disaster risk reduction (DRR) since it provides a way to manage forest fires. Climate and socio-economic factors are important in the cause of forest fires, and the role of the socio-economic factors in prevention and preparedness of forest fires is increasing. As most of the forest fires in the Republic of Korea are highly related to human activities, both environmental factors and socio-economic factors were considered into the analysis of forest fire risk. In this study, the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model was used to predict the potential geographical distribution and probability of forest fire occurrence spatially and temporally from 1980s to the 2010s in the Republic of Korea by multi-temporal analysis and analyze the relationship between forest fires and the factors. As a result of the risk analysis, there was an overall increasing trend in forest fire risk from the 1980s to the 2000s, and socio-economic factors were highly correlated with the occurrence of forest fires. The study demonstrates that the socio-economic factors considered as human activities can increase the occurrence of forest fires. The result implies that managing human activities are significant to prevent forest fire occurrence. In addition, timely forest fire prevention and control is necessary as drought index such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) also affected forest fires.

  18. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

  20. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  1. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  2. Injury risk in British Columbia, Canada, 1986 to 2009: are Aboriginal children and youth over-represented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2015-12-01

    Children and youth worldwide are at high risk of injury resulting in morbidity, disability or mortality. Disparities in risk exist between and within countries, and by sex and ethnicity. Our aim is to contribute data on disparities of injury rates for Aboriginal children and youth compared with those of the general population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, by examining risks for the two populations, utilizing provincial administrative data over a 24-year period. Hospital discharge records from the provincial health care database for children and youth were used to identify injury for the years 1986 to 2009. Within the total BC population, the Aboriginal population was identified. Crude rates and standardized relative risks (SRR) of hospitalization were calculated, by year and category of injury type and external cause, and compared to the total BC population for males and females under age 25 years. Over the 24-year period, substantive decreases were found in hospitalization injury risks for children and youth in both Aboriginal and total populations, for both sexes, and for most categories and types of injuries. Risk in overall injury dropped by 69% for the Aboriginal population and by 66% for the total BC population, yet in every year, the Aboriginal population had a higher risk than the total BC population. There were over 70% declines in risks among females of intentionally inflicted injury by another, among both the Aboriginal and total BC populations. Risk of injury caused by transport vehicles has decreased by an overwhelming 83% and 72% for the Aboriginal male population and for the total BC male population, respectively. The over 70% declines in risks for females of intentionally inflicted injury by another, among both the Aboriginal and total BC populations is excellent news. Risk of injury caused by transport vehicles for males decreased overwhelmingly for both populations. Disparities in rates between the Aboriginal population and total BC

  3. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  4. Risk of Fractures in Youths with Celiac Disease-A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Cristina; Pitter, Gisella; Zanier, Loris; Simonato, Lorenzo; Michaelsson, Karl; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2018-04-19

    To assess the risk of any fracture requiring hospital care in a cohort of individuals with celiac disease diagnosed in childhood/adolescence compared with reference individuals matched by age and sex. Our study cohort consisted of 213 635 people born and residing in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region, Italy, in 1989-2011. We selected, through pathology reports, hospital discharge records, or co-payment exemptions, 1233 individuals with celiac disease (aged 0-17 years at diagnosis) and compared them with 6167 reference individuals matched by sex and year of birth. Fractures were identified through hospital discharge records. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture after celiac disease diagnosis (or index date for reference individuals) with Cox regression and ORs for any fracture before celiac disease diagnosis with conditional logistic regression. During the follow-up period (maximum 23 years), 22 individuals with celiac disease (9394 person-years) and 128 reference individuals (47 308 person-years) experienced a fracture, giving an overall HR of 0.87 (95% CI 0.55-1.37). The risk was not modified by sex, age at diagnosis, or calendar period of diagnosis. We obtained similar HRs when excluding fractures occurring after the age of 18 years and adjusting for maternal education or vitamin D supplementation. The odds of previous fracture also did not differ between subjects with celiac disease and reference individuals (22 and 96 cases, respectively: OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.72-1.84). We did not find any evidence of an increased risk of fractures during childhood and youth among patients with celiac disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Risks We Are Willing to Take: Youth Civic Development in "Postwar" Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle J. Bellino explores contrasting approaches to civic education in two rural schools serving indigenous Maya youth in post-civil war Guatemala. Through comparative ethnography, she examines how youth civic pathways intersect with legacies of authoritarianism while young people shape their identity as members of historically…

  6. Equine-Assisted Learning in Youths At-Risk for School or Social Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, New Fei; Zhou, Jonathan; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Kua, Phek Hui Jade

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether a three-month equine-assisted learning program improved measures of character skills in two independent cohorts of Year 1 youths, in a specialized secondary school for youths with difficulties coping with mainstream curriculum. In 2013, 75 students underwent intervention while 82 students did not. In 2014, 58 students…

  7. Understanding Youth's Health-Compromising Behaviors in Germany: An Application of the Risk-Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Barbara P.; Lee, Che-Fu

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed the health-compromising behaviors of German youth using responses of 2,330 seventh, eighth, and ninth graders from the German Youth Study. Smoking and drinking are not seen by these students as health-threatening behaviors, but as socially appealing behaviors. Discusses implications for health education. (SLD)

  8. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  9. An Empirical Taxonomy of Social-Psychological Risk Indicators in Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Toni; Kirkland, John; Bimler, David; Pechtel, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The current study integrates descriptive (though primarily social-psychological) statements about youth suicide into a coherent, empirically supported taxonomy. Drawing from relevant literature, a set of 107 items characterizing these contributions about youth suicide was created. Seventy-two participants sorted these statements according to their…

  10. The School Professionals' Role in Identification of Youth at Risk of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Shelley; Caltabiano, Nerina J.

    2009-01-01

    The school professional is in a unique position to play a strategic role in the early identification and prevention of youth suicide. The current study assessed North Queensland teachers' knowledge on youth suicide. The sample comprised 201 secondary school teachers. A survey research design was used and data was collected using a…

  11. Decreased Risk of Preeclampsia After the Introduction of Universal Voucher Scheme for Antenatal Care and Birth Services in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Min, Hye Sook; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A number of interventions to reduce disparities in maternal health have been introduced and implemented without concrete evidence to support them. In Korea, a universal voucher scheme for antenatal care and birth services was initiated in December 2008 to improve Korea's fertility rate. This study explores the risk of preeclampsia after the introduction of a universal voucher scheme. Methods Population-based cohort data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) covering 2002-2013 were analysed. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to estimate the relationship between the risk of preeclampsia and voucher scheme introduction. Results The annual age-adjusted incidence of preeclampsia showed no significant unidirectional change during the study period. In the GLMM analysis, the introduction of a voucher scheme was associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia, controlling for potential confounding factors. The interaction between household income level and voucher scheme was not significant. Conclusions for Practice This finding suggests that the introduction of a voucher scheme for mothers is related to a reduced risk of preeclampsia even under universal health coverage.

