WorldWideScience

Sample records for konrad kikas peep

  1. Konrad Bajer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    These Proceedings are dedicated to our co-editor Konrad Bajer, who carried the lion's share of the work involved until his sudden and untimely death from cancer on 29th August 2014. Konrad was one of the key Organisers of the program "Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences" held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge from July to December 2012. During that time, he was on leave from the University of Warsaw, and held a Visiting Fellow Commonership at Trinity College, Cambridge. He had particular responsibility for the satellite workshop Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, held at ICMS, Edinburgh, in October 2012. Konrad graduated in Physics from the University of Warsaw in 1980, and took his PhD in Fluid Dynamics at DAMTP, Cambridge, 1984-89. He was active in EUROMECH, having been a principal organiser of the European Turbulence Conference (ETC13) in Warsaw 2011, and the meeting Turbulence: the Historical Perspective that followed it. He has been equally active in IUTAM; his distinction was recognised by his very recent election to the Congress Committee of IUTAM. Konrad's research interests were in magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics in classical and quantum systems; also in problems of gasifcation, in which he played a coordinating role at the University of Warsaw. He impressed all with his exceptionally warm and friendly personality, and will be greatly missed in the whole scientifc community.

  2. Materjalid muudavad maailma = Materials change the world / Jaak Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Jaak

    2005-01-01

    Jaak Kikas TÜ materjaliteaduse instituudist mõnedest olulistest tendentsidest ja suundumustest uute materjalide otsingutel ning nendega kaasnevatest probleemidest. Materjaliteaduse artikli kommentaariks tutvustavad Kalle Komissarov (intervjueerija) ja Martin Pärn EKA disaini- ja tekstiilikateedri projekti "Arukate toodete disain - tuleviku eriala", millele saadi toetust SA Innove europrojektide raames

  3. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  4. Professor Peep Veski meie meenutustes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Mälestusi Tartu Ülikooli Farmaatsia instituudi juhatajast Peep Veskist jagavad: Eve-Irene Lepist, Urve Paaver, Karin Kogermann, Kristian Semjonov, Jaak Koppel, Kristin Raudsepp, Imre Klebovich, Filiz Hincal, A. Atilla Hincal ja Elmar Arak

  5. Konrad Mäe preemia Erki Kasemetsale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Konrad Mäe medal ja preemia (25000 kr.) otsustati anda Erki Kasemetsale igapäevase pöördumise eest maalikunsti poole elukestvas teoses "Life-file", mis defineerib maalikunsti kui work-in-progressi. Preemiat ja medalit annavad välja EKL, EML ja Eesti Kultuurikapitali kujutava ja rakenduskunsti sihtkapital

  6. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range. METHODS: Five Neopuffs were set up to provide a PEEP of 5 cm H(2) O. The number of clockwise revolutions to complete occlusion of the PEEP valve and the mean and range of pressures at each quarter clockwise revolution were recorded at gas flow rates between 5 and 15 L\\/min. Results: At 5, 10 and 15 L\\/min, 0.5, 1.7 and 3.4 full clockwise rotations were required to completely occlude the PEEP valve, and pressures rose from 5 to 11.4, 18.4 and 21.5 cm H(2) O, respectively. At a flow rate of 5 L\\/min, half a rotation of the PEEP dial resulted in a rise in PEEP from 5 to 11.4cm H(2) O. At 10 L\\/min, half a rotation resulted in a rise from 5 to 7.7cm H(2) O, and at 15 L\\/min PEEP rose from 5 to 6.8cm H(2) O. CONCLUSION: Users of the Neopuff should be aware that the PEEP valve is more sensitive at lower flow rates and that half a rotation of the dial at 5 L\\/min gas flow can more than double the PEEP.

  7. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  8. Porovnání dvou retailových jednotek IKEA a Kika

    OpenAIRE

    Pelcová, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains comparison of shopping atmosphere and web sites of two companies - IKEA and KIKA. Theoretical areas of shopping atmosphere are described in first part of the thesis. Then there are main points, which should have each prime web site and description of SWOT analysis. Thereafter thesis contains brief introduction of analyzed companies. Third part is composed of actual comparison of these companies in terms of stated indicators. There is also SWOT analysis created in...

