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  1. The prevalence of antiretroviral multidrug resistance in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients with HIV/AIDS between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea.

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    Choi, Ju-yeon; Kwon, Oh-Kyung; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Park, Mina; Kim, Sung Soon

    2014-06-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) including protease inhibitors (PIs) has been used in South Korea since 1997. Currently, more than 20 types of antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients in South Korea. Despite the rapid development of various antiretroviral drugs, many drug-resistant variants have been reported after initiating HAART, and the efficiency of HAART is limited by these variants. To investigate and estimate the annual antiretroviral drug resistance and prevalence of antiretroviral multi-class drug resistance in Korean patients with experience of treatment. The amplified HIV-1 pol gene in 535 patients requested for genotypic drug resistance testing from 2004 to 2009 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was sequenced and analyzed annually and totally. The prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance was estimated based on "SIR" interpretation of the Stanford sequence database. Of viruses derived from 787 specimens, 380 samples (48.3%) showed at least one drug class-related resistance. Predicted NRTI drug resistance was highest at 41.9%. NNRTI showed 27.2% resistance with 23.3% for PI. The percent of annual drug resistance showed similar pattern and slightly declined except 2004 and 2005. The prevalence of multi-class drug resistance against each drug class was: NRTI/NNRTI/PI, 9.8%; NRTI/PI, 21.9%; NNRTI/PI, 10.4%; and NRTI/NNRTI, 21.5%. About 50% and less than 10% of patients infected with HIV-1 have multidrug and multiclass resistance linked to 16 antiretroviral drugs, respectively. The significance of this study lies in its larger-scale examination of the prevalence of drug-resistant variants and multidrug resistance in HAART-experienced patients in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk alcohol consumption in Korean adults: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Jae Won Hong

    Full Text Available The consequences of alcohol consumption on health outcomes are largely determined by two separate, but related, dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. Most epidemiological studies focus on the amount of alcohol consumed and do not consider the pattern of drinking.This study evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk and heavy alcohol drinking in Korean adults.This study analyzed 15,215 of the 28,009 participants in the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. High-risk alcohol drinking was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores ≥16, which provides a framework for intervention to identify hazardous and harmful drinking patterns as the cause of alcohol-use disorders, according to World Health Organization guidelines.The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 15.1%, with the highest prevalence of 17.2% in middle-aged adults (45-64 years. In men, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 23.7%, with the highest prevalence found in middle-aged adults. In women, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 4.2%, with the highest prevalence found in younger adults. Men had higher weighted mean AUDIT scores than women (10.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001, and age was negatively associated with the AUDIT score (P<0.001. Elementary school graduates had higher mean AUDIT scores than senior high school (P = 0.003 or college (P<0.001 graduates. Regarding occupation, clerical support workers (P = 0.002 and service and sales workers (P<0.001 had higher mean AUDIT scores than managers and professionals. Logistic regression analyses of high-risk alcohol drinking using sex, age, education level, number of family members, household income, and occupation as covariates was performed. Women had a lower risk of high-risk alcohol drinking (odds ratio (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.13-0.16, P<0.001 than men. Regarding age, compared to control

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  4. Prevalence of Vitiligo and Associated Comorbidities in Korea

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    Lee, Hemin; Lee, Mu-Hyoung; Lee, Dong Youn; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, Ki Ho; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Tae Heung; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Kyoung Wan; Hann, Seung-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vitiligo prevalence and its associated comorbidities rate have been reported variably among different populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitiligo in Korea along with the baseline rate of comorbidities and compared the risks to the general population using hospital visit information of the total population in Korea. Materials and Methods We assessed demographic characteristics of vitiligo patients in Korean population from 2009 to 2011 in a nationwide data from Health Insurance Review Assessment Service. Patients who had at least one visit to Korea's primary, secondary, or tertiary referral hospitals with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for vitiligo were identified. As a supplementary study, comorbidities associated with vitiligo were selected for further review to calculate relative risks compared to the general population. Results The annual prevalence of vitiligo determined by hospital-visiting rate in Korea was 0.12% to 0.13% over a three year period. In sync with other previous epidemiological studies, there was bimodal distribution among the age groups and no difference between genders. Also, vitiligo in Korean population was associated with various autoimmune/non-autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Conclusion This study was by far the most comprehensive review on prevalence of vitiligo using a data of total population in Korea. The prevalence is within a range of those reported in previous literatures, and increased risk of comorbidities such as thyroid diseases and psoriasis in vitiligo might aid clinicians in the initial work up of vitiligo patients and concurrent follow ups. PMID:25837178

  5. High prevalence of non-clonal imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter spp. isolates in Korea and their association with porin down-regulation.

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    Lee, Ji-Young; Hong, Yoon-Kyoung; Lee, Haejeong; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and clonal distribution of imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter clinical isolates from hospitals in Korea and the contributions of various mechanisms to imipenem nonsusceptibility. The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to imipenem of 357 non-duplicated Enterobacter isolates obtained from eight geographically distant tertiary care hospitals in Korea was evaluated. Imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter isolates were genotyped. Additionally, β-lactamase genes were screened using PCR, and the expression of efflux pump and porin genes was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 31 isolates (8.7%) were not susceptible to imipenem. Clonal diversity of 17 imipenem-nonsusceptible E. cloacae isolates was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing. Fourteen imipenem-nonsusceptible E. aerogenes isolates were found to be distantly genetically related by an ERIC-PCR analysis. Expression levels of porin ompD and ompK35 genes were decreased in all imipenem-nonsusceptible E. cloacae and E. aerogenes isolates. However, only two isolates were found positive for bla IMP and bla VIM genes, and expression of the efflux pump gene, acrB, was not associated with reduced imipenem susceptibility. Imipenem resistance seems to have occurred independently in most of the imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates in this study, and decreased porin expression was found to be the main mechanism underlying this reduced susceptibility to imipenem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infection among Residents along 5 Major Rivers in the Republic of Korea.

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    Jeong, Young-Il; Shin, Hee-Eun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2016-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is currently the most important parasite affecting public health problems in the Republic of Korea. We investigated the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among residents living along 5 major rivers in Korea. A total of 42,562 individual stool samples were collected from 37 localities and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Helminth eggs were detected in 4,052 (9.5%) residents and 3,586 (8.4%) were infected with C. sinensis. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis in Nakdong, Seomjin, Geum, Yeongsan, and Han River was 11.7%, 9.9%, 6.5%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The overall prevalence of clonorchiasis by sex was 11.2% in males and 6.2% in females. The age-prevalence was the highest in the 50-59 years band. It has been reconfirmed that the endemicity of clonorchiasis is higher in southern areas of Korea, especially along Nakdong and Seomjin Rivers. A combination of continuous control programs with health education initiatives is urgently required in these highly endemic areas of clonorchiasis in Korea.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of successful ageing: a comparative study between China and South Korea.

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    Feng, Qiush; Son, Joonmo; Zeng, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Successful ageing is often defined as a later life with less disease and disease-related disability, high level of cognitive and physical functions, and an active life style. Few studies have compared successful ageing across different societies in a non-Western social context. This study aims to compare prevalence and correlates of successful ageing between China and South Korea. The data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA). A total of 19,346 community-dwelling elders over 65 years were included, 15,191 from China and 4,155 from Korea. A multidimensional construct of successful ageing was used, with the criteria of no major comorbidity, being free of disability, good mental health, engaging in social or productive activity, and satisfaction on life. Correlates of successful ageing included demographics (gender, age, and rural/urban residence), socioeconomic features (financial status, education, and spouse accompany), and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol-drinking, and exercising). The results showed that 18.6 % of the older adults in China was successful agers, which was less than 25.2 % in Korea. When gender and age were adjusted, older adults were 51 % less likely to be successful agers in China than Korea ( p  Korea. However, before the socioeconomic variables are under control, rural residence was negatively related to successful ageing in China, whereas this is not the case in Korea. And the gender gap of successful ageing was mostly explained by socioeconomic features and health behaviours in Korea, but not in China. In both countries, good financial condition was highly associated with successful ageing. The study suggests that advancement of public health system could better control progression of non-communicable diseases among old people and thus promote successful ageing.

  8. Prevalence, sleep characteristics, and comorbidities in a population at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea: A nationwide questionnaire study in South Korea.

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    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence, sleep characteristics, and comorbidities associated with a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in the Korean adult population.We analyzed data from 2,740 subjects who responded to a nationwide questionnaire survey of sleep characteristics. Those who qualified under two or more symptom categories of the Berlin questionnaire were defined as "at high risk for OSA". We investigated their socio-demographic information, sleep habits, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors and consequences significantly associated with a high risk for OSA.The prevalence of a high risk for OSA was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.5-17.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age (≥ 70 years, odds ratio [OR] 2.68 and body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 (OR 10.75 were significantly related with a high risk for OSA, whereas regular physical activity (OR 0.70 had a protective effect. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with a high risk for OSA were perceived insufficient sleep (OR 1.49, excessive daytime sleepiness (OR 1.88, and insomnia (OR 3.70. In addition, hypertension (OR 5.83, diabetes mellitus (OR 2.54, hyperlipidemia (OR 2.85, and anxiety (OR 1.63 were comorbid conditions independently associated with a high risk for OSA.This is the first study to demonstrate the prevalence of a high risk for OSA in a nationwide representative sample of the Korean adult population. These findings elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of those at high risk for OSA.

  9. LONGEVITY IN NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA: PREVALENCE OF CENTENARIANS IN ONE THE POOREST AND ONE OF THE RICHEST NATIONS.

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    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche. The purpose of the present study was to investigate longevity based on the number of centenarians living in the two Koreas by drawing on censuses implemented around 1925 and 2010. The study found that North Korea had some 0.7 centenarians per one million persons in 1925, and this rate moderately improved to 2.7 around 2010. Conversely, rates skyrocketed in South Korea from 2.7 in 1925 to 38.2 around 2010. This suggests that the rate of centenarians in North Korea around 2010 corresponds to that of South Korea in 1925, suggesting a chronological lag in delayed human development of some 85 years. The prevalence of centenarians is fourteen times higher in contemporary South Korea compared with the North - broadly confirming previous biosocial studies on the two Koreas and two Germanies reporting improved human development in market-oriented systems compared with socialist ones.

  10. Inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010.

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    Im, Jong Geun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Gyeong-Yoon; Joung, Hyojee; Park, Mi-Jung

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of Ca intake and major food sources of Ca in Korean children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. We analysed the daily Ca intake, major food sources of Ca and the prevalence of inadequate Ca intake in the study population. Ca intake was categorized as inadequate when the participant's daily Ca intake was less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Subject The study population consisted of 7233 children and adolescents (3973 boys, 3260 girls; aged 1-18 years). Mean Ca intake was 510·2 mg/d in boys and 431·7 mg/d in girls. Overall, 75·0 % of adolescents (boys 71·6 %, girls 79·1 %) had inadequate Ca intake. The prevalence of inadequate Ca intake increased significantly from toddlers (45-55 %) to adolescents (78-86 %) in both genders. The highest ranked food sources for Ca were dairy products (35·0 %), followed by vegetables (17·3 %), grains (11·3 %) and seafood (9·9 %). Ca intake from dairy products decreased significantly from 57 % in toddlers to 30 % in adolescents, while Ca intakes from other foods increased with age. Inadequate Ca intake is highly prevalent and increased with age in Korean children and adolescents. It should be emphasized to encourage children and adolescents to eat more Ca-rich products to meet their Ca needs.

  11. Prevalence, complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of porcine deltacoronavirus in South Korea, 2014-2016.

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    Jang, G; Lee, K-K; Kim, S-H; Lee, C

    2017-10-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enterotropic swine coronavirus that causes enteritis and diarrhoea in piglets. Here, a nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR approach for the detection of PDCoV was developed to identify and characterize aetiologic agent(s) associated with diarrhoeal diseases in piglets in South Korea. A PCR-based method was applied to investigate the presence of PDCoV in 683 diarrhoeic samples collected from 449 commercial pig farms in South Korea from January 2014 to December 2016. The molecular-based survey indicated a relatively high prevalence of PDCoV (19.03%) in South Korea. Among those, the monoinfection of PDCoV (9.66%) and co-infection of PDCoV (6.30%) with porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PEDV) were predominant in diarrhoeal samples. The full-length genomes or the complete spike genes of the most recent strains identified in 2016 (KNU16-07, KNU16-08 and KNU16-11) were sequenced and analysed to characterize PDCoV currently prevalent in South Korea. We found a single insertion-deletion signature and dozens of genetic changes in the spike (S) genes of the KNU16 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the entire genome and spike protein sequences of these strains indicated that they are most closely related to other Korean isolates grouped with the US strains. However, Korean PDCoV strains formed different branches within the same cluster, implying continuous evolution in the field. Our data will advance the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV circulating in South Korea. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Korea: international study of asthma and allergies in childhood.

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    Lee, Sang-Il

    2010-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a major concern because it leads to more hospital visits and a heavy economic burden. Proper management and prevention strategies for childhood asthma must be based on correct evaluation of prevalence and risk factors for its development. In Korea, nationwide studies were conducted in 1995 and 2000 on students from 68 elementary schools (age, 6-12 years) and junior high schools (age, 12-15 years) by the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Diseases. We used the Korean version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written and video questionnaires at the same schools during the same period (October-November). The prevalence of asthma in junior high school children seemed to increase over 5 years. However, in elementary school children, the prevalence of asthma symptoms decreased, although the prevalence of 'diagnosis of asthma, ever' and 'treatment of asthma, last 12 months' increased. In addition, it was found that various factors, such as obesity, passive smoking, dietary habits, raising pets at home, and fever/antibiotic use during infancy were associated with childhood asthma. When prevalence of asthma in Korea was compared with that in different regions, the prevalence changes in the 6-7 years age group did not seem to be consistent between regions, whereas similar trends were observed among children aged 13-14 years. To conduct another epidemiological study to evaluate the time trend over time, a third nationwide survey is planned in 2010, and we anticipate ISAAC Phase 3 will explore recent changes in the prevalence of childhood asthma and assess its risk factors in Korean children. On the basis of accurate data on the current status of childhood asthma in 2010, we will be able to establish proper management strategies.

  13. Prevalence and Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in South Korea.

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    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Jung Mo; Kang, Young Ae; Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Song Yee

    2017-04-01

    South Korea has an increasing prevalence of diabetes and a relatively high burden of tuberculosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and examine the effect of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Data from patients ≥30 years diagnosed with and treated for PTB between January 2010 and December 2012 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, were analyzed and compared with data from a contemporaneous general population sample extracted from KNHANES V. Diabetes prevalence was 24.2% (252/1044) among patients with PTB and 11.6% (1700/14,655) among controls. Diabetes [odds ratios (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.21, P Diabetes was the only factor associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.03-2.70, P = 0.039). The prevalence of diabetes was markedly higher in patients with PTB than in a sample of the general South Korean population. Diabetes may delay sputum conversion and adversely affect treatment outcomes; detection and management of diabetes in patients with PTB is crucial.

  14. High Rate of Resistance to Quinupristin-Dalfopristin in Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolates from Korea

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    Oh, Won Sup; Ko, Kwan Soo; Song, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Sulhee; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Choon-Kwan; Lee, Hyuck; Kim, Shin-Woo; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Sook-In; Son, Jun Seong; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2005-01-01

    We tested the in vitro susceptibilities of 603 enterococcal isolates from eight tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. The quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance rate in Enterococcus faecium was very high (25 isolates, 10.0%). It was suggested that both clonal spread and the sporadic emergence of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant isolates may explain the high prevalence of quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in Korea. PMID:16304198

  15. Incidence and prevalence of uveitis in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study.

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    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kim, Sung Soo; Ham, Don-Il; Yu, Seung-Young; Chung, Eun Jee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of uveitis and associated risk factors in South Korea. For this retrospective national cohort study, approximately 1 000 000 Korean residents were randomly selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Uveitis was defined according to the Korean Classification of Diseases. The uveitis incidence and prevalence were calculated. Sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with uveitis were evaluated via Cox proportional regression models. A total of 1 094 440 subjects were evaluated over 7 051 346 person-years (mean follow-up: 6.44 years). Overall, 7447 newly developed uveitis cases were identified during the period of 2007-2013; the average incidence of uveitis was 10.6 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 10.3 to 10.8). The average incidences of anterior and non-anterior uveitis were 9.0 and 1.5 per 10 000 person-years, respectively. The prevalence rates of uveitis, anterior uveitis and non-anterior uveitis were 17.3, 15.0 and 2.3 per 10 000 persons, respectively, during the period of 2007-2013. Increasing age, male sex, residing in a relatively rural area and high income were associated with uveitis, along with Behçet's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematous, ulcerative colitis and tuberculosis. The overall incidence of uveitis in Korea was similar to those reported in Taiwan and the USA. Despite a potentially inaccurate disease definition, claims data may be useful for monitoring the substantial uveitis burden in South Korea. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

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    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-02-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.

  17. Cyberinfrastructure for high energy physics in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Jeung, Minho

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the hierarchy of cyberinfrastructure which consists of infrastructure (supercomputing and networks), Grid, e-Science, community and physics from bottom layer to top layer. KISTI is the national headquarter of supercomputer, network, Grid and e-Science in Korea. Therefore, KISTI is the best place to for high energy physicists to use cyberinfrastructure. We explain this concept on the CDF and the ALICE experiments. In the meantime, the goal of e-Science is to study high energy physics anytime and anywhere even if we are not on-site of accelerator laboratories. The components are data production, data processing and data analysis. The data production is to take both on-line and off-line shifts remotely. The data processing is to run jobs anytime, anywhere using Grid farms. The data analysis is to work together to publish papers using collaborative environment such as EVO (Enabling Virtual Organization) system. We also present the global community activities of FKPPL (France-Korea Particle Physics Laboratory) and physics as top layer.

  18. Dental caries prevalence as a product of agriculture and subsistence pattern at the Yean-ri site, South Korea.

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    Fujita, H; Hashimoto, H; Shoda, S; Suzuki, T

    2011-01-01

    Yean-ri human skeletal remains from South Korea have been dated to the fourth to seventh century AD. They have morphological similarities to immigrants of the Yayoi period excavated in northern Kyushu and Yamaguchi prefecture in Japan. The overall dental caries prevalence was 8.1% in the Yean-ri skeletal remains, indicating a much lower prevalence than that of most Yayoi immigrant skeletal remains from Japan, although similar to that of the Kofun people (8.3%) in Japan. There was no significant difference in the dental caries prevalence between the males and females of the same age group, but there were differences in the prevalence by age. The late middle age and elderly males and females had significantly higher dental caries prevalence than the early middle age males and females, indicating increased prevalence with age. Root caries prevalence tended to increase in old age. The percentage of root caries increased, accounting for 80% of all caries in Yean-ri human skeletal remains. Agriculture is believed to have arisen approximately 3,000 years ago in Korea. Therefore, agriculture was practiced during this period, but since the Yean-ri tumuli are from coastal areas, their diet may have retained a significant marine component. Additionally, caries prevalence was not very high in Nukdo human remains (ca. 2100-2000 BC) in Korea. We speculate that they maintained subsistence activities suitable for their environment despite their knowledge of agriculture. This hypothesis is supported by differences in the caries prevalence between excavation sites of the Yayoi and Kofun periods in Japan. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea.

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    Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2014-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.

  20. The prevalence and risk factor control associated with noncommunicable diseases in China, Japan, and Korea.

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    Ma, Defu; Sakai, Hiromichi; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Kwon, Jong-Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Qiaoqin; Sasao, Kumiko; Ito, Kanade; Nishihara, Ken; Wang, Peiyu

    2017-12-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) has become the leading cause of mortality and disease burden worldwide. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of NCDs and risk factor control on dietary behaviors and dietary intake in China, Japan, and Korea. There were significant differences among the three countries on the prevalence of hypertension (24.5% in China, 17.6% in Korea, and 15.2% in Japan), diabetes (8.9% in China, 5.7% in Korea, and 4.8% in Japan), hyperlipidemia (13.1% in China, 9.2% in Korea, and 6.9% in Japan), and angina pectoris (3.6% in China, 1.7% in Korea, and 1.5% in Japan). The prevalence rate of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris was highest in China and lowest in Japan. However, 82.2%, 48.4%, and 64.4% of Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese presented good dietary behavior, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that sex, age, and marital status were predictors of good dietary behavior. In addition, in comparison with subjects without hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia significantly improved their dietary behaviors and controlled their intake of salt, sugar, and oil. The prevalence of NCDs and trends in major modifiable risk factor control in China, Korea, and Japan remain troubling. Public efforts to introduce healthy lifestyle changes and systematic NCDs prevention programs are necessary to reduce the epidemic of NCDs in these three Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  2. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Whan; Song, Bong Gu; Shin, E-Hyun; Yun, Seok-Min; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis a vector that harbors severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a major species of tick in South Korea. To investigate the existence and prevalence of SFTSV in Korea, we collected ticks from nine provinces in South Korea for detecting SFTSV. In all, we collected 13,053 ticks, and H. longicornis (90.8%, 11,856/13,053) was the most abundant among them. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.46% (55 pools). SFTSV was detected in ticks during all the developmental stages, showing MIR in larvae (2/350, 0.57%), nymphs (38/10,436, 0.36%), males (2/221, 0.90%), and females (13/849, 1.53%), respectively. Viruses were detected in ticks collected between April and September. A higher MIR was detected in ticks from the southern part of the country. We amplified the M and S segment partial genes from a sample and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The results showed a 93-98% homology to Chinese and Japanese strains registered in Genbank. In this study, we confirmed the existence of SFTSV for the first time in South Korea. The SFTSV prevalence data from the studies are essential for raising the awareness of SFTS in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette prevalence in two policy environments: South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-09-05

    In the context of different regulatory environments, different patterns of e-cigarette use have emerged among adolescents worldwide. One example is the United States and South Korea, the latter of which has maintained much more extensive regulation of e-cigarettes. This analysis compares the prevalence of e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use between 2011 and 2015 from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and the U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey, both nationally representative samples of middle and high school students that use similar questions. E-cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) among Korean adolescents decreased from 4.7% in 2011 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-5.0) to 4.0% in 2015; (3.7-4.3) but increased dramatically among U.S. adolescents from 0.9% (0.7-1.2) to 11.2% (9.9-12.7). Cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) decreased in Korea from 12.1% (11.6-12.7) to 7.8% (CI: 7.3-8.3) and in the United States from 11.1% (9.5-12.6) to 6.1% (5.1-7.3). Combined prevalence of cigarette and e-cigarette use (adjusting for dual users) decreased in Korea from 13.2% (12.7-13.8) to 8.5% (8.0-9.1) but increased in the United States from 11.3% (9.7-12.9) to 14.0% (12.4-15.7). In Korea, where e-cigarettes are extensively regulated, adolescent e-cigarette use remained stable at a low level, whereas in the United States, where e-cigarette regulation has been limited, e-cigarette use increased. Combined e-cigarette plus cigarette use declined in Korea whereas it increased in the US. The restrictive policies in Korea likely contributed to lower overall tobacco product use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler H T; Nam, Jae S; Choi, Moonjung; Lee, Sung C; Lee, Christopher S

    2014-06-01

    To describe the age, gender specific prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a total 14 924 randomly selected national representative participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent additional ophthalmologic examinations by the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Best Corrected Distance Visual Acuity was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale (Jin's vision chart). Independent risk factors for visual impairment were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of visual impairment (≤20/40) of adults 40 years and older was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.6-4.6) based on the better seeing eye. The overall prevalence of blindness (≤20/200) for adults 40 years and older was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1-0.3). Risk indicators of visual impairment were increasing age, low education status, living in rural area, being unemployed, being without spouse and the absence of private health insurance. The visually impaired were more likely to have eye diseases compared with the normal subjects, and they were less likely to utilize eye care. The prevalence of visual impairment was demonstrated to be higher while that of blindness was similar to previous population studies in Asia or U.S. Sociodemographic disparities are present in the prevalence of visual impairment and more targeted efforts are needed to promote vision screening in high risk groups. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eon; Choi, Ran; Kang, Seung-Won; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) infection in household cats in Korea. One hundred household cats and 50 feral cats from nine of the largest cities in Korea were enrolled in this study. The tests performed in this survey was an in-house rapid screen IgG and IgM combo test, faecal PCR test for T. gondii oocysts, and an ELISA immunoassay for IgG antibodies. There were no household cats positive for T. gondii infection detected using the in-house IgG and IgM rapid screen combo test, although 6/50 and 0/50 feral cats were positive in IgG and IgM tests, respectively. This initial finding was confirmed by subsequent ELISA test for IgG antibody and PCR for T. gondii in faeces. Despite the higher prevalence rate of the disease in feral cats in Korea, we did not find any household cats that were either infected or exposed previously to T. gondii in our study population. Our study indicates that there is minimal risk of T. gondii transmission from household cats to human in Korea.

  7. The prevalence and nature of gambling and problem gambling in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki Joon

    2013-05-01

    To establish the current prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in South Korea and to determine the associated demographic and game play patterns. Administration of a gambling survey over the phone to 4,000 randomly selected South Korean adults (19+), supplemented by an online survey of 4,330 members of a South Korean online panel. The past year prevalence of gambling among South Korean adults was 41.8 %. The past year engagement in individual forms of gambling was 36.2 % for lotteries and instant lotteries; 12.0 % for social gambling; 2.3 % for sports betting; 1.5 % for casino gambling; 1.5 % for internet gambling; and 1.1 % for horse, bicycle, or motor boat betting. The past year prevalence of problem gambling was 0.5 %. Logistic regression identified the best predictors of problem gambling to be: having a greater number of gambling fallacies; gambling on the internet; betting on horses, bicycling, or motor boat racing; social gambling; male gender; mental health problems; sports betting; motivation for gambling (gambling to escape); casino gambling; and lower income. The past year prevalence of gambling (41.8 %) and problem gambling (0.5 %) in South Korea is low compared to other countries, especially relative to other Asian jurisdictions. This relatively low prevalence of gambling is likely related to the very strong negative attitudes toward it, the low participation by females, and restricted access. The low prevalence of problem gambling is likely related to the relatively low prevalence of gambling and restricted access to continuous forms of gambling. The variables that are predictive of problem gambling in South Korea are quite similar to those found in other countries with a couple of important differences.

  8. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis by PCR in Women Attending Health Screening in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Ryong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeong; Kim, Yong-Suk; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. There are few reports on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis by PCR in Guri city, Korea. All adult women who visited Hanyang University Guri Hospital for health screening within the National Health Care Service were invited to participate in the study, and 424 women were enrolled between March and June 2011. PCR was used to detect Trichomonas vaginalis using primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Fourteen women (3.3%) were found to have T. vaginalis. All were over 50, and they were significantly older on average than the 410 Trichomonas-negative women (mean ages 63.4 vs 55.3 years). It seems that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in women receiving health screening, especially among those over 50.

  9. [The prevalence of burnout and the related factors among some medical students in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaewon; Son, Shill Lee; Kim, Suh Hee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hong, Jee-Young; Lee, Moo-Sik

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the prevalence of burnout and its related factors in medical students in Korea. All available medical students in the metropolitan city of Daejeon, Korea, were asked to answer self-administered questionnaires from July 1 to July 26 in 2013. A total of 534 medical students participated. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and structured questionnaires on related factors were used. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's α were used to verify the applicability of the MBI-SS to medical students in Korea. We also performed chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify the factors that were associated with burnout. The MBI-SS was reliable and valid in measuring burnout in Korean medical students. Our confirmatory factor analysis approved and explained the appropriateness of the model fit. The prevalence of burnout among medical students was 26.4% (n=141). Suchrates were higher in students who were female, experienced greater levels of depression, had poor academic performance, feared dropping out, and were stressed by the poor quality of the class facilities. The MBI-SS is a valid instrument to measure academic burnout in Korean medical students. Further studies should be performed, because improvements in the mental health of medical students will benefit these doctors-to-be and their future patients.

  10. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae From Five Hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Jae Seok; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min Jeong; Shin, Saeam; Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Seung Soon; Song, Wonkeun

    2016-11-01

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed. Production of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase was determined by genotypic tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by using an Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing and oxacillinase (OXA)-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 393 isolates tested, 79 (20.1%) were CPE. Of these 79 isolates, 47 (59.5%) harbored the bla(OXA-232) gene while the remaining isolates carried genes bla(KPC-2) (n=27), bla(IMP-1) (n=4), and bla(NDM-1) (n=1). Among the 24 KPC-2 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital B, 100% were resistant to carbapenems, 8% to colistin, and 0% to tigecycline. Among the 45 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae at hospital C, 95% were resistant to ertapenem, 68% to imipenem, 95% to meropenem, 10% to colistin, and 24% to tigecycline. PFGE analysis revealed a unique pattern for KPC-2 K. pneumoniae and identified 30 isolates belonging to the dominant pulsotypes (PT)1 and PT2 among 41 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae isolates. CPE strains are present in Korea, with the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-232 and KPC-2. The prevalence and predominant genotypes of CPE show hospital-specific differences.

  11. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes in Dalseong-gun, Daegu City, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of the present study was to determine the population-based prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and prediabetes in a rural district of Daegu City, Korea.MethodsBetween August and November 2003, a community-based health survey of adults aged 20 years and older was performed in the rural district of Dalseong-gun in Daegu City. A total of 1,806 of all eligible individuals agreed to participate. Fasting plasma glucose was measured in all participants. Two hour oral glucose tolerance was measured in the 1,773 participants for whom there was neither an established diagnosis of DM nor evidence of DM according to fasting glucose levels. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes was determined according to the 2003 criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with prediabetes were classified into one of three categories of glucose intolerance: isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG; isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; or combined IFG and IGT.ResultsThe prevalence of DM was 12.2%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in subjects in their seventies. A total of 34.7% of all subjects who were assigned a diagnosis of DM in the present study had not been diagnosed previously. The prevalence of prediabetes was 22.7%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in subjects in their fifties.ConclusionThe present study identified prevalence rates of 12.2% for DM (age-standardized prevalence rate [ASR], 6.8%, and 22.7% for prediabetes (ASR 18.5%. These results emphasize the need for community health promotion strategies to prevent or delay the onset of DM in individuals with prediabetes.

  12. Prevalence of avian influenza virus in wild birds before and after the HPAI H5N8 outbreak in 2014 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jipseol; An, In-Jung; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Kim, Seol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus outbreaks have occurred five times in Korea, with four HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and one HPAI H5N8 outbreak. Migratory birds have been suggested to be the first source of HPAI in Korea. Here, we surveyed migratory wild birds for the presence of AI and compared regional AI prevalence in wild birds from September 2012 to April 2014 for birds having migratory pathways in South Korea. Finally, we investigated the prevalence of AI in migratory birds before and after HPAI H5N8 outbreaks. Overall, we captured 1617 migratory wild birds, while 18,817 feces samples and 74 dead birds were collected from major wild bird habitats. A total of 21 HPAI viruses were isolated from dead birds, and 86 low pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses were isolated from captured birds and from feces samples. Spatiotemporal distribution analysis revealed that AI viruses were spread southward until December, but tended to shift north after January, consistent with the movement of migratory birds in South Korea. Furthermore, we found that LPAI virus prevalences within wild birds were notably higher in 2013-2014 than the previous prevalence during the northward migration season. The data from our study demonstrate the importance of the surveillance of AI in wild birds. Future studies including in-depth genetic analysis in combination with evaluation of the movement and ecology of migratory birds might help us to bridge the gaps in our knowledge and better explain, predict, and ultimately prevent future HPAI outbreaks.

  13. Prevalence and Trends in Domestic Violence in South Korea: Findings From National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Oh, Sehun; Nam, Seok In

    2016-05-01

    To examine trends in the prevalence of domestic violence since 1997, 1 year prior to the introduction of legislative countermeasures and accompanying services in South Korea, and to analyze what socio-demographic characteristics of perpetrators contribute to spousal violence and whether there were any changes in risk factors over time. This study used two sets of nationally representative household samples: married or cohabiting couples of 1,540 from the 1999 national survey and 3,269 from the 2010 National Survey of Domestic Violence. Frequency analysis was used to measure the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), and cross-tabulation, correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to look for socio-demographic risk factors of spousal physical violence and patterns of change over time. The frequency analysis showed that the IPV prevalence dropped by approximately 50%, from 34.1% in 1999 to 16.5% in 2010, though it was still higher than many other countries. The cross-tabulation and logistic regression analyses suggested that men with low socio-demographic characteristics were generally more violent, though this tendency did not apply to women. Instead, younger women seemed to be more violent than older women. Last, different levels of household income were associated with different levels of IPV in 2010, but no linear trend was detected. In this study, IPV prevalence trends and risk factors of two different time periods were discussed to provide implications for tackling the IPV problem. Future countermeasures must build on understanding about men with low socio-demographic status and younger women, who were more violent in marital relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Prevalence of Perceived Dysphonia and Its Correlation With the Prevalence of Clinically Diagnosed Laryngeal Disorders: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of perceived dysphonia and its correlation with the prevalence of clinically diagnosed laryngeal disorders. Subjects were 8713 non-institutionalized civilian adults over the age of 19 (3810 men and 4912 women) who completed the laryngeal examination of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A Poisson regression was used to examine the association between perceived dysphonia and laryngeal disorders. Adjusting for covariates (age, sex, education level, income, occupation, alcohol drinking, and self-reported health status), those with perceived voice problems were 4.8 times (OR=4.75, 95% CI, 3.77-5.99) more likely to have laryngeal disorders than those without voice problems. In particular, the vocal fold pathology correlated with perceived dysphonia was: vocal fold nodules (OR=5.32, 95% CI, 3.43-8.26), vocal polyps (OR=3.73, 95% CI, 1.57-8.86), vocal cysts (OR=11.97, 95% CI, 1.97-72.72), Reinke's edema (OR=9.27, 95% CI, 4.77-18.00), laryngeal paralysis (OR=3.58, 95% CI, 1.56-8.26), laryngeal granulomas (OR=4.31, 95% CI, 1.01-18.80), epiglottic cyst (OR=2.94, 95% CI, 1.21-7.13), and laryngitis (OR=4.07, 95% CI, 2.91-5.69). People with self-perceived dysphonia had a high risk of laryngeal disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Pro-smoking apps for smartphones in the Republic of Korea: prevalence and potential risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyung Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Smartphone has become a main part of our daily lives, and its impact on human behavior has been extensively studied. In Korea, 8 out of 10 people have their own smartphone and download 48 applications on average to get and share information. Recently, tobacco marketing prevails in the smartphone application but there is limited research on this area. This study investigated the prevalence of pro-smoking applications (apps in Korea in order to understand the current status and potential risks. Methods From mid-June to early July 2017 (for 3 weeks, this study searched the Google Play store for pro-smoking apps. 8 keywords (cigarette, e-cigarette, nicotine, cigar, hookah, etc were used to identify tobacco related apps. Apps achieved a top 100 ranking for each keyword then classified and analyzed based on apps name, retailer category, content category, number of downloads, publisher names, and content rating. Results Among a total of 675 apps identified for 8 keywords, 511 were analyzed for this study to avoid duplication. Although some anti-smoking apps (n=119, 23.3% provided information on health effects of smoking or smoking cessation, majority were classified as pro-smoking apps (n=392, 76.7% containing information about how to make tobacco, advertisement on tobacco products and shops, places where smoking is allowed, game to simulate smoking behavior or to run tobacco company by selling cigarette, and smoking advocacy. More importantly, 99.7% of these pro-smoking apps were rated as minors under 18 year-old can use them without any restrictions. Conclusions Pro-smoking apps prevail in the market while there is no restriction on access, install and use. Considering its cross-border characteristics, this would pose great challenge against tobacco control policies where smartphone use is increasing. Strategic approach to deal with novel tobacco marketing tactics needs to be developed with special attention to youth population.

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher among non-obese PCOS women with hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity in Korea.