  12. Distracted Walking, Bicycling, and Driving: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Technology and Youth Crash Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Pope, Caitlin N; Shen, Jiabin; Schwebel, David C

    2018-01-01

    This article examined the impact of mobile technology on young pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers. A systematic search yielded 41 articles meeting inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, published before February 1, 2016, behavioral outcome related to pedestrian, bicycling, or driving in the presence of mobile technology use, youth sample. Eleven studies were meta-analyzed to evaluate increased risk for crash/near-crash while distracted. Risk of bias and quality of research were assessed. Across methodologies, developmental stages, and type of distracting task, mobile technology use impairs youth safety on the road. Quality of evidence was low (pedestrian) to moderate (driving). Findings are discussed from the perspective of cognitive and visual distractions. Policy and behavioral efforts should continue to reduce mobile technology use in transportation settings. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. [Smoking and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, connected with arteriosclerosis among youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Cybulska, Idalia

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conference on a "second wave" epidemic of cardiovascular diseases connected with arterial sclerosis (AS) foresee that in 2020 cardiovascular diseases will most likely be the leading cause of death in the world. The development of AS begins in youth and progresses with age. It's intensity depends on the risk factors involved, such as: smoking, hypertension, obesity and fat and sugar disorder in a body. Many of these risk factors, manifesting themselves as diseases in adults, can be found during adolescence. The aim of this study was to establish the spread of smoking and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, like: hereditary and increasing incidence hypertension and body mass index (BMI), among youth of upper gymnasium school in Podkarpacie. The research was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008, using 193 volunteer students from upper and lower gymnasium schools, aged between 16-20 years. Our research methods included: diagnostic questionnaire, measurement of blood pressure (BP) through the use of sphygmomanometer, as well as anthropometric measurements including high, weight and body mass estimation. BP was established by obtaining an average between two measurements taken under normal conditions. The results were statistically analyzed, in with the in dependent test chi-Parson square, the level of changes a = 0.05--was used. The research showed that 23.31% of respondents smoke, that's 64.44% girls, and 35.56% boys. 12.41% of the girls and 15.09% of boys smoke on regular basis. And 8.57% girls and 15.09% boys smoke from time to time. More than half of young smokers (51.10%) smoked for longer than 2 years, and the initiations of smoking starts at the age of 15 (26.67%) and the age of 16 (26.67%). 10 and more cigarettes a day smoke 26.67% of boys and 13.79% girls. 75.74% of respondents agree that they are victims of passive smoking. Through 17.61% of respondents (mostly boys 64.70%) we found increasing incidence

  15. Examining the Sensory Profiles of At-Risk Youth Participating in a Pre-employment Program

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    Chi-Kwan Shea Ph.D., OTR/L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use Dunn’s model of sensory processing to investigate the sensory profiles of youth participating in a community-based occupational therapy pre-employment program. The youth participants had been involved in the juvenile justice system and were placed on probation. The studyanalyzed data from the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP questionnaires (Brown & Dunn, 2002 completed by 79 youth participants. Analysis of the participants’ scores on the AASP showed statistically significant differences from the norm in two quadrants; the delinquent youth scored lower in Sensation Seeking and higher in Sensation Avoiding. The delinquent youth participants demonstrated a high prevalence of atypical sensory processing patterns. Implications for further investigation and practice are discussed.

  16. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.

  17. School Bullying, Cyberbullying, or both: Correlates of Teen Suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan

    2014-01-01

    While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculat...

  18. Gender Disparity in Structured Physical Activity and Overall Activity Level in Adolescence: Evaluation of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kang, Youjeong; Daly, Brian P.; Brown, Michael D.; Patterson, Freda

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adolescent girls are less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than boys. This study examined the relative contribution of structured physical activity opportunities including physical education (PE) class and sports teams to overall activity levels for girls and boys. Methods. Data from 591 9th–12th grade students who completed the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between PE and sport...

  19. An Investigation of the Relationship between Social Skills and High Risk Behaviors among the Youth: the Case of Shiraz City

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Ahmadi; Mehdi Moeini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction   A young population and delayed socialization for a new world order in the transitional society of Iran, has led to the development of adolescent and youth delinquency. In this context, young people who cannot direct their desires in a normal channel may turn into deviant and delinquent behaviors (Mohammadi asl, 2006: 11) . This study considers serious delinquent behaviors which are named as high-risk behaviors, namely, behaviors that increase probability of physical, psychologi...

  20. RESEARCH AND POLICY BRIEF ON ICT FOR THE INCLUSION OF YOUTH AT RISK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haché, Alexandra; Dekelver, Jan; Montandon, Lydia

    This policy and research note is based on two concertation meetings (20 January and 11 June 2010) and different exchanges between IPTS and representatives from five FP7 projects (INCLUSO, ComeIn, REPLAY, HANDS, UMSIC). These projects look at ICT-based solutions for the promotion of the socioecono......This policy and research note is based on two concertation meetings (20 January and 11 June 2010) and different exchanges between IPTS and representatives from five FP7 projects (INCLUSO, ComeIn, REPLAY, HANDS, UMSIC). These projects look at ICT-based solutions for the promotion......, and ICT use by young people. It also provides insights on the current EU policy context and programmes targeting YAR/MYP. Finally, it presents commonly agreed and prioritized research and policy recommendations from 5 FP7 projects in the field of ICT for marginalized young people, youth at risk of social...... of the socioeconomic and eInclusion of YAR/MYP by fostering their access to ICT, digital competences, education and training, social integration and employment opportunities. This document summarizes knowledge from recent IPTS research which included a review of the literature on social exclusion of young people...

  1. The cumulative impact of physical activity, sleep duration, and television time on adolescent obesity: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data. Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none. Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.

  2. An exploratory study of the socio-cultural risk influences for cigarette smoking among Southern Nigerian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2014-11-22

    The increase in smoking prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria has been mainly blamed on the aggressive marketing strategies of big tobacco companies. There is a paucity of research on other socio-cultural risk factors for smoking among the youth. The main objective of this study is to explore and describe socio-cultural risk factors influencing cigarette smoking among the youth in Southern Nigeria. A total of 27 respondents (5 community leaders, 4 political analysts and 18 young cigarette smokers) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. Social-cultural practices fuelling early usage and exposure of children to cigarettes and the promotional activities of tobacco companies were identified as possible factors influencing youth's smoking behaviour in Southern Nigeria. Tobacco control policies should include cultural interventions to modify current traditional practices and social norms which fuel the use of tobacco in the society. Such interventions must target specific groups, subpopulations and subcultures more exposed to the cultural risk influences for smoking.

  3. Sexual risk behaviors among youth heads of household in Gikongoro, south province of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntaganira Joseph

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH. The purpose of this study was to: (a identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7% but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months, sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8% knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection

  4. Perceptions of sexual risk behavior among Palestinian youth in the West Bank: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Salwa G; Karam, Rita; Brown, Ryan; Glick, Peter; Shaheen, Mohammed; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Khammash, Umaiyeh

    2014-11-24

    Young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are profoundly affected by violence, high unemployment, and economic hardship. Experiences of community-level violence and personal trauma increase the likelihood that young people will engage in risky behaviors that include smoking, drug use, and unsafe sex. Little is known about the sexual behavior of young people in the region, particularly in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Our aim in this study was to gain an insight into the perceived prevalence and patterns of sexual behavior among Palestinian youth. The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 in-depth interviews with young people aged 16-24 years as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional representative study of risk behaviors in the West Bank, including Jerusalem, in 2012. The sample was selected using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Based on participants' reports, different types of sexual activity outside marriage were not uncommon, even in conservative communities. The most reported sexual activity was non-penetrative sex: oral and anal intercourse, and virtual sex. Some young people had sexual intercourse with sex workers; they went to brothels in Israel and to brothels operating clandestinely in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Most respondents were of the opinion that young people did not usually use protection during sexual intercourse. Many reported that youth engage in different types of sexual activity outside marriage for several reasons: to challenge the culture, financial constraints and inability to marry, basic human need, personal pleasure, suppression, to kill boredom, and to prove manhood. In contrast with the conservative social context of the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), the findings suggest that sexual activities outside marriage may be more common than is currently assumed. Sexual

  5. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  6. Are there nutritional and other benefits associated with family meals among at-risk youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Kubik, Martha Y; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-10-01

    The literature suggests positive associations between family dinner frequency and dietary practices and psychosocial well-being, and inverse associations between family dinner frequency and overweight status among general adolescent populations. The present study aims to examine these associations among a population of adolescents at-risk of academic failure. A racially diverse sample of adolescents (n = 145, 52% male, 61% nonwhite) from six alternative high schools (AHS) completed surveys and had their heights and weights measured by trained research staff. Mixed-model logistic regression analyses assessed associations between family dinner frequency and overweight status, healthy and unhealthy weight management, and food insecurity, whereas mixed linear models assessed associations with breakfast consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, high-fat food intake, fast food intake, substance use, and depressive symptoms. Analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and the random effect of school. Family dinner frequency was positively associated with breakfast consumption and fruit intake (p Adolescents who reported never eating family dinner were significantly more likely to be overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-6.9) and food insecure (OR = 6.0, CI = 2.2-16.4) than adolescents who reported five to seven family meals per week. In this at-risk sample of youth, some, but not all of the benefits of family meals found in other studies were apparent. Intervention programs to increase the availability and affordability of healthful foods and promote family meals for families of AHS students may be beneficial.