  9. Isolation and characterization of kikA, a region on IncN group plasmids that determines killing of Klebsiella oxytoca.

    OpenAIRE

    Hengen, P N; Denicourt, D; Iyer, V N

    1992-01-01

    Transfer of the IncN group plasmid pCU1 from Escherichia coli to Klebsiella oxytoca by conjugation kills a large proportion (90 to 95%) of the recipients of plasmid DNA, whereas transfer to E. coli or even to the closely related Enterobacter aerogenes does not. Two regions, kikA and kikB, have been identified on pCU1 that contribute to the Kik (killing in klebsiellas) phenotype. We have localized the kikA region to 500 bp by deletion analysis and show by DNA-DNA hybridization that kikA is hig...

  10. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2011-03-01

    The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range.

  11. The Konrad mine. No more recourse to law?; Schacht Konrad. Auf dem Rechtsweg am Ende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-15

    The constitutional guarantee in Article 19, Para. 4 of the Basic Law, expressed as a fundamental right, implies that everybody whose rights were violated by public action may have recourse to law. These constitutional principles, of course, also apply to the execution of atomic laws and to resorting to courts of law against actions by federal and state authorities under the Atomic Energy Act. This guaranteed recourse to law may, even if possibilities of so-called immediate execution of decisions by authorities are employed, lead to proceedings dragging on for years but, in the end, will result in legal certainty. The plans approval decision about construction and operation of the Konrad Mine as a repository for radioactive waste was passed in May/June 2002 and, as expected, became the subject of litigation. In late March 2007, the Federal Administrative Court rejected the complaints on very detailed grounds. This constituted the end of the legal measures open under administrative law. In the German system of legal redress, this then leaves everybody the possibility to bring a complaint for unconstitutionality to the Federal Constitutional Court, provided a violation of basic rights is claimed. This approach was taken by 2 complaining parties. The complaint for unconstitutionality by the city of Salzgitter was rejected in a decision of non-acceptance in February 2008. On November 26, 2009, the Federal Constitutional Court reported that it had unanimously decided not to accept the complaint of unconstitutionality on November 10. This decision of non-acceptance by the Federal Constitutional Court must be seen both in a confirmatory light 'after Konrad' and in a sense of anticipation 'before Gorleben'. This completes the possibilities of having recourse to law in Germany. The only course remaining open is to appeal to the European Court of Human Rights, which is what the private prosecutor had announced earlier. (orig.)

  12. Model-based PEEP optimisation in mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Yeong Shiong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS patients require mechanical ventilation (MV for breathing support. Patient-specific PEEP is encouraged for treating different patients but there is no well established method in optimal PEEP selection. Methods A study of 10 patients diagnosed with ALI/ARDS whom underwent recruitment manoeuvre is carried out. Airway pressure and flow data are used to identify patient-specific constant lung elastance (Elung and time-variant dynamic lung elastance (Edrs at each PEEP level (increments of 5cmH2O, for a single compartment linear lung model using integral-based methods. Optimal PEEP is estimated using Elung versus PEEP, Edrs-Pressure curve and Edrs Area at minimum elastance (maximum compliance and the inflection of the curves (diminishing return. Results are compared to clinically selected PEEP values. The trials and use of the data were approved by the New Zealand South Island Regional Ethics Committee. Results Median absolute percentage fitting error to the data when estimating time-variant Edrs is 0.9% (IQR = 0.5-2.4 and 5.6% [IQR: 1.8-11.3] when estimating constant Elung. Both Elung and Edrs decrease with PEEP to a minimum, before rising, and indicating potential over-inflation. Median Edrs over all patients across all PEEP values was 32.2 cmH2O/l [IQR: 26.1-46.6], reflecting the heterogeneity of ALI/ARDS patients, and their response to PEEP, that complicates standard approaches to PEEP selection. All Edrs-Pressure curves have a clear inflection point before minimum Edrs, making PEEP selection straightforward. Model-based selected PEEP using the proposed metrics were higher than clinically selected values in 7/10 cases. Conclusion Continuous monitoring of the patient-specific Elung and Edrs and minimally invasive PEEP titration provide a unique, patient-specific and physiologically relevant metric to optimize PEEP selection with minimal disruption of MV therapy.