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    Min-Ju Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism (HA has been linked with several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Few studies in Asian women have evaluated the important risk factors for and prevalence of MetS according to PCOS subtype. In this study, we investigated differences in metabolic parameters and the prevalence of MetS in two major phenotypic subgroups of PCOS in Korea. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between HA-associated parameters and MetS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2011 in Korea. A total of 837 females with PCOS, aged 15-40, were recruited from Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 13 hospitals. Of those, 700 subjects with either polycystic ovaries (PCO+HA+oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (O or PCO+O were eligible for this study. MetS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: MetS was more prevalent in the PCO+HA+O group (19.7% than in the PCO+O (11.9% group. There were statistically significant trends for an increased risk of MetS in the PCO+HA+O group compared to the PCO+O group. After adjustment for age, the odds ratio of MetS was 2.192 in non-obese subjects with PCO+HA+O compared to those with PCO+O, whereas the risk of MetS was not different in obese patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high free androgen index and low sex hormone-binding globulin were significantly associated with MetS in non-obese women with PCOS, with odds ratios of 4.234 (95% CI, 1.893-9.474 and 4.612 (95% CI, 1.978-10.750, respectively. However, no associations were detected between MetS and SHBG and FAI in obese PCOS subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that HA and its associated parameters (FAI and SHBG are significantly associated with MetS in non-obese PCOS subjects, whereas this association

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Eun; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. Methods A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5–18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD). Results Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.1): 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0–1.7) for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1–0.6) for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14–19.44), family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71–14.08) and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13–2.98). Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31–113.04) and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12–19.81). Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus. Conclusion This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea. PMID:29444106

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Eun; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD). Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.1): 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7) for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.6) for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14-19.44), family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71-14.08) and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98). Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31-113.04) and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12-19.81). Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus. This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Han

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea.A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD] and esodeviation (≥10 PD.Among 5,935 eligible subjects, 84 subjects had clinically significant exodeviation and 13 had clinically significant esodeviation. The overall prevalence of clinically significant horizontal strabismus was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.1: 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7 for clinically significant exodeviation and 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.6 for clinically significant esodeviation. Clinically significant exodeviation was associated with amblyopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.45; 95% CI, 2.14-19.44, family history of strabismus (aOR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.71-14.08 and astigmatism ≥1.0 D (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.13-2.98. Clinically significant esodeviation was associated with hyperopia (aOR, 12.16; 95% CI, 1.31-113.04 and amblyopia (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.12-19.81. Other demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables were not associated with strabismus.This study provides data on the prevalence and independent risk factors for clinically significant exodeviation and esodeviation in a representative population of children and adolescents in South Korea.

  20. The health care burden of high grade chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea: analysis of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data

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    Kim JH

    2013-11-01

    in Korea during the study period, and they showed a high prevalence of comorbid disease. The total medical costs were over three times higher in patients with high grade COPD compared with those without it ($3,744 versus $1,183; P < 0.001. Medication costs comprised the largest portion of medical cost, but most impact came from hospitalization and exacerbation in both groups of patients. COPD grade and hospitalization in the previous year were the major factors affecting medical costs and days of utilizing health care resources. Conclusion: Patients with high grade COPD impose a high economic burden on the health care system in Korea. Prevention of progression to high grade COPD is important, both clinically and economically. Keywords: COPD, population characteristics, health care utilization, medical cost

  1. Age-Related Changes in the Prevalence of Osteoporosis according to Gender and Skeletal Site: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

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    Jongseok Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incidence of osteoporosis and its related fractures are expected to increase significantly in the rapidly aging Korean population. Reliable data on the prevalence of this disease is essential for treatment planning. However, sparse data on Korean patients is available.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization T-score criteria. We analyzed the BMD data of 17,208 people (men, 7,837; women, 9,368.ResultsThe adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis was 7.8% in men versus 37.0% in women. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of osteopenia between genders (men, 47.0%; women, 48.7%. The prevalence of osteoporosis in men in their 50s was 4.0%, in their 60s was 7.2%, in their 70s was 15.1%, and in their 80s was 26.7%. The figures in women were 15.2%, 36.5%, 62.7%, and 85.8%, respectively. The age group with the maximal BMD differed between genders. In the men, 20s had the highest value in all the skeletal sites. However, in the women, the maximal BMD in the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and the total hip was observed in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, respectively. The onset age of osteoporosis differed between genders. Osteoporosis in the femoral neck began at 55 years in the women and at 60 years in the men.ConclusionThe prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea was significantly high. In addition, the age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis differed according to gender and skeletal site.

  2. Prevalence and determining factors related to depression among adult women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Shin, Chol; Park, Sun Young; Yi, Hye Ryeon

    2004-12-01

    Korean women are likely to experience symptoms of depression, possibly due to socially fixed limitations on the roles that Korean women are expected to perform. Also if a Korean woman experiences negative relationship problem or stress in her family, she would feel responsible, which will worsen her depression. Nonetheless, much of the research on depression among Korean women has focused on menopausal women. This study aims to understand the depression of Korean women to provide fundamental data to develop nursing intervention method for promoting women's health. The present investigation assessed the prevalence and correlates of depression in a large sample of Korean women, aged 18 or older, from the general population. With a probability sample of 3312 women drawn from two areas in Korea, a survey, which contains the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and background, was completed. According to CES-D classification criteria, 36.5% of the women in the sample displayed either no depression or mild depression, 55.6% exhibited moderate depression, and 7.8% manifested severe depression. Significant bivariate relationships were observed between depression and each measured background variable except alcohol use. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest combination of predictors of depression included income, menopausal, and marital status. The data support the premise that Korean women disproportionately experience elevated levels of depression. Consistent with the theory, depression may be related to social pressures to conform to the traditional roles. The study suggests the need for further research, primary prevention activities, and increased access to treatment.

  3. Prevalence and management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea: A field research

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    Sang Heon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to investigate the current management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire surveys and in-depth person-to-person interviews were conducted at 13 hospitals within the Seoul and Incheon areas. Results: The study was carried out from July to December 2014; 75.6% of patients (1,858/2,458 and 77.5% (779/1,031 of medical personnel responded to our survey. All surveys and interviews were performed by urology specialists, fellows, residents, or nurses. The hospitals included in the study had an average of 215.2 beds (range, 110–367, 189.1 patients (range, 90–345, and 40.2 nurses (range, 10–83. The average number of physicians was 6.2 (range, 3–11, but none of these were certified urologists. Only 4 hospitals provided consultation services for urological disorders. In total, 64% of patients had urological disorders, although only 20.7% of patients were receiving medication. Most patients were being treated using urological interventions; diapers (49.7%, indwelling catheters (19.5%, clean intermittent catheters (12.2%, and external collection urinary drainage (7.9%. However, most interventions were inadequately implemented, and only 17% of the patients had been examined by a certified urologist. Urological complications were found in 20.2% of patients, and secondary complications occurred in 18.8%. Excluding redundant cases, the total prevalence of urological complications was 39.0%. Conclusions: Urologic diseases are poorly managed, and no certified urologists work in geriatric hospitals. Therefore, more designated urologists are needed in geriatric hospitals.

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes from effluent of coastal aquaculture, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Kim, Young Beom; Choi, Sangki; Lee, Yunho; Shin, Seung Gu; Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Young Mo

    2018-02-01

    The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes can potentially lead to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study reports for the first time the profile of ARGs from effluents of coastal aquaculture located in South Jeolla province and Jeju Island, South Korea. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), twenty-two ARGs encoding tetracycline resistance (tetA, tetB, tetD, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetM, tetQ, tetX, tetZ, tetBP), sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2), quinolone resistance (qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr), β-lactams resistance (bla TEM , bla CTX , bla SHV ), macrolide resistance (ermC), florfenicol resistance (floR) and multidrug resistance (oqxA) and a class 1 integrons-integrase gene (intI1) were quantified. In addition, Illumina Miseq sequencing was applied to investigate microbial community differences across fish farm effluents. Results from qPCR showed that the total number of detected ARGs ranged from 4.24 × 10 -3 to 1.46 × 10 -2 copies/16S rRNA gene. Among them, tetB and tetD were predominant, accounting for 74.8%-98.0% of the total ARGs. Furthermore, intI1 gene showed positive correlation with tetB, tetD, tetE, tetH, tetX, tetZ tetQ and sul1. Microbial community analysis revealed potential host bacteria for ARGs and intI1. Two genera, Vibrio and Marinomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, showed significant correlation with tetB and tetD, the most dominant ARGs in all samples. Also, operational taxonomic units (OTUs)-based network analysis revealed that ten OTUs, classified into the phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and an unclassified phylum, were potential hosts of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetA, tetG, tetH, tetM, tetQ and tetZ). Further systematic monitoring of ARGs is warranted for risk assessment and management of antibacterial resistance from fish farm effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  6. Prevalence and Density of Digenetic Trematode Metacercariae in Clams and Oysters from Western Coastal Regions of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2017-08-01

    A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

  7. The Prevalence and Clinical Features of Non-responsive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease to Practical Proton Pump Inhibitor Dose in Korea: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Jun; Park, Soo Heon; Shim, Ki Nam; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Han, Jae Pil; Kim, Yong Sik; Bang, Byoung Wook; Kim, Gwang Ha; Baik, Gwang Ho; Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Seon Young; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-07-25

    In Korea, there are no available multicenter data concerning the prevalence of or diagnostic approaches for non-responsive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) which does not respond to practical dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in Korea. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and the symptom pattern of non-responsive GERD. A total of 12 hospitals who were members of a Korean GERD research group joined this study. We used the composite score (CS) as a reflux symptom scale which is a standardized questionnaire based on the frequency and severity of typical symptoms of GERD. We defined "non-responsive GERD" as follows: a subject with the erosive reflux disease (ERD) whose CS was not decreased by at least 50% after standard-dose PPIs for 8 weeks or a subject with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) whose CS was not decreased by at least 50% after half-dose PPIs for 4 weeks. A total of 234 subjects were analyzed. Among them, 87 and 147 were confirmed to have ERD and NERD, respectively. The prevalence of non-responsive GERD was 26.9% (63/234). The rates of non-responsive GERD were not different between the ERD and NERD groups (25.3% vs. 27.9%, respectively, p=0.664). There were no differences between the non-responsive GERD and responsive GERD groups for sex (p=0.659), age (p=0.134), or BMI (p=0.209). However, the initial CS for epigastric pain and fullness were higher in the non-responsive GERD group (p=0.044, p=0.014, respectively). In conclusion, this multicenter Korean study showed that the rate of non-responsive GERD was substantially high up to 26%. In addition, the patients with the non-responsive GERD frequently showed dyspeptic symptoms such as epigastric pain and fullness.

  8. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.

  9. The prevalence of Behçet's disease in Korea: data from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Na; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of Behçet's disease (BD) from data in the Healthcare Bigdata Hub of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment (HIRA) Service from 2011 to 2015 in Korea. This study collected information on primary and auxiliary diagnoses of BD (M352) by physicians according to the Korean Standard Classification of Diseases (KCD) codes. The prevalence of BD was assessed on the basis of age, sex, and geographical distribution. We used time series analysis, using the ARIMA model for the expected prevalence of BD from 2016 to 2025. The overall prevalence of BD was gradually increased, ranging from 32.8 to 35.7 per 100,000 population over the study period. The male to female ratio of BD ranged from 0.54:1 to 0.56:1, revealing a female predominance from 2011 to 2015. Among five districts in Korea, the prevalence in the Seoul Metropolitan district was the highest, with a slowly increasing trend for the study period, accounting for about 60.3% of total BD patients. The expected prevalence of BD patients was estimated to range from 36.9 (95% CI 35.0 - 39.0) to 44.7 (95% CI 40.2 - 49.6) between 2016 and 2025. This study found that the overall prevalence of BD is estimated to be approximately 35.0 per 100,000 population, with female predominance, and predicts gradually increased prevalence of BD in Korea.

  10. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related atherosclerotic complications in Korea: a National Health Insurance Database Study.

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    Bo Kyung Koo

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database from 2007-2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population.T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD, and peripheral artery disease (PAD were defined according to ICD-10 codes. We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by HIRA to identify associated procedures or surgeries. When calculating incidence, we excluded cases with preexisting T2DM within two years before the index year. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating 95% confidence intervals for prevalence and incidence rates.The prevalence of T2DM in Korean adults aged 20-89 years was 6.1-6.9% and the annual incidence rates of T2DM ranged from 9.5-9.8/1,000 person-year (PY during the study period. The incidence rates of T2DM in men and women aged 20-49 years showed decreasing patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001; by contrast, the incidence in subjects aged 70-79 years showed increased patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001. The incidence rates of CAD and CVD in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were 18.84/1,000 PY and 11.32/1,000 PY, respectively, in the year of diagnosis. Among newly diagnosed individuals with T2DM who were undergoing treatment for PAD, 14.6% underwent angioplasty for CAD during the same period.Our study measured the national incidences of T2DM, CAD, CVD, and PAD, which are of great concern for public health. We also confirmed the relatively higher risk of CAD and CVD newly detected T2DM patients compared to the general population in Korea.

  11. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Statist Political Economy and High Demand for Education in South Korea

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    Ki Su Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998 academic year, 84 percent of South Korea's high school "leavers" entered a university or college while almost all children went up to high schools. This is to say, South Korea is now moving into a new age of universal higher education. Even so, competition for university entrance remains intense. What is here interesting is South Koreans' unusually high demand for education. In this article, I criticize the existing cultural and socio-economic interpretations of the phenomenon. Instead, I explore a new interpretation by critically referring to the recent political economy debate on South Korea's state-society/market relationship. In my interpretation, the unusually high demand for education is largely due to the powerful South Korean state's losing flexibility in the management of its "developmental" policies. For this, I blame the traditional "personalist ethic" which still prevails as the

  13. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

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    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  14. Estimate of the prevalence and burden of food poisoning by natural toxic compounds in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have attempted to accurately estimate the overall number of cases of foodborne illness, but there have not been many attempts to estimate the burden of foodborne disease caused by natural toxic compounds. This study estimated the number of cases due to specific natural toxins (seafood toxins, plant toxins, and mycotoxins) during 2008-2012 in South Korea, using data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), while accounting for uncertainty in the estimate. The estimated annual occurrences of foodborne illness from natural toxic agents were 1088 (90% credible interval [CrI]: 883-1315), which suggests there are 21 times more cases than are reported, with 45.6% (n=496 [388-614]) and 54.4% (n=592 [423-790]), accounting for inpatient stays and outpatient visits, respectively. Among toxins, mushroom and plant toxins caused the highest illnesses, followed by toxic agents in seafood and mycotoxins. The 55-59year olds had the highest proportion of illnesses and those over the age of 40 accounted for 70.6% of all cases. The cases caused by mushroom poison, poisonous plants, and seafood toxins showed clear seasonal and regional differences. These results will be useful to food safety policymakers for the prevention and control of natural food poisons in South Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Korea, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Kennedy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase designs in epidemiological studies of autism prevalence introduce methodological complications that can severely limit the precision of resulting estimates. If the assumptions used to derive the prevalence estimate are invalid or if the uncertainty surrounding these assumptions is not properly accounted for in the statistical inference…

  16. The health care burden of high grade chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea: analysis of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JinHee; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Jin Hwa; Oh, YeonMok; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Yuri; Kim, KyungJoo; Yoon, HyoungKyu

    2013-01-01

    Patients with high grade chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) account for much of the COPD-related mortality and incur excessive financial burdens and medical care utilization. We aimed to determine the characteristics and medical care use of such patients using nationwide data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in 2009. Patients with COPD were identified by searching with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision for those using medication. Patients with high grade COPD were selected based on their patterns of tertiary institute visits and medication use. The numbers of patients with high grade COPD increased rapidly in Korea during the study period, and they showed a high prevalence of comorbid disease. The total medical costs were over three times higher in patients with high grade COPD compared with those without it ($3,744 versus $1,183; P system in Korea. Prevention of progression to high grade COPD is important, both clinically and economically.

  17. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  18. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  19. An Analysis of Infectious Disease Research Trends in Medical Journals From North Korea

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    Do-Hyeon Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to investigate the current status of infectious disease research in North Korea by analyzing recent trends in medical journals from North Korea in comparison with research from South Korea. Methods Three medical journals (Preventive Medicine, Basic Medicine, and Chosun Medicine were analyzed from 2012 to 2016. Articles on tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and parasitic diseases were selected and classified by their subtopics and study areas. Two medical journals published in the South Korea were selected for a comparative analysis of research trends. Results Of the 2792 articles that were reviewed, 93 were extracted from North Korea journals. TB research in North Korea was largely focused on multi-drug resistant TB and extrapulmonary TB, whereas research in South Korea more frequently investigated non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Research on parasitic diseases in North Korea was focused on protozoan and intestinal nematodes, while the corresponding South Korea research investigated various species of parasites. Additionally, the studies conducted in North Korea were more likely to investigate the application of traditional medicine to diagnosis and treatment than those conducted in South Korea. Conclusions This study presents an analysis of research trends in preventive medicine in North Korea focusing on infectious diseases, in which clear differences were observed between South and North Korea. Trends in research topics suggest a high prevalence of certain parasitic diseases in North Korea that are no longer widespread in South Korea. The large proportion of studies examining traditional medicine implies a lack of affordable medicine in North Korea.

  20. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  1. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  2. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Oh, Sung-Suck; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Ko, Mee-Kyung; Yi, Jongyoun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Choi, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young-Hun; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2018-04-26

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SFTSV antigens and anti-SFTSV antibodies in black goats (Capra hircus coreanae) throughout the ROK. Sera were collected from 737 black goats in nine provinces in the ROK. Eighteen of 737 (2.4%) goat sera were positive for SFTSV on one-step reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction. The amplified 346-bp S segments of SFTSV sequences were classified into three genotypes (BG1, BG2, and BG3), and were included in the Japanese clade rather than the Chinese clade, based on phylogenetic analysis. Forty-three of 624 (6.9%) serum samples were seropositive for anti-SFTSV antibodies on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. This study is the first to examine the molecular prevalence of SFTSV in goats and the first to perform serological detection of anti-SFTSV antibodies in livestock in the ROK. Moreover, the results indicate that SFTSV is widely distributed in goats and that additional monitoring for SFTSV is needed in livestock in the ROK. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  4. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  5. Filial Piety and Academic Motivation: High-Achieving Students in an International School in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This study uses self-determination theory to explore the mechanisms of filial piety in the academic motivation of eight high-achieving secondary school seniors at an international school in South Korea, resulting in several findings. First, the students attributed their parents' values and expectations as a major source of the students'…

  6. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea: Findings from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database (2009–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kang, Yu Mi; Kim, Seon-Ok; Cho, Yun Kyung; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has markedly increased worldwide. However, studies in the United States show that it has remained stable or slightly declined in recent years. Whether this applies to other countries is presently unclear. Objectives We examined the trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Korea. Methods The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was estimated in adults aged >30 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service data from 2009 to 2013. The revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results Approximately 10 million individuals were analyzed annually. The age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased from 28.84% to 30.52%, and the increasing trend was more prominent in men. Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, and impaired fasting plasma glucose significantly increased. However, the prevalence of hypertension decreased in both genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity decreased in women over 50 years-of-age but significantly increased in young women and men (metabolic syndrome is still increasing in Korea. Trends in each component of metabolic syndrome are disparate according to the gender, or age groups. Notably, abdominal obesity among young adults increased significantly; thus, interventional strategies should be implemented particularly for this age group. PMID:29566051

  7. Prevalence and Intensity of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Wicheon Stream in Gunwi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Ju, Jung-Won; Son, Dong-Chul

    2018-01-01

    The infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fish from a highly prevalent site, Wicheon (a branch of Nakdong-gang), which is located in Gunwi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 1,162 fish in 32 species were examined by the artificial digestion method through 6 years. CsMc were detected in 720 (67.5%) out of 1,067 fish (26 spp.) and their density was 610 per fish infected. In the susceptible gobioninid fish group, i.e., Pungtungia herzi, Squalidus gracilis majimae, Squalidus japonicus coreanus, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae and Pseudorasbora parva, all of 323 fish were infected with an average of 1,310 CsMc. Total 23 (95.8%) gobioninid fish, i.e., Pseudogobio esocinus, Abbottina springeri, Hemibarbus longirostris, Microphysogobio koreensis, and Microphysogobio jeoni, were infected with 127 CsMc in average. In the acheilognathinid fish (bitterlings) group, the prevalence was 77.0%, and the density was 50 CsMc per fish infected. In the rasborinid fish (chubs) group, i.e., Zacco platypus, Zacco temminckii, Zacco koreanus, and Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis, 147 (36.5%) out of 403 fish examined were infected with 15 CsMc in average. The susceptibility indices of CsMc were 412 in the overall positive fish group, 1,310 in the gobioninid group-1, 122 in the gobioninid group-2, 38.5 in the acheilognathinid group, and 5.5 in the rasborinid fish group. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CsMc are highly prevalent in fish from Wicheon, and their infection tendency varied according to the subfamily groups in Cyprinidae fish hosts. PMID:29529849

  8. Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Primary Dysmenorrhea for Female High School Students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-09-01

    To examine the effect of auricular acupressure therapy on primary dysmenorrhea among female high school students in South Korea. A randomized controlled trial was employed. The study sample consisted of 91 female high school students, with 45 participants in the experimental group and 46 in the control group in two regions of South Korea. The average age of the participants was 16.7 years, and the average age of menarche was 12.2 years. Auricular acupressure therapy including an auricular acupressure needle on skin paper tape was applied on an ear for 3 days during periods of extreme primary dysmenorrhea. The acupoint names were Jagung, Sinmun, Gyogam, and Naebunbi. For the placebo control group, only the skin paper tape without an auricular acupressure needle was applied on the same acupoints. Measures used were the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire to assess primary dysmenorrhea, and the visual analog scale to assess abdominal and back pain of participants. There were significant differences on abdominal pain (t = 24.594, p dysmenorrhea (t = 32.187, p dysmenorrhea of female high school students in South Korea. Auricular acupressure therapy was an effective intervention for alleviating abdominal pain, back pain, and primary dysmenorrhea of female high school students in South Korea. For feasibility of the auricular acupressure therapy in practice, it is needed to train and learn the exact positions of acupoints in ear. Health providers should consider providing auricular acupressure therapy as an alternative method for reducing abdominal and back pain, and primary dysmenorrhea in female high school students in South Korea. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among family caregivers of cancer patients: a nationwide survey of patient-family caregiver dyads in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, So Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Juhee; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among family caregivers of patients with cancer in Korea. A national, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 897 family caregivers. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in patient-family caregiver dyads. The prevalence of anxiety in family caregivers was 38.1 %:20.3 % reported mild anxiety, 13.3 % reported moderate anxiety, and 4.6 % reported severe anxiety. The prevalence of depression was 82.2 %:40.4 % reported mild depression, 25.5 % reported moderate depression, and 16.3 % reported severe depression. Family caregivers who were younger, were caring for male patients, or had a low quality of life (QOL) in relation to three of the variables measured in the Korean Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC-K): burden, disturbance, and financial concerns reported increased anxiety. Becoming unemployed during caregiving, being the spouse of a patient and having low QOL in relation to three of the variables measured by the CQOLC-K: burden, disturbance, and positive adaptation were associated with depression among family caregivers. The predictive validity of the selected variables were 0.861 (95 % CI: 0.844-0.892) for anxiety and 0.794 (95 % CI: 0.751-0.828) for depression. Family caregivers of patients with cancer experienced high levels of anxiety and depression. Socio-demographic factors and QOL were predictors of anxiety and depression in family caregivers.

  11. Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters in Korea: Resistance to various antibiotics and prevalence of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Shin, YuJin; Jang, SeokCheol; Yu, HongSik; Kim, SuKyung; An, Sera; Park, Kunbawui; So, Jae-Seong

    2017-05-15

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, found frequently in oysters, is the most prevalent gastroenteritis-causing pathogen in Korea and in several other Asian countries. This study monitored changes in the environmental parameters and occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster aquaculture sites. Of the 44 presumed V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained, when tested against 16 antibiotics, 90.9, 86.4, and 75.0% of the 44 isolates exhibited resistance to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptomycin, respectively. PCR analysis for the presence of the toxR gene confirmed 31 of the 44 isolates as being positive V. parahaemolyticus strains. The toxR positive isolates were tested for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related hemolysin (trh) virulence genes. Only 9.1% toxR positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The occurrence of multi drug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Esophageal Candidiasis in Healthy Individuals: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Chang Geun; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Lim, Chi Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is the most frequent opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised host. However, we have found EC in healthy individuals through esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 281 patients who had been incidentally diagnosed with EC. We also conducted age and sex matched case control study to identify the risk factor for EC. Results The prevalence of EC was 0.32% (281/88125). The most common coexisting EGD finding was reflux esophagitis (49/281, 17.4%). An antifungal agent was prescribed in about half of EC, 139 cases (49.5%). Follow-up EGD was undertaken in 83 cases (29.5%) and 20 cases of candidiasis was persistently found. Case control study revealed EC were more often found in user of antibiotics (p=0.015), corticosteroids (p=0.002) and herb medication (p=0.006) as well as heavy drinking (pantibiotics, corticosteroids and herb as well as heavy drinking were significant risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. PMID:23225813

  14. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women.

  15. Work procedures and risk factors for high rdiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Yeong Chull [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Radiologic technologists currently consist of 31.5% among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea. Among diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists receive the highest annual and collective doses in South Korea. Comprehensive assessment of the work practices and associated radiation doses from diagnostic radiology procedures should be undertaken for effective prevention for radiologic technologists. Using the national survey, this study aimed (1) to explore the distribution of the work procedures performed by gender, (2) to evaluate occupational radiation exposure by work characteristics and safety compliance, (3) to identify the primary factors influencing high radiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea. This study provided detailed information on work practices, number of procedures performed on weekly basis, and occupational radiation doses among radiologic technologists in South Korea. Average radiation dose for radiologic technologists is higher than other countries, and type of facility, work safety, and wearing lead apron explained quite a portion of increased risk in the association between radiology procedures and radiation exposure among radiologic technologists.

  16. Work procedures and risk factors for high rdiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Yeong Chull; Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic technologists currently consist of 31.5% among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea. Among diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists receive the highest annual and collective doses in South Korea. Comprehensive assessment of the work practices and associated radiation doses from diagnostic radiology procedures should be undertaken for effective prevention for radiologic technologists. Using the national survey, this study aimed (1) to explore the distribution of the work procedures performed by gender, (2) to evaluate occupational radiation exposure by work characteristics and safety compliance, (3) to identify the primary factors influencing high radiation exposure among radiologic technologists in South Korea. This study provided detailed information on work practices, number of procedures performed on weekly basis, and occupational radiation doses among radiologic technologists in South Korea. Average radiation dose for radiologic technologists is higher than other countries, and type of facility, work safety, and wearing lead apron explained quite a portion of increased risk in the association between radiology procedures and radiation exposure among radiologic technologists.

  17. Clinical characteristics of dental emergencies and prevalence of dental trauma at a university hospital emergency center in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kyun; Choi, Yong-Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of dental emergency patients who visited a university hospital emergency center and to evaluate the incidence of dental trauma. A retrospective chart review of patients with dental complaints and who visited the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH) emergency center in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, from January 2009 to December 2009 was conducted. Information regarding age, gender, the time, day, and month of presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow up was collected and analyzed. One thousand four hundred twenty-five patients with dental problems visited the SNUBH emergency center. Dental patients accounted for 1.47% of the total 96,708 patients at the emergency center. The male-to-female ratio was 1.68:1, with a considerably larger number of male patients (62.7%). The age distribution peak was at 0-9 years (27.5%), followed by patients in their forties (14.1%). The number of patients visiting the dental emergency center peaked in May (14.2%), on Sundays (22.4%), and between 2100 and 2400 h (20.8%). The patients' chief complaints were as follows: dental trauma, dental infection, oral bleeding, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). The prevalence of dental trauma was 66%. The reasons for dental emergency visits included the following: dental trauma, dental infection, oral bleeding, and TMD, with 66% of the patients requiring management of dental trauma. It is important that dentists make a prompt, accurate diagnosis and initiate effective treatment in case of dental emergencies, especially dental trauma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults: The 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data.Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years' old) who participated in the 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥ 3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100-110  mg/dL), IFG 2 (111-125  mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126  mg/dL).Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3-26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group, respectively, compared with the NFG1 group.In conclusion, a

  19. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  20. High prevalence of COPD in atherosclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleta I

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Tuleta, Tarik Farrag, Laura Busse, Carmen Pizarro, Christian Schaefer, Simon Pingel, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Nadjib Schahab Department of Internal Medicine II – Cardiology, Pulmonology and Angiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany Abstract: Atherosclerosis and COPD are both systemic inflammatory diseases that may influence each other. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in patients with cerebral and/or peripheral artery disease and to assess factors associated with the presence of COPD. Following the diagnosis of cerebral and/or peripheral artery disease by means of duplex sonography, 166 consecutive patients underwent body plethysmography with capillary blood gas analysis. Thereafter, blood tests with determination of different parameters such as lipid profile, inflammatory and coagulation markers were conducted in remaining 136 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria of the study. Thirty-six out of 136 patients suffered from COPD, mostly in early stages of the disease. Residual volume indicating emphysema was increased (162.9%±55.9% vs 124.5%±37.0%, p<0.05 and diffusion capacity was decreased (55.1%±19.5% vs 75.3%±18.6%, p<0.05 in COPD patients vs non-COPD group. In capillary blood gas analysis, COPD patients had lower partial pressure of oxygen (70.9±11.5 vs 75.2±11.0 mmHg, p<0.05 and higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide (36.8±7.5 vs 34.4±4.4 mmHg, p<0.05 compared with non-COPD individuals. Presence of COPD was associated with predominance of diabetes mellitus, interleukin-8-related systemic neutrophilic inflammation and anemia. In conclusion, COPD is highly prevalent in patients with atherosclerotic artery disease. Keywords: cerebral artery disease, peripheral artery disease, lung function, capillary blood gas, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, interleukin-8, anemia

  1. The Prevalence of "Drinking and Biking" and Associated Risk Factors: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Ahn, Ma Rhip; Han, Kyung Do; Lee, Jung Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the steady rise of health and environmental awareness, the number of bicyclists is increasing. However, there are few epidemiologic studies on bicycling under the influence (BUI). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of BUI and the associated risk factors in a representative Korean population. The data of 4,833 adult bicyclists who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Among the 4,833 participants investigated in this study, 586 (12.1%) had experienced BUI. As participants' age increased, so did the prevalence of BUI (P < 0.001), with the participants who were aged 60-69 showing the highest prevalence of BUI (19.6%). With regard to BUI and drinking habits, the likelihood of being a heavy or high-risk drinker increased with the frequency of BUI (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a positive relationship between the frequency of BUI and alcohol use disorder identification score level. Finally, those who had previous experiences of BUI were significantly more likely to drive and ride motorcycles under the influence (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of BUI was 12.1% and several associated risk factors for BUI were elucidated in this study. The development of specific preventive strategies and educational programs aimed at deterring individuals at a high risk of engaging in BUI is expected to reduce the number of alcohol-related bicycle injuries. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Trend of Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and use of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in South Korea (2002–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Son

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the annual prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF and its associated comorbidities, as well as the prevalence of warfarin therapy in South Korean patients with AF. Methods: The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database was searched for subjects aged ≥30 years diagnosed with AF from 2002–2013. The prevalence of AF was analyzed by sex and age, as was the current status of warfarin therapy in AF patients according to CHA2DS2-VASc score and comorbidities. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of AF in men and women was 0.15% and 0.14%, respectively, in 2002, increasing to 0.54% and 0.39%, respectively, in 2013. In 2013, the prevalence of AF in men and women aged 30–39 years was 0.08% and 0.03%, respectively, increasing to 2.35% and 1.71%, respectively, in those in aged ≥60 years. During 2002–2013, the prevalence of AF in men significantly increased among subjects aged ≥30 years and increased in women aged ≥60 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among AF patients were markedly increased during 2002–2013. Of these AF patients, 86.1% had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2; however, only 39.1% of these were receiving warfarin. Conclusions: The age-standardized prevalence of AF increased 2.89-fold over the 12-year study period. The total number of patients with AF in South Korea has been drastically increasing, due to not only aging society but also increasing age-specific prevalence of AF, especially in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The rate of warfarin therapy increased slightly over the study period but remains low.

  3. Measuring discrimination in South Korea: underestimating the prevalence of discriminatory experiences among female and less educated workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Chung, Yeonseung; Subramanian, S V; Williams, David R

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that Koreans show different patterns in reporting discriminatory experiences based on their gender and education level, we analyzed the participants who answered "Not Applicable" for the questions of discriminatory experiences that they were eligible to answer. Discriminatory experiences in eight social situations were assessed using the 7(th) wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. After restricting the study population to waged workers, a logistic regression model was constructed to predict the probability that an individual has experienced discrimination based on the observed covariates for each of eight situations, using the data of participants who answered either Yes or No. With the model fit, the predicted logit score of discrimination (PLSD) was obtained for participants who answered Not Applicable (NA), as well as for those who answered Yes or No. The mean PLSD of the NA group was compared with those of the Yes group and the No group after stratification by gender and education level using an ANOVA model. On the questions of discrimination in getting hired and receiving income, the PLSD of the NA group was significantly higher than that of the No group and was not different from that of Yes group for female and junior high or less educated workers, suggesting that their NA responses were more likely to mean that they have experienced discrimination. For male and college or more educated workers, the NA group had a PLSD similar to that for the No group and had a significantly higher PLSD than the Yes group, implying that their NA responses would mean they that they have not experienced discrimination. Our findings suggest that the responses of NA on the discrimination questionnaire may need different interpretation based on the respondents' gender and education level in South Korea.

  4. Measuring discrimination in South Korea: underestimating the prevalence of discriminatory experiences among female and less educated workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possibility that Koreans show different patterns in reporting discriminatory experiences based on their gender and education level, we analyzed the participants who answered "Not Applicable" for the questions of discriminatory experiences that they were eligible to answer. METHODS: Discriminatory experiences in eight social situations were assessed using the 7(th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. After restricting the study population to waged workers, a logistic regression model was constructed to predict the probability that an individual has experienced discrimination based on the observed covariates for each of eight situations, using the data of participants who answered either Yes or No. With the model fit, the predicted logit score of discrimination (PLSD was obtained for participants who answered Not Applicable (NA, as well as for those who answered Yes or No. The mean PLSD of the NA group was compared with those of the Yes group and the No group after stratification by gender and education level using an ANOVA model. RESULTS: On the questions of discrimination in getting hired and receiving income, the PLSD of the NA group was significantly higher than that of the No group and was not different from that of Yes group for female and junior high or less educated workers, suggesting that their NA responses were more likely to mean that they have experienced discrimination. For male and college or more educated workers, the NA group had a PLSD similar to that for the No group and had a significantly higher PLSD than the Yes group, implying that their NA responses would mean they that they have not experienced discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the responses of NA on the discrimination questionnaire may need different interpretation based on the respondents' gender and education level in South Korea.

  5. Error quantification of abnormal extreme high waves in Operational Oceanographic System in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jinah; Heo, Ki-Young; Park, Kwang-Soon

    2017-04-01

    In winter season, large-height swell-like waves have occurred on the East coast of Korea, causing property damages and loss of human life. It is known that those waves are generated by a local strong wind made by temperate cyclone moving to eastward in the East Sea of Korean peninsula. Because the waves are often occurred in the clear weather, in particular, the damages are to be maximized. Therefore, it is necessary to predict and forecast large-height swell-like waves to prevent and correspond to the coastal damages. In Korea, an operational oceanographic system (KOOS) has been developed by the Korea institute of ocean science and technology (KIOST) and KOOS provides daily basis 72-hours' ocean forecasts such as wind, water elevation, sea currents, water temperature, salinity, and waves which are computed from not only meteorological and hydrodynamic model (WRF, ROMS, MOM, and MOHID) but also wave models (WW-III and SWAN). In order to evaluate the model performance and guarantee a certain level of accuracy of ocean forecasts, a Skill Assessment (SA) system was established as a one of module in KOOS. It has been performed through comparison of model results with in-situ observation data and model errors have been quantified with skill scores. Statistics which are used in skill assessment are including a measure of both errors and correlations such as root-mean-square-error (RMSE), root-mean-square-error percentage (RMSE%), mean bias (MB), correlation coefficient (R), scatter index (SI), circular correlation (CC) and central frequency (CF) that is a frequency with which errors lie within acceptable error criteria. It should be utilized simultaneously not only to quantify an error but also to improve an accuracy of forecasts by providing a feedback interactively. However, in an abnormal phenomena such as high-height swell-like waves in the East coast of Korea, it requires more advanced and optimized error quantification method that allows to predict the abnormal

  6. [Nurses' image perceived by academic and vocational high school teachers in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae-Young; Go, Mi-Hye; Yang, Jin-Ju; Kim, Sun-Mi

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify nurses' image and its related factors to make nurses' image among academic and vocational high school teachers in Korea. Study samples were composed of 470 teachers who were from 12 high schools in G and J city located in southwestern part of Korea. Data were collected from August 26 to October 4, 2002. The internal consistency of the total scale was Cronbach's a =.940. In order to make nurses' image, 76.4% of respondents were influenced by the experience of their hospitalization in visiting hospitals. The mean score of nurses' image in general was 3.19+/-0.55; in four subcategories, 3.46+/-0.60 for professional image, 3.28+/-0.69 for traditional image, 2.93+/-0.70 for social image, and 2.91+/-0.64 for vision of nursing career. The mean score of nurses' image in general was more positive significantly in the 50's age group (F=6.43, p=.002) and in male groups (t=2.92, p=.002). On the basis of these findings, nursing professionals need to improve their working conditions, aspiration in job, and autonomy of nurses in their practice fields, monitor the mass media and other publishing materials continuously, and share the appropriate information on nursing profession to the school teachers and the public.