  7. Suicidal behaviour and related risk factors among school-aged youth in the Republic of Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Randall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.

  8. LA sprouts randomized controlled nutrition and gardening program reduces obesity and metabolic risk in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention ("LA Sprouts") on dietary intake, obesity parameters, and metabolic disease risk among low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino youth in Los Angeles. The randomized controlled trial involved four elementary schools [two schools randomized to intervention (172 third-through fifth-grade students); two schools randomized to control (147 third-through fifth-grade students)]. Classes were taught in 90-minute sessions once a week to each grade level for 12 weeks. Data collected at pre- and postintervention included dietary intake via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), anthropometric measures [BMI, waist circumference (WC)], body fat, and fasting blood samples. LA Sprouts participants had significantly greater reductions in BMI z-scores (0.1-vs. 0.04-point decrease, respectively; P = 0.01) and WC (-1.2 cm vs. no change; P < 0.001). Fewer LA Sprouts participants had the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) after the intervention than before, while the number of controls with MetSyn increased. LA Sprouts participants had improvements in dietary fiber intake (+3.5% vs. -15.5%; P = 0.04) and less decreases in vegetable intake (-3.6% vs. -26.4%; P = 0.04). Change in fruit intake before and after the intervention did not significantly differ between LA Sprouts and control subjects. LA Sprouts was effective in reducing obesity and metabolic risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. So-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Yi, Hyeryeon; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Hong, Jeong Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: It has been hypothesized that Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) have a specific hypoactive organ, which can account for vulnerability to related diseases or symptoms. This study examined the relationship between SCTs and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Design: Cross-sectional study in a population-based cohort study in Korea. Participants: 1362 individuals (705 men and 657 women) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outcome measures: The participants were classified into SCTs by the integrated diagnostic model and asked about symptoms related to IBS using the Rome II criteria. Results: The prevalence of IBS differed significantly among the SCTs, with 33 (18.3%) of the So-eum (SE) type, 74 (9.9%) of the Tae-eum (TE) type, and 57 (13.2%) of the So-yang (SY) type having IBS. Even after adjustment for possible confounders, the SE type for both sexes continued to show 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–3.16) excess odds of having IBS. Men with SE type had a 2.97 times (95% CI, 1.34–6.58) and a 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.15–5.47) significantly higher odds of having IBS than the TE and SY types, respectively. In analysis for the joint effect of SCT and psychological stress, the multivariate odds ratio of IBS was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.33–7.75) for the SE type and Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) score (<27), and 5.83 (95% CI, 1.80–18.88) for the SE type and PWI-SF (≥27) compared with the TE type and PWI-SF score (<27). Conclusions: The SE type of SCT is an independent risk factor for IBS. The findings support the hypothesis that persons with SE type are vulnerable to gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25148474

  10. Dating Violence Against HIV-Infected Youth in South Africa: Associations With Sexual Risk Behavior, Medication Adherence, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Rachel; Violari, Avy

    2018-01-01

    As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth-an important step toward effective intervention. Soweto, South Africa. Self-report surveys were completed by 129 perinatal HIV-infected female youth (aged 13-24 years). We calculated the IPV prevalence and used logistic models to capture the association between IPV and health outcomes known to facilitate onward HIV transmission (eg, risky sex, poor medication adherence, depression, and substance abuse). A fifth of perinatal HIV-infected participants reported physical and/or sexual IPV in the past year; one-third reported lifetime IPV. Childhood adversity was common and positively associated with IPV. Past-year physical and/or sexual IPV was positively correlated with high-risk sex [odds ratio (OR) = 8.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78 to 28.90], pregnancy (OR = 6.56; 95% CI: 1.91 to 22.54), poor medication adherence to antiretroviral therapy (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 1.37 to 21.08), depression (OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.64 to 11.00), and substance abuse (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.42 to 11.86). Neither past-year nor lifetime IPV was associated with viral load or HIV status disclosure to a partner. We find that IPV may increase risk for onward HIV transmission in perinatal HIV-infected youth by both increasing engagement in risky sexual behaviors and lowering medication adherence. HIV clinics should consider integrating primary IPV prevention interventions, instituting routine IPV screening, and collocating services for victims of violence.

  11. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  12. Development of the place-based Adelante social marketing campaign for prevention of substance use, sexual risk and violence among Latino immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E L; Evans, W D; Barrett, N D; Cleary, S D; Edberg, M C; Alvayero, R D; Kierstead, E C; Beltran, A

    2018-04-01

    Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence. Building on prior research, we conducted a four-phase formative research process, and planned the Adelante social marketing campaign based on findings from one group interview and ongoing consultation with Adelante staff (n=8) and four focus groups with youth (n=35). Participants identified four overarching campaign themes, and suggested portrayal of resilient, proud youth who achieved goals despite adversity. Youth guided selection of campaign features and engagement strategies, including message/visual content, stylistic elements, and a mixed language approach. We developed a 12-month campaign to be delivered via print ads, multi-platform social media promotion, contests, youth-generated videos, blog posts, and text messaging. We describe the process and outcome of campaign development and make recommendations for future campaigns.

  13. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  14. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  15. Increased risk of thyroid cancer in female residents nearby nuclear power plants in Korea: was it due to detection bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Paek, Do-Myung; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Mi-Na; Ju, Young-Su

    2018-01-01

    The Korea Radiation Effect & Epidemiology Cohort - The resident cohort (KREEC-R) study concluded that there is no epidemiological or causal evidence supporting any increase in cancer risks resulting from radiation from Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). But the risks of thyroid cancer in women were significantly higher in residents living near NPPs than control. Debate about the cause of the pattern of thyroid cancer incidence in women is ongoing and some researchers argue that detection bias influenced the result of KREEC-R study. Therefore there was a need to investigate whether residents living near NPPs who were assessed in the KREEC-R were actually tested more often for thyroid cancer. We evaluated the possibility of detection bias in the finding of the KREEC-R study based on materials available at this time. Using the KREEC-R raw data, we calculated age standardized rates (ASRs) of female thyroid cancer and re-analyzed the results of survey on the use of medical services. We also marked the administrative districts of residents who received the Radiation Health Research Institute (RHRI) health examinations and those in which thyroid cancer case occurred as per the Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) final report on maps where the locations of NPPs and 5 km-radii around them were also indicated. And we compared the incidence rates of Radiation-induced cancer measured between the first period when RHRI health examinations were not yet implemented, and the second period when the RHRI health examinations were implemented. The ASR for the far-distance group, which comprised residents living in areas outside the 30 km radius of the NPPs, increased rapidly after 2000; however, that of the exposed group, which comprised residents living within a 5 km radius of the NPPs, started to increase rapidly even before 1995. The frequencies of the use of medical services were significantly higher in the intermediate proximate group

  16. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Youth at ultra high risk for psychosis: using the Revised Network Episode Model to examine pathways to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Addington, Jean

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to identify the ways in which youth at ultra high risk for psychosis access mental health services and the factors that advance or delay help seeking, using the Revised Network Episode Model (REV NEM) of mental health care. A case study approach documents help-seeking pathways, encompassing two qualitative interviews with 10 young people and 29 significant others. Theoretical propositions derived from the REV NEM are explored, consisting of the content, structure and function of the: (i) family; (ii) community and school; and (iii) treatment system. Although the aspects of the REV NEM are supported and shape pathways to care, we consider rethinking the model for help seeking with youth at ultra high risk for psychosis. The pathway concept is important to our understanding of how services and supports are received and experienced over time. Understanding this process and the strategies that support positive early intervention on the part of youth and significant others is critical. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.