  13. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements for the planned Konrad repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Brennecke, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements for the planned Konrad repository. These requirements were developed, in accordance with the Safety Criteria of the Reactor Safety Commission, with the help of a site specific safety assessment; they are under the reservation of the plan approval procedure, which is still in progress. In developing waste acceptance requirements, the PTB fulfills one of its duties as the institute responsible for waste disposal and gives guidelines for waste conditioning to waste producers and conditioners. (orig.) [de

  14. Probabilistic safety analysis of waste transports to the Konrad repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    Potential radiological consequences, such as radiation exposure of persons and ground contamination, are calculated by using the accident consequence code UFOMOD for a 100% rail transportation, and for a 80% rail plus 20% road transportation in the region of KONRAD radioactive waste disposal site with five exposure pathways: cloud shine, inhalation, ground shine, ingestion and resuspension. The chances that a traffic accident without counter measures would lead to an effective dose, in 250 m down wind distance, equivalent to or exceeding the natural radiation exposure of one year are about 1 to 70 for a 40 years period. (A.B.). 4 refs., 4 figs

  15. Assessment of Factors Related to Auto-PEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Giuseppe; Tuzzo, Daniele; Rosano, Antonio; Testa, Marco; Grazioli, Michele; Pennestrì, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Guido; Marsilia, Paolo F; Tinnirello, Andrea; Berruto, Francesco; Fiorillo, Marialinda; Filippini, Matteo; Peratoner, Alberto; Minelli, Cosetta; Bernardini, Achille

    2016-02-01

    Previous physiological studies have identified factors that are involved in auto-PEEP generation. In our study, we examined how much auto-PEEP is generated from factors that are involved in its development. One hundred eighty-six subjects undergoing controlled mechanical ventilation with persistent expiratory flow at the beginning of each inspiration were enrolled in the study. Volume-controlled continuous mandatory ventilation with PEEP of 0 cm H2O was applied while maintaining the ventilator setting as chosen by the attending physician. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory airway occlusion maneuvers were performed to calculate respiratory mechanics, and tidal flow limitation was assessed by a maneuver of manual compression of the abdomen. The variable with the strongest effect on auto-PEEP was flow limitation, which was associated with an increase of 2.4 cm H2O in auto-PEEP values. Moreover, auto-PEEP values were directly related to resistance of the respiratory system and body mass index and inversely related to expiratory time/time constant. Variables that were associated with the breathing pattern (tidal volume, frequency minute ventilation, and expiratory time) did not show any relationship with auto-PEEP values. The risk of auto-PEEP ≥5 cm H2O was increased by flow limitation (adjusted odds ratio 17; 95% CI: 6-56.2), expiratory time/time constant ratio 15 cm H2O/L s (3; 1.3-6.9), age >65 y (2.8; 1.2-6.5), and body mass index >26 kg/m(2) (2.6; 1.1-6.1). Flow limitation, expiratory time/time constant, resistance of the respiratory system, and obesity are the most important variables that affect auto-PEEP values. Frequency expiratory time, tidal volume, and minute ventilation were not independently associated with auto-PEEP. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing auto-PEEP and its adverse effects should be primarily oriented to the variables that mainly affect auto-PEEP values. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Peep Põldsamm lõi kampa Skype'i loojatega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Peep Põldsamm asus juhtima Modesat Communications OÜd, mille omanik on Skype'i kaasasutajatele kuuluv investeerimisfirma Ambient Sound Investments. Modesat plaanib saavutada modemitehnoloogia rahvusvahelisel turul viieprotsendilise turuosa. Vt. samas: Põldsamm: olen uute äride ülesehitaja