  7. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use

    OpenAIRE

    Seong-Soo Cha; Bo-Kyung Seo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine smartphone use patterns, smartphone addiction characteristics, and the predictive factors of the smartphone addiction in middle school students in South Korea. According to the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale scores, 563 (30.9%) were classified as a risk group for smartphone addiction and 1261 (69.1%) were identified as a normal user group. The adolescents used mobile messengers for the longest, followed by Internet surfing, gaming, and social networking servi...

  8. Recycling of tailings from Korea Molybdenum Corporation as admixture for high-fluidity concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moon Young; Choi, Yun Wang; Jeong, Jae Gwon

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an eco-friendly and a large recycling technique of flotation Tailings from korea (TK) from metal mines as construction materials such as admixtures for high-fluidity concrete (HFC). TK used in this study was obtained from the Korea Molybdenum Corporation in operation. TK was used as the alternative material to adjust flowability and viscosity of HFC in the form of powder agent which enables adjustment of concrete compressive strength. In this study, we have performed concrete rheological tests and concrete flowability tests to obtain the quality characteristics of TK for using as the admixture in producing HFC. The results indicated that the adequate mix ratio of cement to TK should be 8:2 (vol%). It is more effective to use the TK as admixture to control flowability, viscosity and strength of HFC than the normal concrete. It was found that TK could be recycled construction materials in bulk such as admixture for HFC, in terms of the economic and eco-friendly aspects.

  9. APPLICABILITY OF VARIOUS INTERPOLATION APPROACHES FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SPATIAL MAPPING OF CLIMATE DATA IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to create a new dataset of spatially interpolated monthly climate data for South Korea at high spatial resolution (approximately 30m by performing various spatio-statistical interpolation and comparing with forecast LDAPS gridded climate data provided from Korea Meterological Administration (KMA. Automatic Weather System (AWS and Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS data in 2017 obtained from KMA were included for the spatial mapping of temperature and rainfall; instantaneous temperature and 1-hour accumulated precipitation at 09:00 am on 31th March, 21th June, 23th September, and 24th December. Among observation data, 80 percent of the total point (478 and remaining 120 points were used for interpolations and for quantification, respectively. With the training data and digital elevation model (DEM with 30 m resolution, inverse distance weighting (IDW, co-kriging, and kriging were performed by using ArcGIS10.3.1 software and Python 3.6.4. Bias and root mean square were computed to compare prediction performance quantitatively. When statistical analysis was performed for each cluster using 20 % validation data, co kriging was more suitable for spatialization of instantaneous temperature than other interpolation method. On the other hand, IDW technique was appropriate for spatialization of precipitation.

  10. Associations Among Oral Hygiene Behavior and Hypertension Prevalence and Control: The 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Min; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a positive association has been reported between hypertension and periodontitis. The authors hypothesized that oral hygiene promotion activities could have an effect on hypertension prevention or the degree of hypertension control. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between oral hygiene behaviors and hypertension using data from a nationally representative survey, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Using data from the KNHANES (2008 to 2010), 19,560 adults with complete data sets were included. The authors analyzed the relationship of the prevalence and control rate of hypertension and numerous variables, including oral hygiene behavior. As the frequency of toothbrushing increased, the prevalence of hypertension decreased in multivariate analysis after adjusting for various factors, including the presence of periodontitis. In a subgroup analysis, this relationship was also observed in individuals without periodontitis. In particular, systolic blood pressure levels progressively decreased as the frequency of toothbrushing and the number of secondary oral products used increased. The adjusted odds ratio of hypertension prevalence was 1.195 (95% confidence interval 1.033 to 1.383) for individuals who brushed their teeth hardly ever or once daily compared with those who brushed after every meal. Individuals with poor oral hygiene behavior are more likely to have a higher prevalence of hypertension, even before periodontitis is shown. Oral hygiene behavior may be considered an independent risk indicator for hypertension, and maintaining good oral hygiene may help to prevent and control hypertension.

  11. High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data...

  12. [Analysis of nursing-related content portrayed in middle and high school textbooks under the national common basic curriculum in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myun Sook; Choi, Hyeong Wook; Li, Dong Mei

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nursing-related content in middle, and high school textbooks under the National Common Basic Curriculum in Korea. Nursing-related content from 43 middle school textbooks and 13 high school textbooks was analyzed. There were 28 items of nursing-related content in the selected textbooks. Among them, 13 items were in the 'nursing activity' area, 6 items were in the 'nurse as an occupation' area, 2 items were in the 'major and career choice' area, 6 items were 'just one word' and 1 item in 'others'. The main nursing related content which portrayed in the middle and high school textbooks were caring for patients (7 items accounting for 46.5%), nurses working in hospitals (6 items accounting for 21.4%). In terms of gender perspective, female nurses (15 items accounting for 53.6%) were most prevalent.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  14. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sarcopenia in Korean Cancer Survivors: Based on Data Obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Won-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26.3%, and 21.4%, respectively). Furthermore, sarcopenia was more prevalent among elderly (≥65 years; P sarcopenia was significantly associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR], 68.14; 95% CI, 15.52-299.13), a BMI of sarcopenia in Korean cancer survivors.

  15. Association between the Eating Family Meal and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B 1 , vitamin B 2 , vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pfamily meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups.

  16. Association between the Eating Family Meal and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007–2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Results Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pfamily meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups. PMID:28572888

  17. Indoor air radon dose assessment for elementary, middle and high schools at Ulju county in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ulsan is the largest industrial city and possesses the largest area among 7 metropolitan cities in Korea. Ulju county is one of the administrative districts of Ulsan, and covers over 70 % of Ulsan and is surrounded by mountain to the east and sea to the west, which has urban and rural area. Thus, there are many geological and industrial condition in its environment. Ministry of Environment (ME) of Korea is carrying out radon survey every 2 years, but this survey focuses on radon radioactivity of the houses and radon survey for schools isn't detailed. At schools, people with various age work and are educated for a specific time, therefore, it is needed to analyze the radon radioactivity concentration of indoor air to estimate the effect by the radon exposure. Indoor air radon radioactivity concentration and dose of 57 schools including elementary, middle and high schools in Ulju county were analyzed by using alpha track. It was understood that average radon concentrations of schools in Ulju county were being maintained below recommendation level although survey results of some schools showed 295 Bq/m 3 higher than regulation of Ministry of Environment for radon concentration, 148 Bq/m 3 . Indoor annual effective dose of 0.157 mSv by radon was found to be less than 7 % of the natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv when ICRP dose coefficient for adult male was applied. It was thought that further radon effect analysis for various ages including children was needed for more accurate dose assessment

  18. Indoor air radon dose assessment for elementary, middle and high schools at Ulju county in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ulsan is the largest industrial city and possesses the largest area among 7 metropolitan cities in Korea. Ulju county is one of the administrative districts of Ulsan, and covers over 70 % of Ulsan and is surrounded by mountain to the east and sea to the west, which has urban and rural area. Thus, there are many geological and industrial condition in its environment. Ministry of Environment (ME) of Korea is carrying out radon survey every 2 years, but this survey focuses on radon radioactivity of the houses and radon survey for schools isn't detailed. At schools, people with various age work and are educated for a specific time, therefore, it is needed to analyze the radon radioactivity concentration of indoor air to estimate the effect by the radon exposure. Indoor air radon radioactivity concentration and dose of 57 schools including elementary, middle and high schools in Ulju county were analyzed by using alpha track. It was understood that average radon concentrations of schools in Ulju county were being maintained below recommendation level although survey results of some schools showed 295 Bq/m{sup 3} higher than regulation of Ministry of Environment for radon concentration, 148 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor annual effective dose of 0.157 mSv by radon was found to be less than 7 % of the natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv when ICRP dose coefficient for adult male was applied. It was thought that further radon effect analysis for various ages including children was needed for more accurate dose assessment.

  19. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi,; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they wer...

  20. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seong-Soo; Seo, Bo-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine smartphone use patterns, smartphone addiction characteristics, and the predictive factors of the smartphone addiction in middle school students in South Korea. According to the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale scores, 563 (30.9%) were classified as a risk group for smartphone addiction and 1261 (69.1%) were identified as a normal user group. The adolescents used mobile messengers for the longest, followed by Internet surfing, gaming, and social networking service use. The two groups showed significant differences in smartphone use duration, awareness of game overuse, and purposes of playing games. The predictive factors of smartphone addiction were daily smartphone and social networking service use duration, and the awareness of game overuse. PMID:29435355

  1. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Soo Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine smartphone use patterns, smartphone addiction characteristics, and the predictive factors of the smartphone addiction in middle school students in South Korea. According to the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale scores, 563 (30.9% were classified as a risk group for smartphone addiction and 1261 (69.1% were identified as a normal user group. The adolescents used mobile messengers for the longest, followed by Internet surfing, gaming, and social networking service use. The two groups showed significant differences in smartphone use duration, awareness of game overuse, and purposes of playing games. The predictive factors of smartphone addiction were daily smartphone and social networking service use duration, and the awareness of game overuse.

  2. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seong-Soo; Seo, Bo-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine smartphone use patterns, smartphone addiction characteristics, and the predictive factors of the smartphone addiction in middle school students in South Korea. According to the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale scores, 563 (30.9%) were classified as a risk group for smartphone addiction and 1261 (69.1%) were identified as a normal user group. The adolescents used mobile messengers for the longest, followed by Internet surfing, gaming, and social networking service use. The two groups showed significant differences in smartphone use duration, awareness of game overuse, and purposes of playing games. The predictive factors of smartphone addiction were daily smartphone and social networking service use duration, and the awareness of game overuse.

  3. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Da Young; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2017-11-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) are differentiated by the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) and insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MHO in Korean children and adolescents and to investigate the anthropometric, laboratory, and lifestyle predictors of MHO. This study included data from 530 obese subjects, aged 10-19 years, obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were classified into MHO and MUO groups according to the presence of CMRF (MHO(CMRF)/MUO(CMRF)) and degree of IR (MHO(IR)/MUO(IR)). Demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to identify factors that predicted MHO. The prevalence of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) in obese Korean youth was 36.8% (n = 197) and 68.8% (n = 356), respectively. CMRF profiles were significantly less favorable in MUO children. Longer and more vigorous physical activity and less protein intake were associated with MHO(CMRF) phenotype. The best predictors of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.88; P obesity in youth, the approach to individuals with MHO and MUO should be personalized due to variation in clinical characteristics. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate long-term consequences of MHO. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. Comparison of District-level Smoking Prevalence and Their Income Gaps from Two National Databases: the National Health Screening Database and the Community Health Survey in Korea, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Yeon Yong; Lee, Jeehye; Kang, Hee Yeon; Lee, Juyeon; Yun, Sung Cheol; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon Ae; Khang, Young Ho

    2018-02-05

    We compared age-standardized prevalence of cigarette smoking and their income gaps at the district-level in Korea using the National Health Screening Database (NHSD) and the Community Health Survey (CHS). Between 2009 and 2014, 39,049,485 subjects participating in the NHSD and 989,292 participants in the CHS were analyzed. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and their interquintile income differences were calculated for 245 districts of Korea. We examined between-period correlations for the age-standardized smoking prevalence at the district-level and investigated the district-level differences in smoking prevalence and income gaps between the two databases. The between-period correlation coefficients of smoking prevalence for both genders were 0.92-0.97 in NHSD and 0.58-0.69 in CHS, respectively. When using NHSD, we found significant income gaps in all districts for men and 244 districts for women. However, when CHS was analyzed, only 167 and 173 districts for men and women, respectively, showed significant income gaps. While correlation coefficients of district-level smoking prevalence from two databases were 0.87 for men and 0.85 for women, a relatively weak correlation between income gaps from the two databases was found. Based on two databases, income gaps in smoking prevalence were evident for nearly all districts of Korea. Because of the large sample size for each district, NHSD may provide stable district-level smoking prevalence and its income gap and thus should be considered as a valuable data source for monitoring district-level smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic inequality. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  5. First experiences of high-fidelity simulation training in junior nursing students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Jeong; Kim, Sang Suk; Park, Young-Mi

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to explore first experiences of high-fidelity simulation training in Korean nursing students, in order to develop and establish more effective guidelines for future simulation training in Korea. Thirty-three junior nursing students participated in high-fidelity simulation training for the first time. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data were collected from reflective journals and questionnaires of simulation effectiveness after simulation training. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze simulation effectiveness and content analysis was performed with the reflective journal data. Five dimensions and 31 domains, both positive and negative experiences, emerged from qualitative analysis: (i) machine-human interaction in a safe environment; (ii) perceived learning capability; (iii) observational learning; (iv) reconciling practice with theory; and (v) follow-up debriefing effect. More than 70% of students scored high on increased ability to identify changes in the patient's condition, critical thinking, decision-making, effectiveness of peer observation, and debriefing in effectiveness of simulation. This study reported both positive and negative experiences of simulation. The results of this study could be used to set the level of task difficulty in simulation. Future simulation programs can be designed by reinforcing the positive experiences and modifying the negative results. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  7. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  8. Green Roof for Stormwater Management in a Highly Urbanized Area: The Case of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes natural pervious surfaces to hard, impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and roofs. These modifications significantly affect the natural hydrologic cycle by increasing stormwater runoff rates and volume. Under these circumstances, green roofs offer multiple benefits including on-site stormwater management that mimics the natural hydrologic conditions in an urban area. It can retain a large amount of rainwater for a longer time and delay the peak discharge. However, there is very limited research that has been carried out on the retrofitted green roof for stormwater management for South Korean conditions. This study has investigated the performance of retrofitted green roofs for stormwater management in a highly urbanized area of Seoul, the capital city of Korea. In this study, various storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to check the performance of the green roof with controlling the runoff in urban areas. Results also allowed us to conclude that the retention mainly depends on the intensity and duration of the rain events. From the analysis, average runoff retention on the green roof was 10% to 60% in different rain events. The application of an extensive green roof provides promising results for stormwater management in the highly urbanized area of Seoul.

  9. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Mothers' Perception of Weight Status of Their Children with Intellectual Disabilities in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Choi, Eunsook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and examine relationships between weight status of children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), mothers' perceived weight status of children, and socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional study of 206 mothers of children with IDs in six special schools in Seoul, South…

  11. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  12. Prevalence of abortion and adverse pregnancy outcomes among working women in Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulyong; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Kim, Dohyung; Park, Jaechan; Eom, Huisu; Kim, Eun-A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate incidence and distribution of major adverse reproductive health problems related to various kinds of industries in Korea and to compare risks for major reproductive outcomes to assess maternal health in working and non-working women. We requested claim data from the Korean National Health Insurance. We defined reference groups as (1) non-working women and (2) workers in the education field. Women working in each industry were compared with reference groups regarding rates of miscarriage, threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, and age and income adjustment was performed. The percentages of all adverse obstetric outcomes were higher in working women than in non-working women. Working women had higher and statistically significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for miscarriage in 18 of the 21 industries. The age and income-adjusted OR for miscarriage for all working women was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.28). Business facilities management and business support services, manufacturing, human health and social work activities, wholesale and retail trade, and professional, scientific, and technical activities were major industries with higher adjusted ORs for adverse obstetric outcomes. We confirmed that compared to non-working women, working women have a higher risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, adverse pregnancy outcomes such as threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with working status. This exploratory study identified several industries where in-depth studies are required in future to improve occupational safety in women of reproductive age.

  13. Prevalence of abortion and adverse pregnancy outcomes among working women in Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulyong Park

    Full Text Available To investigate incidence and distribution of major adverse reproductive health problems related to various kinds of industries in Korea and to compare risks for major reproductive outcomes to assess maternal health in working and non-working women.We requested claim data from the Korean National Health Insurance. We defined reference groups as (1 non-working women and (2 workers in the education field. Women working in each industry were compared with reference groups regarding rates of miscarriage, threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, and age and income adjustment was performed.The percentages of all adverse obstetric outcomes were higher in working women than in non-working women. Working women had higher and statistically significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs for miscarriage in 18 of the 21 industries. The age and income-adjusted OR for miscarriage for all working women was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.28. Business facilities management and business support services, manufacturing, human health and social work activities, wholesale and retail trade, and professional, scientific, and technical activities were major industries with higher adjusted ORs for adverse obstetric outcomes.We confirmed that compared to non-working women, working women have a higher risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, adverse pregnancy outcomes such as threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with working status. This exploratory study identified several industries where in-depth studies are required in future to improve occupational safety in women of reproductive age.

  14. The emerging problem of physical child abuse in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, H C; Guterman, N B

    2001-05-01

    South Korea has had remarkably high incidence and prevalence rates of physical violence against children, yet the problem has received only limited public and professional attention until very recently. This article represents the first attempt in English to systematically analyze South Korea's recent epidemiological studies on child maltreatment. Discussed are sociocultural factors that have contributed both to delays in child protection laws and a low public awareness of the problem of child abuse. The article highlights methodological issues concerning the definition of physical abuse in South Korea and the complex attitudes toward violence. It also examines the role of the Korean women's movement in the reform of family laws and the recent establishment of new child protection legislation. Suggestions for future directions for the problem of child maltreatment within South Korea are presented.

  15. Behavior Disorders Prevalence in High School Students in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zolfaghari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.

  16. Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-11-01

    To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High prevalence of frailty in end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Diederik; Kalf, Annette; Vogtlander, Nils; van Munster, Barbara C.

    Purpose Prognosis of the increasing number of elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is poor with high risk of functional decline and mortality. Frailty seems to be a good predictor for those patients that will not benefit from dialysis. Varying prevalences between populations are

  18. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  19. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  20. High prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their overlapping geographical distribution and co-existence often result into high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV ...

  1. Prevalence of malnutrition and high blood pressure amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, underweight in children is projected to decline except in Sub-Sahara Africa. This study assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its correlation with high blood pressure among adolescents in a semi-urban Nigerian setting. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent school children in ...

  2. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its associated cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean youth: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyeon Cho

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria is a known early predictive factor for renal and cardiovascular diseases, not only for patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension but also in the general population. However, the prevalence and risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in Korean youth are unknown.The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association between microalbuminuria and obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents without diabetes.This study examines data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (between 2011 and 2014. It includes a total of 1,976 participants aged between 10 and 19 years (boys 1,128 and girls 848. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR of ≥ 30 mg/g and < 300 mg/g. Association between microalbuminuria and the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including insulin resistance was evaluated.The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 3.0% in Korean children and adolescents over this time period. The mean UACR for non-obese youth was significantly greater than that found in obese youth (3.2 ± 0.1 mg/g in the non-obese group vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in the obese group; P < 0.001. In multiple logistic regression analysis, microalbuminuria was associated with hyperglycemia (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.09-6.30 and hemoglobin A1c (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.09-10.17 in the non-obese group and hypertension (OR 14.10, 95% CI 1.12-177.98 and HbA1c (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.87-23.95 in the obese group.The prevalence of microalbuminuria is not prominent in obese children and adolescents. Our findings demonstrated that the presence of hypertension and hyperglycemia was associated with microalbuminuria. Especially Hemoglobin A1c was associated with microalbuminuria in youths regardless of weight status. Microalbuminuria in pediatric population can be a helpful marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested.

  4. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su

    2016-01-01

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the sexual behavior of elderly people presenting to health examination centers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Chul Sung; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are diseases provoking a great social and economic burden as well as health-related problems, and with the aging of society and the extension of life expectancy sexually transmitted infections in the elderly have drawn more attention these days. For the management of sexually transmitted infections in this population, basic epidemiological data need to be established. In this study, 1,804 persons from the general population aged over 60 years visiting health examination centers were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and interviewed about the patterns of sexual behavior of elderly people through questionnaires. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia recorded were 0.222% (4/1804), 0 (none), and 0.776% (14/1804), respectively. The results of the survey showed that the sexual life of the elderly people was currently active, and the sexual behavior of chlamydia patients was distinguished in some characteristics from that of the general participants. Political management to prevent sexually transmitted infections needs to be continued in elderly people as it is in other age groups. More detailed follow-up studies are necessary to determine the incidence and prevalence rates of the diseases in the elderly population in future, and the results of this study are considered to be useful as basic data for such studies.

  6. Development of geological disposal system for spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won

    2013-01-01

    Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel) for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  8. Prevalence, awareness, control, and treatment of hypertension and diabetes in korean cancer survivors: a cross-sectional analysis of the fourth and fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Kyae Hyung; Park, Joo-Sung; Han, Seong Ho

    2013-01-01

    Management of hypertension and diabetes in cancer survivors is an important issue; however, not much is known about the level of management of such chronic disease in Korea. This study therefore assessed the prevalence, awareness, control, and treatment of hypertension and diabetes in Korean cancer survivors compared to non-cancer survivors. A cross-sectional design was employed, wherein data were obtained from standardized questionnaires completed by 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We calculated adjusted proportions for prevalence and management of hypertension and diabetes in non-cancer survivors and cancer survivors. We also assessed the associated factors with prevalence and management of cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are more likely than the general population to have higher prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. However, diabetic management was not significantly higher in cancer survivors than in non-cancer survivors, despite their having a higher prevalence. Several factors, such as, age, drinking, years since cancer diagnosis, self-perceived health status, and specific cancer types were found to affect to management of hypertension and diabetes. These data suggest that cancer survivors appear to be better than non-cancer survivors at management of hypertension, but not diabetes. There is a need for healthcare providers to recognize the importance of long-term chronic disease management for cancer survivors and for the care model to be shared between primary care physicians and oncologists.

  9. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  10. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  11. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...

  12. Korea-China Joint R and D on High Energy Density Sciences using High Power Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Nam, S. M.; Park, S. K.; Rhee, Y. J.; Lim, C. H.

    2009-02-01

    As to the high energy pico-second Peta Watt laser technology for fast ignition, the design of front-end and pre/main amplifier were pursued and the OPCPA technology to increase the aspect ratio by reducing the pre-pulse were developed. Furthermore, the tiled-grating technology to replace a large grating were obtained. As to the fast electron generation and propagation, a solid target was used to generate MeV class electron with TW femto-second laser and a gas cluster was also used to generate MeV class electron with PW femto-second laser at SIOM

  13. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  14. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. [High prevalence of osteoporosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.

  16. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  17. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  18. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  19. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feiyan; Yu, Wenhai; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Jue; Li, Yunlong; Li, Yi; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route. Zoonotic transmission of HEV from HEV-infected pigs (pork) or cows (milk) to human or non-human primate has been confirmed, but the risk of HEV in goat is still rarely assessed. In the present study, stool, blood, tissues, and milk of goat were collected for HEV infection investigation from Dali City of Yunnan Province in China, where raw mutton and goat milk are traditionally consumed. Surprisingly, a high prevalence of HEV infection in goat was found. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from goat belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h, and shared a high similarity homology (>99.6%) with HEV isolated from human, swine, and cows in the same area. Results suggested that goats are a previously unrecognized HEV host. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  1. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in antisynthetase syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paula A O; Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; Shinjo, Samuel K

    2018-01-01

    A high frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recently described in different idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but not in antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of MetS in ASS and also its possible association with cardiovascular the risk factors and ASS-related disease characteristics. A cross-sectional single centre study of 42 consecutive ASS patients was conducted from 2012 to 2015 and compared to 84 healthy individuals matched for gender, age, ethnicity and body mass index-matched (control group). MetS was defined according to the 2009 Join Interim Statement. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed according to a standardised protocol. ASS patients had a median age of 41.1 years with a predominance of female gender and white race. ASS patients had a higher frequency of MetS (42.9% vs. 13.1%; pASS patients had higher resistin, lower leptin and similar adiponectin levels in serum than controls. Further analysis of ASS patients with (n=18) and without (n=24) MetS revealed that older age at disease onset (48.7 vs. 35.4 years; pASS patients that also had serum resistin and low leptin levels. As also identified in other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, MetS in ASS is more prevalent in older patients.

  2. High Radon Areas and lung cancer prevalence: Evidence from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper examined the relationship between radon risk and lung cancer prevalence using a novel dataset combining spatially-coded survey data with a radon risk map. A logit model was employed to test for significant associations between a high risk of indoor radon and lung cancer prevalence using data on 5590 people aged 50+ from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) and radon risk data from Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of data at the individual level allowed a wide range of potentially confounding factors (such as smoking) to be included. Results indicate that those who lived in an area in which 10%-20% of households were above the national reference level (200 Bq/m 3 ) were 2.9-3.1 times more likely to report a lung cancer diagnosis relative to those who lived in areas in which less than 1% of households were above the national reference level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  4. High prevalence of narrow angles among Filipino-American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Porco, Travis C; Weinreb, Robert N; Lin, Shan C

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow anterior chamber angles in a Filipino-American clinic population. The records of 122 consecutive, new, self-declared Filipino-American patients examined in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in Vallejo, California were reviewed retrospectively. After exclusion, 222 eyes from 112 patients remained for analysis. Data were collected for anterior chamber angle grade as determined by gonioscopy (Shaffer system), age, sex, manifest refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure, and cup-to-disk ratio. Data from both eyes of patients were included and modeled using standard linear mixed-effects regression. As a comparison, data were also collected from a group of 30 consecutive White patients from the same clinic. After exclusion, 50 eyes from 25 White patients remained for comparison. At least 1 eye of 24% of Filipino-American patients had a narrow anterior chamber angle (Shaffer grade ≤ 2). Filipino-American angle grade significantly decreased with increasingly hyperopic refraction (P=0.007) and larger cup-to-disk ratio (P=0.038). Filipino-American women had significantly decreased angle grades compared with men (P=0.028), but angle grade did not vary by intraocular pressure or age (all, P≥ 0.059). Narrow anterior chamber angles are highly prevalent in Filipino-American patients in our clinic population.

  5. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  6. Cost-effective mammography screening in Korea. High incidence of breast cancer in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon-Young; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Kim, Youn-Nam; Kim, Jinheum; Kang, Dae-Ryong; Kim, Hyeon-Chang; Nam, Chung-Mo

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in Korean women are different from the characteristics reported in Western women. The highest incidence rate occurs in Korean women in their 40s. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective screening interval and target age range for Korean women from the perspective of the national healthcare system. A stochastic model was used to simulate breast cancer screenings by varying both the screening intervals and the age ranges. The effectiveness of mammography screening was defined as the probability of detecting breast cancer in the preclinical state and the cost was based on the direct cost of mammography screening and the confirmative tests. The age-specific mean sojourn times and the sensitivity of the mammography were applied in the stochastic model. An optimal cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and lifetime schedule sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess parameter uncertainty. The selected cost-effective strategies were: the current biennial mammography screenings for women who are at least 40 years old; biennial screening for women between the ages of 35 and 75 years; and a combination strategy consisting of biennial screening for women aged between 45 and 54 years, and 3-year interval screening for women aged between 40 and 44 years and 55 and 65 years. Further studies should follow to investigate the effectiveness of mammography screening in women younger than 40 years in Asia as well as in Korea. (author)

  7. High frequency marine biogeochemical monitoring from a Japan-Korea ferry -1991 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashima, A.

    1993-01-01

    A ferry mounted monitoring system was developed and deployed to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of biogeochemical parameters (dissolved nutrients, phytoplankton biomass, temperature, salinity and pH) along the ship's regular route between Pusan, Korea and Kobe, Japan. Semi-continuous data recording (every 10 seconds, 4 transect cruises per week) and automated bottle sampling with filtration (24 cruises per year) were performed using the sea water taken continuously from the engine cooling system intake at 6m depth. These data are expected to clarify the natural variability in and anthropogenic changes to the coastal and marginal seas and the mechanism of algal blooming and to supply the ground truth data for the calibration-validation of algorithms to calculate pigment concentrations from ocean color remote sensing data. Since the start of monitoring (June, 1991), the data have revealed the contrast between the Seto Inland Sea and the outer continental shelf area and the spatial heterogeneities over smaller scales. Among the events apparent in this time series data are the termination of the spring bloom, the mid-summer decrease of phytoplankton biomass due to depletion of nutrients, and autumn blooms, which are characteristic of the periods following storms

  8. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2013-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165

  9. Stealing among high school students: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health problems is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3,999) was examined by self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables, such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2 percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.8-17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV-TR kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p stealing behavior. Stealing appears to be fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggest that stealing often has significant associated morbidity.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of peripheral retinal degeneration in Chinese adults with high myopia: a cross-sectional prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis S C; Fan, Dorothy S P; Chan, Wai-Man; Tam, Barbara S M; Kwok, Alvin K H; Leung, Alfred T S; Parsons, Hugh

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of peripheral retinal findings in adult Chinese patients with high myopia (refraction degeneration (51.2%), followed by lattice degeneration in 12.2% and retinal holes in 7.5% of eyes. A positive correlation was noted between axial length and the lesions of pigmentary degeneration and pavingstone degeneration. The prevalence of retinal holes was 6.4% and 30.0% in eyes with axial length of or = 30 mm, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.006). A high prevalence of peripheral retinal degenerations was found in adult Chinese high myopes. The presence of retinal holes was positively correlated with very high myopia of an axial length of > or = 30 mm.

  11. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2011-02-10

    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

  13. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  14. Decreasing prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome but a persistently high prevalence of dyslipidemia among adult Arabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M Al-Daghri

    Full Text Available A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18-55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI 33.5-37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5-89.7 and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3-35.7 of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.

  15. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Yoo-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between plant food (fruits, vegetables, and kimchi) and the prevalence of rhinitis among Korean adults using data from the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7494 subjects aged from 19 to 64 years participated in a rhinitis morbidity survey, health behavior interview, and 24-h dietary recall test. Individuals with energy intakes less than 500 kcal or more than 5000 kcal were excluded. The results showed that kimchi intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of rhinitis. The prevalence of rhinitis decreased with increasing kimchi consumption. The quintile 4 (range of kimchi intake: 108.0-180.0 g) groups, compared with the reference of quintile 1 (0-23.7 g), showed a decrease of 18.9% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.672-0.979) in Model 4. In conclusion, consumption of kimchi lowers the risk of rhinitis, suggesting that its use should be encouraged among the Korean population.

  16. High prevalence of daily and multi-site pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard

    2013-01-01

    Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated...... with respondent characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported daily and multi-site pain among adolescents aged 12--19 years and associations of almost daily pain and multi-site pain with respondent characteristics (sex, age, body mass index (BMI), HRQoL and sports...

  17. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the association between physical activity, prevalence of hypertension, and total healthcare and pharmaceutical expenditure in the United States of America (US). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult United States residents were included from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for ...

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  19. High prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Joensen, P; Bünger, N

    1997-01-01

    We used several case-findings methods and strict criteria for case ascertainment to diagnose parkinsonism and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Faroe Islands. In the last few years before the prevalence date of July 1, 1995, we searched various registries from pharmacies, hospitals, and ...

  20. High prevalence of urinary incontinence and poor knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS) measured the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in South. Africa for the first time, but only among women who had had children.2. In 1998, the World Health Organization's first International. Consultation on Incontinence classified UI as a disease,.

  1. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with liver cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Beijers, H. J. B. H.; Schoon, E. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; Bravenboer, B.

    2010-01-01

    The reported prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with liver cirrhosis is five times higher than in the general population. However, these data were never adjusted for classical risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the association between cirrhosis and Type 2

  2. High prevalence of primary dyslipidaemia in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), premature deaths due to heart and blood vessel diseases in people of working age (35 - 64 years) have been predicted to increase by 41% between 2007 ... To assess the burden and prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the SA black population at Dr George Mukhari Hospital in the north region of Gauteng.

  3. High prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodium infection in a suburb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is endemic in many parts of the world. Various strategies have been planned to control malaria from time to time in many places. Whatever may be the strategy the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic plasmodium parasitaemics has been of prime importance as useful parameter for its control.

  4. Prevalence of refractive errors among junior high school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among school children, uncorrected refractive errors have a considerable impact on their participation and learning in class. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of refractive error among students in the Ejisu-Juabeng Municipality of Ghana. A survey with multi-stage sampling was undertaken. We interviewed ...

  5. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  6. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-04-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  7. Analysis of high burnup fuel behavior under control rod ejection accident in Korea standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bok; Lee, Chung Chan; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kim, Jong Jin

    1996-07-01

    Test results of high burnup fuel behavior under RIA(reactivity insertion accident) indicated that fuel might fail at the fuel enthalpy lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria was derived by the conservative assumptions and analysis of fuel failure mechanisms, and applied to the analysis of control rod ejection accident in the 1,000 MWe Korea standard PWR. Except that three dimensional core analysis was performed instead of conventional zero dimensional analysis, all the other conservative assumptions were kept. Analysis results showed that less than on percent of the fuel rods in the core has failed which was much less than the conventional fuel failure fraction, 9.8 %, even though a newly derived fuel failure criteria -Fuel failure occurs at the power level lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria. - was applied, since transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient core three dimensionally. Therefore, it can be said that results of the radiological consequence analysis for the control rod ejection accident in the FSAR where fuel failure fraction was assumed 9.8 % is still bounding. 18 tabs., 48 figs., 39 refs. (Author)

  8. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  9. High prevalence of Hepatitis C virus genotype 6 in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duc Anh; Leuangwutiwong, Pornsawan; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Luplertlop, Nattanej; Bach, Hoa Khanh; Akkarathamrongsin, Srunthron; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to update the prevalence of the various Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Vietnamese blood donors. One hundred and three HCV antibody-positive plasma samples were collected from blood donors at the National Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Hanoi, Vietnam. All specimens were subjected to RT-PCR of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) to confirm the presence of HCV RNA. The core and NS5B regions of thh positive samples were subsequently amplified by RT-PCR followed by direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Seventy out of 103 samples (68.0%) were RNA positive. Core and NS5B were successfully amplified and sequences were obtained for 70 and 65 samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was the most predominant among Vietnamese blood donors with a prevalence of 37.1% (26/70), followed by genotype 1a at 30.0% (21/70) and genotype 1b at 17.1% (12/70). The prevalence of two other genotype 6 variants, 6e and 61 was 8.6% and 1.4%, respectively. Further analysis of recent studies showed that the geographic distribution of genotype 6 covered mainly southern China and the mainland of Southeast Asia including Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar. The GenBank accession numbers for the sequences reported in this study are FJ768772-FJ768906.

  10. Gifted Education in Korea: Three Korean High Schools for the Mathematically Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyong Mi; Hon, Dae Sik

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of three Korean high schools for mathematically gifted students. It describes how these schools operate, how their mathematics curricula differ compared to those of regular high schools, the admissions criteria, curriculum offered, and the student and teacher population. This review of specialized, science,…

  11. Korea prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, V.

    1990-01-01

    Contacts between the South Korean nuclear industry and a combined United Kingdom mission representing AEA Technology and British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) are reported. Prospects for entering the Korean market in two areas are perceived. The first is waste management and the second is the Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), an advanced pressurized water reactor design. AEA Technology and three collaborators have been promoting SIR as an inherently safe reactor design. Korean interest could be expressed in financial backing for the building of SIR stations in Korea and the opportunity could arise for BNFL to win fuel supply contracts. (UK)

  12. Genetic and phylogenetic characterizations of a novel genotype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses in 2016/2017 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Park, Su-Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Si, Young-Jae; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Lee, In-Won; Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Kwon, Jin-Jung; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Min-Suk; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young-Ki

    2017-09-01

    During the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses in 2016 in South Korea, novel H5N8 viruses were also isolated from migratory birds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HA gene of these H5N8 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.4.4, similarly to recent H5Nx viruses, and originated from A/Brk/Korea/Gochang1/14(H5N8), a minor lineage of H5N8 that appeared in 2014 and then disappeared. At least four reassortment events occurred with different subtypes (H5N8, H7N7, H3N8 and H10N7) and a chicken challenge study revealed that they were classified as HPAI viruses according to OIE criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  14. High diabetes prevalence among tuberculosis cases in Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While diabetes mellitus (DM is a known risk factor for tuberculosis, the prevalence among TB patients in India is unknown. Routine screening of TB patients for DM may be an opportunity for its early diagnosis and improved management and might improve TB treatment outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of TB patients registered from June-July 2011 in the state of Kerala, India, to determine the prevalence of DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A state-wide representative sample of TB patients in Kerala was interviewed and screened for DM using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; patients self-reporting a history of DM or those with HbA1c ≥6.5% were defined as diabetic. Among 552 TB patients screened, 243(44% had DM - 128(23% had previously known DM and 115(21% were newly diagnosed - with higher prevalence among males and those aged >50 years. The number needed to screen(NNS to find one newly diagnosed case of DM was just four. Of 128 TB patients with previously known DM, 107(84% had HbA1c ≥7% indicating poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nearly half of TB patients in Kerala have DM, and approximately half of these patients were newly-diagnosed during this survey. Routine screening of TB patients for DM using HbA1c yielded a large number of DM cases and offered earlier management opportunities which may improve TB and DM outcomes. However, the most cost-effective ways of DM screening need to be established by futher operational research.