  19. Teen Dating Violence (Physical and Sexual) Among US High School Students: Findings From the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M

    2015-05-01

    National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were

  20. Risk for attempted suicide in children and youths after contact with somatic hospitals: a Danish register based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E; Stenager, E

    2012-03-01

    A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood. To study the risk of attempted suicide in children and youths with a somatic diagnosis, and to assess a possible association from a somatic perspective. From a cohort of 403 431 individuals (born 1983-89), 3465 children and youths who had attempted suicide were identified. Each case was matched with 20 population controls. 72 765 children and youths constituted the case-control population. All data were obtained from national population registers and analysed in a nested case-control design. Contact of children and youths with a somatic hospital is correlated with increased risk of attempted suicide; the risk peaks in the time immediately after contact. Risk factors were treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma and malformation for males; and spontaneous and medical abortions, treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and malformation for females. Not all the mentioned diagnoses were significant in the adjusted model. Based on the results of the study a strategy to minimise the risk of attempted suicide among children and youths must be implemented. The strategy should mainly focus on children at high risk-that is, children from families with low socioeconomic status, and children with a psychiatric history, a history of previous suicide attempts and with an unstable somatic disease subsequently causing many admissions.

  1. Systemic Therapy for Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial intervention trials for youth at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis have shown promising effects on treating psychotic symptoms but have not focused on psychosocial functional outcomes, and those studies have been conducted among help-seeking patients; there is a lack of research on non-clinical young CHR individuals. Systemic therapy (ST is grounded in systemic-constructivist and psychosocial resilience theories. It has a number of advantages that makes it attractive for use with CHR individuals in non-clinical context. The present study evaluated the effect of ST for students at CHR on reducing symptoms and enhancing psychosocial function. This was a single-blind randomized controlled trial for CHR young people comparing ST to supportive therapy with a 6-month treatment. Psychotic and depressive symptoms (DS as well as self-esteem and social support (SS were assessed at pre- and posttreatment. 26 CHR individuals were randomly divided into intervention group (n = 13 and control group (n = 13. There were no significant differences in severity of symptoms, level of SS and self-esteem at baseline between the two groups (P > 0.05. At posttreatment, significant improvements in positive and DS as well as SS and self-esteem were observed in the ST group (P < 0.05; in the control group, these improvements were not significant (P > 0.05. The findings indicated that systemic intervention for university students at CHR for psychosis may have a positive effect on symptoms and self-esteem as well as SS in short term. More long-term research is needed to further evaluate this intervention.

  2. Risk for Repeat Emergency Department Visits for Violent Injuries in Youth Firearm Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ja Lim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify significant risk factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED. Visits for violent injuries in youth firearm victims. Methods The study subjects of this retrospective cohort study were firearm victims aged 18 and younger presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department/Trauma Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin between 1990 and 1995. The primary outcome was subsequent Emergency Department visits (REDV at any emergency department in Milwaukee for a violent injury. Results A total of 495 subjects were eligible for the present study in the pediatric firearm victim's ED visit database. Eighty-five percent (n = 420 were males and 82% were African-Americans. Mean age was 15 years old (s.d = ±3.6. A majority of them had a single-parent family. Eighty-eight subjects (17.8% had a prior history of ED visit due to violence. During the study time, 201 subjects had at least one REDV. In the multivariable model, a subject without a social worker consulting at the hospital were more likely to have REDV compared to subjects with a social worker consulting (O.R = 1.749; p-value = 0.047, controlling for guardian and disposition. Subjects disposed to detention center or police custody were more likely to have REDV compared to subjects disposed to home or a hospital (O.R = 5.351; p-value = 0.003. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that individuals with guardians, those who did not receive social worker intervention on their initial visit, and those discharged in police custody were associated with increased repeat ED visits due to a violent injury.

  3. Do youth mentoring programs change the perspectives and improve the life opportunities of at-risk youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring programs such as Big Brothers Big Sisters of America have been providing positive role models and building social skills for more than a century. However, most formal mentoring programs are relatively novel and researchers have only recently begun to rigorously evaluate their impact on changing at-risk youth’s perspectives and providing opportunities for them to achieve better life outcomes. While a variety of mentoring and counseling programs have emerged around the world in recent...

  4. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea.

  5. Internet-based control recruitment for a case-control study of major risk factors for stroke in Korea: lessons from the experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Moo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Soo Joo; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Jun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Oh, Mi-Sun; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the population-attributable risks (PARs) of 9 major risk factors for stroke in Korea through a case-control study and to test the feasibility and validity of internet-based control recruitment. From April 2008 to September 2009, controls were enrolled via internet after providing consent for participation through a web-based survey. The cases included patients who were admitted to the participating centers due to acute stroke or transient ischemic attack within 7 days of onset during the study period. Each control was age- and sex-matched with 2 cases. Adjusted odd ratios, age-standardized prevalence, and PARs were estimated for the 9 major risk factors using the prevalence of risk factors in the control group and the age and sex characteristics from Korea's national census data. In total, 1041 controls were matched to 2082 stroke cases. Because of a shortage of elderly controls in the internet-based recruitment, 248 controls were recruited off-line. The PARs were 23.44%, 10.95%, 51.32%, and 6.35% for hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and stroke history, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, obesity, coronary heart disease, and a family history of stroke were not associated with stroke. Comparison with education and religion of the control group with that mentioned in the national census data showed a notable difference. The study results imply that internet-based control recruitment for a case-control study requires careful selection of risk factors with high self-awareness and effective strategies to facilitate the recruitment of elderly participants. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral Impulsivity and Risk-Taking Trajectories Across Early Adolescence in Youths With and Without Family Histories of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Lake, Sarah L; Mathias, Charles W; Ryan, Stacy R; Bray, Bethany C; Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley

    2015-08-01

    Youths with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased susceptibility for developing substance use disorders relative to those without such histories (FH-). This vulnerability may be related to impaired adolescent development of impulse control and elevated risk-taking. However, no previous studies have prospectively examined impulse control and risk-taking in FH+ youth across adolescence. A total of 386 pre-adolescents (305 FH+, 81 FH-; aged 10 to 12) with no histories of regular alcohol or other drug use were compared on behavioral measures of impulsivity including delay discounting, response initiation (Immediate Memory Task), response inhibition impulsivity (GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm), and risk-taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth). Youths completed these laboratory tasks every 6 months, allowing for the examination of 10- to 15-year-olds. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to characterize the development of impulse control and risk-taking as shown in performance of these tasks throughout adolescence. We found that (i) FH+ youths had increased levels of delay discounting and response inhibition impulsivity at study entry; (ii) regardless of FH status, all youths had relatively stable delay discounting across time, improvements in response inhibition and response initiation impulsivity, and increased risk-taking; and (iii) although FH+ youths had increased response inhibition impulsivity at pre-adolescence, these differences were negligible by mid-adolescence. Heightened delay discounting in FH+ pre-adolescents coupled with normal adolescent increases in risk-taking may contribute to their increased susceptibility toward problem substance use in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Latina youths' perceptions of children's environmental health risks in an agricultural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Julie; Peterson, Jeff; Ybarra Vega, Mary Jo; Ramon, Cristian; Cortes, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify Latina youths' perceptions of local assets and concerns related to children's environmental health (EH) in an agricultural community. Four photovoice sessions were used to elicit 6 promotores' and 5 middle school students' perspectives on problems and strengths related to "children; environment; and health." Data collection was diverse and included a demographic and evaluation questionnaire, photographs, audio recordings of group photo-sharing sessions, and field notes. Participants identified three themes that reflected group discussion during two photo-sharing sessions: a lack of structured youth activities; poverty and stress; and benefits and detriments of agricultural work. Community assets related to creating a healthy environment for youth were identified and included the clinic, churches, and youth programs. Findings from this study reinforce that social background and position affect how EH issues are defined and may be addressed. Participant perspectives are valuable to nurses because they offer a lens through which to see the complexities of EH from the viewpoint of those most directly affected. Leadership training and opportunities to serve on coalitions and neighborhood councils are recommended approaches to meaningfully involving youth in environmental justice initiatives. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673