  17. Automatic detection of AutoPEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang-Thang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic hyperinflation, hereafter called AutoPEEP (auto-positive end expiratory pressure with some slight language abuse, is a frequent deleterious phenomenon in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Although not readily quantifiable, AutoPEEP can be recognized on the expiratory portion of the flow waveform. If expiratory flow does not return to zero before the next inspiration, AutoPEEP is present. This simple detection however requires the eye of an expert clinician at the patient’s bedside. An automatic detection of AutoPEEP should be helpful to optimize care. Methods In this paper, a platform for automatic detection of AutoPEEP based on the flow signal available on most of recent mechanical ventilators is introduced. The detection algorithms are developed on the basis of robust non-parametric hypothesis testings that require no prior information on the signal distribution. In particular, two detectors are proposed: one is based on SNT (Signal Norm Testing and the other is an extension of SNT in the sequential framework. The performance assessment was carried out on a respiratory system analog and ex-vivo on various retrospectively acquired patient curves. Results The experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm provides relevant AutoPEEP detection on both simulated and real data. The analysis of clinical data has shown that the proposed detectors can be used to automatically detect AutoPEEP with an accuracy of 93% and a recall (sensitivity of 90%. Conclusions The proposed platform provides an automatic early detection of AutoPEEP. Such functionality can be integrated in the currently used mechanical ventilator for continuous monitoring of the patient-ventilator interface and, therefore, alleviate the clinician task.

  18. Peep Vain - the Best-known Training Guru in the Baltics = Peep Vain - Baltikumi tuntuim koolitusguru / Marit Sillavee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sillavee, Marit

    2006-01-01

    Koolitusfirma Vain & Partnerid osaniku Peep Vainu karjäärist ja koolitajatööst. Vt. samas: Spiritual Trainer toTop Sportsmen = Tippsportlaste vaimutreener ; Lead Billing in Estonia's Highest-Grossing Documentary = Eesti edukaima dokfilmi peategelane

  19. The Konrad mine. No more recourse to law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    The constitutional guarantee in Article 19, Para. 4 of the Basic Law, expressed as a fundamental right, implies that everybody whose rights were violated by public action may have recourse to law. These constitutional principles, of course, also apply to the execution of atomic laws and to resorting to courts of law against actions by federal and state authorities under the Atomic Energy Act. This guaranteed recourse to law may, even if possibilities of so-called immediate execution of decisions by authorities are employed, lead to proceedings dragging on for years but, in the end, will result in legal certainty. The plans approval decision about construction and operation of the Konrad Mine as a repository for radioactive waste was passed in May/June 2002 and, as expected, became the subject of litigation. In late March 2007, the Federal Administrative Court rejected the complaints on very detailed grounds. This constituted the end of the legal measures open under administrative law. In the German system of legal redress, this then leaves everybody the possibility to bring a complaint for unconstitutionality to the Federal Constitutional Court, provided a violation of basic rights is claimed. This approach was taken by 2 complaining parties. The complaint for unconstitutionality by the city of Salzgitter was rejected in a decision of non-acceptance in February 2008. On November 26, 2009, the Federal Constitutional Court reported that it had unanimously decided not to accept the complaint of unconstitutionality on November 10. This decision of non-acceptance by the Federal Constitutional Court must be seen both in a confirmatory light 'after Konrad' and in a sense of anticipation 'before Gorleben'. This completes the possibilities of having recourse to law in Germany. The only course remaining open is to appeal to the European Court of Human Rights, which is what the private prosecutor had announced earlier. (orig.)

  20. The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, V.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

  1. Control of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP for small animal ventilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Nunes Marcelo V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP for the mechanical ventilation of small animals is frequently obtained with water seals or by using ventilators developed for human use. An alternative mechanism is the use of an on-off expiratory valve closing at the moment when the alveolar pressure is equal to the target PEEP. In this paper, a novel PEEP controller (PEEP-new and the PEEP system of a commercial small-animal ventilator, both based on switching an on-off valve, are evaluated. Methods The proposed PEEP controller is a discrete integrator monitoring the error between the target PEEP and the airways opening pressure prior to the onset of an inspiratory cycle. In vitro as well as in vivo experiments with rats were carried out and the PEEP accuracy, settling time and under/overshoot were considered as a measure of performance. Results The commercial PEEP controller did not pass the tests since it ignores the airways resistive pressure drop, resulting in a PEEP 5 cmH2O greater than the target in most conditions. The PEEP-new presented steady-state errors smaller than 0.5 cmH2O, with settling times below 10 s and under/overshoot smaller than 2 cmH2O. Conclusion The PEEP-new presented acceptable performance, considering accuracy and temporal response. This novel PEEP generator may prove useful in many applications for small animal ventilators.