  15. High Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction in Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted Nielsen, Emil; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexplained respiratory symptoms reported by athletes are often incorrectly considered secondary to exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesised that this may be related to exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). This study evaluates the prevalence of EILO in an unselected cohort......-one percent of athletes with EILO and negative bronchoprovocation and bronchodilator reversibility tests used regular asthma medication at referral. CONCLUSION: In athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms, EILO is an important differential diagnosis not discerned from other aetiologies by clinical...... features. These findings have important implications for the assessment and management of athletes presenting with persistent respiratory symptoms despite asthma therapy....

  16. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  17. Emerging Consumerism and the Accelerated "Education Divide": The Case of Specialized High Schools in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong

    2007-01-01

    This paper criticizes the neoliberal shift in Korean education toward educational consumerism by analyzing the boom in Specialized High schools (SHs). For its theoretical background, this paper discusses the issues of freedom, equal opportunity, and choice in education, and investigates how neoliberal consumerism has been encouraging the boom in…

  18. Factors related to cancer information scanning and seeking behavior among high school students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Yun, E Hwa; Park, Keeho

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the relationship between cancer information scanning and seeking experience of adolescents and cancer preventive behavior, perceived cancer risk, and levels of cancer- related knowledge. The study sample comprised 1,000 second-year students from 6 high schools: the general and vocational school systems were each represented by 1 boys', 1 girls', and 1 coeducational high school. In July 2011, trained researchers visited each classroom, explained the purpose of the study, distributed questionnaires to the students who agreed to participate, instructed them to complete the survey by self-reporting, and collected the completed questionnaires. The students who attended general high schools (as compared with vocational high schools), earned higher grades, consumed more vegetables, had a higher perceived cancer risk, and answered the cancer-related questions more correctly and had more cancer information scanning and seeking experience. These results reinforce the importance of cancer prevention health education. Furthermore, the results may help in preparing a strategy that enables people to acquire accurate cancer-related information easily and quickly.

  19. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea.

  1. Is South Korea a Case of High-Stakes Testing Gone Too Far? Information Capsule. Volume 1107

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    South Korea's students consistently outperform their counterparts in almost every country in reading and math. Experts have concluded, however, that the South Korean education system has produced students who score well on tests, but fall short on creativity and innovative thinking. They blame these shortcomings on schools' emphasis on rote…

  2. Educational Assessment in the Republic of Korea: Lights and Shadows of High-Stake Exam-Based Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Suh Keong; Lee, Moonbok; Shin, Dongkwang

    2017-01-01

    Educational assessment in the Republic of Korea reflects social and cultural perspectives, as most assessments are considered as a "gatekeeper" of one's success in life, in terms of entering an elite school or having a better career. This paper presents a profile of the education system, especially focusing on the college entrance…

  3. Simultaneous determination of sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose in food consumed in Korea using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsun; Do, Byungkyung; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2017-05-01

    Four artificial sweeteners, i.e., sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose, are permitted for use in Korea, and recent regulatory changes have expanded the number of food categories in which they may be used. Four artificial sweeteners were determined simultaneously in more than 900 food items from 30 food categories that are commercially available in Korean markets, including both domestic and imported products, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). A new procedure using 75% acetone to remove fat was applied for sample preparation. The levels detected in all samples were below the maximum permitted use levels established in Korea. Despite the increased number of categories, the only one in which sodium saccharin was newly found was takju, an alcoholic beverage. Sodium saccharin was not found in other beverages in the food analysis or in the food label survey, even though its use was reported in a previous study, suggesting that consumer preference outweighs regulatory decisions. When the analytical results were combined with food-consumption data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-14, the estimated daily intakes of all the sweeteners were considered safe.

  4. HIGH PREVALENCE OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS IN RUSSIA: OVERDIAGNOSIS OR REALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Balabanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis (ReA is one of the types of spondyloarthritis. According to the statistics reports by the Ministry of Health of Russia, the prevalence of ReA in 2013 was 42.8 per 100,000 adult population, 99, and 172.4 per 100,000 children aged 0–14 and 15–17 years, respectively. There is a wide scatter of ReA detection rates in both the federal districts and subjects of the Russian Federation, which may be associated with both the spread of sexually transmitted infections, asymptomatic trigger Chlamydia infection, and overdiagnosis of ReA.

  5. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  6. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  7. Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students - United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B

    2010-04-01

    We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence in Postmenopausal Non-Diabetic Adult Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Il Yoon

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between insulin resistance (IR and urinary incontinence in Korean adult women by analyzing the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES 2007-2009.A nationally representative sample of 5318 non-diabetic Korean women ≥19-years-of-age (3043 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal women was included from KNHANES 2008-2010. IR was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR. Participants in the highest and lowest quartile of HOMA-IR were defined as insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive respectively. Women who have current physician-diagnosed urinary incontinence were classified as having urinary incontinence.Incontinence was found in 9.18% of the total population, 8.51% of the premenopausal population, and 10.86% of the postmenopausal population. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age, reaching a peak at 60-69-years-of-age. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increased significantly with higher HOMA-IR quartiles in pre- and post-menopausal women (p for linear association = 0.0458 and 0.0009 respectively. Among post-menopausal women, those in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence compared to those in the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.77]. However premenopausal population exhibited no association between incontinence and HOMA-IR quartiles.Our results suggest that the prevalence of incontinence increased across HOMA-IR in non-diabetic adult women, and especially, IR might be a risk factor for incontinence in postmenopausal non-diabetic women.

  9. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  10. High prevalence of hyperglycaemia and the impact of high household income in transforming Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chaowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hyperglycaemia and its association with socioeconomic factors have been well studied in developed countries, however, little is known about them in transforming rural China. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 rural communities of Deqing County located in East China in 2006-07, including 4,506 subjects aged 18 to 64 years. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was measured. Subjects were considered to have impaired fasting glucose (IFG if FPG was in the range from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and to have diabetes mellitus (DM if FG was 7.0 mmol/L or above. Results The crude prevalences of IFG and DM were 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. The average ratio of IFG/DM was 2.5, and tended to be higher for those under the age of 35 years than older subjects. After adjustment for covariates including age (continuous, sex, BMI (continuous, smoking, alcohol drinking, and regular leisure physical activity, subjects in the high household income group had a significantly higher risk of IFG compared with the medium household income group (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11-2.72 and no significant difference in IFG was observed between the low and medium household income groups. Education and farmer occupation were not significantly associated with IFG. Conclusions High household income was significantly associated with an increased risk of IFG. A high ratio of IFG/DM suggests a high risk of diabetes in foreseeable future in the Chinese transforming rural communities.

  11. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  13. High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

    1998-08-01

    Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones.

  14. Evaluation of biochemical and haematological parameters and prevalence of selected pathogens in feral cats from urban and rural habitats in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jusun; Gottdenker, Nicole; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Chun, Myung-Sun

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the potential association between the habitat types of feral cats and the prevalence of selected infectious pathogens and health status based on a set of blood parameters. We live-trapped 72 feral cats from two different habitat types: an urban area (n = 48) and a rural agricultural area (n = 24). We compared blood values and the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and haemotropic Mycoplasma infection in feral cats from the two contrasting habitats. Significant differences were observed in several blood values (haematocrit, red blood cells, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine) depending on the habitat type and/or sex of the cat. Two individuals from the urban area were seropositive for FIV (3.0%), and eight (12.1%) were positive for FeLV infection (five from an urban habitat and three from a rural habitat). Haemoplasma infection was more common. Based on molecular analysis, 38 cats (54.3%) were positive for haemoplasma, with a significantly higher infection rate in cats from rural habitats (70.8%) compared with urban cats (47.8%). Our study recorded haematological and serum biochemical values, and prevalence of selected pathogens in feral cat populations from two different habitat types. A subset of important laboratory parameters from rural cats showed values under or above the corresponding reference intervals for healthy domestic cats, suggesting potential differences in the health status of feral cats depending on the habitat type. Our findings provide information about the association between 1) blood values (haematological and serum biochemistry parameters) and 2) prevalence of selected pathogen infections and different habitat types; this may be important for veterinarians who work with feral and/or stray cats and for overall cat welfare management. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  15. High prevalence of frequent attendance in the over 65s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C Geraldine; Power Foley, Megan; Robinson, David; O'Donnell, Kate; Poulton, Miriam; Kenny, Rose A; Bennett, Kathleen

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of older frequent users of Emergency Departments (EDs) are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the characteristics of the ED frequent attenders (FAs) by age (under 65 and over 65 years). We examined the prevalence of FA attending the ED of an Urban Teaching Hospital in a cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2011. FA was defined as an individual who presented to the ED four or more times over a 12-month period. Randomly selected groups of FA and non-FA from two age groups (under 65 and over 65 years) were then examined to compare the characteristics between older FAs and non-FAs and older FAs and younger FAs. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for 12-month mortality in FA compared with non-FA aged at least 65 years. Overall, 137 150 ED attendances were recorded between 2009 and 2011. A total of 21.6% were aged at least 65 years, 4.4% of whom were FAs, accounting for 18.4% of attendances by patients older than 65 years. There was a bimodal age distribution of FA (mean±SD; under 65 years 40±12.7; and over 65 years 76.9±7.4). Older FAs were five times more likely to present outside normal working hours and 5.5 times more likely to require admission. Cardiovascular emergencies were the most common complaint, in contrast with the younger FA group, where injury and psychosocial conditions dominated. The odds ratio for death at 12 months was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 0.93-4.63; P=0.07), adjusting for age and sex. One-in-five ED patients older than 65 years of age are FAs. Older FAs largely present with complex medical conditions. Enhanced access to expert gerontology assessment should be considered as part of effective intervention strategies for older ED users.

  16. Disease network of mental disorders in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myoungje; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Jee Eun; Gim, Minsook

    2015-12-01

    Network medicine considers networks among genes, diseases, and individuals. Networks of mental disorders remain poorly understood, despite their high comorbidity. In this study, a network of mental disorders in Korea was constructed to offer a complementary approach to treatment. Data on the prevalence and morbidity of mental disorders were obtained from the 2006 and 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, including 22 psychiatric disorders. Nodes in the network were disease phenotypes identified by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, and the links connected phenotypes showing significant comorbidity. Odds ratios were used to quantify the distance between disease pairs. Network centrality was analyzed with and without weighting of the links between disorders. Degree centrality was correlated with suicidal behaviors and use of mental health services. In 2011 and 2006, degree centrality was highest for major depressive disorder, followed by nicotine dependence and generalized anxiety disorder (2011) or alcohol dependence (2006). Weighted degree centrality was highest in conversion disorder in both years. Therefore, major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence are highly connected to other mental disorders in Korea, indicating their comorbidity and possibility of shared biological mechanisms. The use of networks could enhance the understanding of mental disorders to provide effective mental health services.

  17. prevalence of substance use among rural high school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    School of Public Health, University of the Limpopo. Sovenga, South Africa ... KEY WORDS: substance use, rural high school students, South Africa ... increased into the 1990s, these behaviours ..... Canada's Mental Health Supplement, 68,. 12.

  18. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-27

    Jan 27, 2012 ... demographic, e.g., lower age of conception, high parity, .... and purified using Gel extraction kit (Fermentas, USA) .... (11.9%) and women belonging to lower income group ..... Epidemiologic classification of human papillo-.

  19. High prevalence of cognitive impairment after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Planton

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment seems to be frequent in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH survivors, but remains widely understudied. In this study, we investigated the frequency and patterns of vascular cognitive disorders (VCDs in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-related and deep ICH compared to patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD and healthy controls.We prospectively recruited 20 patients with CAA-related lobar ICH, 20 with deep ICH, 20 with MCI-AD and 17 healthy controls. Patients with cognitive decline pre-ICH were excluded from the analysis. Each participant underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and a structural brain MRI. Cognitive assessment was performed at a median delay of 4 months after the acute phase in ICH patients, and more than 6 months after the first complaint in MCI-AD patients. Cognitive profiles were compared between groups. The prevalence of VCDs in the ICH groups was estimated using the recent VASCOG criteria."Mild" and "major VCDs" were respectively observed in 87.5% and 2.5% of all ICH patients. Every patient in the CAA group had mild VCDs. No significant difference was observed in cognitive functioning between CAA-related and deep ICH patients. The most impaired process in the CAA group was naming, with a mean (±standard deviation z-score of -5.2 ±5.5, followed by processing speed (-4.1±3.3, executive functioning (-2.6 ±2.5, memory (-2.4 ±3.5 and attention (-0.9 ±1.3. This cognitive pattern was different from the MCI-AD patients, but the groups were only different in gestural praxis, and by construction, in memory processes.VCDs are frequent after ICH. Cognitive patterns of patients with deep or CAA-related ICH did not differ, but there was impaired performance in specific domains distinct from the effects of Alzheimer's disease.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01619709.

  20. Prevalence of lameness in high-producing holstein cows housed in freestall barns in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, L A; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A

    2006-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of clinical lameness in high-producing Holstein cows housed in 50 freestall barns in Minnesota during summer. Locomotion and body condition scoring were performed on a total of 5,626 cows in 53 high-production groups. Cow records were collected from the nearest Dairy Herd Improvement Association test date, and herd characteristics were collected at the time of the visit. The mean prevalence of clinical lameness (proportion of cows with locomotion score >or=3 on a 1-to-5 scale, where 1 = normal and 5 = severely lame), and its association with lactation number, month of lactation, body condition score, and type of stall surface were evaluated. The mean prevalence of clinical lameness was 24.6%, which was 3.1 times greater, on average, than the prevalence estimated by the herd managers on each farm. The prevalence of lameness in first-lactation cows was 12.8% and prevalence increased on average at a rate of 8 percentage units per lactation. There was no association between the mean prevalence of clinical lameness and month of lactation (for months 1 to 10). Underconditioned cows had a higher prevalence of clinical lameness than normal or overconditioned cows. The prevalence of lameness was lower in freestall herds with sand stalls (17.1%) than in freestall herds with mattress stall surfaces (27.9%). Data indicate that the best 10th percentile of dairy farms had a mean prevalence of lameness of 5.4% with only 1.47% of cows with locomotion score = 4 and no cows with locomotion score = 5.

  1. High prevalence of primary dyslipidaemia in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to more requests for plasma lipid profiles comprising fasting triglyceride. (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. (HDLC) and ..... ratio of TC/HDLC or LDLC/HDLC may be used to assess risk when dealing with ...

  2. Awareness and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MetS) in high-risk individuals attending 30 internal medicine clinics in Amman, Jordan, and also to evaluate the various factors associated with increased risk of MetS among them. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out ...

  3. Prevalence and consequences of substance use among high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol, khat and cigarettes were commonly used by both high school and college students in urban as well as rural areas. While the use patterns of the substances were related to the gender, education/age and religion of the users, no clear-cut patterns were observed in relation to several other factors including ...

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of “High Dose” Antipsychotic Prescribing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 1000 mg/day is considered as high dose prescribing. Furthermore ... genetic variations.[16] ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Mar 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 1 |. 63 ... the unreliability of the CPZeq criteria in the view of an increasing use of ... We obtained ethical clearance from the Ethics and Research.

  5. High prevalence of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cisplatin is administered as the first-line treatment of soft-tissue cancers. It has a reported cure rate of up to 85%, but is associated with a high incidence of ototoxicity, characterised by irreversible bilateral hearing loss and affecting 23 - 50% of adults who receive the drug. Objectives. To determine the incidence ...

  6. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain

  7. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Kayt E; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball ( P = .01) and lifting weights out of season ( P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain may be correlated with volume of previous volleyball experience.

  8. Occupational low back pain in primary and high school teachers: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ghanipour, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in teachers and to evaluate the association of individual and occupational characteristics with the prevalence of LBP. In this cross-sectional study, 586 asymptomatic teachers were randomly selected from 22 primary and high schools in Semnan city of Iran. Data on the personal, occupational characteristics, pain intensity, and functional disability as well as the prevalence and risk factors of LBP were collected using different questionnaires. Point, last month, last 6 months, annual, and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP were 21.8%, 26.3%, 29.6%, 31.1%, and 36.5%, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained for the high school teachers. The prevalence of LBP was significantly associated with age, body mass index, job satisfaction, and length of employment (P teachers appears to be high. High school teachers were more likely to experience LBP than primary school teachers. Factors such as age, body mass index, length of employment, job satisfaction, and work-related activities were significant factors associated with LBP in this teacher population. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Koga, Shoko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and the impact of premenstrual symptoms among Japanese adolescent girls, a total of 618 high school students were assessed. Of them, 64.6% were found to suffer from premenstrual symptoms, which is lower than that in adult women. On the other hand, the rates of prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD in girls were higher than those in adult women. Premenstrual symptoms could have significant consequences by interfering with the daily functioning of adolescent girls.

  10. Video Game Addiction among High School Students in Hordaland; Prevalence and Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Bjordal, Sunniva Alsvik; Skumsnes, Toril; Ørland, Anette

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of video game addiction among high school students (N = 531) in Hordaland county, Norway. Video game addiction measured by the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents was estimated both by a monothetic and a polythetic format. The prevalence was found to be 2.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Regression analyses were conducted where video game addiction comprised the dependent variable. Demographic variables, depression, anxiety, lone...

  11. Surveillance strategy of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Ho June; Hong, Su Jin; Shim, Ki-Nam; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2012-03-01

    It is not clear which screening examinations are best suited for gastric cancer prevention, especially in patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated the gastric cancer screening methods and intervals that are performed in clinical practice in an area with a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Eighty-seven physicians voted by keypad and discussed the consistency of endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia at the Annual Symposium of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research. Additionally, 100 core members of this academic society were asked via e-mail to complete the questionnaires related to screening strategies for gastric cancer. The most common recommendation for the subjects with intestinal metaplasia was an annual endoscopic follow-up (95.5% vs. 80.4% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively; P = 0.118). Annual endoscopic follow-up was also the most predominant recommendation for atrophic gastritis (95.5% vs. 76.5%; P = 0.092), regardless of the physicians' endoscopic experience, position, and degree of the hospital. However, the correct answer rate for the diagnosis of normal endoscopic findings was only 16.7 and 14.1% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively (P = 0.883). The most common practical screening strategy for patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in Korea was annual endoscopic examination. However, a new program estimating individualized gastric cancer risk might be needed because of the low inter-observer agreement in the endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.

  12. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a country with a high occurrence of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Serhat; Kitapcioglu, Gul; Kasap, Elmas

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with additional symptoms, relationship with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) of this country-wide study. METHODS Data from 3214 adults were obtained with validated questionnaire. Eight hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized to be tested for H. pylori via the urea breath test. "Frequent symptoms" were defined heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring at least weekly. RESULTS The prevalence of GERD was 22.8%, frequent and occasional heartburn were 9.3%-12.7%, regurgitation were 16.6%-18.7%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 showed a prevalence of 15%, BMI > 30 was 28.5%. The GERD prevalence was higher in women (26.2%) than men (18.9%) (P < 0001). Overall prevalence of H. pylori was 75.7%. The prevalence was 77.1% in subjects without symptoms vs 71.4% in subjects with GERD (χ2 = 2.6, P = 0.27). Underprivileged with the lowest income people exhibit a higher risk. CONCLUSION GERD is common in Turkey which reflects both Western and Eastern lifestyles with high rate of H. pylori. The presence of H. pylori had no effect on either the prevalence or the symptom profile of GERD. Subjects showing classical symptoms occasionally exhibit more additional symptoms compared with those without classical symptoms. PMID:28210089

  13. Prevalence and antimicrogram of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and the environment in veterinary hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Yoon, Jang Won; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-03-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius bacterial group (SIG) includes 3 distinct genetically heterogenous species: S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini. This pathogen group is associated with many opportunistic skin and ear infections in companion animals. Human infections with S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius isolates and the emergence of methicillin-resistant isolates have been recently reported, which emphasizes the importance of nationwide identification of SIG isolate prevalence and antibiotic resistance in veterinary clinics. In the present study, a total of 178 SIG isolates were obtained from veterinary staff (n  =  40), companion animals (n  =  115), and the local environment (n  =  23) in 8 Korean veterinary hospitals. Isolates were differentiated into 167 S. pseudintermedius (93.8%) and 11 S. intermedius (6.2%) isolates; S. delphini isolates were not identified. The most effective antibiotics against these isolates included amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, nitrofloxacin, imipenem, and vancomycin; whereas ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were not effective. Surprisingly, the 128 SIG isolates (71.9%) displayed multiple drug resistance (MDR) against 3 or more antibiotic classes. Out of 52 SIG isolates carrying the methicillin-resistance gene (mecA), only 34 (65.4%) were oxacillin-resistant, and 49 (94.2%) methicillin-resistant SIG were multidrug resistant. This finding suggests the presence of greater numbers of MDR phenotypes than other isolates (P < 0.05).

  14. High prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of Tropheryma whipplei in different populations from the North of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Blanco, José Ramón; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of Whipple disease. T. whipplei has also been detected in asymptomatic carriers with a very different prevalence. To date, in Spain, there are no data regarding the prevalence of T. whipplei in a healthy population or in HIV-positive patients, or in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of T. whipplei in stools in those populations. Stools from 21 HIV-negative subjects, 65 HIV-infected, and 12 CFS patients were analysed using real time-PCR. HIV-negative and positive subjects were divided into two groups, depending on the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Positive samples were sequenced. The prevalence of T. whipplei was 25.51% in 98 stool samples analysed. Prevalence in HIV-positive patients was significantly higher than in HIV-negative (33.8% vs. 9.09%, p=0.008). Prevalence in the control group with no associated diseases was 20%, whereas no positive samples were observed in HIV-negative patients with MS, or in those diagnosed with CFS. The prevalence observed in HIV-positive patients without MS was 30.35%, and with MS it was 55.5%. The number of positive samples varies depending on the primers used, although no statistically significant differences were observed. There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of T. whipplei among healthy and in HIV-infected people from Spain. The role of T. whipplei in HIV patients with MS is unclear, but the prevalence is higher than in other populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. High prevalence of clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus blood culture isolates in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S Lupinacci

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our high prevalence of clindamycin resistance highlights the importance of performing D-test in a routine base, as well of maintaining continued surveillance for the prevalence of clindamycin resistance.

  16. High Prevalence of Hypertension in Ethiopian and Non-Ethiopian HIV-Infected Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Korem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Prevalence of hypertension has not been studied in the Ethiopian HIV-infected population, which represents 60% of the patients in our AIDS unit. Our aim was to identify risk factors and characterize the prevalence of hypertension in the population monitored at our unit. Methods. A retrospective chart review categorized subjects according to their blood pressure levels. Hypertension prevalence was determined and stratified according to variables perceived to contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results. The prevalence of hypertension in our study population was significantly higher compared to the general population (53% versus 20%, P<0.0001 and was associated with known risk factors and not with patients’ viral load and CD4 levels. Ethiopian HIV-infected adults had a prominently higher rate of blood pressure rise over time as compared to non-Ethiopians (P=0.016. Conclusions. The high prevalence of hypertension in this cohort and the rapid increase in blood pressure in Ethiopians are alarming. We could not attribute high prevalence to HIV-related factors and we presume it is part of the metabolic syndrome. The lifelong cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection mandates hypertension screening and close monitoring in this population.

  17. Geothermal resource assessment in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Hyoung Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea); Park, Sungho; Kim, Jongchan; Koo, Min-Ho [Kongju National University (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    To estimate available geothermal energy and to construct temperature at depth maps in Korea, various geothermal data have been used. Those include 1560 thermal property data such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and density, 353 heat flow data, 54 surface temperature data, and 180 heat production data. In Korea, subsurface temperature ranges from 23.9 C to 47.9 C at a depth of 1 km, from 34.2 C to 79.7 C at 2 km, from 44.2 C to 110.9 C at 3 km, from 53.8 C to 141.5 C at 4 km, and from 63.1 C to 171.6 C at 5 km. The total available subsurface geothermal energy in Korea is 4.25 x 10{sup 21} J from surface to a depth of 1 km, 1.67 x 10{sup 22} J to 2 km, 3.72 x 10{sup 22} J to 3 km, 6.52 x 10{sup 22} J to 4 km, and 1.01 x 10{sup 23} J to 5 km. In particular, the southeastern part of Korea shows high temperatures at depths and so does high geothermal energy. If only 2% of geothermal resource from surface to a depth of 5 km is developed in Korea, energy from geothermal resources would be equivalent to about 200 times annual consumption of primary energy ({proportional_to}2.33 x 10{sup 8} TOE) in Korea in 2006. (author)

  18. Comparison between a 13-session and one-time program on Korea elementary, middle and high school students' understanding of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok; Lim, Young Khi

    2017-01-01

    To help future generations make accurate value judgments about nuclear power generation and radiation, this study will provide an effective education plan suitable for South Korea by applying and analyzing programs for the understanding of nuclear power within the diversely operated programs in the current Korean education system. This study analyzed the difference in educational effects by operating a 13-session regular curriculum for one semester and a one-session short-term curriculum from March to July 2016. As a result of operating a 13-session model school and a one-time educational program to analyze behavior changes against the traditional learning model, it was found that all elementary, middle and high school students showed higher acceptability of nuclear power in South Korea. The variation was greater for the model school than the short-term program. To prevent future generations from making biased policy decisions stemming from fear regarding nuclear power, it is necessary to bolster their value judgments in policy decisions by acquiring sufficient information about nuclear power generation and radiation through educational programs

  19. Comparison between a 13-session and one-time program on Korea elementary, middle and high school students' understanding of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To help future generations make accurate value judgments about nuclear power generation and radiation, this study will provide an effective education plan suitable for South Korea by applying and analyzing programs for the understanding of nuclear power within the diversely operated programs in the current Korean education system. This study analyzed the difference in educational effects by operating a 13-session regular curriculum for one semester and a one-session short-term curriculum from March to July 2016. As a result of operating a 13-session model school and a one-time educational program to analyze behavior changes against the traditional learning model, it was found that all elementary, middle and high school students showed higher acceptability of nuclear power in South Korea. The variation was greater for the model school than the short-term program. To prevent future generations from making biased policy decisions stemming from fear regarding nuclear power, it is necessary to bolster their value judgments in policy decisions by acquiring sufficient information about nuclear power generation and radiation through educational programs.

  20. High prevalence of overweight and obesity among inner city Chinese children in Shanghai, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Ding, Ding; Wang, Ling; Shi, Hui-Jing

    2014-01-01

    In China, the prevalence of overweight and obesity appears to be increasing at unacceptable levels among young people living in major cities undergoing rapid economic growth. To report the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Shanghai inner city youth using the recently published International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) Asian definition. Secondary analysis of children aged 8-15 years who participated in the Shanghai Schools' Physical Fitness Examinations, a representative school-based survey. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using the IOTF children's BMI cut-points for Asian populations, equivalent to an adult BMI of 23 g/m(2) (overweight) and 27 kg/m(2) (obese). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was 49.1% for boys and 30.8% for girls aged 8-15-years. Almost one-in-five boys were obese, compared with 8.4% of girls. In boys the prevalence of overweight appeared to increase from age 10 years. The high prevalence of combined overweight and obesity among urban Chinese youth, especially among boys, requires immediate health promotion intervention.

  1. A study on the groundwater flow system for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The basic framework of groundwater flow is defined as a conceptual 3-D unit of groundwater system based on hydrogeological environments. The fundamental parameters consisting of groundwater system should include topography, geology and climatic conditions. Climatic conditions control the distribution and amounts of groundwater in an interesting study area. The driving forces responsible for groundwater movement are mainly determined by topographic characteristics. The configuration of groundwater system is also controlled by topography. The geological setting and structures control the reservoir size and groundwater flow path. The hydrogeological setting in Korea was classified by primarily topographic characteristics and considered by geological structures and tectonic division. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitude. 35 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  2. Asthma prevalence among high school students in East Jakarta, 2001, based on ISAAC questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yunus

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess asthma prevalence in children between 13-14 years of age in East Jakarta. This study is a cross sectional study which surveyed 2234 high school students between the ages of 13 and 14 years in East Jakarta in 2001 using the ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial challenge test was applied by using methacholine substance to 186 students. Reports based on the ISAAC questionnaire indicate that 7.2% of teenage have had wheezing experience, 4.1% have wheezing within the last 12 months, 1.8% have ever suffered severe asthma attack within the last 12 months, 3.3% have suffered wheezing after exercise, and 6.3% have got night cough while they were not suffering from cold. Prevalence of atopy diseases such as rhinitis and eczema were 14.2% and 3.9%, meanwhile rhinitis and eczema prevalence within the last 12 months according to this study were 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Statistically, there is a significant correlation between wheezing symptom and atopy (p < 0.05. From indepth questionnaire, a significant value of kappa 0.84 related with wheezing within the last 12 months was found. Bronchial challenge test results indicate that sensitivity was 90%, specificity 83.58%, positive predictive value 68.12% and negative predictive value was 95.73%. Asthma prevalence in East Jakarta at 2001 based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8.9%, and cumulative prevalence 11.5%. The ISAAC questionnaire can be used to study asthma prevalence in children at multicenter in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 178-86Keywords: bronchial challenge, high school student, ISAAC questionnaire, East Jakarta, asthma prevalence

  3. Female infertility in India: Causes, treatment and impairment of fertility in selected districts with high prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraboni Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the ‘universal access to sexual and reproductive health care’ has received priority in the SDG‐3, the rural women experiencing infertility problem in India are unable to access and afford quality reproductive health care. The study investigates the present infertility situation, with a focus on risk factors, treatment seeking for infertility, and impact of infertility on fertility in India and its districts with high infertility prevalence. The DLHS‐3 data is used. Top fifteen districts with high infertility prevalence are selected for analysis. Simple bivariate and multivariate techniques are applied. In India, the prevalence of ever‐experienced primary, secondary, and current infertility is 6.6%, 2.1% and 4.6% respectively, whereas, in the selected districts, the estimates for the same indicators are 15%, 3.1%, and 5% respectively. A higher prevalence of reported symptoms of RTIs/STIs and menstrual problems is observed among women who ever had infertility. Treatment seeking for infertility is low in Korba and Koryia. The MCEB is less among women who ever had experienced infertility. The prevalence of ever‐experienced infertility and current infertility is considerably higher among women from socio‐economically disadvantaged sections. Awareness of RTIs, STIs, and menstrual problems, and preventive care can reduce infertility among rural women.

  4. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Rodrigo; Campos, Wagner de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Silva, Michael Pereira da; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  5. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  6. Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Samwel Boaz Otieno; Fred Were; Ephantus Kabiru; Kaunda Waza

    2016-01-01

    A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p

  7. Ethnicity and prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure among 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in 10 – 15 year old Black, Indian, White and Coloured children in North West Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional experimental design was used for this study. A total of 1242 children, made up of 604 boys and 638 girls from ...

  8. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2015-01-01

    of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation...

  9. High prevalence of pollinosis symptoms among the farmers cultivating Japanese pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S; Teranishi, H; Shimooka, Y; Yamada, N

    2007-01-01

    In a district of Japanese pear cultivators, a questionnaire survey and an IgE antibody survey were conducted on the pollinosis. A high prevalence of 36.3 percent of the farmers complained of pollinosis symptoms. By the IgE antibody survey, the symptoms were found to be related to the airborne pollens in the orchard.

  10. Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Emekdar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province Objective: The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the world. The majority of smokers in the adolescent group has started smoking at early ages. Smoking prevalence among adolescents are reported to be approximately 10%. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and related factors among secondary and high school students in Tokat province. Method: Population of this cross-sectional study consists of secondary and high school students in Tokat. Sample size was calculated as 1072 by using proportional stratified cluster sampling method according to type of school, gender and age. The study has been completed with 1069 students (secondary school: 557, high school: 512. Sociodemographic characteristics and the smoking habits of students were determined through questionaries. The students who smoking at least one cigarette in a day were accepted as smokers. Results: 50.9% of secondary school students were male, mean age was 12.1±1.3, 74.5% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 10.8% (male:17.3%, female:4% and it was higher for students with <70 (16.3% average school grades than those with ≥70 (6.8% (p<0.05. 52.3% of high school students were female, mean age was 16.2±1.3, 80.7% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 18% (male:29.9%, female:7.1% and it was higher for students which have secondary or above maternal education level (23.8% than those students which have lower maternal education level (15.7%; higher in those whom parents live seperate or have died (42.3% than those whom parents live together (16.7%; higher in those that have average school grades <70 (23.8% than those with ≥70 (11.3% (p<0.05. Place of residence, income level and profession of parents were not significant effect on smoking prevalence. The most common cause of start smoking was curiosity (42.4%. Conclusions: Nearly one in

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in normoglycemic subjects with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojji, Dike B; Ajayi, Samuel O; Mamven, Manmak H; Atherton, John

    2009-02-01

    High blood pressure and dyslipidemia additively increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Nigeria, but there are little data regarding the prevalence of dyslipidemia in subjects with high blood pressure. In this observational prospective study, we examined the prevalence of dyslipidemia in newly diagnosed normoglycemic subjects with high blood pressure. A total of 171 subjects presenting with high blood pressure for the first time in the cardiology and nephrology clinics at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital were studied. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined in fasting plasma. The total cholesterol/HDL-C and non-HDL-C values were calculated. These measures were then classified according to the 2001 report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Of the 171 subjects studied, 84 (49%) were male and 87 (51%) were female. Low HDL-C was present in 71 (45.8%), elevated LDL-C in 29 (17%), elevated total cholesterol in 19 (11.1%), and elevated triglyceride in 13 (7.6%), whereas eight (4.7%) of the study population had combined elevated total cholesterol and triglyceride. Female subjects had higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C than male subjects, but these differences were not statistically significant. Obese subjects, compared to the nonobese, had significantly higher LDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios in males and significantly higher triglyceride levels in females. Given the prevalence of dyslipidemia seen in this study, we suggest that fasting lipid measurements should be performed in all Nigerians with high blood pressure. These data suggest the need for health education and lifestyle modifications in hypertensive Nigerians to reduce both types of risk

  12. High prevalence of bacteriuria in pregnancy and its screening methods in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sutapa; Thakur, J S; Ray, Pallab; Kumar, Rajesh

    2005-05-01

    The study aims at finding out the prevalence of bacteruria in pregnancy in an urban setting and ascertaining methods to screen them in primary care clinics. A total of 1 61 pregnant ladies visiting a primary care clinic were screened for bacteriuria based on the symptomatology. Urine culture was done to know the prevalence of bacteriuria. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for each symptom and risk assessment. A score card was developed based on combination of positive risk assessment and constellation of symptoms. Prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria was found to be 19.87% and 4.34% respectively. Prevalence of bacteriuria was significantly high among those who had intercourse more frequently and those with less water intake. Those with a score of more than or equal to 4, as per score card were 60% more likely to suffer from bacteriuria. When combined with microscopic examination for leucocytes on positively screened, the positive predictive value was found to be 89%. It is concluded that prevalence of symptomatic bacteriuria is common among pregnant women. Syndromic management of cases on the basis of score card is helpful in resource constraint areas. This may be combined with microscopic examination of urine to entail rational use of antibiotics.

  13. Tobacco Usage in Uttarakhand: A Dangerous Combination of High Prevalence, Widespread Ignorance, and Resistance to Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan John Grills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.

  14. High-Prevalence and Low-Intensity Ichthyophonus Infections in Pacific Halibut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K; Gregg, Jacob L; Dykstra, Claude L

    2018-03-01

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis throughout the West Coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, Alaska (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross-Portlock, Alaska (71% versus 32% within 2012), and interannual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% in 2012 versus 12% in 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from 3% or less among the youngest cohorts (age ≤ 6) to 39-54% among age-9-17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age-18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length at age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite-host paradigm in the North Pacific. © 2018 American Fisheries Society.

  15. High prevalence and low intensity Ichthyophonus infections in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K; Gregg, Jacob L; Dykstra, Claude L

    2017-10-13

    Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) throughout the west coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, AK (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross - Portlock, AK (71% versus 32% within 2012) and inter-annual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% versus 12% from 2012 to 2015). The infection prevalence was influenced by host age, increasing from ≤ 3% among the youngest cohorts (≤age 6) to 39-54% among age 9-17 cohorts, then decreasing to 27% among the oldest (age 18+) cohorts. There was little indication of significant disease impacts to Pacific Halibut, as the intensity of infection was uniformly low and length-at-age was similar between infected and uninfected cohorts. These results suggest that Ichthyophonus in Pacific Halibut currently represents a stable parasite-host paradigm in the North Pacific. Received 04 May 2017 accepted 09 Oct 2017 revised 21 Sep 2017.