  9. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah Kim

    Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  10. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  11. Risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N8 outbreaks on broiler duck farms in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W-H; An, J-U; Kim, J; Moon, O-K; Bae, S H; Bender, J B; Cho, S

    2018-04-19

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group. Control farms were matched based on farm location and were within a 3-km radius from the case premises. Spatial and environmental factors were characterized by site visit and plotted through a geographic information system (GIS). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess possible risk factors associated with HPAI broiler duck farm infection. Four final variables were identified as risk factors in a final multivariable logistic model: "Farms with ≥7 flocks" (odds ratio [OR] = 6.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-37.04), "Farm owner with ≥15 years of raising poultry career" (OR = 7.91, 95% CI 1.69-37.14), "Presence of any poultry farms located within 500 m of the farm" (OR = 6.30, 95% CI 1.08-36.93) and "Not using a faecal removal service" (OR = 27.78, 95% CI 3.89-198.80). This highlights that the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in South Korea were associated with farm owner education, number of flocks and facilities and farm biosecurity. Awareness of these factors may help to reduce the spread of HPAI H5N8 across broiler duck farms in Korea during epidemics. Greater understanding of the risk factors for H5N8 may improve farm vulnerability to HPAI and other subtypes and help to establish policies to prevent re-occurrence. These findings are relevant to global prevention recommendations and intervention protocols. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Personality risk profile for conduct disorder and substance use disorders in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen G; Tapert, Susan F; Moadab, Ida; Crowley, Thomas J; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-10-01

    The five factor model of personality is a useful metric to describe personality profiles associated with maladaptive functioning. Using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), we examined a conceptually based profile of high neuroticism, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness among 243 youth (aged 13-18 years) with varying degrees of conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Comparisons of the NEO-FFI personality dimensions between CD/SUD youth and adolescent siblings (N=173), and relations between the personality dimensions and behavioral indicators of conduct disorder and substance involvement were examined. Youth with CD and SUD had greater neuroticism, lower agreeableness, and lower conscientiousness than siblings of a similar age. The NEO-FFI scales predicted aggression and substance involvement for both probands and siblings in this cross-sectional investigation. These findings support the role for personality in models of the etiology and persistence of conduct disorder and substance use disorders.

  13. Psychosocial pathways to sexually transmitted infection risk among youth transitioning out of foster care: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-10-01

    To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric disorder symptoms, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among African-American out of school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alezandria K; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S Darius

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N=617; age 16-23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Meth Project and Teen Meth Use: New Estimates from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David

    2015-12-01

    In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Children at risk: the association between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and attempts in middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Lauren M; Morrissey, Susan L; Cummings, Doyle M

    2007-02-01

    Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and poor self-esteem in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and actions by gender in middle school youth. All public middle school students in 4 eastern North Carolina counties presented, and with parental permission (n = 5174), completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Middle School Questionnaire. The 3 dependent variables were self-reported thinking, planning, and attempting suicide. Bivariate analyses describe suicidal thoughts and actions; multiple logistic regression models examined the relationship between weight description and suicidal thoughts and actions controlling for age, race, household composition, grades on report cards, and parents' education. Significantly more females than males reported thinking (26% vs 19%), planning (12% vs 9%), and attempting (11% vs 8%) suicide. For females, those who perceived themselves as overweight were significantly more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions; while for males, perceptions of overweight and underweight were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions. Controlling for personal and family characteristics, perceived weight status was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions in middle school boys and girls.

  17. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  19. Youth at Risk for Truancy Detour into a Faith-Based Education Program: Their Perceptions of the Program and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jill Witmer

    2007-01-01

    Many minority adolescents in the United States today are at a high risk for truancy, dropout, and academic under-achievement. Truancy is related to a host of preceding and subsequent risks such as delinquency and limited vocational outcomes. Using participatory research methods, this federally funded, 10-month study assessed youths' perceptions of…

  20. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth in a Large Community Sample of Young Adult Males and Females : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle; Kretschmer, Tina; van Os, Titus

    This study examined associations between the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2002) risk and protective items, identified clusters of SAVRY items, and used these clusters to predict police contact and violence. SAVRY items were assessed in a community

  1. The structured assessment of violence risk in youth in a large community sample of young adult males and females : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Kretschmer, Tina; van Os, Titus

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2002) risk and protective items, identified clusters of SAVRY items, and used these clusters to predict police contact and violence. SAVRY items were assessed in a community

  2. Youth Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool (Y-ARAT): The development of an actuarial risk assessment instrument for predicting general offense recidivism on the basis of police records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E

    2014-06-01

    Estimating the risk for recidivism is important for many areas of the criminal justice system. In the present study, the Youth Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool (Y-ARAT) was developed for juvenile offenders based solely on police records, with the aim to estimate the risk of general recidivism among large groups of juvenile offenders by police officers without clinical expertise. On the basis of the Y-ARAT, juvenile offenders are classified into five risk groups based on (combinations of) 10 variables including different types of incidents in which the juvenile was a suspect, total number of incidents in which the juvenile was a suspect, total number of other incidents, total number of incidents in which co-occupants at the youth's address were suspects, gender, and age at first incident. The Y-ARAT was developed on a sample of 2,501 juvenile offenders and validated on another sample of 2,499 juvenile offenders, showing moderate predictive accuracy (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve = .73), with little variation between the construction and validation sample. The predictive accuracy of the Y-ARAT was considered sufficient to justify its use as a screening instrument for the police. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Cocaine Use and Delinquent Behavior among High-Risk Youths: A Growth Model of Parallel Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…

  4. Identification of Potential Aggressive Behavior in Rural At-Risk Minority Youth: A Community Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Laurence Armand; Rodriguez, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    New Mexico ranks high in youth violence, substance abuse, poverty, teen pregnancies, and school dropout rates. In response, Western New Mexico University developed a special master's program in bilingual special education, attended primarily by minority-group school personnel, and implemented a program to address the cycle of poverty by training…

  5. Reducing the Risk: Unemployed Migrant Youth and Labour Market Programs. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).

    This 7-chapter report reviews unemployment among migrant and refugee youth in Australia, examines the employment and training programs that exist for this population, identifies unmet needs, and suggests programs or services to meet those needs. An overview of the labor market programs and services available is contained in Chapter 2. Chapters 1…

  6. Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on At-Risk Urban Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past…

  7. The School-Police Partnership: Identifying At-Risk Youth through a Truant Recovery Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael D.; Fyfe, James J.; Campbell, Suzanne P.; Goldkamp, John S.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the experiences of 178 juveniles targeted by the Truant Recovery Program, a collaborative and nonpunitive school-law enforcement effort in California. Findings suggest that intensive cooperation between school and police may be effective in identifying troubled youth. Findings also raise questions about appropriate school and justice…

  8. Parental Suicidality as a Risk Factor for Delinquency among Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have examined the factors associated with juvenile delinquency, but this literature remains limited largely because it has not moved beyond traditional factors generally and because of the lack of research conducted on minority--especially Hispanic--youth. This study seeks to overcome these two limitations by using data from a…