  2. Cardiorespiratory effects of balancing PEEP with intra-abdominal pressures during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Pankaj; Subramani, Yamini; Ravishankar, M; Sistla, Sarath C; Nagappa, Mahesh; Sivashanmugam, T

    2014-06-01

    Applying appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to corresponding intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) can improve gas exchange during capnoperitoneum without any hemodynamic effects. A total of 75 patients were randomly allocated to group 0PEEP (n=25), group 5PEEP (n=25), and group 10PEEP (n=25) according to the level of PEEP, in whom capnoperitoneum was created with IAP of 14, 8, and 14 mm Hg, respectively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded up to 30 minutes after capnoperitoneum. In 0PEEP group, mean end-tidal carbon dioxide demonstrated significant rise 2 minutes after capnoperitoneum and plateaued at about 15 minutes but remained at high level for up to 30 minutes when compared with the 5PEEP and 10PEEP groups (Phigher at 30 minutes when compared with 5PEEP (37.8±2.7 mm Hg) and 10PEEP (37.2±3.9 mm Hg) groups. The oxygenation was better preserved in 5PEEP and 10PEEP groups with significantly higher PaO2/Fio2 ratio. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output remained stable throughout the study in all the 3 groups. Application of appropriate PEEP corresponding to the IAP helped maintain CO2 elimination and improved oxygenation without any hemodynamic disturbance in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  3. Konrad transport study: Safety analysis of the transportation of radioactive waste to the Konrad waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1992-05-01

    For the purpose of the study the anticipated waste transport volume and the waste properties were analysed in detail. This included information on the transport containers, waste product properties, activity inventories and local dose rates of the waste packages being transported. The envisaged practical implementation, i.e. the transport arrangements including shunting operations at the Braunschweig marshalling yard and the Beddingen interchange station, were also included. The two shipping scenarios 100% transportation by rail and 80% transportation by rail, 20% by road, which could be considered to bound the real conditions, were analysed. The relevant transport regulations contain the requirements to be met by the transport of shipping units carrying radioactive waste. In addition, the ''Konrad preliminary waste acceptance criteria'' contain activity limits for waste packages being disposed of in conjunction with further requirements relating to the properties of waste products and waste containers. (orig./DG)

  4. 2008 annual meeting on nuclear technology: topical sessions. Pt. 2. Construction of the final repository KONRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeskamp, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary report by Dipl.-Ing. Holger Broeskamp on the Topical Session ''Constructing the Final Repository KONRAD'' of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Hamburg, May 27-29, 2008. (orig.)

  5. Peep Vain - koolitaja või vaid õhumüüja? / Siim Saidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saidla, Siim, 1981-

    2002-01-01

    Koolitusfirma Vain SMD juhatuse esimehest ja omanikust Peep Vainust räägivad tema koolitustel osalenud. Lisad: Peep Vainu CV; "Kui täna oleks 6. septembri hommik, siis teeksin teisiti" - katkendid Peep Vainu intervjuust iseendaga. Kommenteerivad Mare Pork ja Aune Past

  6. English for lawyers / Liina Soobik ; [preface: Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soobik, Liina, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Kasutatud tekstide autorid: Peep Pruks, Merit-Ene Ilja, Ilona Nurmela, Kristi Raba, Andreas Kangur, Raul Narits, Peeter Roosma, Kalle Merusk, Maret Altnurme, Jaan Ginter, Aare Tark, Norman Aas, Lasse Lehis, Hannes Veinla, Jaan Sootak, Eerik Kergandberg, Paul Varul, Jaanus Ots, Urve Liin, Irene Kull, Merle Muda, Gaabriel Tavits, Andres Vutt, Kadri Siibak, Ellen Ridaste, Heiki Pisuke, Andrus Siibak

  7. Konrad transport study: safety analysis of the transport of radioactive waste to the Konrad waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1992-01-01