  16. [Prevalence and risk factors of social anxiety disorder in high schools and universities in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Wu, Wel-li; Hu, Jun-mei; Qiu, Chang-jian; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Geng; Sun, Jin-hua; Yang, Chuang; Song, Ping; Ye, An-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2006-07-01

    To explore the prevalence and risk factors of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in high schools and universities in Chengdu. 2279 students in Chengdu sampled by optimum distributing delaminating grouping method were interviewed one-to-one by the trained psychiatrists according to SCID. Both the cooperated SAD patients (n=156) and the normal counterparts (NC, n=156) in the 2279 students completed Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran (EMBU), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Form Y), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). There were 179 SAD patients, 88 female ones and 91 male ones, in the 2279 students of the high schools and universities in Chengdu. Statistical analysis reveals that the SAD patients differ from the NC in seven aspects, i.e. growing circumstances (P = 0.049), family economical status(P = 0.000), family history of psychiatric disorder, scales of EMBU,STAI, FNE and DSQ. The total prevalence of SAD in the students of high schools and universities in Chengdu was 8.15%, the female prevalence 8.35%, and the male prevalence 7.62%. The possible risk factors were: growing up in the countryside, low family economic state, parental rearing pattern being deficient in emotional warmth, understanding, trust and encouragement but excessive in refuse, denial and overprotection, having anxiety trait, feeling fear of negative evaluation, more likely to use neurotic and immature defense mechanism while less likely to use mature defense mechanism, having positive family mental disorder history.

  17. High HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Samuel, Malamba S; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gasasira, Antoine R; Chitou, Bassirou; Boer, Kimberly; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Gupta, Neil; Ntaganira, Joseph; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is often high among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the dynamics of HIV infection in this key population is critical to developing appropriate prevention strategies. We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated risk factors among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda from a survey conducted in 2010. A cross-sectional biological and behavioral survey was conducted among FSWs in Rwanda. Time-location sampling was used for participant recruitment from 4 to 18 February 2010. HIV testing was done using HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as per Rwandan national guidelines at the time of the survey. Elisa tests were simultaneously done on all samples tested HIV-positive on RDT. Proportions were used for sample description; multivariable logistic regression model was performed to analyze factors associated with HIV infection. Of 1338 women included in the study, 1112 consented to HIV testing, and the overall HIV prevalence was 51.0%. Sixty percent had been engaged in sex work for less than five years and 80% were street based. In multivariable logistic regression, HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs 25 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.83, 95% [confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.37]), FSWs with consistent condom use in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.39, [95% CI: 1.05-1.82]), and FSWs experiencing at least one STI symptom in the last 12 months (aOR = 1.74 [95% CI: 1.34-2.26]). There was an inverse relationship between HIV prevalence and comprehensive HIV knowledge (aOR = 0.65, [95% CI: 0.48-0.88]). HIV prevalence was high among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda, and successful prevention strategies should focus on HIV education, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and proper and consistent condom use using an outreach approach.

  18. Prevalence of Depression among High School Students and its Relation to Family Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Daryanavard; Abdoulhossain Madani; Mohammad S. Mahmoodi; Shafei Rahimi; Fatemeh Nourooziyan; Mahmood Hosseinpoor

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Depression is common in adolescents and especially in high school students. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression among high school students and its relation to parental configurations. Approach: A cross-sectional study was conducted during first term of the academic year 2003-2004. Data was collected by Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI-21 test) and researcher made questionnaire for demographic characteristics, using census procedur...

  19. Risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N8 outbreaks on broiler duck farms in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W-H; An, J-U; Kim, J; Moon, O-K; Bae, S H; Bender, J B; Cho, S

    2018-04-19

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group. Control farms were matched based on farm location and were within a 3-km radius from the case premises. Spatial and environmental factors were characterized by site visit and plotted through a geographic information system (GIS). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess possible risk factors associated with HPAI broiler duck farm infection. Four final variables were identified as risk factors in a final multivariable logistic model: "Farms with ≥7 flocks" (odds ratio [OR] = 6.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-37.04), "Farm owner with ≥15 years of raising poultry career" (OR = 7.91, 95% CI 1.69-37.14), "Presence of any poultry farms located within 500 m of the farm" (OR = 6.30, 95% CI 1.08-36.93) and "Not using a faecal removal service" (OR = 27.78, 95% CI 3.89-198.80). This highlights that the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in South Korea were associated with farm owner education, number of flocks and facilities and farm biosecurity. Awareness of these factors may help to reduce the spread of HPAI H5N8 across broiler duck farms in Korea during epidemics. Greater understanding of the risk factors for H5N8 may improve farm vulnerability to HPAI and other subtypes and help to establish policies to prevent re-occurrence. These findings are relevant to global prevention recommendations and intervention protocols. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  1. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  2. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Brien A; Fricke, Timothy R; Wilson, David A; Jong, Monica; Naidoo, Kovin S; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Wong, Tien Y; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Resnikoff, Serge

    2016-05-01

    Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, with uncorrected myopia the leading cause of distance vision impairment globally. Individual studies show variations in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia between regions and ethnic groups, and there continues to be uncertainty regarding increasing prevalence of myopia. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of myopia and high myopia and estimated temporal trends from 2000 to 2050 using data published since 1995. The primary data were gathered into 5-year age groups from 0 to ≥100, in urban or rural populations in each country, standardized to definitions of myopia of -0.50 diopter (D) or less and of high myopia of -5.00 D or less, projected to the year 2010, then meta-analyzed within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions. Any urban or rural age group that lacked data in a GBD region took data from the most similar region. The prevalence data were combined with urbanization data and population data from United Nations Population Department (UNPD) to estimate the prevalence of myopia and high myopia in each country of the world. These estimates were combined with myopia change estimates over time derived from regression analysis of published evidence to project to each decade from 2000 through 2050. We included data from 145 studies covering 2.1 million participants. We estimated 1406 million people with myopia (22.9% of the world population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 932-1932 million [15.2%-31.5%]) and 163 million people with high myopia (2.7% of the world population; 95% CI, 86-387 million [1.4%-6.3%]) in 2000. We predict by 2050 there will be 4758 million people with myopia (49.8% of the world population; 3620-6056 million [95% CI, 43.4%-55.7%]) and 938 million people with high myopia (9.8% of the world population; 479-2104 million [95% CI, 5.7%-19.4%]). Myopia and high myopia estimates from 2000 to 2050 suggest significant increases in

  3. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in young employees of Information Technology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Tejas Y; Kulkarni, Ravindra L; Deokar, Manisha R; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the burden of cardiometabolic risk factors in Information Technology (IT) employees as they are exposed to adverse lifestyle. In this cross-sectional study, health records were obtained from two IT industries in Pune. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [hyperglycemia, high blood pressure (BP), hypertriglyceridemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity] was determined using standard cutoffs. We also examined clustering of risk factors (≥two risk factors). Data were available on 1,350 of 5,800 employees (mean age: 33 ± 6 years, 78% men). Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 2.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Prevalence of prediabetes, borderline high BP, hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and overweight/obesity was 6.5%, 20.3%, 21%, 22.1%, 70.1%, and 51.4%, respectively. Risk factor clustering was observed in 63.5% that increased with age (P < 0.001). Given the high burden of risk factors at relatively young age, spreading awareness and promoting healthy lifestyle through workplace interventions are warranted.

  4. Nickel and cobalt release from jewellery and metal clothing items in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Choi, Hae Young; Byun, Ji Yeon

    2014-01-01

    In Korea, the prevalence of nickel allergy has shown a sharply increasing trend. Cobalt contact allergy is often associated with concomitant reactions to nickel, and is more common in Korea than in western countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of items that release nickel and cobalt on the Korean market. A total of 471 items that included 193 branded jewellery, 202 non-branded jewellery and 76 metal clothing items were sampled and studied with a dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test and a cobalt spot test to detect nickel and cobalt release, respectively. Nickel release was detected in 47.8% of the tested items. The positive rates in the DMG test were 12.4% for the branded jewellery, 70.8% for the non-branded jewellery, and 76.3% for the metal clothing items. Cobalt release was found in 6.2% of items. Among the types of jewellery, belts and hair pins showed higher positive rates in both the DMG test and the cobalt spot test. Our study shows that the prevalence of items that release nickel or cobalt among jewellery and metal clothing items is high in Korea. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of Facebook Addiction and Related Factors Among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.

  6. Joint project to implement a training course/seminar for high-level decision making officals on nuclear policy between Korea and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, S. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2001-09-01

    Through this project, the KAERI has published a english text book titled 'Nuclear Power project: Policy and Korean Experience' with the cooperation with the Agency. Korean experts, who have more than 30 years experiences in nuclear policy and nuclear power project management, involved to prepare the contents. Experts, who are working for Department of Nuclear Energy and Department of Technical Cooperation in the Agency, reviewed the contents. The KAERI has provided a training course/seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 3 deputy ministers and 3 general directors in Viet Nam Communist Party, Assembly, Government Departments, upon the agreement between Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) and MOST at Hanoi in November 2000. The KAERI decided to provide the IAEA regional training course for middle level managers of nuclear policy and project management in RCA member states in November 2001 and 2002 under the cooperation with the Agency and the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). The training course curricula, a english text book will be utilized as basic technical materials to promote the national nuclear cooperation program with the developing countries, that are considering to introduce the first or a new nuclear power plant, such as China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Morocco, Egypt, Ukraine, etc. Through the project, the bilateral nuclear cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea in the field of nuclear manpower development has improved practically. The KAERI has decided to provide on-the job-training program for Vietnamese experts in the field of nuclear policy, safety analysis, thermal-hydraulic analysis, etc under the 2000 KISTEP Scientist Exchange Program

  7. Joint project to implement a training course/seminar for high-level decision making officals on nuclear policy between Korea and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, S. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2001-09-01

    Through this project, the KAERI has published a english text book titled 'Nuclear Power project: Policy and Korean Experience' with the cooperation with the Agency. Korean experts, who have more than 30 years experiences in nuclear policy and nuclear power project management, involved to prepare the contents. Experts, who are working for Department of Nuclear Energy and Department of Technical Cooperation in the Agency, reviewed the contents. The KAERI has provided a training course/seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 3 deputy ministers and 3 general directors in Viet Nam Communist Party, Assembly, Government Departments, upon the agreement between Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) and MOST at Hanoi in November 2000. The KAERI decided to provide the IAEA regional training course for middle level managers of nuclear policy and project management in RCA member states in November 2001 and 2002 under the cooperation with the Agency and the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). The training course curricula, a english text book will be utilized as basic technical materials to promote the national nuclear cooperation program with the developing countries, that are considering to introduce the first or a new nuclear power plant, such as China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Morocco, Egypt, Ukraine, etc. Through the project, the bilateral nuclear cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea in the field of nuclear manpower development has improved practically. The KAERI has decided to provide on-the job-training program for Vietnamese experts in the field of nuclear policy, safety analysis, thermal-hydraulic analysis, etc under the 2000 KISTEP Scientist Exchange Program.

  8. HIV prevalence by ethnic group covaries with prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 and high-risk sex in Uganda: An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R

    2018-01-01

    HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic STIs in the 2004/2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioural Survey-a two stage, nationally representative, population based survey of 15-59-year-olds. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. There was a positive association between HIV prevalence and HSV-2, symptomatic STIs and high-risk sex (sex with a non-cohabiting, non-marital partner) for women. Non-significant positive associations were present between HIV and high-risk sex for men and lifetime number of partners for men and women. Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the variations in HIV, HSV-2 and other STI prevalence by ethnic group in Uganda. Further work is necessary to delineate which combinations of risk factors determine differential STI spread in Uganda.

  9. Korea goes as low as reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yukhi, Li.; Chun Vu Kha; Seon Kho Na; S'yu Khan.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to problems of development of nuclear power industry in the South Korea, which has no experience in this field and trained personnel and is characterized by high density of population. Introduction of modern standards on nuclear safety in global and local scales, advisability of organizing the ALARA - center in Korea are based. This center will enable to adopt the ALARA principles in practice of management and infrastructure development, using the international experience of developed countries

  10. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and their high-risk genotypes in Sri Lankan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanaka, K A S N; Wilathgamuwa, S; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2018-03-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer in women and approximately 700 deaths have been reported annually in Sri Lanka due to this cancer. Despite, attempts have not been made to investigate the prevalence of HPV amongst Sri Lankan women with normal cytology. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based assay was set up to detect HPV in both normal and abnormal cytology and the positive samples were then tested for the genotypes, HPV 16 and HPV 18 as they have been identified as the high-risk types associating with cervical cancer. Eighty-four (number = 84) clinical samples (age range 27-69) analyzed in this study indicated that the prevalence of HPV, regardless of cytological abnormalities was 15.5%, (n = 13, 95% class interval ± 7.7) while it was 100% (n = 3) for those with abnormal cytology. Association of HPV 16 and HPV 18 among the abnormal cytology was 0 and 50% (n = 1), respectively and further, the prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 in women was found to be 3.6% (n = 3, 95% CI ± 4.0) and 2.4% (n = 2, 95% CI ± 3.3), respectively. Moreover, age wise prevalence analysis revealed women of the age of 35-years or more to have higher HPV prevalence. The prevalence of HPV among normal cytology is 12.3% (n = 10, 95% CI ± 7.2) which is similar to the rates in other regions of Asia (China 15.4%; India 10.43%). Finally, higher prevalence of HPV in women of the age of 35-years or more in Sri Lanka, especially with malignant types call for such age group to be screened for proper clinical intervention to be made in reducing the incident of cervical cancers. This is the first report of prevalence of HPV among women with normal cytology in Sri Lanka.

  11. Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa is highly prevalent in the Jerusalem region with a high frequency of founder mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Dror; Banin, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal degeneration, and prevalence of the disease has been reported in populations of American and European origin with a relatively low consanguinity rate. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in the Jerusalem region, which has a population of about 1 million individuals with a high rate of consanguinity. The patients' clinical data included eye exam findings (visual acuity, anterior segment, and funduscopy) as well as electroretinographic (ERG) testing results under scotopic and photopic conditions. Mutation analysis on a subgroup of patients was performed mainly with candidate gene analysis and homozygosity mapping. We evaluated the medical records of patients with degenerative retinal diseases residing in the Jerusalem region who were examined over the past 20 years in a large tertiary medical center. A total of 453 individuals affected with nonsyndromic RP were diagnosed at our center, according to funduscopic findings and ERG testing. Based on the estimated population size of 945,000 individuals who reside in the vicinity of Jerusalem, the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in this region is 1:2,086. The prevalence of RP was higher among Arab Muslims (1:1,798) compared to Jews (1:2,230), mainly due to consanguineous marriages that are more common in the Arab Muslim population. To identify the genetic causes of RP in our cohort, we recruited 383 patients from 183 different families for genetic analysis: 70 with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance, 15 with autosomal dominant, 86 isolate cases, and 12 with an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 64 (35%) of the families, we identified the genetic cause of the disease, and we revised the inheritance pattern of 20 isolate cases to the AR pattern; 49% of the families in our cohort had AR inheritance. Interestingly, in 42 (66%) of the genetically identified families, the cause of disease was a founder mutation. Previous studies

  12. Relationship between cognitive functions and prevalence of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance, we attempted to determine whether cognitive functions were associated with the prevalence of fatigue. Participants were 148 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 152 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades. Participants completed a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) and paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests which could evaluate the abilities of motor processing, immediate, delayed and working memory, selective, divided and alternative attention, retrieve learned material, and spatial construction. We found that in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, slow motor processing was positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the elementary school students and decreases in working memory and divided and alternative attention processing were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the junior high school students. The grade-dependent development of cognitive function influences the severity of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with HIV in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombo, Bernardo; Alkhalil, Imran; Golden, Marjorie P; Fotjadhi, Irma; Ravi, Sreedhar; Virata, Michael; Lievano, Marta; Diez, Jose; Ghantous, Andre; Donohue, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as the standard of care for HIV disease, there has been a precipitous decline in the death rate due to HIV/ AIDS. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV infected patients. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 259 patients with HIV infection treated with cART from an urban community hospital. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Study patients were included regardless of the duration of cART. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27% using IDF criteria and 26% using ATP III criteria. Logistic regression analysis found an association between treatment with the protease inhibitor darunavir and metabolic syndrome. (OR 3.32 with 95% confidence interval between 1.54 and 7.15). There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in HIV patients treated with cART, especially those taking the protease inhibitor darunavir.

  14. High prevalence of simultaneous rib and vertebral fractures in patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk

    2017-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  16. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  17. Prevalence of epilepsy in children from a Brazilian area of high deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Letícia P B; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Kuramoto, Karina; Reche, Angela; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Manreza, Maria Luiza G

    2010-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rate of epilepsy and its causes in children and adolescents in one area of high deprivation in São Paulo, São Paulo, in Southeast Brazil. Between July 2005 and June 2006, 4947 families from a population of 22,013 inhabitants (including 10,405 children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 16 years) living in the shantytown of Paraisópolis, were interviewed. In the first phase, a validated questionnaire was administered, to identify the occurrence of seizures. In the second phase, clinical history, neurologic examination, electroencephalography, and structural neuroimaging were performed. The diagnosis of epilepsy, including etiology, seizure types, and epileptic syndrome classification, was according to criteria of the International League Against Epilepsy. The screening phase identified 353 presumptive cases. In the second phase, 101 of these cases (33.8%) received the diagnosis of epilepsy. Crude prevalence of epilepsy was 9.7/1000 and prevalence of active epilepsy was 8.7/1000. Partial seizures were the most frequent seizure type (62/101). Symptomatic focal epilepsy was the most common form, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy the most common etiology, reflecting the socioeconomic conditions of this specific population. Adequate public policies regarding perinatal assistance could help reduce the prevalence of epilepsy.

  18. Prevalent high-risk HPV infection and vaginal microbiota in Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dareng, E O; Ma, B; Famooto, A O; Adebamowo, S N; Offiong, R A; Olaniyan, O; Dakum, P S; Wheeler, C M; Fadrosh, D; Yang, H; Gajer, P; Brotman, R M; Ravel, J; Adebamowo, C A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and the vaginal microbiome. Participants were recruited in Nigeria between April and August 2012. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina MiSeq and HPV was identified using the Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test. We used exact logistic regression models to evaluate the association between community state types (CSTs) of vaginal microbiota and hrHPV infection, weighted UniFrac distances to compare the vaginal microbiota of individuals with prevalent hrHPV to those without prevalent hrHPV infection, and the Linear Discriminant Analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to characterize bacteria associated with prevalent hrHPV infection. We observed four CSTs: CST IV-B with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in 50% of participants; CST III (dominated by L. iners) in 39·2%; CST I (dominated by L. crispatus) in 7·9%; and CST VI (dominated by proteobacteria) in 2·9% of participants. LEfSe analysis suggested an association between prevalent hrHPV infection and a decreased abundance of Lactobacillus sp. with increased abundance of anaerobes particularly of the genera Prevotella and Leptotrichia in HIV-negative women (P < 0·05). These results are hypothesis generating and further studies are required.

  19. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with Brugada syndrome in new exome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, B; Jabbari, R; Refsgaard, L

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 variants in 12 genes have been associated with Brugada syndrome (BrS) which has a prevalence ranging between 1:2000 and 1:100,000. Until recently, there has been little knowledge regarding the distribution of genetic variations in the general population. This problem was partly solved......, when exome data from the NHLI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) was published. In this study, we aimed to report the prevalence of previously BrS-associated variants in the ESP population. We performed a search in ESP for variants previously associated with BrS. In addition, four variants in ESP were...... to a surprisingly high genotype prevalence of 1:23 (274:6258). Genotyping the four common ESP-derived variants CACNA2D1 S709N, SCN5A F2004L, CACNB2 S143F, and CACNB2 T450I in the Danish controls, we found a genotype prevalence comparable with that found in ESP. We suggest that exome data are used in research...

  20. Effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake gro...

  1. High prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus type 2 among homosexual men is caused by sexual transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D.; Hovenkamp, E.; Dukers, N. H.; Renwick, N.; Kersten, M. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Coutinho, R. A.; Miedema, F.; van Oers, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection is highly prevalent among homosexual men, the prevalence of EBV type 2 was studied among homosexual and heterosexual white men who were at high and low risk for sexually transmitted diseases; these data were correlated with sexual

  2. High daily doses of benzodiazepines among Quebec seniors: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moride Yola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors.

  3. [Prevalence trends of high risk of mental disorders in the Spanish adult population: 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying in high school: a 2011 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Sophie S; Zhong, Connie; Das, Shreya; Gan, Julia S; Willis, Stephanie; Tully, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is common among young students, and cyberbullying has increased due to the use of technology. This study investigates the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying among high school students and the emotional effects of bullying on students. Students at East Chapel Hill High School, Chapel Hill, North Carolina completed the Gatehouse Bullying Scale and the Peer Relations Questionnaire. They answered questions regarding how often they had experienced certain types of bullying in school and the emotional effects the bullying had on them. The combined results from both surveys indicated that the prevalence of bullying was 55% with 18% of respondents reporting cyberbullying. Teasing and name-calling were the most common types of bullying, as 40% of students reported having been teased or called names. The most serious type of bullying, being threatened with harm, hit, or kicked, occurred in 20% of boys and 8% of girls, with 25% of respondents reported "quite upset" by the experience. The majority (79%) of students who had been bullied did not share with anyone about being bullied, and of those who did, only 50% were taken seriously. Bullying is still prevalent among high school students, and cyberbullying is becoming more widespread. Most victims do not share their bullying experience, and if they did, only half believe they are taken seriously. Both bullying among students in school and cyberbullying deserve attention due to their potentially devastating effects on victims.

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among high-school girls in Tabriz, Iran, in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Behzad, Mahdiyeh Hamed; Ghassabpour, Saeideh; Ayat, Arezoo

    2004-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are among the most prevalent nutritional problems in developed and developing countries. In this descriptive study, we attempted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescent girls attending high school in Tabriz. A sample of 1,650 (final study group, 1,518) high-school girls aged 14 to 20 years was selected by stepwise random sampling from five districts of Tabriz. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index (BMI) percentiles from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI cutoffs. According to the NHANES I criteria, 14.6% of the study subjects were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity was seen in 11. 1% and 3.6% of the students, respectively. By the IOTF cutoffs, 14% of the subjects were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity were seen in 10.1% and 3.9% of the students, respectively. Of the study subjects, 8% had a BMI below the 15th percentile of NHANES I, an indicator of underweight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tabriz high-school girls is higher than in many, but not all, parts of Iran, but lower than in some neighboring countries such as Saudi Arabia. In this age group, in addition to overweight and obesity, underweight (BMI < or = 15th percentile) is also present.

  6. Prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis is increased in high bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, S A; Dieppe, P; Gregson, C L; Hunter, D; Thomas, G E R; Arden, N K; Spector, T D; Hart, D J; Laugharne, M J; Clague, G A; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ≥3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs 13.6%), with adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09, 2.11], P = 0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61, 2.79], P subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49, 5.18], P = 0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing (JSN) was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72, 1.33], P = 0.869). An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria

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    Ijeoma Emeka-Nwabunnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods: A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 1 9-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results: IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 201 2. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91 % is nonsignificantly (P>0.1 lower than that of females (4.31 %. Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions: The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

  8. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its correlating lifestyle factors in Japanese female junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-06-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend dysmenorrhea (OR = 3.05, 95%CI: 1.06-8.77), and sports activity levels were associated with severe dysmenorrhea (P for trend = 0.045). Our findings suggest that dysmenorrhea that adversely affects daily activities is highly prevalent, and may be associated with certain lifestyle factors in junior high school students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.

  9. High prevalence of cattle fascioliasis in coastal areas of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; VO, Minh Duc Co; VAN CAO, Hoang; NGUYEN, Ly Thi; HO, Khanh Thi; NGUYEN, Quyet Ngoc; TRAN, Vui Quang; MATSUMOTO, Yasunobu

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014–2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m2) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam. PMID:28458272

  10. High prevalence of cattle fascioliasis in coastal areas of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; Vo, Minh Duc Co; VAN Cao, Hoang; Nguyen, Ly Thi; Ho, Khanh Thi; Nguyen, Quyet Ngoc; Tran, Vui Quang; Matsumoto, Yasunobu

    2017-06-16

    In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014-2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m 2 ) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam.

  11. Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Bok Lee, Seung

    2017-02-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1+ black carbon (BC)) was 27.5 µg m-3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O / C), hydrogen to carbon (H / C), and nitrogen to carbon (N / C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM / OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6-90.7 µg m-3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O / C = 0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O / C = 0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O / C = 0.34), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O / C = 0.56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O / C = 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounted for 59 % the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15 and 26 %, respectively. Our results indicate that air

  12. Prevalence of the tobacco product dokha among high school students in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Annie; Wolff, Kim

    2014-08-01

    Dokha is a mixed tobacco product, smoked through a pipe, traditional in Arabic culture and popular in the UAE. User forums suggest this product may contain higher levels of nicotine and potentially psychoactive properties. However, there have been few published studies on dokha prevalence and health effects. The present study provides initial data on prevalence of use among high school students resident in Dubai, UAE. 416 students were recruited from five English curriculum schools. Respondents completed a questionnaire measuring current and lifetime use of tobacco in the form of cigarettes, water-pipes and dokha. Current tobacco users completed the 'Hooked on Nicotine Checklist for signs of dependency. Data from 394 subjects were analyzed with mean age 16.9 years. Regular use (weekly or daily) of tobacco had relatively high prevalence (23.4%) compared to international data and was driven by use of the local tobacco, dokha. Dokha forms a commonly used tobacco product among young people in the UAE from both Arab and Western national groups. Little is currently known about the health and dependence risks of this product. The paper adds to the few studies calling for timely research into this and other emerging tobacco products.

  13. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  14. Spherical equivalent refractive error in preschool children from a population with a high prevalence of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M

    2007-02-01

    To describe spherical equivalent (sph eq) refractive errors in preschool members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements were obtained for 819 three- and four-year-old Tohono O'odham children, with follow-up measurements in 146 after 4 to 8 years. Mean sph eq was significantly more hyperopic in the astigmatic group than in the non-astigmatic group (1.24 vs. 0.87 D). At follow-up, prevalence of hyperopic sph eq and hyperopic astigmatism had significantly decreased, and prevalence of emmetropic/myopic sph eq and myopic astigmatism had significantly increased. The decrease in mean sph eq was similar in astigmats and non-astigmats. Astigmatism did not change over time. Most preschool children in this highly astigmatic population are hyperopic, with astigmats showing higher mean hyperopic sph eq than non-astigmats. Astigmats and non-astigmats show a similar decrease in amount of hyperopic sph eq over follow-up of 4 to 8 years.

  15. High blood pressure in Panama: prevalence, sociodemographic and biologic profile, treatment, and control (STROBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J; Motta Borrel, Jorge A; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors.A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P ≤ 0.05 were used for the analysis.The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0-31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR = 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m or a waist circumference >90 cm in men and >88 cm in women (P control (<140/90 mm Hg).HBP is the most common cardiovascular risk factor among Panamanians and consequently an important public health problem in Panama. The health care system needs to give a high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles.

  16. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.

  17. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Woo

    2011-11-01

    Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.

  18. High prevalence of cranial asymmetry exists in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Megan; Gorbutt, Kimberly A; Peethambaran, Ammanath; Yang, Lynda; Nelson, Virginia S; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu

    2016-11-30

    This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. Infants plagio group), including infants with resolved positional plagiocephaly (plagio-resolved subgroup); and 2) those who never had positional plagiocephaly (non-plagio group). Standard statistics were applied. Eighteen of 28 infants (64%) had positional plagiocephaly. Delivery type might be predictive for plagiocephaly. Infants in the non-plagio group exhibited more active range of motion than infants in the plagio group. All other factors had no significant correlations. A high prevalence of positional plagiocephaly exists among the NBPP population examined. Parents and physicians should encourage infants to use their upper extremities to change position and reduce chance of cranial asymmetry.

  19. High Prevalence of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Hospitalized Children in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Nicolas; Nordmann, Patrice; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta; Poirel, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Luanda, Angola. A total of 157 rectal samples were collected from children visiting a pediatric hospital in Luanda in March 2015. Fifty-seven imipenem-nonsusceptible enterobacterial isolates were recovered, most of which were non-clonally related. The blaOXA-181 (50/57) and blaNDM-1 (7/57) carbapenemase genes were identified. Notably, OXA-181-producing Escherichia coli isolates rarely coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and consequently remained susceptible to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The blaOXA-181 gene was always located on an IncX3 plasmid, while the blaNDM-1 gene was located on either IncFIA or IncA/C plasmids. The study identified a high prevalence of OXA-181 among hospitalized children in Angola. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Among Women With High-Grade Cervical Lesions in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meizhu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Hongyan; Gao, Huiqiao; Bie, Yachun; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) genotypes among Han women with high-grade cervical lesions in Beijing, China. Cervical cell specimens from patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical lesions at 7 hospitals in Beijing were examined with a validated HPV kit for 13 hr-HPV genotypes during the study period. The patients were divided into a low-grade cervical lesions group (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, CIN1) and a high-grade cervical lesions group (CIN2+, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, CIN2; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, CIN3; squamous cervical cancer, SCC; and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, ACC) based on the histopathology results. A total of 2817 eligible patients were enrolled, including 610 cases identified as CIN1 and 2207 as CIN2+. The hr-HPV positive rates in the CIN1 and CIN2+ groups were 78.2% (477/610) and 93.3% (2060/2207), respectively. The most frequently detected genotypes were HPV16, 58, 52 and18 in the CIN1 group and HPV16, 58, 33, and 52 in the CIN2+ group, in descending order of prevalence. In addition, the prevalence of HPV18 among the patients with ACC was 28.6% (14/49), significantly >7.2% (54/752) prevalence among the SCC patients (P HPV infections gradually deceased to 44.2% in the CIN2 patients, 36.7% in the CIN3 patients, and 35.3% in the cervical cancer (CC) patients, which included SCC and ACC patients. In cases of multiple hr-HPV infections in the CIN2+ group, double infections accounted for ∼76.6%, and HPV16+58, HPV16+52, and HPV16+18 were the most common combinations, in descending order. The most frequent combination for triple infections was HPV16+58+31, with a rate of 4.2%. The highest positive rate occurred in the ≤24 year-old group for all types of cervical lesions. The prevalence of HPV genotypes in the targeted population with high-grade cervical lesions differs from that of other countries. This

  2. Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burnup condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. D.; Kim, D. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.

    2005-10-01

    This project was performed by KAERI in the frame of construction of the international cooperative basis on the nuclear energy. This was supported from MOST under the title of 'Establishment of Technical Collaboration basis between Korea and France for the development of severe accident assessment computer code under high burn up condition'. The current operating NPP are converting the burned fuel to the wasted fuel after burn up of 40 GWD/MTU. But in Korea, burn up of more than 60 GWD/MTU will be expected because of the high fuel efficiency but also cost saving for storing the wasted fuel safely. The domestic research for the purpose of developing the fuel and the cladding that can be used under the high burn up condition up to 100 GWD/MTU is in progress now. But the current computer code adopts the model and the data that are valid only up to the 40 GWD/MTU at most. Therefore the current model could not take into account the phenomena that may cause differences in the fission product release behavior or in the core damage process due to the high burn up operation (more than 40 GWD/MTU). To evaluate the safety of the NPP with the high burn up fuel, the improvement of current severe accident code against the high burn up condition is an important research item. Also it should start without any delay. Therefore, in this study, an expert group was constructed to establish the research basis for the severe accident under high burn up conditions. From this expert group, the research items regarding the high burn up condition were selected and identified through discussion and technical seminars. Based on these selected items, the meeting between IRSN and KAERI to find out the cooperative research items on the severe accident under the high burn up condition was held in the IRSN headquater in Paris. After the meeting, KAERI and IRSN agreed to cooperate with each other on the selected items, and to co-host the international seminar, and to develop the model and to

  3. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study's results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species' distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures.

  4. Cyber dating violence: Prevalence and correlates among high school students from small urban areas in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Cénat, Jude Mary; Lapierre, Andréanne; Dion, Jacinthe; Hébert, Martine; Côté, Karine

    2018-07-01

    Adolescents in a dating relationship can interact anytime using information and communication technologies. Yet, despite associated potential benefits, this availability of means to reach out to their partner may also exacerbate possible conflictual exchanges, including dating violence through technology. This study aimed to document the prevalence of cyber dating violence (CDV) victimization and perpetration among teenagers. It also explored self-esteem and psychological distress in participants having been perpetrators, victims, or perpetrator-victims, compared with those not having experienced CDV. The sample comprised 190 teenagers from a small urban area who completed the K10 psychological distress scale, the Self-Description Questionnaire, which measures self-esteem, and the Cyber Dating Abuse Questionnaire, which measures the prevalence of CDV victimization and perpetration. Our results suggest no gender difference in the prevalence of CDV victimization (35.8%), perpetration (33.0%), or the high co-occurrence rate of victimization and perpetration (27.2%) in the last 12 months. When age and gender were controlled for, cyber dating violence was found to be associated with low self-esteem and psychological distress in teenagers. Cyberperpetration was also associated with higher self-esteem. The cross-sectional design precludes any conclusion about the sequencing of the variables. Reliance on a convenience sample also represents a limitation of the study. CDV is associated with low self-esteem and psychological distress in teenagers. Dating violence prevention programs should include issues related to CDV, considering its high prevalence, conceptual proximity to psychological violence, and relationship with psychological distress and low self esteem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in high-school students in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing.Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview.Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4% students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18 years participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was -2.78±2.29 diopters and -2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤ -1.00 diopters in the worse eye was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 79.6-81.8%. Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4% wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR = 1.31;95%CI:1.11-1.55, Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28-2.11, attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77, higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09-1.71, longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06-1.93, shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55-2.26, lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16-1.70, and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80-2.87. The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03 significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (≤-6.0 diopters was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81, lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79, and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40.A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of China. With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia

  6. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  7. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samore, G.

    2002-01-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  8. Prevalence of Sport Specialization in High School Athletics: A 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year

  9. A novel no-insulation winding technique of high temperature-superconducting racetrack coil for rotating applications: A progress report in Korea university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Song, J B; Yang, D G; Kim, Y G; Hahn, S; Lee, H G

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents our recent progress on core technology development for a megawatt-class superconducting wind turbine generator supported by the international collaborative R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning. To outperform the current high-temperature-superconducting (HTS) magnet technology in the wind turbine industry, a novel no-insulation winding technique was first proposed to develop the second-generation HTS racetrack coil for rotating applications. Here, we briefly report our recent studies on no-insulation (NI) winding technique for GdBCO coated conductor racetrack coils in the following areas: (1) Charging-discharging characteristics of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils with respect to external pressures applied to straight sections; (2) thermal and electrical stabilities of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils encapsulated with various impregnating materials; (3) quench behaviors of no-insulation racetrack coils wound with GdBCO conductor possessing various lamination layers; (4) electromagnetic characteristics of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils under time-varying field conditions. Test results confirmed that this novel NI winding technique was highly promising. It could provide development of a compact, mechanically dense, and self-protecting GdBCO magnet for use in real-world superconducting wind turbine generators.

  10. A novel no-insulation winding technique of high temperature-superconducting racetrack coil for rotating applications: A progress report in Korea university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y. H.; Song, J. B.; Yang, D. G.; Kim, Y. G.; Hahn, S.; Lee, H. G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents our recent progress on core technology development for a megawatt-class superconducting wind turbine generator supported by the international collaborative R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning. To outperform the current high-temperature-superconducting (HTS) magnet technology in the wind turbine industry, a novel no-insulation winding technique was first proposed to develop the second-generation HTS racetrack coil for rotating applications. Here, we briefly report our recent studies on no-insulation (NI) winding technique for GdBCO coated conductor racetrack coils in the following areas: (1) Charging-discharging characteristics of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils with respect to external pressures applied to straight sections; (2) thermal and electrical stabilities of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils encapsulated with various impregnating materials; (3) quench behaviors of no-insulation racetrack coils wound with GdBCO conductor possessing various lamination layers; (4) electromagnetic characteristics of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils under time-varying field conditions. Test results confirmed that this novel NI winding technique was highly promising. It could provide development of a compact, mechanically dense, and self-protecting GdBCO magnet for use in real-world superconducting wind turbine generators.