  9. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  10. Orphaned and Abused Youth Are Vulnerable to Pregnancy and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Bogoliubova, Olga; Yorick, Roman V.; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Hillis, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the magnitude and consequences of violence against children for those living outside family care. We sought to estimate the frequency of childhood abuse and examine its association with lifetime pregnancy involvement (LPI) and past year suicide ideation among orphaned youth. Methods: We analyzed data collected via…

  11. Displacement and Suicide Risk for Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmar, Jeff M.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or…

  12. Child maltreatment and age of alcohol and marijuana initiation in high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J; Lewis, Terri; Roesch, Scott; Thompson, Richard; Litrownik, Alan J; English, Diana; Arria, Amelia M; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard

    2017-12-01

    Youth with a history of child maltreatment use substances and develop substance use disorders at rates above national averages. Thus far, no research has examined pathways from maltreatment to age of substance use initiation for maltreated youth. We examined the longitudinal impact of maltreatment in early childhood on age of alcohol and marijuana use initiation, and whether internalizing and externalizing behaviors at age 8 mediates the link between maltreatment and age of substance use initiation. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 8, 12, and 18. Maltreatment was assessed through reviews of administrative records and youth self-reports. Behavior problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Age of substance use initiation was assessed with the Young Adult version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Path analyses indicated mediated effects from a history of maltreatment to age at first alcohol and marijuana use through externalizing behaviors. Considering type of maltreatment, direct effects were found from physical abuse to age of alcohol initiation, and mediated effects were found from sexual abuse and neglect to initial age of alcohol and marijuana use through externalizing behaviors. Direct effects for marijuana use initiation and indirect effects through internalizing behavior problems were not significant for either substance. Externalizing behavior is one pathway from childhood maltreatment to age of substance use initiation. Services for maltreated youth should incorporate substance use prevention, particularly among those with early externalizing problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Korea prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, V.

    1990-01-01

    Contacts between the South Korean nuclear industry and a combined United Kingdom mission representing AEA Technology and British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) are reported. Prospects for entering the Korean market in two areas are perceived. The first is waste management and the second is the Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), an advanced pressurized water reactor design. AEA Technology and three collaborators have been promoting SIR as an inherently safe reactor design. Korean interest could be expressed in financial backing for the building of SIR stations in Korea and the opportunity could arise for BNFL to win fuel supply contracts. (UK)

  14. Comparisons of substance abuse, high-risk sexual behavior and depressive symptoms among homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and depression symptoms between homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement. Approximately 26,000 young persons exit foster care annually in the United States. Once they 'age out' of foster care, however, many young persons do not have access to comprehensive health care. They also are at risk for substance abuse, homelessness, or mental illness. Because persons with a history of foster care are at risk for negative psycho-social outcomes, it is unclear if these young people might be different than homeless youth without this history. The design is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 156 homeless young persons, of whom 44 had a history of foster care placement, were recruited from a drop-in center that caters to homeless youth and young adults. The sample was majority male and white; ages were 16-25. Significantly higher proportion of homeless former foster youth used methamphetamine within the last six months compared to non-fostered homeless youth p = 0.03). Homeless former foster youth were significantly older (p = 0.02) and less educated (p = 0.02) than their homeless counterparts without a history of foster care placement. Prevalence of using tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, crack cocaine, and powder cocaine were similar for both groups. Although not significant, a higher proportion of homeless former foster youth reported trading sex for money or drugs compared to non-fostered, homeless youth (19% versus 12% [trading sex for money], and 26% versus 14% [trading sex for drugs], respectively. Findings from this study show that, in general, homelessness is a negative outcome, irrespective of having a foster care history. However, those with that history need continued support when transitioning to independent living, such as access to health care, and encouragement to further their education. It is important that nurses, who serve homeless

  15. Suicide risk reduction in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prescribed methylphenidate: A Taiwan nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Liao, Yin-To; Lin, Tzu-Chin; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Kelsen, Brent A; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youths have increased suicide risk. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on suicide attempt have received relatively little attention. To investigate the MPH usage and the risk of suicide attempt among ADHD youths. We identified 84,898 youths less than 18 years old with ADHD diagnosis between 1997 and 2013 from National Health Insurance, and examined whether MPH use affected suicide attempt risk using Cox proportional-hazards models. Among ADHD youths, reduction of suicide risk was found in patients prescribed 90-180days of MPH after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratio (HR): 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.90) and a greater reduction in those prescribed more than 180days of MPH (HR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.48). We observed a 59% suicide attempt risk reduction among ADHD youths prescribed between 90 and 180days and a 72% risk reduction in those prescribed more than 180days of MPH. The protective benefit observed by the group prescribed MPH for longer duration underscores the importance of psychoeducation and compliance enhancement as part of ADHD management. Indication bias is identified as a limitation of this study, and future self-case control study to investigate the association between suicide attempt and ADHD medication is suggested. This nationwide population-based cohort study showed that among ADHD youths, reduction of suicide risk was observed in patients prescribed MPH for duration 90days and longer, underscoring the importance of appropriate ADHD pharmacotherapy and enhancing drug compliance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Latino Parent Cultural Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Family Functioning on Youth Emotional Well-Being and Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2017-12-01

    U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  17. Increased Internet use and poorer ability to manage emotions in youth at high-risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Internet use and social behavior remains unknown. However, research indicates that Internet use (IU may have some causal role in certain types of psychopathology and overall functioning. In contrast, other work suggests that IU may be protective and buffer against social isolation. Poorer emotional processing (EP is characteristic of schizophrenia, and these deficits are present prior to illness onset (the ultra high-risk period (UHR. UHR adolescents/young adults also fall within an age demographic characterized by extensive IU, which suggests that evaluating a link between IU and social behavior in this population may be especially informative. The present study examined the relationship between IU and emotional processing in 98 adolescents/young adults (52 UHR youth and 46 controls. UHR youth exhibited greater problematic IU (β = −6.49, F(1,95 = 8.79, p = 0.002 and social withdrawal/problems resulting from this use (β = −3.23, F(1,95 = 11.43, p < 0.001, as well deficits in emotional processing in comparison to healthy peers (β = 4.59, F(1,94 = 5.52, p = 0.011. Furthermore, the social problems resulting from IU were significantly related to the ability to process emotional information in the UHR group (β = −0.51, t(1,48 = −2.10, p = 0.021. UHR youth showed evidence of problematic IU relative to controls, and the social problems resulting from IU related to poorer EP. Findings replicate extant research involving other psychosis risk populations, while adding information regarding how social processes may relate to IU.

  18. Sexual orientation and suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts: evidence from local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Deborah M; Luo, Feijun; Ouyang, Lijing; Lippy, Caroline; Hertz, Marci F; Crosby, Alex E

    2014-02-01

    We examined the associations between 2 measures of sexual orientation and 4 suicide risk outcomes (SROs) from pooled local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We aggregated data from 5 local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2009. We defined sexual minority youths (SMYs) by sexual identity (lesbian, gay, bisexual) and sex of sexual contacts (same- or both-sex contacts). Survey logistic regression analyses controlled for a wide range of suicide risk factors and sample design effects. Compared with non-SMYs, all SMYs had increased odds of suicide ideation; bisexual youths, gay males, and both-sex contact females had greater odds of suicide planning; all SMYs, except same-sex contact males, had increased odds of suicide attempts; and lesbians, bisexuals, and both-sex contact youths had increased odds of medically serious attempts. Unsure males had increased odds of suicide ideation compared with heterosexual males. Not having sexual contact was protective of most SROs among females and of medically serious attempts among males. Regardless of sexual orientation measure used, most SMY subgroups had increased odds of all SROs. However, many factors are associated with SROs.