    A safety analysis has been conducted for the transport of non-heat-generating (low- to medium level) radioactive waste to the planned Konrad final repository in Germany. The results of the risk analysis show that it is unlikely that transport accidents with a release of radioactive substances will occur in the region of the final repository during the operating period of approximately 40 years. Because of the lower accident risk of transport by rail as compared with road, the envisaged high fraction of rail transport of the entire transport volume has a beneficial effect. In the case of an accident with a release of radioactive substances, the potential radiological consequences, in general, decrease rapidly with distance; starting from around 250 m by a factor of 10 up to about 1200 m and a further factor of 10 at a distance of about 6200 m. The releases associated with accidents are frequently so small that the potential radiation exposure, even without countermeasures, is below the natural radiation exposure for one year, at a distance of about 250 m from the accident location: this is true for 9 out of 10 accidents with goods trains and 19 out of 20 accidents with trucks. With the hypothetical assumption of continuous operation of the repository, a potential effective dose of 50 mSv without countermeasures would result, on average, once every 500,000 years at a distance of 250 m in the direction of atmospheric dispersion for the scenario 100% rail transport and once every 400,000 years for the scenario 80% rail/20% road. 50 mSv corresponds to the design guideline exposure of 28 Para. 3 of the German Radiological Protection Ordinance and the annual dose limit for persons occupationally exposed to radiation. The expected frequencies of corresponding accident consequences are considerably lower for the Braunschweig marshalling yard. It can thus be concluded that waste transport does not pose any major additional risk to the region of the repository. (author)

  8. Effect of intraoperative PEEP application on colonic anastomoses healing: An experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Mehmet; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Bilgili, Hasan; Türkoğlu, Yıldız; Karadeniz, Ümit; Aydoğ, Gülden; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Özer, İlter; Akoğlu, Musa

    2015-07-27

    This study aimed to assess the effect of intraoperative PEEP intervention on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rabbits. Thirty-two New Zealand type male rabbits were divided into two groups of sixteen animals each. Following ventilation with tracheostomy, colonic resection and anastomosis were performed in both groups. While 10 cm H2O PEEP level was applied in Group I (PEEP), Group II (ZEEP) was ventilated without PEEP throughout the surgery. Half of the both PEEP and ZEEP group animals were killed on the third postoperative day, while the remaining half on the seventh. Anastomotic bursting pressures, the tissue concentrations in hydroxyproline, and histological assessments were performed. Besides, intraoperative oxygen saturation and postoperative arterial blood gas parameters were also compared. On the first postoperative day, both arterial oxygen tension (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) in the PEEP group were significantly higher than in the ZEEP group. On the seventh postoperative day, the bursting pressures of the anastomoses were significantly higher in the PEEP group, however the hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in the PEEP group than that in the ZEEP group. At day 7, PEEP group was significantly associated with increased neoangiogenesis compared with the ZEEP group. The anastomotic healing process is positively influenced by the intraoperative PEEP application.

  9. Effects of peep on lung injury, pulmonary function, systemic circulation and mortality in animals with uninjured lungs-a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, Anna Geke; Pisani, Luigi; Chaves, Renato Carneiro de Freitas; Amorim, Thiago Chaves; Cherpanath, Thomas; Determann, Rogier; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Paulus, Frederique; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Pelosi, Paolo; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Schultz, Marcus J.; Serpa Neto, Ary

    2018-01-01

    2O, in the 'high PEEP' or 'PEEP' arms, and in the 'low PEEP' or 'no PEEP' arms, respectively. Definitions used for lung injury were quite diverse, as were other outcome measures. The effects of PEEP, at any level, on lung injury was not straightforward, with some trials showing less injury with

  10. The German Final Repository Konrad for Low and Intermediate Level Waste with Negligible Heat Generation - Water Law Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetsch, W.; Grundler, D.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey on the conceptual realization of the requirements due to water law aspects within the license the KONRAD repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in Germany is given [1]. The regulatory decision for the implementation and operation of the repository KONRAD includes, among other things, water law issues. In particular, the KONRAD license includes waste requirements concerning non-radioactive hazardous material (waste package constituents) which have to be considered producing KONRAD waste packages. The intended philosophy of waste acceptance and waste package quality assurance measures to be considered by the KONRAD site operator as well as by the waste producer will be presented. It will demonstrate the selected procedure of the waste declaration and acceptance and describe the structure and logic of tools and aids to comply with the legal requirements of the license and its collateral clause issued under water law. (authors)

  11. Lugejate valik : Peep Vain on parim / Marko Liibak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liibak, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Aripaev.ee ja ajaleht Äripäev korraldasid lugejate seas küsitluse, mille käigus valiti Eesti parimaks koolitajaks Vain & Partnerite omanik ning koolituskonsultant Peep Vain. Teisele kohale tuli koolitaja, juhtimiskonsultant ja nõustaja ning Tallinn Ülikooli kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork. Järgnesid Ülo Vihma, Indrek Saul, Tiit Valm, Mihkel Pärjamäe ning Alexander Kotchubei

  12. Requirements on radioactive waste for disposal (waste acceptance requirements as of February 2017). Konrad repository; Anforderungen an endzulagernde radioaktive Abfaelle (Endlagerungsbedingungen, Stand: Februar 2017). Endlager Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, Karin; Moeller, Kai (eds.)