  11. Energy policy of Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Bong-ki

    2006-01-01

    No other country in the world has so few resources of fossil sources of energy and depends on imports of power as the Republic of Korea. As a consequence of economical and political processes of globalization, new challenges are developed: elevated regional and global conflicts relating to resources as well as new possibilities of cooperation by means of amore intensely international division of labour. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the energy policy of the Republic of Korea. Especially, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Characteristics of the power structure of the Republic of Korea; (b) National energy policy and measures for energy security; (c) Practical measures of energy security; (d) Regional co-operation for energy security from the view of the Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has a very weak energy structure and strongly depends on foreign countries. Among the successful measures of energy security, there exist measures for energy saving in industrial areas, diversification of sources of energy and exporting countries, increase of competitiveness of the energy economy due to restructuring and privatization of national companies as well as liberalisation of the energy market. Investments in the research of energy saving technologies and renewable energy such as solar energy, hydraulic power and fuel cells are trend-setting. The development of new sources of energy and the increase of the self-fund relating to petroleum, coal and natural gas are encouraging. The Republic of Korea is not attached at the international power net. Therefore, the Republic of Korea highly is susceptible according to energy crisis. The elevated dependence from other countries will exist furthermore. The Republic of Korea should expend its activities relating to foreign affairs and the large oil producers

  12. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete GT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gizachew Tilahun Belete,1 Dereje Hayilu Anbesse,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Mohammed Seid Hussen1 1Department of Optometry, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Myopia is an important cause of correctable visual impairment and preventable blindness worldwide. Prevalence rates are approximately 20%–35% among the older teenage population globally. It has a medical burden of pathologic complications such as maculopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. High school students experience high-performance and study pressures in the preparation for the final national examination. As a result they are exposed to excessive near work and indoor activities. They are also ignored for regular screening. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 high school students with systematic random sampling method from April 18 to April 29, 2016, in three full-cycle high schools (9th–12th grades. A standardized structured questionnaire, Snellen acuity chart, pinhole, retinoscope, trial case lenses, pen torch, and direct ophthalmoscope were used to collect data. Results: A total of 495 study participants were included, and they had a mean age of 17.48±1.59 years. The prevalence of myopia was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2, 17.9. Family history of myopia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.08 [95% CI: 4.30, 15.16], school being private (AOR=2.88 [95% CI: 1.02, 8.11], longer time spent for near work (AOR=2.89 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.43], longer time spent partaking in indoor activities (AOR=4.32 [95% CI: 1.69, 10.99], shorter near working distance (AOR=3.06 [95% CI: 1.33, 7.06], lack of outdoor sport activities (AOR=2.27 [95% CI: 1.05, 4.90], use of visual display units (AOR=2.81 [95% CI

  14. [Relationships between prevalence of youth risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Chie; Nozu, Yuji; Kudo, Masako; Sato, Yuki; Kubo, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Naoko; Iwata, Hideki; Watanabe, Motoi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify relationships between prevalence of risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students. Data from a national survey, the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 (the subjects were 9,778 students: 5,027 males, 4,751 females, in the first grade to the third grade of 102 schools randomly selected among high schools throughout Japan) was used for this analysis. We focused on nine items of risk behavior in JYRBS: "lack of vigorous physical activity," "skipping breakfast," "current cigarette use," "current alcohol use," "lifetime thinner use," "ever had sexual intercourse," "rarely or never wore seatbelts," "in a physical fight," and "seriously considered attempting suicide." Students with less than six hours of sleep duration accounted for approximately 40% of males and females. The odds ratios of prevalence of each of the nine risk behaviors were calculated on the basis of the group "six hours or more and less than eight hours" of sleep, whose prevalence of risk behaviors was the lowest. In the group with "four hours or more and less than six hours," the odds ratios of "lack of vigorous physical activity" and "skipping breakfast" for both males and females were significantly high. Furthermore, in the group with shorter sleep duration of "less than four hours," the odds ratios of all nine risk behaviors for males (odds ratios: 1.47-3.28) and eight risk behaviors (except for "rarely or never wore seatbelts") for females (1.54-4.68) were significantly high. On the other hand, in the group with long sleep duration of "10 hours or more," the odds ratios of "current cigarette use" and "lifetime thinner use" for both males and females were significantly high. It was shown that short sleep duration of less than six hours and long sleep duration of 10 hours or more related to the prevalence of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. It was suggested that sleep duration should be considered as an important category

  15. High prevalence of vertebral artery tortuosity of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in comparison with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Higashi, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki; Akutsu, Koichi; Naito, Hiroaki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding the transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFBR). LDS is associated with aneurysms or dissections of the aorta similar to Marfan syndrome (MFS) as well as arterial tortuosity and aneurysms in the peripheral arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the arterial diseases of LDS to differentiate it from MFS. A total of 10 LDS patients with an identified mutation in TGFBR (6 male, 4 female; mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS patients with an identified mutation in fibrilin-1 who were age- and sex-matched to the LDS subjects (12 male, 8 female; mean age 37.1 years) were reviewed. The prevalence of vertebral arterial tortuosity (VAT) and peripheral aneurysm (PAN) was studied using computed tomography angiography. In all, 9 of the 10 LDS patients had VAT, and five PANs were observed in 3 patients. In contrast, 8 (40%) of the MFS patients had VAT, and 1 patient had a PAN. LDS had a higher prevalence of VAT (P=0.017) by Fisher's exact test. The VAT was highly prevalent among LDS patients. Thus, the presence of VAT has the potential to differentiate LDS from MFS. (author)

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  17. Problematic internet use among high school students: Prevalence, associated factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma following gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and predictive factors of osteoporosis in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma after gastrectomy.METHODS: The study included 133 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma but who did not undergo prior diagnostic work-up for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and vertebral deformity was assessed by plain X-rays. We evaluated the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), anemia, back pain,vertebral deformity, tumor staging, reconstruction type,and past medical history to determine predictive factors of osteoporosis in these patients.RESULTS: The prevalence of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine was 38.3% (male, 28.9%; female, 54.0%), and 15.0% in the femoral neck (male, 10.8%; female,22.0%). The vertebral deformity rate was 46.6% (male,43.4%; female, 52.0%). Age, BMI and hemoglobin correlated with BMD (P < 0.01). In males, anemia and age > 64 years were independent predictive factors of osteoporosis in multivariate analysis. In females, back pain was an independent factor for osteoporosis.CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral bone deformity rate were high in gastric cancer patients, regardless of post-gastrectomy duration and operation type. Early diagnosis and a proper management plan must be established in these patients.

  19. Refractory coeliac disease in a country with a high prevalence of clinically-diagnosed coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilus, T; Kaukinen, K; Virta, L J; Huhtala, H; Mäki, M; Kurppa, K; Heikkinen, M; Heikura, M; Hirsi, E; Jantunen, K; Moilanen, V; Nielsen, C; Puhto, M; Pölkki, H; Vihriälä, I; Collin, P

    2014-02-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is thought to be a rare disorder, but the accurate prevalence is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence of and the risk factors for developing RCD in a Finnish population where the clinical detection rate of coeliac disease is high. The study involved 11 hospital districts in Finland where the number of treated RCD patients (n = 44), clinically diagnosed coeliac disease patients (n = 12 243) and adult inhabitants (n = 1.7 million) was known. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis of coeliac disease between the RCD patients and patients with uncomplicated disease were compared. The prevalence of RCD was 0.31% among diagnosed coeliac disease patients and 0.002% in the general population. Of the enrolled 44 RCD patients, 68% had type I and 23% type II; in 9% the type was undetermined. Comparing 886 patients with uncomplicated coeliac disease with these 44 patients that developed RCD later in life, the latter were significantly older (median 56 vs 44 years, P coeliac disease. Patients with evolving RCD had more severe symptoms at the diagnosis of coeliac disease, including weight loss in 36% (vs. 16%, P = 0.001) and diarrhoea in 54% (vs. 38%, P = 0.050). Refractory coeliac disease is very rare in the general population. Patients of male gender, older age, severe symptoms or seronegativity at the diagnosis of coeliac disease are at risk of future refractory coeliac disease and should be followed up carefully. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Smoking prevalence and associated attitudes among high school students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kaya, Didem; Cetindag, Arzuhan; Capik, Emine; Aydogan, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (pattitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.

  1. High prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijckmann, Anna Caroline; Huijberts, Maya S P; Schoon, Erik J; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Jolanda; Menheere, Paul P C A; van der Veer, Eveline; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W; Dumitrescu, Bianca; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C

    2008-08-01

    Earlier studies have documented that the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral deformities in inflammatory bowel disease patients and their relation with BMD and bone turnover. One hundred and nine patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 72 with ulcerative colitis (UC) (age 44.5+/-14.2 years) were studied. BMD of the hip (by dual X-ray absorptiometry) was measured and a lateral single energy densitometry of the spine for assessment of vertebral deformities was performed. Serum markers of bone resorption (carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) and formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide) were measured, and determinants of prevalent vertebral deformities were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Vertebral deformities were found in 25% of both CD and UC patients. Comparing patients with and without vertebral deformities, no significant difference was found between Z-scores and T-scores of BMD, or levels of serum carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide. Using logistic regression analysis the only determinant of any morphometric vertebral deformity was sex. The presence of multiple vertebral deformities was associated with older age and glucocorticoid use. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities is high in CD and UC. Male sex, but neither disease activity, bone turnover markers, clinical risk factors, nor BMD predicted their presence. The determinants for having more than one vertebral deformity were age and glucocorticoid use. This implies that in addition to screening for low BMD, morphometric assessment of vertebral deformities is warranted in CD and UC.

  2. High prevalence of respiratory muscle weakness in hospitalized acute heart failure elderly patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Verissimo

    Full Text Available Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF patients.Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital.Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV were collected.The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31-35 and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml; 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O; 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O; 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant.Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition.

  3. High prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Analysis of CT findings in a health screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Choi, Vo-Won; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Sohn, Jang-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Heon

    2010-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is one of the common chronic respiratory diseases and associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, neither its prevalence nor its etiology is well-defined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of bronchiectasis in adults. In a retrospective study, we analyzed radiologic findings on chest computed tomography (CT) images performed as part of a health-screening program. From January to December 2008, 1,409 (24.6%) of 5,727 participants in the screening program of a health promotion center at a university hospital underwent chest CT scans based on the subject's decision. Bronchiectasis was diagnosed, if there was abnormal bronchial dilatation in any area of both lungs on chest CT. Respiratory symptoms, smoking status, and past medical history were also analyzed to define clinical characteristics and risk factors of bronchiectasis. Of 1,409 patients (aged 23-86 years), who were screened for respiratory diseases using chest CT for one year in a health promotion center, 129 patients (9.1%) were diagnosed with bronchiectasis. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was higher in females than in males (11.5% vs. 7.9%, p=0.022) and increased with age. Respiratory symptoms were reported in 53.7% of subjects. Previous history of tuberculosis (TB) (odds ratio (OR) 4.61, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 2.39-8.88, p=0.001) and age (OR 2.49, 95% Cl 1.56-3.98, p=0.001) were significantly associated with bronchiectasis. This retrospective analysis of chest CT findings in health screening examinees revealed a very high prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Previous TB infection is one of the major causes of bronchiectasis. (author)

  4. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  5. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  6. East Asia: Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    fermenting within the parties as a result of the party standard-bearers and their subordi- nates’ different assessments of the causes of the defeat...Explosives, Korea Yogurt and Sammi Group each has four PhD’s, and Tong-yang Chemical, Pacific Chem- ical Group, Hanil Pharmaceutical, Korea Electrical...including insecticides by using microorganisms and pharmaceutical materials. Dr Sin Sok-pong, manager in the PCC, got his degree in fermentation

  7. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  8. High HIV infection prevalence in a group of men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Cardoso Torres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is characterized by a concentrated AIDS epidemic, it has a prevalence of less than 1% in the general population. However, there are higher rates in specific populations, especially in men who have sex with men. The study's aim was to analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, sexual behaviors and the HIV infection in a group of men who have sex with men. Secondary data was collected between June 2014 and September 2015 in a research of cross-sectional design in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Volunteers answered an online computerized questionnaire and took HIV test. Chi-squared distribution and multiple logistic regression was used. There were 341 participants. Most of them were racially mixed, single, average age of 30.6 years and with a higher education level. The HIV prevalence was 13.9%. Two logistic models were fit (insertive or receptive anal intercourse. Both models showed an association with HIV among those who had a HIV positive sexual partner (Odds Ratio ≈ 2.5 and a high self-perception of acquiring HIV (Model 1: Odds Ratio ≈ 7/Model 2: Odds Ratio ≈ 10. Low condom usage in receptive anal intercourse with casual partners had a direct association with HIV seropositivity, whereas insertive anal intercourse with casual partners with or without condoms were inversely related. The study identified a high prevalence of HIV infections among a group of men who sex with men with a high self-perception risk of acquiring HIV. The findings also showed a relation with sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables.

  9. High Prevalence and Genotype Diversity of Anal HPV Infection among MSM in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Supindham

    Full Text Available HPV infection is common and may cause cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM. Anal HPV infection (HPV+ was found in 85% of HIV-positive (HIV+ and 59% of HIV-negative (HIV- MSM in Bangkok, central Thailand. As little is known about HPV in this group in northern Thailand, we studied MSM subgroups comprised of gay men (GM, bisexual men (BM, and transgender women (TGW.From July 2012 through January 2013, 85 (42.5% of 200 GM, 30 (15% BM, and 85 (42.5% TGW who practiced receptive anal intercourse were recruited after informed consent, followed by self-assisted computer interview, HIV testing, and anal swabs for HPV genotyping.Of 197 adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of any HPV was 157 (80%. Prevalence was 89% (76/85 in GM, 48% (14/29 in BM, and 81% (67/83 in TGW. The most common high-risk types were HPV16 (27% of 197, HPV58 (23%, and HPV51 (18%. Prevalence of high-risk types was 74% in 85 GM, 35% in 29 BM, and 71% in 83 TGW. Prevalence of any HPV type, or high-risk type, was 100% and 94%, respectively, among 48 HIV+ MSM, 70% and 54% among 120 HIV- MSM. Of the 197 specimens, 36% (70 had HPV types 16 and/or 18 in the bivalent vaccine, compared to 48% (95 with ≥1 of types 16/18/06/11 in the quadrivalent, 56% (111 for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the 7-valent, and 64% (126 for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/06/11 in the 9-valent. HIV+, GM, and TGW were independently associated with HPV infection.We found higher rates of both any HPV and high-risk types than previous studies. Among the heretofore unstudied TGW, their equivalent HPV rates were comparable to GM. Current and investigational HPV vaccines could substantially protect GM, BM, and TGW from the serious consequences of HPV infection especially among HIV + MSM.

  10. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl in 2010 in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jeong Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  11. Prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.W. Ojewola

    2017-04-29

    Apr 29, 2017 ... Subjects and methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted ... and BPH among countries, possibly arising from cultural or lin- ..... reported prevalence 21.0% in Jeju Island, South Korea [5] and of.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Leprosy in a High-Risk Community Setting in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrera, Thushani Marie Elizabeth; Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Fernando, M S Nilanthi; Kasturiaratchi, S T Kaushlya; Østbye, Truls

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. Pockets of high endemicity remain in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, in spite of the fact that elimination has been achieved at the national level. In 2012, in a village in the Puttlam district, dermatologists reported an increase in individuals with leprosy. This village had been established in the 1990s for people displaced from Northern Sri Lanka during a civil war. A comprehensive household survey was conducted by district health officials from June to July 2012, and all household members present during the survey period were examined for leprosy lesions. Patients with suspected leprosy were referred to a dermatology clinic for clinical or pathological confirmation. The prevalence of leprosy was high (511 per 10 000 population). Household contact with another patient with leprosy increased the risk of leprosy (odds ratio = 6.69; P leprosy at bay in high-risk communities.

  13. Clinical Features and Causes of Endogenous Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yun Woo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEndogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH is characterized by an inappropriately high plasma insulin level, despite a low plasma glucose level. Most of the EHH cases are caused by insulinoma, whereas nesidioblastosis and insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS are relatively rare.MethodsTo evaluate the relative frequencies of various causes of EHH in Korea, we retrospectively analyzed 84 patients who were diagnosed with EHH from 1998 to 2012 in a university hospital.ResultsAmong the 84 EHH patients, 74 patients (88%, five (6%, and five (6% were diagnosed with insulinoma, nesidioblastosis or IAS, respectively. The most common clinical manifestation of EHH was neuroglycopenic symptoms. Symptom duration before diagnosis was 14.5 months (range, 1 to 120 months for insulinoma, 1.0 months (range, 6 days to 7 months for nesidioblastosis, and 2.0 months (range, 1 to 12 months for IAS. One patient, who was diagnosed with nesidioblastosis in 2006, underwent distal pancreatectomy but was later determined to be positive for insulin autoantibodies. Except for one patient who was diagnosed in 2007, the remaining three patients with nesidioblastosis demonstrated severe hyperinsulinemia (157 to 2,719 µIU/mL, which suggests that these patients might have had IAS, rather than nesidioblastosis.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that the prevalence of IAS may be higher in Korea than previously thought. Therefore, measurement of insulin autoantibody levels is warranted for EHH patients, especially in patients with very high plasma insulin levels.

  14. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian LR; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter KC

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future

  15. High tuberculosis prevalence in a South African prison: the need for routine tuberculosis screening.

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    Lilanganee Telisinghe

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major health concern in prisons, particularly where HIV prevalence is high. Our objective was to determine the undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis ("undiagnosed tuberculosis" prevalence in a representative sample of prisoners in a South African prison. In addition we investigated risk factors for undiagnosed tuberculosis, to explore if screening strategies could be targeted to high risk groups, and, the performance of screening tools for tuberculosis.In this cross-sectional survey, male prisoners were screened for tuberculosis using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR and two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture. Anonymised HIV antibody testing was performed on urine specimens. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of symptoms and investigations were calculated, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated on sputum culture as the gold standard. From September 2009 to October 2010, 1046 male prisoners were offered enrolment to the study. A total of 981 (93.8% consented (median age was 32 years; interquartile range [IQR] 27-37 years and were screened for tuberculosis. Among 968 not taking tuberculosis treatment and with sputum culture results, 34 (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-4.9% were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV prevalence was 25.3% (242/957; 95% CI 22.6-28.2%. Positive HIV status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-4.2 and being an ex-smoker (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.9 were independently associated with undiagnosed tuberculosis. Compared to the gold standard of positive sputum culture, cough of any duration had a sensitivity of 35.3% and specificity of 79.6%. CXR was the most sensitive single screening modality (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 92.2%. Adding CXR to cough of any duration gave a tool with sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 73.8%.Undiagnosed tuberculosis and HIV prevalence was high in this prison, justifying routine screening for tuberculosis at entry

  16. PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA IN ISFAHAN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN (1998-1999

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    M GOLSHAN

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Unfortunately there are not exact epidemiologic data concerning the prevalence of this disorder in Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma or respiratory symptoms in Isfahan Junior high school children. Methods. From 1998 Oct. to 1999 May. 3986 children from urban junior high schools children were selected by a proportional random cluster sampling. A self administered questionnaire prepared by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC modified by several supplementary questions was distributed among the selected children. The response rate was 98.5 percent (N=3924. Of these children, 2588 pupils who had at least one positive answer referring to respiratory symptoms were invited to AL-Zahra medical center for further evaluation, but 1710 pupils (66 percent of the invited attended the clinic and underwent complete medical interview, physical examination and post-exercise pulmonary function testing. Those children who failed to attend the clinic were examined at their schools (774 cases and 104 absent pupils were not examined. Our criterion for the diagnosis of asthma was the positive history of wheezing and dyspnea. Results. The overall prevalence of asthma was 19.6 percent with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 (P<0.0001. The frequencies of wheezing ever in life and sleep disturbed by wheeze were 31.7 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively. Wheeze and rhoncus on chest auscultation while the children were examined in clinic or school was recorded in 4.2 percent and 3.5 percent of the population, respectively. Pulmonary function tests revealed FEV1:5,80 percent of predicted value (prd in 5.9 percent, FEF 25-75£70 Percent prd in 9.6 percent and FEF75£70 percent prd in 20.5 percent of tested children. The three later findings correlated to history of wheezing and dyspnea (P < 0.0001. Discussion. The prevalence of

  17. Pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women in a high HIV prevalence district of India.

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    Halli, Shiva S; Khan, C G Hussain; Shah, Iqbal; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2015-07-02

    Bagalkot district in Karnataka state is one of the highest HIV prevalence districts in India. A large proportion of the girls also marry at early age in the district and negative pregnancy outcomes among the HIV positive women likely to have large pregnancy wastages. Therefore, this study examined the pregnancy wastages and the associated factors among HIV positive women in a high prevalent district in India. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted recently among randomly selected currently married HIV positive women, 15-29 years of age, in one of the high HIV prevalence districts in India. The study used the experience of reported pregnancy wastage as an outcome variable, and both bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to understand the factors associated with the pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women. Overall, 17% of the respondents reported pregnancy wastage, of which 81% were due to spontaneous abortions. Respondents who became pregnant since testing HIV positive reported significantly higher level of pregnancy wastage as compared to those were pregnant before they were tested for HIV. (AOR = 1.9; p = 0.00). While a positive association between duration of marriage and pregnancy wastage was noticed (AOR = 7.4; p = 0.01), there was a negative association between number of living children and pregnancy wastage (AOR = 0.24; p = 0.00). Living in a joint family was associated with increased reporting of pregnancy wastage as compared to those living in nuclear families (AOR = 1.7; p = 0.03). HIV prevention and care programs need to consider the reproductive health needs of HIV infected married women as a priority area since large proportion of these women reported negative pregnancy outcomes. There is also a need to explore ways to raise the age at marriage in order to stop women getting married before the legal age at marriage.

  18. High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines

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    Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Gray, Darren J.; Williams, Gail M.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

  19. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  20. Proteomic analysis of highly prevalent amyloid A amyloidosis endemic to endangered island foxes.

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    Patricia M Gaffney

    Full Text Available Amyloid A (AA amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA. Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34% in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%, spleen (58%, oral cavity (45%, and vasculature (44% and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-α chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05. Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students.

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    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men

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    Patrick Philibert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT, neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116, with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine. Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM.

  3. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

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    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission.

  4. The realistic performance achievable with mycobacterial automated culture systems in high and low prevalence settings

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    Klatser Paul R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic tests are generally used in situations with similar pre-test probability of disease to where they were developed. When these tests are applied in situations with very different pre-test probabilities of disease, it is informative to model the likely implications of known characteristics of test performance in the new situation. This is the case for automated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB liquid culture systems for tuberculosis case detection which were developed and are widely used in low burden settings but are only beginning to be applied on a large scale in high burden settings. Methods Here we model the performance of MTB liquid culture systems in high and low tuberculosis (TB prevalence settings using detailed published data concentrating on the likely frequency of cross-contamination events. Results Our model predicts that as the TB prevalence in the suspect population increases there is an exponential increase in the risk of MTB cross-contamination events expected in otherwise negative samples, even with equivalent technical performance of the laboratories. Quality control and strict cross-contamination measures become increasingly critical as the burden of MTB infection among TB suspects increases. Even under optimal conditions the realistically achievable specificity of these systems in high burden settings will likely be significantly below that obtained in low TB burden laboratories. Conclusions Liquid culture systems can play a valuable role in TB case detection in laboratories in high burden settings, but laboratory workers, policy makers and clinicians should be aware of the increased risks, independent of laboratory proficiency, of cross-contamination events in high burden settings.

  5. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010.

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    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-12-29

    The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  6. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

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    Yun Mi Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea.MethodsPopulation and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS population weights.ResultsThe crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010.ConclusionThyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000.

  7. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions

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    Ali Gafar A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Eight hundred eleven (811 urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI; 52.6-59.4 Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6 and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2. More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9 were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0. Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2 infection rate. School age children (6-15 years are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06. Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages.

  8. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions.

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    Deribe, Kebede; Eldaw, Abdeljbar; Hadziabduli, Samir; Kailie, Emmanuel; Omer, Mohamed D; Mohammed, Alam E; Jamshed, Tanole; Mohammed, Elmonshawe A; Mergani, Ali; Ali, Gafar A; Babikir, Khalid; Adem, Abdulrahman; Hashim, Farouq

    2011-02-07

    There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Eight hundred eleven (811) urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 52.6-59.4) Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6) and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2). More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9) were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0). Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2) infection rate. School age children (6-15 years) are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06). Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9). The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages.

  9. High prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in Argentina.

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    Douthat, Walter G; Castellano, Mauro; Berenguer, Leandro; Guzmán, M Alejandra; de Arteaga, Javier; Chiurchiu, Carlos R; Massari, Pablo U; Garay, Gabriela; Capra, Raúl; de La Fuente, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    There are few data in Argentina on the prevalence and management of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A survey was carried out in dialysis units in 2010 to measure the prevalence of and types of treatments for BMM disorders in Argentina. The data obtained was then compared to the published results from other large population studies. We recorded characteristics of dialysis centres and participating patients, the frequency of measurements and individual results for BMM biochemical markers, as well as the type of management used to control hyperphosphataemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. 1210 patients from 25 dialysis centres in Argentina participated in the study (representing 4.7% of the country’s prevalent dialysis population in 2010). The mean patient age was 55.3±17.6 years, 60.8% were male, 3.3% were on peritoneal dialysis and 29.1% suffered diabetes. In all centres, phosphataemia and calcaemia were measured on a monthly basis, 60% of centres measured intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) every 6 months, 36% every 3 to 4 months, and 4% annually. As recommended by K/DOQI, 51.6% of patients had adequate levels of calcium (8.4-9.5 mg/dl), 51.6% had adequate phosphorus (3.5-5.5 mg/dl) and 21.1% displayed acceptable iPTH levels (150-300 pg/ml). 24% had iPTH 300 pg/ml. iPTH ≥600 pg/ml was present in 28.3%, and 13.3% had values ≥1000 pg/ml. These figures differed from those published by the DOPPS II study, in which 51.1% of patients had iPTH hyperparathyroidism, oral or intravenous calcitriol was predominantly used (50.5%) with a small percentage of patients receiving paricalcitol or doxercalciferol. The present study shows a high prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, which differs from that published by other large population studies. There was a high proportion of patients with BMM markers outside the ranges suggested by K/DOQI. Mainly phosphate binders based on calcium and calcitriol continue to be used

  10. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

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    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  11. Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers

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    Johanne Haugen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Describing vitamin D status and its predictors in various populations is important in order to target public health measures. Objectives: To describe the status and predictors of vitamin D status in healthy Nepalese mothers and infants. Methods: 500 randomly selected Nepalese mother and infant pairs were included in a cross-sectional study. Plasma 25(OHD concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify predictors of vitamin D status. Results: Among the infants, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OHD <50 nmol/L and deficiency (<30 nmol/L were 3.6% and 0.6%, respectively, in contrast to 59.8% and 14.0% among their mothers. Infant 25(OHD concentrations were negatively associated with infant age and positively associated with maternal vitamin D status and body mass index (BMI, explaining 22% of the variability in 25(OHD concentration. Global solar radiation, maternal age and BMI predicted maternal 25(OHD concentration, explaining 9.7% of its variability. Conclusion: Age and maternal vitamin D status are the main predictors of vitamin D status in infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal, who have adequate vitamin D status despite poor vitamin D status in their mothers.

  12. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

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    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  13. [High prevalence of job dissatisfaction among female physicians: work-family conflict as a potential stressor].

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    Adám, Szilvia; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; László, Krisztina

    2009-08-02

    Due to the family-centric nature of Hungarian society and to the high proportion of women in the medical profession, more female than male physicians may experience work-family conflict. The authors hypothesized that work-family conflict may reduce job satisfaction among female physicians. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of work-family conflict and job dissatisfaction as well as their associations among female physicians. To explore the prevalence of work-family conflict and its relations to job dissatisfaction among Hungarian physicians. Cross-sectional study with 219 female and 201 male physicians using self-report questionnaires. As hypothesized, female physicians reported significantly higher level of work-family conflict compared to male physicians (3.0 (SD 0.9) vs. 2.6 (SD 0.9); t (df): -3.8 (418); p conflict often or extremely often [56% vs. 41%, respectively; chi 2 (df) = 9.3 (1); p conflict predicts job dissatisfaction among female and all physicians (beta = -0.17, 95% CI -0.31 - -0.04 and beta = -0.14, 95% CI -0.22 - -0.04, respectively). These results show that the level and prevalence of work-family conflict experienced by female physicians in Hungary is significantly higher than that among male physicians. Furthermore, these findings suggest that work-family conflict as a stressor may contribute to the development of job dissatisfaction and hence may adversely impact the well-being of female and male physicians and consequently the quality of patient care.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection among employees of a high security prison in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Tan, Cynthia; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-06-01

    Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia's largest prison. Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48-72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity. Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5-132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfein, R S; Lozada, R; Liu, L; Laniado-Laborin, R; Rodwell, T C; Deiss, R; Alvelais, J; Catanzaro, A; Chiles, P G; Strathdee, S A

    2009-05-01

    We studied prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. IDUs aged > or =18 years were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent standardized interviews, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing and LTBI screening using Quanti-FERON((R))-TB Gold In-Tube, a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). LTBI prevalence was estimated and correlates were identified using RDS-weighted logistic regression. Of 1020 IDUs, 681 (67%) tested IGRA-positive and 44 (4%) tested HIV-positive. Mean age was 37 years, 88% were male and 98% were Mexican-born. IGRA positivity was associated with recruitment nearest the US border (aOR 1.64, 95%CI 1.09-2.48), increasing years of injection (aOR 1.20/5 years, 95%CI 1.07-1.34), and years lived in Tijuana (aOR 1.10/5 years, 95%CI 1.03-1.18). Speaking some English (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.25-0.57) and injecting most often at home in the past 6 months (aOR 0.68, 95%CI 0.45-0.99) were inversely associated with IGRA positivity. Increased LTBI prevalence among IDUs in Tijuana appears to be associated with greater drug involvement. Given the high risk for HIV infection among Tijuana's IDUs, interventions are urgently needed to prevent HIV infection and treat LTBI among IDUs before these epidemics collide.

  16. Country of birth and other factors associated with hepatitis B prevalence in a population with high levels of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, Joanne; Gidding, Heather F; Kaldor, John M; Liu, Bette

    2013-09-01

    While hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence is known to vary greatly between countries, systematically collected population-level prevalence data from some countries is limited. Antenatal HBV screening programs in countries with substantial migrant populations provide the opportunity to systematically examine HBV prevalence in order to inform local and regional HBV estimates. A comprehensive register of Australian mothers giving birth from January 2000 to December 2008 was linked to a register of HBV notifications. Age-standardized prevalence of chronic HBV were calculated overall and by the mother's country of birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate other factors associated with HBV prevalence. Five hundred twenty-three thousand six hundred sixty-five women were included and linked to 3861 HBV notifications. The age-standardized HBV prevalence was low (0.75%, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.79). The highest HBV prevalence rates were observed in women born in Cambodia (8.60%), Taiwan (8.10%), Vietnam (7.49%), China (6.80%), and Tonga (6.51%). Among Australia-born women, those who smoked during pregnancy, were from a more disadvantaged socioeconomic background, and lived in remote areas were more likely to have HBV. There was also a trend suggesting a decrease in the prevalence of HBV over time. Antenatal screening for HBV can provide systematic population estimates of HBV prevalence in migrants and also identify other high prevalence groups. Longer follow-up will be required to confirm the small decrease in HBV prevalence observed in this study. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. [Relationships between mental health and psychosocial factors with single-child high school students in an urban city of Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Cho, Young-Chae

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the mental health of high school students, and specifically that of children with no siblings in urban areas, and we aimed at revealing the various potential influences of different psycho-social factors. The participants were, 514 high school students who were the 1st- to 3rd-graders in Daejon City; they were, given self-administered questionnaires that required no signature during the period of March through June 2005. The analyzed items included the general character of the subjects, the symptoms of stress and depression for mental health, self-esteem as a psychological component, anxiety, dependent behavioral traits and, social support of family members and friends. The study results suggested that the group of urban high school children with no siblings had a higher tendency for stress and depression than did the urban high school children with siblings. The mental health and psychosocial factors were found to be influenced by friends, a sense of satisfaction at school and home life, and emotional support as well. In conclusion, emotional support by the family members can improve mental health by reducing anxiety, stress and depression.

  18. Game Performance Decisions of International Baccalaureate Students in Korea and Students in a Traditional American High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Brett; Everhart, Kim; Everhart, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The educational experiences of students engaged in different contexts of learning, particularly curriculum delivered and international travel and residence experiences may be related to problem-solving skills and game decisions and efficiency of high school students engaged in modified game play during physical education class. This study explores…

  19. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

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    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  20. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  1. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  2. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Brown, Eulynis; Slater, Sherian; Holder, Yvette; Luciani, Silvana; Lewis, Merle; Irons, Beryl

    2017-06-08

    To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1) a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test and (2) a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace). High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2%) in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6%) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies) and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study's results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  3. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glennis Andall-Brereton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Methods Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1 a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap test and (2 a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace. High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Results High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2% in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6% in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. Conclusions These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study’s results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  4. High prevalence of hypertension and its selected risk factors among adult tribal population in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Tapas; Kavishwar, Arvind; Sharma, Ravendra K; Rao, P Vinay

    2017-10-01

    A community based cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors like salt intake, 24-h urinary sodium excretion and body mass index (BMI) among tribal population of Mandla District, Central India. A total of 3090 individuals, from 1258 house hold drawn from 33 sampled villages and 12 urban wards were studied for blood pressure measurements and clinical examination, while 414 urine samples were collected for estimation of 24-h sodium excretion. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the associations of BMI, urinary sodium output and other risk factors with hypertension. Across the sample, 28.2% of males and 23.6% of females had either stage-I or stage-II hypertension. More than 8% of subjects  25 were considerably more to have high blood pressure. Salt intake is directly related to the hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly greater among those whose salt intake was more than 10 g per day. A positive association between urine sodium excretion and blood pressure was observed. The results of the present study show that the tribal population is also affected by the life style diseases at par with the non-tribal population.

  5. [High prevalence of drug consumption and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-08-07

    To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL

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    Maria Margarida Naves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100 and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100 from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9. S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8, being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not.

  7. High Prevalence and Genotypic Diversity of the Human Papillomavirus in Amazonian Women, Brazil

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    Danielle Albuquerque Pires Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in a women population living within the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and to determine the viral genotypes found. The study included 361 sexually active women over 18 years of age. We performed the Pap test and the molecular diagnosis for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The amplicons obtained were sequenced in automatic sequencer for genotyping. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 29.1% (105 of the women. Only 321 women presented satisfactory slides for cytological diagnosis, 97.9% (314 had normal cytology (negative for cancer, and 2.1% (7 had abnormal cytology (4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, and 2 HSIL. The types more frequently found were HPV 16 (58.1% and HPV 58 (20.0%. Additionally, we found more 13 types of HPV. Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data confirmed a high prevalence and genotypic diversity of HPV in Brazilian women.

  8. High prevalence of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiography in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaya, Maneesha; Panwar, Sadik; Beniwal, Rajesh; Panwar, Raja Babu

    2010-04-01

    It is fairly easy to detect advanced valve lesions of established rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography in the clinically identified cases of rheumatic heart disease. However, to diagnose a subclinical case of rheumatic heart disease, no uniform set of echocardiographic criteria exist. Moderate thickening of valve leaflets is considered an indicator of established rheumatic heart disease. World Health Organization criteria for diagnosing probable rheumatic heart disease are more sensitive and are based on the detection of significant regurgitation of mitral and/or aortic valves by color Doppler. We attempted diagnosing RHD in school children in Bikaner city by cardiac ultrasound. The stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to identify 31 random clusters in the coeducational schools of Bikaner city. We selected 1059 school children aged 6-15 years from these schools. An experienced operator did careful cardiac auscultation and echocardiographic study. A second expert confirmed the echocardiographic findings. The prevalence of lesions suggestive of rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography was 51 per 1,000 (denominator = 1059; 95% CI: 38-64 per 1,000). We were able to clinically diagnose RHD in one child. None of these children or their parents having echocardiographic evidence of RHD could provide a positive history of acute rheumatic fever. By echocardiographic screening, we found a high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in the surveyed population. Clinical auscultation had much lower diagnostic efficacy.

  9. High prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected tuberculosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, L; Pai, M; Davids, V; Ling, D; Paradis, G; Lenders, L; Meldau, R; van Zyl Smit, R; Calligaro, G; Allwood, B; Dawson, R; Dheda, K

    2011-07-01

    There is growing evidence that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). There are no data validating the accuracy of self-reported smoking in TB patients and limited data about the prevalence of smoking in TB patients from high-burden settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 500 patients with suspected TB in Cape Town, South Africa. All underwent comprehensive diagnostic testing. The accuracy of their self-reported smoking status was determined against serum cotinine levels. Of the 424 patients included in the study, 56 and 60% of those with active and latent TB infection (LTBI), respectively, were current smokers. Using plasma cotinine as a reference standard, the sensitivity of self-reported smoking was 89%. No statistically significant association could be found between smoking and active TB or LTBI. In Cape Town, the prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected and confirmed TB was much higher than in the general South African population. Self-reporting is an accurate measure of smoking status. These results suggest the need to actively incorporate tobacco cessation programmes into TB services in South Africa.