  19. HIV infection and related risk behaviours in a disadvantaged youth institution of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta, D M; Strazza, L; Azevedo, R S; Carvalho, H B; Massad, E; Menezes, R X; Ferreira, D P; Burattini, M N

    1999-02-01

    In order to study the prevalence of HIV and related risky behaviours among disadvantaged youth, we interviewed and bled, between December 1994 and April 1995, 1122 young males and 93 young females who were serving time in FEBEM, a state institution that cares for homeless and offender youth of São Paulo, Brazil. Our questionnaire covered the following areas: sexual practices and use of illicit drugs; knowledge of HIV and STDs and their prevention; and myths and beliefs about AIDS. Seroprevalence of HIV was assessed and related with risk-taking behaviours by means of uni-, bi- and multivariate analysis. We found 2.6% of the males and 10.3% of the females to be positive to HIV. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies resulted in 5.9% for males and 4.6% for females, respectively. The risk for parenterally transmitted HIV among the males was higher than that for sexually related transmission. The inverse relationship was found among the females.

  20. Is flood risk capitalized into real estate market values? : a Mahalanobis-metric matching approach to housing market in Busan, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Natural disasters are substantial source of social and economic damage around the globe. The amount of damage is larger when such catastrophe events happen in urbanized areas where the wealth is concentrated. Disasters cause losses in real estate assets, incurring additional cost of repair and maintenance of the properties. For this reason, natural hazard risk such as flooding and landslide is regarded as one of the important determinants of homebuyers' choice and preference. In this research, we aim to reveal whether the past records of flood affect real estate market values in Busan, Korea in 2014, under a hypothesis that homebuyers' perception of natural hazard is reflected on housing values, using the Mahalanobis-metric matching method. Unlike conventionally used hedonic pricing model to estimate capitalization of flood risk into the sales price of properties, the analytical method we adopt here enables inferring causal effects by efficiently controlling for observed/unobserved omitted variable bias. This matching approach pairs each inundated property (treatment variable) with a non-inundated property (control variable) with the closest Mahalanobis distance between them, and comparing their effects on residential property sales price (outcome variable). As a result, we expect price discounts for inundated properties larger than the one for comparable non-inundated properties. This research will be valuable in establishing the mitigation policies of future climate change to relieve the possible negative economic consequences from the disaster by estimating how people perceive and respond to natural hazard. This work was supported by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) under Grant (No. 2014-001-310007).

  1. Can Designing Self-Representations through Creative Computing Promote an Incremental View of Intelligence and Enhance Creativity among At-Risk Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Blau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Creative computing is one of the rapidly growing educational trends around the world. Previous studies have shown that creative computing can empower disadvantaged children and youth. At-risk youth tend to hold a negative view of self and perceive their abilities as inferior compared to “normative” pupils. The Implicit Theories of Intelligence approach (ITI; Dweck, 1999, 2008 suggests a way of changing beliefs regarding one’s abilities. This paper reports findings from an experiment that explores the impact of a short intervention among at-risk youth and “normative” high-school students on (1 changing ITI from being perceived as fixed (entity view of intelligence to more flexible (incremental view of intelligence and (2 the quality of digital self-representations programmed though a creative computing app. The participants were 117 Israeli youth aged 14-17, half of whom were at-risk youth. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and control conditions. The experimental group watched a video of a lecture regarding brain plasticity that emphasized flexibility and the potential of human intelligence to be cultivated. The control group watched a neutral lecture about brain-functioning and creativity. Following the intervention, all of the participants watched screencasts of basic training for the Scratch programming app, designed artifacts that digitally represented themselves five years later and reported their ITI. The results showed more incremental ITI in the experimental group compared to the control group and among normative students compared to at-risk youth. In contrast to the research hypothesis, the Scratch projects of the at-risk youth, especially in the experimental condition, were rated by neutral judges as being more creative, more aesthetically designed, and more clearly conveying their message. The results suggest that creative computing combined with the ITI intervention is a way of developing

  2. Using Online Respondent Driven Sampling for Vietnamese Youths' Alcohol Use and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W. B.; Tran, Bach Xuan; Le, Huong Thi; Long, Nguyen Hoang; Le, Huong Thi; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Tho, Tran Dinh; Le, Bao Nguyen; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Ngo, Chau; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Latkin, Carl A.; Ho, Roger CM

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The average alcohol consumption per capita among Vietnamese adults has consistently increased. Although alcohol-related disorders have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research shedding light on this issue among Internet users. The study aimed to examine the severity of alcohol-related disorders and other associated factors that might predispose individuals towards alcohol usage in a sample of youths recruited online. Methods An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,080 Vietnamese youths. A standardized questionnaire was used. Respondent-driven sampling was applied to recruit participants. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were utilized to identify the associated factors. Results About 59.5% of the males and 12.7% of the total youths declared that they were actively using alcohol. From the total sample, a cumulative total of 32.3% of the participants were drinking alcohol, with 21.8% and 25.0% of the participants being classified as drinking hazardously and binge drinkers, respectively. The majority of the participants (60.7%) were in the pre-contemplative stage. Conclusions A high prevalence of hazardous drinking was recognized among online Vietnamese youths. In addition, we found relationships between alcohol use disorder and other addictive disorders, such as tobacco smoking and water-pipe usage. Our results highlighted that the majority of the individuals are not receptive to the idea of changing their alcohol habits, and this would imply that there ought to be more government effort towards the implementation of effective alcohol control policies. PMID:28523209

  3. Reducing risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N

    2014-04-01

    Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-informant assessment of siblings of youth with autism spectrum disorder: Parent-child discrepancies in at-risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, James A; Tomeny, Theodore S; Barry, Tammy D

    2017-09-01

    The behavioral and emotional functioning of typically-developing (TD) siblings of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been frequently assessed in the literature; however, these assessments typically include only one informant, rarely considering differences between parent and self-reports of sibling adjustment. This study examined parent-youth reported informant discrepancies in behavioral and emotional functioning, including whether parent and youth reports yielded the same conclusions regarding TD sibling risk status. Among 113 parents and TD siblings of youth with ASD, TD siblings self-reported more overall, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems (compared to parent reports). Although few siblings were considered at-risk, those who were identified were not usually identified as at-risk on both informants' reports. Moreover, ASD symptoms, broader autism phenotype symptoms, parent mental health concerns, and social support from parents were all related to differences in at-risk classification between parent- and sibling self-report. This paper highlights the necessity of multi-informant reporting when considering TD sibling psychological functioning. This study helps to address gaps in the literature on assessment of emotional and behavioral functioning of TD siblings of youth with ASD. The results highlight the importance of utilizing both parent- and self-report when identifying TD siblings at-risk for maladjustment. Although few siblings were considered at-risk, those who were identified were not usually identified as such on both informants' reports, and a variety of sibling- and parent-factors were associated with differences in at-risk classification. Thus, inclusion and examination of both parent- and self-report of TD sibling psychological functioning is vital for accurately identifying numbers of TD siblings at-risk of maladjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  6. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Swaziland: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

  7. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Swaziland: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Nokuthula Sacolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. RESULTS: The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

  8. High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756

  9. Latina Adolescents Health Risk Behaviors and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: Results from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2017-06-01

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more common in Latina adolescents than White or African-American adolescents. Several health risk behaviors have been identified as being associated with Latina adolescent suicides. However, to date, no study has identified the consistency and stability of these risk behaviors over time. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behaviors Survey from 2001 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors in Latina adolescents. Our analysis found the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied significantly over the 13-year study span, decreasing from 2001 to 2009 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The analyses found 11 health risk behaviors that were significantly associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts that did not vary over time. The stability of these 11 health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors could be useful to school personnel to identify early at risk Latina adolescents who may benefit from school and community mental health resources.