  10. [Prevalence of and factors related to depression in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet; Ertekin, Kamil; Harlak, Hacer; Dereboy, Ciğdem

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of and factors related to depression in high school students. A total of 805 (n = 367 girls; n = 438 boys) first year students from three high schools in the city of Aydin filled in a self-report questionnaire that contained questions about socio-demographics, academic achievement and religious belief. It included also a depression rating scale, social support scale, problem solving inventory and an assertiveness scale. T-tests, chi-square tests, Pearson moment products correlation coefficients, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. 141 students (17.5%) scored on and above the cut-off point on the Children Depression Inventory (CDI). In the first regression analyses low self-esteem, low grade point average (GPA) and low perceived social support from friends in boys, and low self-esteem, low paternal educational level and low social support from friends were the predictors of girls' depression. When self-esteem scores were excluded, low GPA, low perceived social support from friends and family, and inefficient problem solving skills were predictors of depression in boys; low perceived social support from friends and family, low paternal educational level, and inefficient problem solving skills were the independent predictors of depression in girls. Depression is prevalent in high school students. Low self-esteem, low perceived social support from peers and family, and inefficient problem solving skills appears to be risk factors for adolescent depression. Low GPA for boys and low paternal education for girls were gender specific risk factors. Psychosocial interventions geared for increasing self-esteem, social support and problem solving skills may be effective in the prevention and treatment of adolescent depression.

  11. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  12. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  13. Relationships between presenteeism and work-related musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapists in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Hyeon

    2017-12-14

    This study investigated the relationship between presenteeism and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among physical therapists (PTs) in the Republic of Korea. Questionnaires were given to 600 PTs in the Republic of Korea. General and occupational characteristics and the prevalence of presenteeism and absenteeism were self-reported on the questionnaire. Stepwise regression analyses were used to evaluate the effects of presenteeism and other variables on general and occupational characteristics. Of the 490 PTs who responded, 399 (81.4%) reported at least one WMSD. There was a low incidence rate of absenteeism, but work impairment scores indicate there was a high incidence of presenteeism. In the stepwise regression analyses, the incidence of WMSDs was highest in cases of presenteeism. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a high incidence rate of WMSDs in Republic of Korean PTs, that WMSDs are related to presenteeism and that PTs demonstrate high presenteeism and low absenteeism.

  14. The High Prevalence of Anemia in Cambodian Children and Women Cannot Be Satisfactorily Explained by Nutritional Deficiencies or Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children children and women, the prevalence of IDA was anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to reduce the high prevalence of anemia in children and women should be broadened to include zinc and folic acid as well as effective anti-hookworm measures. PMID:27338454

  15. Nuclear Power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Duk-Sang

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Korea's nuclear power program has been promoted by step-by-step approach; the first stage was 1970's when it depended on the foreign contractors' technology and the second was 1980's when it accumulated lots of technology and experience by jointly implementing the project. Lastly in the third stage in 1990's, Korea successfully achieved the nuclear power technological self-reliance and developed its standard nuclear power plant, so-called Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR 1000). Following the development of OPR 1000, Korea has continued to upgrade the design, known as the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400) and APR+. Korea is one of the countries which continuously developed the nuclear power plant projects during the last 30 years while the other advanced countries ceased the project, and therefore, significant reduction of project cost and construction schedule were possible which benefits from the repetition of construction project. And now, its nuclear industry infrastructure possesses the strong competitiveness in this field.The electricity produced from the nuclear power is 150,958 MWh in 2008, which covers approximately 36% of the total electricity demand in Korea, while the installed capacity of nuclear power is 17,716 MW which is 24% of the total installed capacity. We are currently operating 20 units of nuclear power plants in Korea, and also are constructing 8 additional units (9,600 MW). Korea's nuclear power plants have displayed their excellent operating performance; the average plant capacity factor was 93.4% in 2008, which are about 15% higher than the world average of 77.8%. Moreover, the number of unplanned trips per unit was only 0.35 in 2008, which is the world top class performance. Also currently we are operating four CANDU nuclear units in Korea which are the same reactor type and capacity as the Cernavoda Units. They have been showing the excellent operating performance, of which capacity in 2008 is 92.8%. All the Korean

  16. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Age Range of 20-39 Years Old Individuals in Lome

    OpenAIRE

    Kolou, Malewe; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Salou, Mounerou; Gozo-Akakpo, Komlan Selom; Dossim, Sika; Kwarteng, Alexander; Prince-David, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Tog...

  17. CERN welcomes Korea as an official collaborator

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    His Excellency Mr. Won-Hwa Park, Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Switzerland, with CERN's Director-General at the signature ceremony to mark Korea as an official collaborator. On 25 October, the Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Switzerland, His Excellency Mr Won-Hwa Park, visited CERN. He came to sign, together with the Director-General Dr Robert Aymar, a formal Cooperation Agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Korea, witnessed by Dr Joo-Han Kim of the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. With this agreement that covers the development of scientific and technical cooperation in high-energy physics, Korea's participation in the experimental physics programme of CERN has now been formalised. Two days earlier, Dr Myung-Bak Lee, the former Mayor of Seoul, paid a visit to CERN, accompanied by ten members of his staff and fifteen Korean journalists. CERN was one of the destinations in Europe (together with GSI in Germany) on Dr Lee's agenda to gain information and to estab...

  18. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 18 O, 2 H, 13 C, 34 S, 87 Sr, 15 N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  19. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  20. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  1. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulic Damir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success, doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc., sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency. The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping, and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  2. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis among High-Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa; Versic, Sime; Maric, Dora; Gabrilo, Goran; Jelicic, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  3. High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens’ needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public’s health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on

  4. Male and female hypogonadism are highly prevalent in South Africans with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Blom, D J; Haarburger, D

    2014-09-01

    Hypogonadism may complicate Addison's disease (primary hypoadrenalism), but prevalence and metabolic sequelae of hypogonadism in Addison's disease are poorly described. We recruited patients from the South African Addison's disease national registry who received stable replacement doses of hydrocortisone and had no acute illness. Male biochemical testosterone deficiency was defined as an early morning basal testosterone10 or 12 IU/l). Testosterone deficiency did not correlate with age, disease duration or hydrocortisone dose. Untreated male hypogonadal subjects had a higher (mean ± standard deviation) BMI compared to eugonadal subjects 29.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2) vs. 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) (p=0.01) and a higher median (interquartile range) high-sensitive-CRP 6.4 (2.5-14.0) mg/l vs. 1.45 (0.6-2.8) mg/l (p=0.002). There were no differences between the 2 groups in lipids, lipoproteins and fasting glucose. The median (interquartile range) DHEAS was lower in the hypogonadal 0.31 (0.27-0.37) μmol/l, compared with the eugonadal group 0.75 (0.50-1.51) μmol/l (p=0.005). POF was documented in 11% of female patients. Male testosterone deficiency was highly prevalent in this cohort and was primarily due to secondary hypogonadism. Only BMI and hs-CRP were increased in untreated male hypogonadal subjects. Male and female hypogonadism appears to be a common complication of Addison's disease and may contribute to its morbidity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of street racing among Ontario high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of street racing among adolescents derived from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), an epidemiological survey of students in Ontario, Canada. The key response variable, self-reported street racing in past year, was examined in relation to grade level, rural/urban, school marks, cannabis use, drinking and driving, cannabis use and driving, and property, physical, drugs, and weapons delinquencies. All survey estimates were weighted, and variance and statistical tests were corrected for the complex sampling design. Of the 3053 9th- to 12th-graders (66% response rate), 5.6 percent of high-schoolers (an estimated 42,000 in the province) and (20.4% of grade 11 and 12 students with an advanced-level or full license) reported driving a car, truck, or sport utility vehicle (SUV) in a street race in the 12 months before the survey. Logistic regression analysis of the advanced-level or fully licensed students in grades 11 and 12 found that males compared to females and students in grade 11 compared to students in grade 12 had significantly higher adjusted odds of street racing. Supportive of problem behavior theory, students who reported property and drug delinquencies compared to students not engaging in these delinquencies also had significantly higher adjusted odds of street racing. This first population-based study in North America suggested that the prevalence of street racing at 1 in 5 of advanced or fully licensed high-schoolers in grades 11 and 12 poses significant public health concerns, especially related to the potential for unintentional injury.

  6. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  7. The Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Factors Determining Infection in Female Colombian Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Del Río-Ospina

    Full Text Available This study reports six HR-HPV types' infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12-19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%. Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01-2.71 95%CI, white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16-16.73 95%CI, having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11-2.81 95%CI and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI (1.65: 1.17-2.32 95%CI were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18-0.99 95%CI. The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group.

  8. High blood pressure: prevalence and adherence to guidelines in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Diana; Curjuric, Ivan; Dratva, Julia; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Quinto, Carlos; Rochat, Thierry; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Burdet, Luc; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Pons, Marco; Gerbase, Margaret W; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, the single leading health risk factor worldwide, contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to add to the understanding of diagnosed and undiagnosed high blood pressure in Switzerland and to evaluate adherence to hypertension guidelines. Included were 3962 participants from the first (2001-2003) and second (2010-2011) follow-ups of the population-based Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults. High blood pressure was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed hypertension was based on questionnaire information. High blood pressure was found in 34.9% of subjects, 49.1% of whom were unaware of this condition; 30.0% had doctor-diagnosed hypertension and, although 82.1% of these received drug treatments, in only 40.8% was blood pressure controlled (<140/90 mm Hg). Substantial first-line beta-blocker use and nonadherence to comorbidity-specific prescription guidelines were observed and remained mostly unexplained. Age-adjusted rates of unawareness and uncontrolled hypertension were more than 20% higher than in the USA. There is room for improvement in managing hypertension in Switzerland. Population-based observational studies are essential for identifying and evaluating unmet needs in healthcare; however, to pinpoint the underlying causes it is imperative to facilitate linkage of cohort data to medical records.

  9. Prevalence of sun protection behaviors in Hispanic youth residing in a high ultraviolet light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    OpenAIRE

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...

  11. High-resolution Computed Tomography Findings of H1N1 Influenza-Associated Pneumonia in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Chan; Choi, Song; Kim, Jin Woong; Lim, Hyo Soon [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyung Joo; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Hyeon; Park, Kyung Hwa [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To evaluate and compare the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with H1N1 influenza-associated pneumonia compared usual community acquired pneumonia (CAP), to determine whether there were any useful common HRCT findings predicting their prognosis. HRCT findings of 31 patients (M:F = 16:15, mean age 42 yrs) with Influenza A (H1N1) infection were retrospectively reviewed for abnormal HRCT findings and compared to HRCT findings of CAP in matched patients. Patients were matched according to age and sex, from 2009 to January 2010. The predominant HRCT findings of pneumonia consisted of areas of consolidation and/or groundglass opacity (GGO) which showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the two groups. However, the abnormalities of H1N1-related pneumonia showed higher bilaterality and multilobar or multisegmental involvement compared with CAP (p < 0.05). Internal low attenuation or air-densities in pulmonary infiltration /or lymphadenopathy was observed only in patients with CAP (p < 0.05). HRCT findings in 8 patients with poor clinical outcome had bilaterality (p=0.015), multilobar, and multisegmental involvement. The predominant HRCT findings of H1N1-related pneumonia were areas of consolidation and/or GGO. In addition, H1N1-related pneumonia showed higher bilaterality or multilobar/multisegmental involvement compared with CAP. The patients who presented bilaterality had a worse clinical outcome.

  12. High HIV prevalence among a high-risk subgroup of women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shruti H; Gupta, Amita; Sahay, Seema; Godbole, Sheela V; Joshi, Smita N; Reynolds, Steven J; Celentano, David D; Risbud, Arun; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Bollinger, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    To investigate changes over a decade in prevalence and correlates of HIV among high-risk women attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Pune, India, who deny a history of commercial sex work (CSW). Cross-sectional. From 1993 to 2002, 2376 women attending 3 STI clinics in Pune were offered HIV screening. Women who denied CSW were included (n = 1020). Of 1020 women, 21% were HIV infected. The annual HIV prevalence increased from 14% in 1993 to 29% in 2001-2002 (P women were older, more often employed, less likely to be currently married, and more likely to report condom use. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with HIV were calendar period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9 for 1997-1999 vs. 1993-1996; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0; AOR, 2.3 for 2000-2002 vs. 1993-1996; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6), lack of formal education (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9), having been widowed (AOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.1), current employment (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), and genital ulcer disease on examination (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7). Women attending STI clinics in India who deny a history of CSW represent a small, hidden subgroup, likely put at risk for HIV because of high-risk behavior of their male partners, generally their husbands. Educational and awareness efforts that have targeted other subgroups in India (men and CSWs) should also focus on these hard-to-reach women. Risk reduction in this subgroup of Indian women would also be expected to reduce perinatal infections in India.

  13. The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Noh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS, about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0% aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic.

  14. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Jin [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs.

  15. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  16. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  17. High prevalence of chitotriosidase deficiency in Peruvian Amerindians exposed to chitin-bearing food and enteroparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, N; Sherratt, S; Boaretto, F; Coico, F Mejìa; Camus, C Espinoza; Campos, C Jara; Musumeci, S; Battisti, A; Quinnell, R J; León, J Mostacero; Vazza, G; Mostacciuolo, M L; Paoletti, M G; Falcone, F H

    2014-11-26

    The human genome encodes a gene for an enzymatically active chitinase (CHIT1) located in a single copy on Chromosome 1, which is highly expressed by activated macrophages and in other cells of the innate immune response. Several dysfunctional mutations are known in CHIT1, including a 24-bp duplication in Exon 10 causing catalytic deficiency. This duplication is a common variant conserved in many human populations, except in West and South Africans. Thus it has been proposed that human migration out of Africa and the consequent reduction of exposure to chitin from environmental factors may have enabled the conservation of dysfunctional mutations in human chitinases. Our data obtained from 85 indigenous Amerindians from Peru, representative of populations characterized by high prevalence of chitin-bearing enteroparasites and intense entomophagy, reveal a very high frequency of the 24-bp duplication (47.06%), and of other single nucleotide polymorphisms which are known to partially affect enzymatic activity (G102S: 42.7% and A442G/V: 25.5%). Our finding is in line with a founder effect, but appears to confute our previous hypothesis of a protective role against parasite infection and sustains the discussion on the redundancy of chitinolytic function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HCV and their high risk behaviors among migrant workers in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Pan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. RESULTS: 17,377 (92.8% of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73% of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4% had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single; male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job; having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%-0.06% and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%-0.51%, respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%-0.70%. Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant

  19. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Prevalence of Indoor Tanning Among US High School Students, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Holman, Dawn M; Jones, Sherry Everett; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P

    2018-07-01

    To examine the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning behavior using nationally representative samples of US high school students younger than 18 years. We combined data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 41 313) to analyze the association between 2 types of state indoor tanning laws (age restriction and parental permission) and the prevalence of indoor tanning during the 12 months before the survey, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and survey year, and stratified by gender. Age restriction laws were associated with a 47% (P tanning prevalence among female high school students. Parental permission laws were not found to be associated with indoor tanning prevalence among either female or male high school students. Age restriction laws could contribute to less indoor tanning, particularly among female high school students. Such reductions may reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer.

  20. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Districts of High and Low Endemicity in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourama Traoré

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically the western sahelian dry regions of Mali are known to be highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL caused by Leishmania major, while cases are rarely reported from the Southern savanna forest of the country. Here, we report baseline prevalence of CL infection in 3 ecologically distinct districts of Mali (dry sahelian, north savanna and southern savanna forest areas. We screened 195 to 250 subjects from 50 to 60 randomly selected households in each of the 6 villages (four from the western sahelian district of Diema in Kayes region, one from the central district of Kolokani and one from the southern savanna district of Kolodieba, region of Sikasso. The screening consisted of: 1] A Leishmanin Skin Test (LST for detection of exposure to Leishmania parasites; 2] clinical examination of suspected lesions, followed by validation with PCR and 3] finger prick blood sample to determine antibody levels to sand fly saliva. LST positivity was higher in the western district of Diema (49.9% than in Kolokani (24.9% and was much lower in Kolondieba (2.6%. LST positivity increased with age rising from 13.8% to 88% in Diema for age groups 2-5 years and 41-65 years, respectively. All eight PCR-confirmed L. major CL cases were diagnosed in subjects below 18 years of age and all were residents of the district of Diema. Exposure to sand fly bites, measured by anti-saliva antibody titers, was comparable in individuals living in all three districts. However, antibody titers were significantly higher in LST positive individuals (P<0.0001. In conclusion, CL transmission remains active in the western region of Mali where lesions were mainly prevalent among children under 18 years old. LST positivity correlated to higher levels of antibodies to sand fly salivary proteins, suggesting their potential as a risk marker for CL acquisition in Mali.

  1. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ≥2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region.

  2. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a "Work Hard, Play Hard"-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  4. High prevalence of occult left heart disease in scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin D; Shimony, Avi; Langleben, David; Hirsch, Andrew; Rudski, Lawrence; Schlesinger, Robert; Eisenberg, Mark J; Joyal, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Boutet, Kim; Serban, Alexandrina; Masetto, Ariel; Baron, Murray

    2013-10-01

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP)≥25 mmHg), differentiation between pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less than or more than 15 mmHg, respectively. We performed a retrospective chart review of 107 scleroderma patients. All patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension had routine right or left heart catheterisation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurement pre-/post-fluid challenge. We extracted demographic, haemodynamic and echocardiographic data. Patients were classified into one of four groups: haemodynamically normal (mean PAP15 mmHg); occult PVH (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg, LVEDP>15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge); and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg and LVEDP≤15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge). 53 out of 107 patients had pulmonary hypertension. Based on the PAWP-based definition, 29 out of 53 had PAH and 24 out of 53 had PVH. After considering the resting and post-fluid-challenge LVEDP, 11 PAH patients were reclassified as occult PVH. The occult PVH group was haemodynamically, echocardiographically and demographically closer to the PVH group than the PAH group. PVH had high prevalence in our scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension population. Distinguishing PAH from PVH with only PAWP may result in some PVH patients being misclassified as having PAH.

  5. A high prevalence of beak and feather disease virus in non-psittacine Australian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amery-Gale, Jemima; Marenda, Marc S; Owens, Jane; Eden, Paul A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2017-07-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a circovirus and the cause of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). This disease is characterized by feather and beak deformities and is a recognized threat to endangered Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos). The role that non-psittacine birds may play as reservoirs of infection is unclear. This study aimed to begin addressing this gap in our knowledge of PBFD. Liver samples were collected from birds presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Zoos Victoria's Healesville Sanctuary for veterinary care between December 2014 and December 2015, and tested for BFDV DNA using polymerase chain reaction coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses.Results/Key findings. Overall BFDV was detected in 38.1 % of 210 birds. BFDV was detected at high prevalence (56.2 %) in psittacine birds, in the majority of cases without any observed clinical signs of PBFD. We also found that BFDV was more common in non-psittacine species than previously recognized, with BFDV detected at 20.0 % prevalence in the non-psittacine birds tested, including species with no clear ecological association with psittacines, and without showing any detectable clinical signs of BFDV infection. Further research to determine the infectivity and transmissibility of BFDV in non-psittacine species is indicated. Until such work is undertaken the findings from this study suggest that every bird should be considered a potential carrier of BFDV, regardless of species and clinical presentation. Veterinary clinics and wildlife rehabilitation facilities caring for birds that are susceptible to PBFD should reconsider biosecurity protocols aimed at controlling BFDV.

  6. High prevalence of heartburn and low acid sensitivity in patients with idiopathic achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Julio; Ortiz, Vicente; Maroto, Nuria; Ponce, Marta; Bustamante, Marco; Garrigues, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Heartburn is frequently reported by patients with achalasia before treatment. However, the esophageal sensitivity to acid as a possible mediator of this symptom has not been previously evaluated. To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and the esophageal sensitivity to acid perfusion in patients with untreated achalasia. Forty patients with achalasia were prospectively evaluated. Forty-three patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease comprised the control group (ten of them with Barrett's esophagus). Symptoms were evaluated by a structured clinical questionnaire. Objective assessment was performed by ambulatory 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and endoscopy. Esophageal sensitivity to acid was evaluated by esophageal perfusion of ClH 0.1 N. Fifteen (37%) of the 40 patients with achalasia presented heartburn, but only four of them had esophagitis and/or abnormal esophageal pH recording. Eight patients had abnormal pH recording. Three patients had esophagitis. The esophagus was sensitive to acid in seven (17%) patients with achalasia, three of them with heartburn and one with abnormal pH recording. In the control group, 40 of 43 (93%) presented heartburn. Acid perfusion was positive in 32 (74%). Sensitivity to acid was lower in patients with achalasia than in those with gastroesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's esophagus. The prevalence of heartburn in patients with achalasia is high, although its association with objective indicators of gastroesophageal reflux disease is weak. Patients with achalasia have lower esophageal sensitivity to acid than patients with GERD, suggesting that heartburn is does not arise from this condition.

  7. Long QT interval in Turner syndrome--a high prevalence of LQTS gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H; Pedersen, Lisbeth N; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Adult women with Turner syndrome (n = 88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett's (bQTc) and Hodges's formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0 ± 25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4 ± 17.8 ms) was prolonged (pTurner syndrome karyotypes (418.2 ± 24.8 vs. 407.6 ± 25.5 ms; p = 0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E.

  8. Long QT interval in Turner syndrome--a high prevalence of LQTS gene mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trolle

    Full Text Available QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype.Adult women with Turner syndrome (n = 88 were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%, and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett's (bQTc and Hodges's formula (hQTc. The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms. Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done.The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0 ± 25.5 ms compared to controls (390.4 ± 17.8 ms was prolonged (p432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2 and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2.There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women.NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E.

  9. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  10. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses. Measurements were performed 1 wk before cancer treatment, that is, cachexia status by Fearon's cancer-specific framework, dietary intake, muscle mass, muscle strength, and biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, hemoglobin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed. Data of 26 patients were included in the analyses (59% participation rate). Forty-two percent of the patients (n = 12) were classified as cachectic and 15% (n = 4) as precachectic. Muscle mass depletion was significantly more frequent in cachectic patients (67%) than in noncachectic patients (14%; P = 0.014). No differences in inflammatory markers were observed between cachectic and noncachectic patients. This exploratory study suggested a high prevalence of cachexia (42%) in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Although a large study is needed to further elucidate the role of cachexia in patients with HNC, the data presented here suggest that cachexia is a common problem in this patient population, which has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High prevalence of Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in environmental samples of a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Lozano, Carmen; Ben Said, Leila; Bellaaj, Ridha; Tenorio, Carmen; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of detection of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in environmental samples of 17 services in a Tunisian hospital, determining the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of recovered isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study that determines the prevalence of CoNS with correlation of antibiotic resistance in the hospital environment in Tunisia. CoNS were obtained from 83 of the 200 tested samples (41.5%). Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most prevalent species (45.8%), followed by S. saprophyticus (36.1%). The remaining CoNS species detected were S. epidermidis, S. cohnii, S. warneri, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. pasteuri, S. arlettae, and S. xilosus. Methicillin-resistant CoNS were detected in 20 of the 200 tested samples (10%), and the mecA gene was demonstrated in 18 S. haemolyticus, one S. epidermidis and one S. saprophyticus isolates. Methicillin susceptible isolates were detected in 63 samples (31.5%). Antimicrobial resistance genes detected were as follows (number of isolates): erythromycin [msr(A) (n = 32); erm(C) (n = 8)], tetracycline [tet(K) and/or tet(M) (n = 21)], gentamicin [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia (n = 16)], kanamycin [(aph(3')-IIIa (n = 19)], tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia (n = 14)], and streptomycin [ant(6')-Ia (n = 3)]. The high frequency of detection of multi-drug-resistant CoNS in the hospital environment, especially S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus, is of relevance and could be due to cross-transmission between patients, staff, and environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Asian–Pacific Region with High Prevalence of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien-Sing Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.

  13. Nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea

  14. Teaching About South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  15. Nuclear power in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, C S [Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Choong-Nam (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea.

  16. Sustainable energy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IJspelder, S.

    2010-10-01

    This report provides an overview of the renewable energy sector in South Korea, with attention to the hitherto small size of the market, the strong growth of investments in the last five years, the market concentration consisting of a number of large conglomerates and many SMEs, the entry barriers to the market for Dutch companies, and the market penetration. [nl

  17. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  18. Dance Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  19. Divided Korea: United Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  20. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  2. Applications of NASA GSFC's Land Information System (LIS) for water resources management in Korea and East-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Hwang, E.; Jung, H. C.; Kim, E. J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Chae, H.; Baeck, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has contributed to resolve global water issues by utilizing their long-term legacy of remote sensing technologies supported by a state of art software engineering. In this context, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a land surface model framework to monitor and predict water hazards such as flood and drought with the Land Information System (hereafter LIS) applied to North America and beyond it to include a global coverage. However, it is still challenging to apply the LIS to East-Asia where a rice-paddy agriculture is prevalent compared to other parts of the world, but retains a high population density in this region. Thus, this paper introduces recent efforts from the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water) in S. Korea to establish the LIS in East-Asia including Korea, aiming at producing surface hydrology datasets in Asia. One of the ultimate goals of this project is to manage the water hazards in Korea and to provide the water resources dataset in East-Asia by adapting the LIS with their abundantly available hydrometeorological observations to support the LIS applications. Preliminary results from initiating efforts since the beginning of 2017 between NASA and K-water are addressed in the paper to review the possible outcomes after this ongoing project to benefit both entities. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B079625-04) from Water Management Research Program sponsored by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  3. The high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian children and women cannot be satisfactorily explained by nutritional deficiencies or hemoglobin disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient...... for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). RESULTS: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin ... and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children

  4. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  5. Tuberculosis and pregnancy--Results of a study in a high prevalence area in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anjali; Mahadevan, Neila; Girling, Joanna

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the incidence, type and presentation of tuberculosis in pregnancy over a 5-year period in women booked for antenatal care in a District General Hospital located in a high prevalence area in London. We also aimed to identify any problems and difficulties in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis associated with pregnancy. Retrospective review of computer records and hospital notes over a period of 5 years from January 1997 to December 2001. Demographic and clinical data were collected for all the cases identified. All women with tuberculosis who conceived on antituberculous treatment, or had onset of symptoms or diagnosis made in pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period (6 weeks), and booked for antenatal care at a District General Hospital located in an area of high prevalence for tuberculosis (52.2 per 100,000 population in Ealing, Hammersmith and Hounslow Health authority according to the National Tuberculosis Survey of England and Wales in 1998). Thirty-two women were identified over the 5-year period, giving an incidence of 252/100,000 deliveries. The number of cases increased from 3 in 1997 to 10 in each of 2000 and 2001. All of these women were from ethnic minorities and 88% of them were immigrants with the median interval from arrival in UK being 2 years. Fifty-three percent were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, 38% with pulmonary tuberculosis and 9% had both. The median duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 31 days (being longer in women with extrapulmonary tuberculosis); the longest was 10 years. The median interval from presentation of symptoms to diagnosis was 32 days and the majority of women started treatment immediately. The commonest reason for a delay in diagnosis was late presentation (52%), followed by non-specific symptoms (in 38%). There was a trend towards late presentation among recent immigrants (odds ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 0.44-10.53) and those having

  6. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  7. The Relationship between Levels of Nomophobia Prevalence and Internet Addiction among High School Students: The Factors Influencing Nomophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezgin, Deniz Mertkan; Cakir, Ozlem; Yildirim, Soner

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between nomophobia levels of high school students and their Internet Addiction. This study also investigates the factors including duration of smartphone and mobile Internet use that trigger and create this phenomenon. In order to explore the prevalence of nomophobia among high school…

  8. High prevalence of overweight and obesity among a representative sample of Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Garcia, Omar; Torres, Roxana; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-03-05

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health problem worldwide. The objectives of the study were: 1) to establish the BMI prevalence in 12-year olds residing in Puerto Rico, and 2) to determine BMI differences by sex, public-private school type, and geographic regions. Data was obtained from an island-wide probabilistic stratified sample of 1,582 twelve-year-olds (53% girls and 47% boys). The BMI was determined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey procedures. Children were categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's age and gender specific growth charts. A logistic regression model was used to estimate BMI category prevalence. Odds ratios were calculated using a multinomial regression. In this study, 18.8% of the children were overweight and 24.3% were obese. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in boys as compared to girls, 28.2% vs. 20.2%, respectively. The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from public schools was lower than for those from private schools. After adjusting for type of school and region, boys had a significantly higher risk of being obese (64%) as compared to girls. In public schools, boys had a lower prevalence of being overweight while girls had a higher prevalence compared to children attending private schools. Girls attending private schools had a higher obesity prevalence (27.8%) compared to girls from public schools (19.8%). The prevalence of underweight (2.7%) is slightly lower than in the United States. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of 12-year-olds residing in PR was 18.8% and 24.3%, respectively; higher than in the U.S. (by groups). Boys were at higher risk of obesity than girls. There is an urgent need to implement public health policies/programs to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in PR.

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of School Services for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Glew, Kelly; Houck, Patricia; Greiner, Andrew; Fong, Dalea; Swanson, James; Arnold, L Eugene; Lerner, Marc; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of services reported by school staff for 543 high school students participating in the 8 year follow-up of the multi-site Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA). Overall, 51.6% of students with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were receiving services through an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or a 504 plan, a rate higher than expected for this age group. Less than 5% of these had 504 plans; 35.5% attended special education classes. Very few services (except tutoring) were provided outside of an IEP or 504 plan. Almost all students with services received some type of academic intervention, whereas only half received any behavioral support or learning strategy. Less than one-fourth of interventions appear to be evidence-based. Students receiving services showed greater academic and behavioral needs than those not receiving services. Services varied based upon type of school, with the greatest number of interventions provided to students attending schools that only serve those with disabilities. Original MTA treatment randomization was unrelated to services, but cumulative stimulant medication and greater severity predicted more service receipt. Results highlight a need for accommodations with greater evidence of efficacy and for increased services for students who develop academic difficulties in high school.

  10. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Luz M; O'Neal, Seth E; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H

    2016-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.

  11. Prevalence of child abuse in Khorramabad junior high school students, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh Malekshahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.

  12. Dysarthria and dysphagia are highly prevalent among various types of neuromuscular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuijt, Simone; Kalf, Johanna G.; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Drost, Gea; Hendricks, Henk T.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with a neuromuscular disease (NMD) can present with dysarthria and/or dysphagia. Literature regarding prevalence rates of dysarthria and dysphagia is scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence rates, severity and co-presence of dysarthria and dysphagia in adult

  13. Dysarthria and dysphagia are highly prevalent among various types of neuromuscular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuijt, S.; Kalf, J.G.; Swart, B.J. de; Drost, G.; Hendricks, H.T.; Geurts, A.C.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with a neuromuscular disease (NMD) can present with dysarthria and/or dysphagia. Literature regarding prevalence rates of dysarthria and dysphagia is scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence rates, severity and co-presence of dysarthria and dysphagia in adult

  14. High prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men referred for obesity treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J.M.; Loves, S.; Wageningen, B. van; Ruinemans-Koerts, J.; Jansen, I.; Boer, H. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity can be associated with biochemical evidence of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in men. Prevalence and severity of IHH in obese men are not exactly known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of IHH in obese men. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of 160 obese

  15. Severe fatigue is highly prevalent in ALL rheumatic diseases : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Overman, C.L.; Da Silva, J.A.P.; Kool, M.B.

    Background Fatigue is a common, disabling, and difficult to manage problem in rheumatic diseases. Prevalence estimates of fatigue within various rheumatic disease groups vary considerably. Data on the relative prevalence of severe fatigue across multiple rheumatic diseases using a similar instrument

  16. High prevalence of diabetes and anthropometric heterogeneity among tuberculosis patients in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, Huma; Ambreen, Atiqa; Jamil, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Pakistan the prevalence of diabetes (DM) among adults is 6.9% and expected to double by 2040. DM may facilitate transmission and halter the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine the prevalence of DM among TB patients in Pakistan and to investigate anthropometric...

  17. P and T research program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. K.

    1997-01-01

    The national energy demand is taking a sharp rise on account of the rapid growth of economy in Korea. Unfortunately, Korea has not much choice of alternative energy a promising option for Korea. For instance, eleven nuclear plants are in operation and 7 plants are under construction. Several plants are in planning stage. KAERI has played a major role in the design and operation of the plants in Korea. The spent fuel issue is calling for acute attention nationwide as the number of plants increases. Korea is actively seeking a technical solution to that problem surfacing on the horizon. A preliminary conceptual study on the P and T technology was performed from 1992 to 1996 and the future research directions were derived from that study. Because of the situation Korea is facing with, one of the major technical guidelines is that the P and T technology should be developed in compliance with the NPT. The concept of an accelerator driven subcritical system was found to be the most favorable option according to the conceptual study. KAERI set up an ambitious accelerator driven system development program for next 10 years. Key elementary technologies for a high current accelerator and a subcritical system are scheduled to be developed and experimented for the first five years (1997-2001). For the second five years (2002-2006), the accelerator program is pushed for the completion to parameters of 1 GeV, 20mA with capability to drive a subcritical system. For the subcritical system, a detail design study is to be performed and a small mockup system is to be built for bench scale test purpose

  18. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  19. Three Toxic Heavy Metals in Open-Angle Glaucoma with Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure: A Cross-Sectional Study from South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG.The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028, whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026. For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low-teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016, and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709.The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.

  20. Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Akinbami, Lara J; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Fryar, Chryl D

    2017-03-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. •Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. •Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines. Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels among adults, including increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because high levels can reduce cardiovascular disease risk (2). The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults engage in 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination (3). Adherence to these guidelines is expected to decrease the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels (4-8). This report presents national data for 2011-2014 on low HDL cholesterol prevalence among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, by whether they met these guidelines. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  1. The prevalence of probable delayed-sleep-phase syndrome in students from junior high school to university in Tottori, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Gen-i; Inoue, Yuichi; Kojima, Kazushige; Ueta, Toshiyuki; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder with a typical onset in the second decade of life. DSPS is characterized by the sleep-onset insomnia and the difficulty in waking at the desired time in the morning. Although DSPS is associated with inability to attend school, the prevalence has been controversial. To elucidate a change in the prevalence of DSPS among young population, epidemiological survey was conducted on Japanese students. A total of 4,971 students of junior high school, senior high school, and university were enrolled in this cross sectional study in Tottori Prefecture. They answered anonymous screening questionnaire regarding school schedule, sleep hygiene and symptomatic items of sleep disorders. The prevalence of probable DSPS was estimated at 0.48% among the total subject students without gender difference. In university, the prevalence of the last year students showed the highest value (1.66%), while that of the first year students showed the lowest value (0.09%) among all school years from junior high school to university. The prevalence increased with advancing university school years. Thus, a considerable number of Japanese students are affected with DSPS. Senior students of university are more vulnerable to the disorder than younger students. Appropriate school schedule may decrease the mismatch between the individual's sleep-wake cycle and the school schedule. Promotion of a regular sleep habit is necessary to prevent DSPS among this population.

  2. Mexican patients with HIV have a high prevalence of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mata-Marín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low bone mineral density (BMD and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART. In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low and-middle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional study of outpatients who were >40 years old and receiving ART at the Hospital de Infectología, La Raza National Medical Center in Mexico City, Mexico. We used semi-quantitative morphometric analysis of centrally digitized X-ray images to assess vertebral deformities in the spine. Anterior, middle and posterior vertebral heights were measured, and height ratios were calculated. For each vertebral body, fractures were graded on the basis of height ratio reductions, and a spine deformity index’ (SDI value was calculated by summing the grades of the vertebral deformities: An SDI>1 was indicative of a vertebral fracture. We included 104 patients, 87% of whom were men. The median age was 49 years [interquartile range (IQR 42-52]. Themost common stage of HIV infection, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control,was B2 in 40 (39% of patients. Forty seven (45% patients were on ART regimens that included protease inhibitors (PIs and 100 (96% being treated with tenofovir. The median time of ART was 6.5 years (IQR1.6-9.0. Of the 104 patients in our study, 83 (80% had undetectable viral load, as assessed by HIV-1 RNA levels, 32 (31% showed evidence of a previous fracture, 4 (4% were co-infected with hepatitis C virus, and 57 (55% had a history of corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 25%, 95

  3. High Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Their Coexistence with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Hispanic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes with cardiovascular risk factors among Puerto Ricans adults. Data from a household survey of 857 adults aged 21–79 years who underwent interviews, physical exams, and blood draws were analyzed. Prevalence of total DM and prediabetes was estimated using American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio for each cardiovascular risk factor under study. Age-standardized prevalence of total DM and prediabetes, detected by FPG and/or HbA1c, was 25.5 and 47.4 %, respectively. Compared with participants with normoglycemia, those with previously diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM, and prediabetes had more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles, characterized by a higher prevalence of general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (p < 0.05). The high prevalence of DM and prediabetes calls for public health actions to plan and implement lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay the onset of DM and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24781780

  4. High prevalence of diabetes among migrants in the United Arab Emirates using a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Albadawi, Salah; Abusnana, Salah; Mairghani, Maisoon; Hussein, Amal; Al Awadi, Fatheya; Madani, Abdulrazak; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    In 2011, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the 10th highest diabetes prevalence globally, but this was based on data that excluded migrants who comprise 80% of the population. This study assessed diabetes prevalence across the UAE population. A random sample of migrants was recruited from the visa renewal centers. Data were collected using interviews, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood for glucose, lipids and genetic analyses. 2724 adults completed the questionnaires and blood tests. Of these, 81% were males, 65% were ≤40 years old and 3% were above 60 years. Diabetes, based on self-report or fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l, showed a crude prevalence of 15.5%, of whom 64.2% were newly diagnosed. Overall age- and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence, according to the world mid-year population of 2013, was 19.1%. The highest prevalence was in Asians (16.4%) and non-Emirati Arabs (15.2%) and lowest in Africans and Europeans (11.9%). It increased with age: 6.3% in 18-30 years and 39.7% in 51 to 60 years. Lower education, obesity, positive family history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, snoring, and low HDL levels, all showed significant associations with diabetes. The high diabetes prevalence among migrants in the UAE, 64% of which was undiagnosed, necessitates urgent diabetes prevention and control programs for the entire UAE population.

  5. Prevalence of bullying by gender and education in a city with high violence and migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael

    2017-05-25

    To understand the prevalence of bullying, by gender and educational level, in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, a city with high rates of violence and migration. This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in 2012 - 2014 using a questionnaire known as the Bullying-Mexican. A probabilistic multistage cluster-sampling method obtained a study sample of 2 347 students (10 - 27 years of age) from the 400 000 enrolled in grade 5 - university level at the 611 public schools in Ciudad Juárez. Bullying prevalence and frequency (never, rarely, sometimes, often, every day) were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The statistical differences between males and females was assessed using a chi-square test; associations between frequency and academic level were determined by correspondence analysis and the Spearman Rho correlation. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyze whether gender and academic level acted independently in the frequency of bullying. Bullying prevalence was reported by 38% of females and 47% of males: 'only victim' represented 8.7%; 'only aggressor,' 13.2%; and 'victim and aggressor,' 21%. At higher levels of education, bullying prevalence declined; however, at the university, prevalence increased in the last semesters. Mockery and social exclusion were the two most dominant types of bullying, followed by beating, threats, and punishment. The prevalence of bullying in Ciudad Juárez public schools is among the highest compared to other random studies and surveys. Bullying diminishes with age and educational level.

  6. Prevalence of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS children in highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Octavio; Castillo, Nydia

    2015-08-01

    SummaryHighly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the morbidity and mortality related to HIV infection, including oral opportunistic infections. This paper offers an analysis of the scientific literature on the epidemiological aspects of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive children in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. An electronic databases search was made covering the highly active antiretroviral therapy era (1998 onwards). The terms used were oral lesions, oral candidiasis and their combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy and HIV/AIDS children. The following data were collected from each paper: year and country in which the investigation was conducted, antiretroviral treatment, oral candidiasis prevalence and diagnostic parameters (clinical or microbiological). Prevalence of oral candidiasis varied from 2.9% in American HIV-positive children undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy to 88% in Chilean HIV-positive children without antiretroviral therapy. With respect to geographical location and antiretroviral treatment, higher oral candidiasis prevalence in HIV-positive children on combination antiretroviral therapy/antiretroviral therapy was reported in African children (79.1%) followed by 45.9% reported in Hindu children. In HIV-positive Chilean children on no antiretroviral therapy, high oral candidiasis prevalence was reported (88%) followed by Nigerian children (80%). Oral candidiasis is still frequent in HIV-positive children in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era irrespective of geographical location, race and use of antiretroviral therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Risk assessment does not explain high prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in a large group of Sardinian women

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    Zedda Pierina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A very high prevalence (22.3% of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM was recently reported following our study on a large group of Sardinian women. In order to explain such a high prevalence we sought to characterise our obstetric population through the analysis of risk factors and their association with the development of GDM. Methods The prevalence of risk factors and their association with the development of GDM were evaluated in 1103 pregnancies (247 GDM and 856 control women. The association of risk factors with GDM was calculated according to logistic regression. Sensitivity and specificity of risk assessment strategy were also calculated. Results None of the risk factors evaluated showed an elevated frequency in our population. The high risk patients were 231 (20.9%. Factors with a stronger association with GDM development were obesity (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.08–6.8, prior GDM (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.69–5.69, and family history of Type 2 diabetes (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.81–3.86. Only patients over 35 years of age were more represented in the GDM group (38.2% vs 22.6% in the non-GDM cases, P P Conclusion Such a high prevalence of GDM in our population does not seem to be related to the abnormal presence of some known risk factors, and appears in contrast with the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Sardinia. Further studies are needed to explain the cause such a high prevalence of GDM in Sardinia. The "average risk" definition is not adequate to predict GDM in our population.

  8. High prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in patients seeking rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, Valerie A; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Gabriëls, Lutgardis; Jorissen, Mark; Hellings, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    Nasal aesthetic deformities may be associated with significant body image dissatisfaction. The only diagnostic category in the current list of psychiatric disorders that directly addresses these concerns is body dysmorphic disorder. This large-scale study determined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its symptoms in patients seeking rhinoplasty and evaluated the clinical profile of these patients. Two hundred twenty-six patients were given questionnaires including demographic characteristics, visual analogue scales for nasal shape, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder to assess severity of symptoms, a generic quality-of-life questionnaire, and the Derriford Appearance Scale 59, to assess appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Independent observers scored the nasal shape. Thirty-three percent of patients showed at least moderate symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Aesthetic goals (p dysmorphic disorder scores correlated inversely with the subjective nasal scoring (n = 210, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduced the generic quality of life (n = 160, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population is high. Patients undergoing revision rhinoplasty and with psychiatric history are particularly at risk. Body dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduce the quality of life and cause significant appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Risk, III.

  9. Independent predictors of tuberculosis mortality in a high HIV prevalence setting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Dominique J; Schomaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Robert J; de Azevedo, Virginia; Maartens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Identifying those at increased risk of death during TB treatment is a priority in resource-constrained settings. We performed this study to determine predictors of mortality during TB treatment. We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB surveillance population in a high HIV prevalence area that was recorded in ETR.net (Electronic Tuberculosis Register). Adult TB cases initiated TB treatment from 2007 through 2009 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors for death (after multiple imputations for missing data). Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion to obtain the most relevant predictors of death. Of 16,209 adult TB cases, 851 (5.3 %) died during TB treatment. In all TB cases, advancing age, co-infection with HIV, a prior history of TB and the presence of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. In HIV-infected TB cases, advancing age and female gender were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. Increasing CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment during TB treatment were protective against death. In HIV-uninfected TB cases, advancing age was independently associated with death, whereas smear-positive disease was protective. We identified several independent predictors of death during TB treatment in resource-constrained settings. Our findings inform resource-constrained settings about certain subgroups of TB patients that should be targeted to improve mortality during TB treatment.

  10. Stages of Behavioral Change for Physical Activity in High School Students: Prevalence and Associated Sociodemographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. High prevalence of oral colonization by Candida dubliniensis in HIV-positive patients in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binolfi, Andrés; Biasoli, Marisa S; Luque, Alicia G; Tosello, María E; Magaró, Hortensia M

    2005-08-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently described yeast species, closely related to Candida albicans. This work represents the first general survey of the carriage of C. dubliniensis in the oral cavities of HIV-positive patients in Argentina. We studied 133 strains isolated from 162 HIV-positive patients, using the following identification tests: chlamydospore production on corn meal agar with Tween 80; colony color on CHROMagar Candida media; differential growth at 45 degrees C on potato dextrose agar; D-xylose assimilation; chlamydospore formation on sunflower seed agar (SSA); carbohydrate assimilation profiles using the API 20 C Aux commercial kit and PCR using primers that hybridize to the class IV intron of the ACT1 gene. Out of the 133 strains, 21 were identified as C. dubliniensis, representing approximately 13% of the 162 patients in this study. From these data, we conclude that although the PCR assay is the most reliable method, clamydospore formation on SSA is an easier and less expensive test for the screening of C. dubliniensis in the routine laboratory. Our results show that C. dubliniensis has a high prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Argentina.

  12. Clinical Presentation, Aetiology, and Outcomes of Meningitis in a Setting of High HIV and TB Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keneuoe Hycianth Thinyane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of this study was to study the clinical presentation, aetiology, and outcomes of meningitis among adult patients admitted to Queen Mamohato Memorial Hospital in Maseru, Lesotho, with a diagnosis of meningitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and April 2014; data collected included presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data; association between variables was analysed using Fisher’s exact test. 56 patients were enrolled; the HIV coinfection rate was 79%. The most common presenting symptoms were altered mental status, neck stiffness, headache, and fever. TB meningitis was the most frequent diagnosis (39%, followed by bacterial (27%, viral (18%, and cryptococcal meningitis (16%. In-hospital mortality was 43% with case fatalities of 23%, 40%, 44%, and 90% for TB, bacterial, cryptococcal, and viral meningitis, respectively. Severe renal impairment was significantly associated with mortality. In conclusion, the causes of meningitis in this study reflect the high prevalence of HIV and TB in our setting. Strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to meningitis should include improving diagnostic services to facilitate early detection and treatment of meningitis and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients.

  13. IgG4-related hypophysitis is highly prevalent among cases of histologically confirmed hypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernreuther, Christian; Illies, Christopher; Flitsch, Jörg; Buchfelder, Michael; Buslei, Rolf; Glatzel, Markus; Saeger, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    IgG4-related disease is an immune-mediated disease with manifestations in most organ systems among them the pituitary gland. To date, few cases of histologically confirmed cases of IgG-related hypophysitis have been reported. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of IgG4-related hypophysitis among cases previously diagnosed as primary hypophysitis (lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis and hypophysitis not otherwise specified). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 12 of 29 cases (41.4%) previously diagnosed as primary hypophysitis fulfilled the criteria for IgG4-related disease and, thus, IgG4-related hypophysitis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary hypophysitis. All cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with more than 10 IgG4-positive cells per high power field and a ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive cells of more than 40%, whereas storiform fibrosis was an inconsistent histological feature and was also seen in few cases of non-IgG-related hypophysitis, thus lacking sensitivity and specificity. Obliterative phlebitis was not seen in any case. Thus, histological criteria defined for IgG4-related disease in other organs should be modified for IgG4-related hypophysitis, accordingly. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  14. PREVALENCE OF INTERNET ADDICTION: A PILOT STUDY IN A GROUP OF ITALIAN HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS

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    Mario Campanella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of Internet Addiction (IA amongst a group of high-school students living in Southern Italy. Method: 560 hundred students of both sexes of a “Liceo Classico” who volenteered for the study were included. They completed a smaller version of a specific questionnaire for IA developed by us. Results: 500, out of the total of 560 questionnaires that were returned, were correctly completed and could be analyzed. The main findings were that almost all students used the smartphone to access Internet. About 16% of them used it for a time ranging between 90 and 120 minutes a day, and the remaining less than one hour. The most used applications were Facebook and Whatsup. Fifty percent of the students owned a videogame console, and dedicated less than two hours a day on videogames. The ensuing data were presented to the students and a debate was promoted amongst them. Conclusions: Internet and related technology are now part of the everyday life especially of adolescents. The benefits and limits of them should be underlined. On the same time, an incresead awareness on the possibility of developing an excessive use until a real addiction should be promoted amongst younger generations.

  15. Probable high prevalence of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Po-Ching; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Su, Yi-Ning; Kan, Tsu-Min; Chen, Wan-Zi; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-03-15

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D), an autosomal-recessive inherited LGMD, is caused by the mutations in SGCA. SGCA encodes alpha-sarcoglycan (SG) that forms a heterotetramer with other SGs in the sarcolemma, and comprises part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. The frequency of LGMD2D is variable among different ethnic backgrounds, and so far only a few patients have been reported in Asia. We identified five patients with a novel homozygous mutation of c.101G>T (p.Arg34Leu) in SGCA from a big aboriginal family ethnically consisting of two tribes in Taiwan. Patient 3 is the maternal uncle of patients 1 and 2. All their parents, heterozygous for c.101G>T, denied consanguineous marriages although they were from the same tribe. The heterozygous parents of patients 4 and 5 were from two different tribes, originally residing in different geographic regions in Taiwan. Haplotype analysis showed that all five patients shared the same mutation-associated haplotype, indicating the probability of a founder effect and consanguinity. The results suggest that the carrier rate of c.101G>T in SGCA may be high in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal population regardless of the tribes. It is important to investigate the prevalence of LGMD2D in Taiwan for early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. High prevalence of small Babesia species in canines of Kerala, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kollannur Jose; Lakshmanan, Bindu; Syamala, Karunakaran; Praveena, Jose E; Aravindakshan, Thazhathuveetil

    2017-11-01

    Canine babesiosis is an important vector-borne hemoparasitic disease caused by Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni , in India. The communication places on record the salient findings of the study directed to detect and characterize the pathogenic B. gibsoni isolates of Kerala state. A total of 150 dogs were examined for the presence of hemoparasites by light microscopy as well as by PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of B. gibsoni . Hematological parameters were also analysed. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Tamura kei model adopting ML method. A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with newly designed primer pair BAGI-F/BAGI-R for the amplification of 488 bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of B. gibsoni . Out of the 150 dogs examined, molecular evidence of B. gibsoni was recorded in 47.3% animals, while light microscopy detected the infection in 26.67% cases. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that B. gibsoni , Kerala, isolate was closest and occurred together with Bareilly isolate. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were the significant hematological alterations in chronic B. gibsoni infection. A high prevalence of natural infection of B. gibsoni was detected among the study population. The affected animals showed anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Phylogenetic analysis of this pathogenic isolate from south India revealed the closest similarity with Bareilly isolates.

  17. High prevalence of small Babesia species in canines of Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollannur Jose Jain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Canine babesiosis is an important vector-borne hemoparasitic disease caused by Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni, in India. The communication places on record the salient findings of the study directed to detect and characterize the pathogenic B. gibsoni isolates of Kerala state. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 dogs were examined for the presence of hemoparasites by light microscopy as well as by PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of B. gibsoni. Hematological parameters were also analysed. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Tamura kei model adopting ML method. Results: A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with newly designed primer pair BAGI-F/ BAGI-R for the amplification of 488 bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of B. gibsoni. Out of the 150 dogs examined, molecular evidence of B. gibsoni was recorded in 47.3% animals, while light microscopy detected the infection in 26.67% cases. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that B. gibsoni, Kerala, isolate was closest and occurred together with Bareilly isolate. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were the significant hematological alterations in chronic B. gibsoni infection. Conclusion: A high prevalence of natural infection of B. gibsoni was detected among the study population. The affected animals showed anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Phylogenetic analysis of this pathogenic isolate from south India revealed the closest similarity with Bareilly isolates.

  18. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). AIMS: To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. METHOD: This cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). RESULTS: Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence...... of SAD compared with full sight controls, Pvisual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters...

  19. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    To date, hundreds of variants in 13 genes have been associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be between 1:2000 and 1:5000. The knowledge of genetic variation in the general population has until recently been limited, but newly published data from NHLBI GO...... variants KCNH2 P347S; SCN5A: S216L, V1951L; and CAV3 T78M in the control population (n=704) revealed prevalences comparable to those of ESP. Thus, we identified a much higher prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants than expected in exome data from population studies. Great caution regarding...

  20. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+ and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in schoolchildren in a highly consanguineous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Qahtani, Razna; Teebi, Ahmad S; Bessisso, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to find the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) symptoms in a sample of primary schoolchildren in Qatar and investigate the behaviour of the children with and without ADH symptoms in a highly consanguineous community. A total of 2,500 primary school students, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected from the government primary schools, and 1,869 students (947 boys and 922 girls) gave consent to participate in this study. An Arabic questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic variables and a standardized Arabic version of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for ADH symptoms. Of the 947 boys, 158 (16.7%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 14.4-19.2) and of the 922 girls, 50 (5.4%; 95% CI 4.1-7.1) scored above the cut-off (>or=15) for ADH symptoms, thus giving an overall prevalence of 11.1% (95% CI 9.7-12.6). The children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms were in the age group of 6-9 years. Children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores (p = 0.002). Two hundred (96.2%) children with ADH were disobedient, 126 (60.6%) noisy and hyperactive, 76 (36.5%) very cranky, 78 (37.5%) troublesome and 79 (37.9%) nervous. The logistic regression identified socio-economic condition, number of children, school performance and poor relationship between parents as the main contributors to ADH. Although the univariate analysis showed a significant relationship (p = 0.010) between ADH symptoms and consanguineous parents, logistic regression did not support this association (p = 0.075). This suggests that consanguinity has no impact on ADH children. The study revealed that ADH is a common problem among schoolchildren. The children with higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores. A significant difference exists between the behaviour of children with and without ADH. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons for treatment failure are highly warranted.

  3. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel - Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey) collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α high blood pressure among adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District was 24.1%. The following variables were associated with self-reported high blood pressure: age group, taking 18-24 as reference (all age groups presented increased risk - from 25-34 years [OR = 2.6; 95%CI 2.0-3.4] up to 65 years or more [OR = 28.1; 95%CI 21.7-36.4]); low education level (9 to 11 years of study [OR = 0.8; 95%CI 0.7-0.9] and 12 years or more [OR = 0.6; 95%CI 0.6-0.7]); Black race or skin color (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.5); being a former smoker (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.1-1.3); obesity (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 2.4-3.0); diabetes (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5-3.5%), and high cholesterol (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.2). Approximately one quarter of the adult population living in Brazilian state capitals reported having high blood pressure. Information from Vigitel is useful to monitor high blood pressure and identity its associated factors, supporting public policies for health promotion, surveillance and care. Analisar os fatores associados à hipertensão arterial autorreferida entre adultos nas capitais brasileiras. Estudo com os dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados no ano de 2013. Foram estimadas

  4. The fertility transition in Cuba and the Federal Republic of Korea: the impact of organised family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J; Potts, M

    1996-04-01

    South Korea and Cuba are dissimilar in religion, economy, culture and attitudes toward premarital sexual relations. In 1960, Korea instituted a national family planning programme to combat rapid population growth. Cuba explicitly rejected Malthusian policies, but made family planning universally available in 1974 in response to health needs. Both countries have undergone rapid fertility declines and today have less than replacement level fertility. Both countries have also used a similar mixture of methods, including a high prevalence of female sterilisation. Abortion has played a major role in the fertility decline of both countries, rising in the first half of the fertility transition and then falling, although remaining a significant variable in the second half. It is concluded that access to contraception, voluntary sterilisation, and safe abortion has a direct impact on fertility and has been associated with a rapid fall in family size in two very different countries.

  5. Predicting high risk births with contraceptive prevalence and contraceptive method-mix in an ecologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Jamie; Amouzou, Agbessi; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-07

    Increased contraceptive use has been associated with a decrease in high parity births, births that occur close together in time, and births to very young or to older women. These types of births are also associated with high risk of under-five mortality. Previous studies have looked at the change in the level of contraception use and the average change in these types of high-risk births. We aim to predict the distribution of births in a specific country when there is a change in the level and method of modern contraception. We used data from full birth histories and modern contraceptive use from 207 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys covering 71 countries to describe the distribution of births in each survey based on birth order, preceding birth space, and mother's age at birth. We estimated the ecologic associations between the prevalence and method-mix of modern contraceptives and the proportion of births in each category. Hierarchical modelling was applied to these aggregated cross sectional proportions, so that random effects were estimated for countries with multiple surveys. We use these results to predict the change in type of births associated with scaling up modern contraception in three different scenarios. We observed marked differences between regions, in the absolute rates of contraception, the types of contraceptives in use, and in the distribution of type of birth. Contraceptive method-mix was a significant determinant of proportion of high-risk births, especially for birth spacing, but also for mother's age and parity. Increased use of modern contraceptives is especially predictive of reduced parity and more births with longer preceding space. However, increased contraception alone is not associated with fewer births to women younger than 18 years or a decrease in short-spaced births. Both the level and the type of contraception are important factors in determining the effects of family planning on changes in distribution of

  6. Predicting high risk births with contraceptive prevalence and contraceptive method-mix in an ecologic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Perin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased contraceptive use has been associated with a decrease in high parity births, births that occur close together in time, and births to very young or to older women. These types of births are also associated with high risk of under-five mortality. Previous studies have looked at the change in the level of contraception use and the average change in these types of high-risk births. We aim to predict the distribution of births in a specific country when there is a change in the level and method of modern contraception. Methods We used data from full birth histories and modern contraceptive use from 207 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys covering 71 countries to describe the distribution of births in each survey based on birth order, preceding birth space, and mother’s age at birth. We estimated the ecologic associations between the prevalence and method-mix of modern contraceptives and the proportion of births in each category. Hierarchical modelling was applied to these aggregated cross sectional proportions, so that random effects were estimated for countries with multiple surveys. We use these results to predict the change in type of births associated with scaling up modern contraception in three different scenarios. Results We observed marked differences between regions, in the absolute rates of contraception, the types of contraceptives in use, and in the distribution of type of birth. Contraceptive method-mix was a significant determinant of proportion of high-risk births, especially for birth spacing, but also for mother’s age and parity. Increased use of modern contraceptives is especially predictive of reduced parity and more births with longer preceding space. However, increased contraception alone is not associated with fewer births to women younger than 18 years or a decrease in short-spaced births. Conclusions Both the level and the type of contraception are important factors in

  7. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in 122,053 Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P < 0.01). Method of measurement of BP and year in which the survey was conducted were associated with heterogeneity in the estimates of HBP among boys. The data indicate that HBP is higher among boys than girls, and that the method of measurement plays an important role in the overall heterogeneity of HBP value distributions, particularly in boys. PMID:25501086

  8. Estimation of Mental Disorders Prevalence in High School Students Using Small Area Methods: A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Soltanian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescence is one of the most important periods in the course of human evolution and the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescence in different regions of Iran, especially in southern Iran. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among high school students in Bushehr province, south of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 286 high school students were recruited by a multi-stage random sampling in Bushehr province in 2015. A general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used to assess mental disorders. The small area method, under the hierarchical Bayesian approach, was used to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and data analysis. Results From 286 questionnaires only 182 were completely filed and evaluated (the response rate was 70.5%. Of the students, 58.79% and 41.21% were male and female, respectively. Of all students, the prevalence of mental disorders in Bushehr, Dayyer, Deylam, Kangan, Dashtestan, Tangestan, Genaveh, and Dashty were 0.48, 0.42, 0.45, 0.52, 0.41, 0.47, 0.42, and 0.43, respectively. Conclusions Based on this study, the prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents was increasing in Bushehr Province counties. The lack of a national policy in this way is a serious obstacle to mental health and wellbeing access.

  9. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  10. The Prevalence and Motivation of Cigarette Smoking among Kerman high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarezadeh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nicotine dependence has been identified as a critical health problem. This study assesses the prevalence and motivation of smoking among Iranian junior and senior students. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed using a questionnaire. In addition to data on frequency, motivation, initiation and cessation, this questionnaire included Fagerstrom items for nicotine dependency. The census method was used for sampling. Thus, the questionnaire was distributed to all high school junior and senior students of Kerman. Results: 3072 students participated in the study. Among them, 4.9% were nicotine dependent, 6.4% had used it occasionally during the last six months and 11.5% had used it at least once in their life. Out of all the cigarette users, 80.6% had experienced smoking before the age of 15 with 9.09±8.52 cigarette per day. Boys smoked significantly more than girls. More than 38% of the students had a history of smoking cessation. The most common motivations for smoking among the students have been identified as smoking of the peer group and the belief that smoking is fashionable. Conclusions: The motivation and gender difference in smoking were similar to the general population. The rate of nicotine dependency was less than other parts of the country. However, the age of smoking initiation was in a decreasing trend and similar to other parts of the country. High school stage is a very critical period for adolescents' smoking. Therefore, for the provision of more social skills trainings and behavioral therapies, providing information for decision makers is recommended.

  11. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós

    2011-09-01

    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  12. The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

  13. Prenatal phthalate exposure and 8-isoprostane among Mexican-American children with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V; Tindula, G; Huen, K; Bradman, A; Harley, K; Kogut, K; Calafat, A M; Nguyen, B; Parra, K; Ye, X; Eskenazi, B; Holland, N

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to many obesity-related conditions among children including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalates, ubiquitously found in humans, may also generate reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative stress. We examined longitudinal changes of 8-isoprostane urinary concentrations, a validated biomarker of oxidative stress, and associations with maternal prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites for 258 children at 5, 9 and 14 years of age participating in a birth cohort residing in an agricultural area in California. Phthalates are endocrine disruptors, and in utero exposure has been also linked to altered lipid metabolism, as well as adverse birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that median creatinine-corrected 8-isoprostane concentrations remained constant across all age groups and did not differ by sex. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with 8-isoprostane in 14-year-old children. No associations were observed between 8-isoprostane and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score or waist circumference at any age. Concentrations of three metabolites of high molecular weight phthalates measured at 13 weeks of gestation (monobenzyl, monocarboxyoctyl and monocarboxynonyl phthalates) were negatively associated with 8-isoprostane concentrations among 9-year olds. However, at 14 years of age, isoprostane concentrations were positively associated with two other metabolites (mono(2-ethylhexyl) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalates) measured in early pregnancy. Longitudinal data on 8-isoprostane in this pediatric population with a high prevalence of obesity provides new insight on certain potential cardiometabolic risks of prenatal exposure to phthalates.

  14. High prevalence of morphometric vertebral deformities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heijckmann, AC; Huijberts, MSP; Schoon, EJ; GEUSENS, Piet; de Vries, J.; Menheere, Paul P. C. A.; van der Veer, E.; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Stockbrugger, RW; Dumitrescu, B; Kruseman, ACN

    2008-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have documented that the prevalence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral deformities in inflammatory bowel disease patients and their relation with BMD and bone turnover. Methods One hundred and nine patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 72 with ulcerative colitis (UC) (age 44.5 +/- 14.2 years) were studied. BMD of the hip (by dual ...

  15. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rubaihayo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7 but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3 (c2=0.76, P=0.38. Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05. Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%, followed by prostitution (13.6%, alcoholism (10.1%, carelessness (10.1%, poverty (9.7%, ignorance (9.5%, rape (4.7%, drug abuse (3.6% and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc. (6.2%. Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm

  16. PACS industry in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Joung

    2002-05-01

    PACS industry in Korea has been rapidly growing, since government had supported collaborative PACS project between industry and university hospital. In the beginning, PACS industry had focused on developing peripheral PACS solutions, while the Korea PACS society was being formed. A few companies had started developing and installing domestic large-scale full-PACS system for teaching hospitals. Several years later, many hospitals have installed full-PACS system with national policy of reimbursement for PACS exams in November 1999. Both experiences of full-PACS installation and national policy generated tremendous intellectual and technological expertise about PACS at all levels, clinical, hospital management, education, and industrial sectors. There are now more than 20 domestic PACS companies. They have enough experiences which are capable of installing a truly full-PACS system for large-scale teaching hospitals. As an example, a domestic company had installed more than 40 full-PACS systems within 2-3 years. Enough experiences of full-PACS installation in Korea lead PACS industry to start exporting their full-PACS solutions. However, further understanding and timely implementation of continuously evolving international standard and integrated healthcare enterprise concepts may be necessary for international leading of PACS technologies for the future.

  17. Progress of Nuclear Hydrogen Program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae

    2009-01-01

    To cope with dwindling fossil fuels and climate change, it is clear that a clean alternative energy that can replace fossil fuels is required. Hydrogen is considered a promising future energy solution because it is clean, abundant and storable and has a high energy density. As other advanced countries, the Korean government had established a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy in 2005. One of the major challenges in establishing a hydrogen economy is how to produce massive quantities of hydrogen in a clean, safe and economical way. Among various hydrogen production methods, the massive, safe and economic production of hydrogen by water splitting using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) can provide a success path to the hydrogen economy. Particularly in Korea, where usable land is limited, the nuclear production of hydrogen is deemed a practical solution due to its high energy density. To meet the expected demand for hydrogen, the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) launched a nuclear hydrogen program in 2004 together with Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST). Then, the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development program was launched in 2006, which aims at the development and validation of key and challenging technologies required for the realization of the nuclear hydrogen production demonstration system. In 2008, Korean Atomic Energy Commission officially approved a long-term development plan of the nuclear hydrogen system technologies as in the figure below and now the nuclear hydrogen program became the national agenda. This presentation introduces the current status of nuclear hydrogen projects in Korea and the progress of the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development. Perspectives of nuclear process heat applications are also addressed

  18. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population. We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013. Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments. The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902

  19. Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were

  20. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence...

  1. Professional karate-do and mixed martial arts fighters present with a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel; Namba, Eli Luis; Veiga, Danielle Medeiros; Wandembruck, Fernanda; Mussi, Felipe; Afonso Cunali, Paulo; Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma in sports has been associated with temporomandibular disorders. Because of the intensity and duration of training needed for elite-level competitions, high-performance athletes can have two to five times more traumatic injuries than recreational athletes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in high-performance martial arts fighters and compare it with the prevalence in recreational athletes and non-athletes. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders was used to diagnose and classify professional karate-do practitioners (group I; n = 24), amateur karate-do practitioners (group II; n = 17), high-performance mixed martial arts fighters (group III; n = 13), and non-athletes (n = 28). The groups were compared with the chi-square test and tested for the difference between two proportions using a significance level of 5% (P 0.05). A diagnosis of arthralgia from disk displacement was made more frequently in groups I (45.8%; P = 0.013) and III (38.5%; P = 0.012) than in group IV (7.1%). The chronic pain associated with TMD was low intensity and low disability. While there was a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the professional athletes in our study, the prevalence of the condition in recreational athletes was similar to that in individuals who did not practice martial arts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High Prevalence of Autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 in Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kain, Renate; Tadema, Henko; McKinney, Eoin F.; Benharkou, Alexandra; Brandes, Ricarda; Peschel, Andrea; Hubert, Virginie; Feenstra, Tjerk; Sengoelge, Guerkan; Stegeman, Coen; Heeringa, Peter; Lyons, Paul A.; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Kallenberg, Cees; Rees, Andrew J.

    The involvement of autoantibodies to human lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (hLAMP-2) in anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis is controversial because of the absence of confirmatory data subsequent to the initial reports of their high prevalence in this disease. We

  3. High Prevalence of Long QT Syndrome Associated SCN5A Variants in Patients with Early-Onset Lone Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten S; Yuan, Lei; Liang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    a mechanistic overlap between LQTS3 and early-onset lone AF. In 9 of 10 identified mutations and rare variants, we observed compromised biophysical properties affecting the transient peak current. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with early-onset lone AF, we identified a high prevalence of SCN5A mutations...

  4. Global warming will reshuffle the areas of high prevalence and richness of three genera of avian blood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; de la Hera, Iván; Fernández-González, Sofía; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2014-08-01

    The importance of parasitism for host populations depends on local parasite richness and prevalence: usually host individuals face higher infection risk in areas where parasites are most diverse, and host dispersal to or from these areas may have fitness consequences. Knowing how parasites are and will be distributed in space and time (in a context of global change) is thus crucial from both an ecological and a biological conservation perspective. Nevertheless, most research articles focus just on elaborating models of parasite distribution instead of parasite diversity. We produced distribution models of the areas where haemosporidian parasites are currently highly diverse (both at community and at within-host levels) and prevalent among Iberian populations of a model passerine host: the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla; and how these areas are expected to vary according to three scenarios of climate change. On the basis of these models, we analysed whether variation among populations in parasite richness or prevalence are expected to remain the same or change in the future, thereby reshuffling the geographic mosaic of host-parasite interactions as we observe it today. Our models predict a rearrangement of areas of high prevalence and richness of parasites in the future, with Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites (today the most diverse genera in blackcaps) losing areas of high diversity and Plasmodium parasites (the most virulent ones) gaining them. Likewise, the prevalence of multiple infections and parasite infracommunity richness would be reduced. Importantly, differences among populations in the prevalence and richness of parasites are expected to decrease in the future, creating a more homogeneous parasitic landscape. This predicts an altered geographic mosaic of host-parasite relationships, which will modify the interaction arena in which parasite virulence evolves. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mis toimub Põhja-Koreas? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Infoagentuuri UPI teatel võib Põhja-Korea liider Kim Jong-il olla surnud, avalikest kohtadest on hakatud maha võtma tema portreesid. Põhja-Korea infoagentuur eitab seda. Ekspertide versioonidest Põhja-Koreas toimuva kohta

  6. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  7. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  8. Substance Use and Sexual Behaviors of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the substance use and sexual behavior of adolescents in multicultural families compared with adolescents in Korean families in South Korea. Data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey collected from 66,591 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 14.89±1.76 years) were analyzed. We classified the adolescents into four groups: those whose father and mother were born in South Korea, those whose father was born in South Korea but whose mother was not, those whose mother was born in South Korea but whose father was not, and those whose father and mother were not born in South Korea. Experiences with alcohol, cigarette, and drug use and sexual relations were investigated. Compared with adolescents whose fathers and mothers were born in Korea, adolescents whose fathers were born in Korea but whose mothers were not were less likely to use alcohol and cigarettes. Adolescents whose mothers were born in Korea but whose fathers were not and adolescents whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea were more likely to use cigarettes and drugs and to have sexual relations. These results indicate that adolescents whose fathers were not born in Korea and whose fathers and mothers were both born outside Korea are at greater risk for cigarette and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. For these high risk groups, health education should include dependency prevention program, safety issue, and health screening as well as programs aimed at preventing substance use and sexual activity.

  9. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Han, Jun Hee; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Enhi; Kim, Bongyoung

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, Phepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea.

  10. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  11. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

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    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging.

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

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    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  13. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in adolescent inpatients diagnosed with eating disorders.

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    Modan-Moses, Dalit; Levy-Shraga, Yael; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Kochavi, Brigitte; Enoch-Levy, Adi; Vered, Iris; Stein, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies assessing vitamin D status in adolescents with eating disorders showed inconsistent results. The aim of the current study was to assess vitamin D status in a large cohort of adolescent inpatients with eating disorders and its relation to bone mineral density (BMD) and depression. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels as well as BMD and depression were assessed on admission in 87 inpatients (aged 16 ± 2 years, females = 81) with eating disorders [anorexia nervosa (AN) = 64; bulimia nervosa (BN) = 5; eating disorders not otherwise specified-binge/purge type (EDNOS-B/P) = 18]. Mean 25OHD levels were 24.1 ± 7.5 ng/ml (25.0 ± 7.6, 25.4 ± 9.9, and 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/ml in patients with AB, BN, and EDNOS-B/P, respectively). Vitamin D deficiency (32 ng/ml, considered optimal by some experts. No associations were found between 25OHD levels and BMD or comorbid depression. 25OHD levels during winter were significantly lower than summer levels (p EDNOS-B/P type was low (-1.5 ± 1.1) and correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (p = .03). Adolescents with eating disorders show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Given the risk of osteoporosis in this population, 25OHD levels found in this group may not offer optimal bone protection. Vitamin D levels should be routinely checked and supplementation should be administered as required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students in Hanover, Jamaica

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    Olaniyi J. Ekundayo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Jamaican adolescents and examine its association with individual and family factors. We used an abbreviated form of the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II to assess depressive symptoms among 748 students, attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover Jamaica. In the analysis, we classified adolescents with scores in the upper quartile of the depressive symptom score as having depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms. 14.2% of participants reported depressive symptoms. There was association between engagement in sexual activity [Odds Ratio (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02-2.51], parental monitoring of adolescent activity (OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.33 -3.12, maternal affection and support (OR= 4.07, 95%CI= 2.62-6.33, and paternal affection and support (OR= 1.58, 95%CI= 1.05-2.39 with self reported depressive symptoms at the bivariate level. In the final model, depressive symptoms was associated with perceived lack of maternal affection and support (OR= 4.06, 95%CI= 2.61-6.32 and showed marginal association with being sexually experienced (OR= 1.59, 95%CI= 1.00-2.52. As most homes are female-headed, establishing support systems for the mother to take care of their adolescent children may decrease the odds of depressive symptoms. Sexually experienced adolescents may require screening for depression. Further research is required to fully explore all factors that could predispose Jamaican adolescents to depression.

  15. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

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    Sebastien Breurec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. Methods Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized. In addition, the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance and the genetic background of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae were studied. Results A bacteriological infection was confirmed in 36.4 % (88/242 of neonates: 22.7 % (30/132 during the early-onset and 52.7 % (58/110 during the late-onset periods (p > 0.20. Group B streptococci accounted for 6.8 % of the 88 collected bacterial isolates, while most of them were Enterobacteriaceae (n = 69, 78.4 %. Of these, 55/69 (79.7 % were 3GC-R. The blaCTX-M-15 allele, the blaSHV and the blaTEM were highly prevalent (63.5, 65.4 and 53.8