  10. Childhood trauma, parental death, and their co-occurrence in relation to current suicidality risk in adults: a nationwide community sample of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Lee, Christina; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Shim, Eun-Jung; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Hong; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that childhood trauma and parental death are strongly associated with suicidality in adulthood, it is still unclear how these factors interact within the same population. A total of 1396 adults were recruited through nationwide multistage probability sampling in South Korea. Subjects were evaluated through face-to-face interviews using the Suicidality Module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form. Among the 1396 adults, the group that experienced both childhood trauma and parental death had the highest current suicidality risks (F = 12.16, p suicide attempt (χ2 = 35.81, p suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt were significantly associated with concurrent childhood trauma and parental death (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-6.65) as well as with only childhood trauma (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.87), after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, household monthly income, and living area. Emotional abuse was the only type of childhood trauma significantly associated with higher current suicidality scores in those who experienced childhood parental death than in those who did not (F = 3.26, p = 0.041). Current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt are associated with experiencing both parental death and trauma, especially emotional abuse, in childhood, whereas experiencing only childhood parental death is associated with neither.

  11. Risk factors for the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli at a tertiary care center in South Korea: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Young; Song, Je Eun; Kim, Min Hyung; Choi, Heun; Kim, Jae Kyung; Ann, Hea Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Jeon, Yongduk; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Sun Bean; Ku, Nam Su; Han, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Goo; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-06-01

    Carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacilli is an emerging threat worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CRE). We conducted a matched case-control study comprising 57 cases of acquisition of CRE and 114 controls (1:2 matched) selected from patients with a culture of carbapenem-susceptible E coli between January 2006 and December 2010 at a 2000-bed tertiary care center in South Korea. On univariate analysis, previous use of carbapenem (P carbapenem (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-14.46; P = .01) and previous use of fluoroquinolone (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.14-6.99; P = .03) were independent risk factors. At this institute, the antibiotic selective pressure of carbapenems and fluoroquinolones was shown to be an important risk factor for the acquisition of CRE. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mentoring Programs to Affect Delinquency and Associated Outcomes of Youth At-Risk: A Comprehensive Meta-Analytic Reviewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael S.; Lovegrove, Peter; Nichols, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a meta-analytic review of selective and indicated mentoring interventions for effects for youth at risk on delinquency and key associated outcomes (aggression, drug use, academic functioning). We also undertook the first systematic evaluation of intervention implementation features and organization and tested for effects of theorized key processes of mentor program effects. Methods Campbell Collaboration review inclusion criteria and procedures were used to search and evaluate the literature. Criteria included a sample defined as at-risk for delinquency due to individual behavior such as aggression or conduct problems or environmental characteristics such as residence in high-crime community. Studies were required to be random assignment or strong quasi-experimental design. Of 163 identified studies published 1970 - 2011, 46 met criteria for inclusion. Results Mean effects sizes were significant and positive for each outcome category (ranging form d =.11 for Academic Achievement to d = .29 for Aggression). Heterogeneity in effect sizes was noted for all four outcomes. Stronger effects resulted when mentor motivation was professional development but not by other implementation features. Significant improvements in effects were found when advocacy and emotional support mentoring processes were emphasized. Conclusions This popular approach has significant impact on delinquency and associated outcomes for youth at-risk for delinquency. While evidencing some features may relate to effects, the body of literature is remarkably lacking in details about specific program features and procedures. This persistent state of limited reporting seriously impedes understanding about how mentoring is beneficial and ability to maximize its utility. PMID:25386111

  13. Obesity, islet cell autoimmunity, and cardiovascular risk factors in youth at onset of type 1 autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo, Maribel; Libman, Ingrid M; Arena, Vincent C; Zhou, Lei; Trucco, Massimo; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Becker, Dorothy J

    2015-01-01

    The current increase in childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and obesity has led to two conflicting hypotheses and conflicting reports regarding the effects of overweight on initiation and spreading of islet cell autoimmunity vs earlier clinical manifestation of preexisting autoimmune β-cell damage driven by excess weight. The objective of the study was to address the question of whether the degree of β-cell autoimmunity and age are related to overweight at diabetes onset in a large cohort of T1D youth. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of youth with autoimmune T1D consecutively recruited at diabetes onset. The study was conducted at a regional academic pediatric diabetes center. Two hundred sixty-three consecutive children younger than 19 years at onset of T1D participated in the study. Relationships between body mass index and central obesity (waist circumference and waist to height ratio) and antigen spreading (islet cell autoantibody number), age, and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors examined at onset and/or 3 months after the diagnosis were measured. There were no significant associations between number of autoantibodies with measures of adiposity. Age relationships revealed that a greater proportion of those with central obesity (21%) were in the youngest age group (0-4 y) compared with those without central obesity (6%) (P = .001). PATIENTS with central obesity had increased CVD risk factors and higher onset C-peptide levels (P obesity accelerates progression of autoantibody spreading once autoimmunity, marked by standard islet cell autoantibody assays, is present. Central obesity was present in almost one-third of the subjects and was associated with early CVD risk markers already at onset.

  14. Suicide risk factors among victims of bullying and other forms of violence: data from the 2009 and 2011 Oklahma Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thad; Edmondson, Andrea Hamor; Whitehead, Tyler; Smith, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between exposure to bullying and other forms of violence and suicide risk among public high school students in Oklahoma. Data from the 2009 and 2011 Oklahoma Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used for this analysis and were representative of public school students in grades 9-12 in Oklahoma. Students who were bullied, threatened or injured by someone with a weapon, physically hurt by their partner, or had ever been forced to have sex, were twice as likely as students who had not experienced victimization to have experienced persistent sadness, considered attempting suicide, made a plan to attempt suicide, and attempted suicide. The results of this study indicate that being a victim of bullying or other forms of violence significantly increases the likelihood for experiencing signs and symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans, or suicidal attempts.

  15. Expeditious Methods for Site Characterization and Risk Assessment at Department of Defense Hazardous Waste Sites in the Republic of Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Dean

    1999-01-01

    ...) with preferred innovative site characterization technologies and risk assessment methods to meet their needs in obtaining hazardous waste site data and then prioritizing those sites for remediation based upon risk...

  16. Urbanization may reduce the risk of frost damage to spring flowers: A case study of two shrub species in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Hyeon-Ju; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun Ju

    2018-01-01

    Regional warming, owing to urbanization, leads to earlier spring phenological events and may expose plants to hard freeze damage. This study examined the influence of urbanization on the risk of frost damage to spring flowers in South Korea from 1973 to 2015. For the analysis period, we categorized 25 cities into two groups: those showing rapid population growth (rPG) ≥ 200,000, including 13 cities, and those showing no or decreased population growth (nPG), including 12 cities. We then investigated the time from the last frost dates (LFDs) in spring to the first flowering dates (FFDs) for each group. The rPG group experienced significant spring warming of 0.47°C per decade, resulting in earlier LFDs and FFDs. For this group, the advancement of LFD was more rapid than that of FFD, and the days between these two dates increased from 0.42 to 0.47 days per decade, implying a reduced risk of frost damage. Spring warming and the advancement of FFDs and LFDs were relatively small for the nPG group, and the LFDs were rather delayed. Consequently, the days between LFDs and FFDs were reduced from -1.05 to -1.67 days per decade, indicating an increased risk of frost damage. The contrasting changes in the frost-damage risk between the two city groups can be attributed to distinct urban warming at night, which makes the LFDs substantially earlier in the rPG group. Therefore, this study suggests that the warming associated with urbanization may lessen the risk of spring frost damage to plants in rapidly growing urban areas.

  17. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  18. The prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk alcohol consumption in Korean adults: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Hong

    Full Text Available The consequences of alcohol consumption on health outcomes are largely determined by two separate, but related, dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. Most epidemiological studies focus on the amount of alcohol consumed and do not consider the pattern of drinking.This study evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk and heavy alcohol drinking in Korean adults.This study analyzed 15,215 of the 28,009 participants in the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. High-risk alcohol drinking was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores ≥16, which provides a framework for intervention to identify hazardous and harmful drinking patterns as the cause of alcohol-use disorders, according to World Health Organization guidelines.The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 15.1%, with the highest prevalence of 17.2% in middle-aged adults (45-64 years. In men, the prevalence of high-risk<