    2017-02-10

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. These requirements were developed on the basis of the results of a site-specific safety assessment. They include general requirements on waste packages and specific requirements on waste forms and packagings as well as limitations for activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. Requirements on documentation and delivery of waste packages were additionally included.

  13. Konrad Mäe medal Laurentsiusele ja A. D.-le

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Konrad Mäe medal ja preemia 1999. a. loomingu eest anti 19. XI Rüütelkonna hoones üle maalikunstnik Lauri Sillakule (Laurentsius) ja Anna Daniela Saalistele (A. D.) Tallinna Linnagaleriis toimunud näitusel eksponeeritud suureformaadiliste maalikompositsioonide 'The End', 'Aadam' ja 'Eeva' eest

  14. Hyperdynamic sepsis modifies a PEEP-mediated redistribution in organ blood flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersten, A.D.; Gnidec, A.A.; Rutledge, F.S.; Sibbald, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in organ blood flow (Q) produced by 20 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were measured before and after the induction of hyperdynamic sepsis in nine unanesthetized sheep. During the baseline nonseptic study, PEEP was associated with a 9% fall in thermodilution-measured systemic Q, although arterial perfusing pressures were unaffected. Concurrently, microsphere-derived Q was maintained to the brain and heart, but fell to liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, large intestine, and gastrocnemius. Twenty-four to 36 h after cecal ligation and perforation, a pre-PEEP septic study demonstrated an increase in all of the cardiac index (CI) and systemic O2 delivery when compared with the nonseptic study, whereas whole-body O2 extraction was depressed. Although PEEP depressed systemic Q during the septic study to a greater extent than during the nonseptic study (p less than 0.02), absolute organ Q fell only to pancreas, liver, and spleen. Relative to the simultaneous fall in the CI, Q to some splanchnic organs was not depressed by PEEP to the same magnitude in the septic as in the nonseptic study. When an infusion of Ringer's lactate subsequently restored systemic Q to pre-PEEP septic levels, individual flows that had been depressed by PEEP were not restored. Furthermore, Q-kidney continued to fall, such that the postfluid Q-kidney (-19%) was significantly less than was demonstrated in the pre-PEEP septic study. We postulate that differences noted in the distribution of organ Q between the nonseptic and hyperdynamic septic studies after the application of PEEP were secondary to the vasculopathy of sepsis and/or an alteration in the function of specific organ microcirculations. However, these data do not address whether the changes in organ Q distribution after a PEEP-mediated depression in systemic Q during sepsis significantly restricted tissue DO2

  15. Optimizing PEEP by Electrical Impedance Tomography in a Porcine Animal Model of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhausen, Nadine; Biener, Ingeborg; Rossaint, Rolf; Follmann, Andreas; Bleilevens, Christian; Braunschweig, Till; Leonhardt, Steffen; Czaplik, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation is necessary in diverse clinical circumstances. Especially in the context of ARDS, so-called protective ventilation strategies must be followed. It is already known that PEEP might enhance oxygenation in ARDS. However, determining the optimal PEEP settings in clinical routines is challenging. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising technique with which to adjust ventilator settings. We investigated whether the combination of different EIT parameters, namely the global inhomogeneity and hyperdistension indices, may lead to a feasible and safe PEEP setting. ARDS was induced by a double-hit approach in 18 pigs weighing, on average, 34.8 ± 3.97 kg. First, a surfactant washout was conducted; second, the tidal volume was increased to 20 mL/kg body weight, triggering a ventilator-induced lung injury. Subsequently, pigs were randomized to either the EIT or control groups, followed by an observation time of 24 h. In the control group, PEEP was set according to the ARDS network table. In the EIT group, a PEEP trial was conducted to determine an appropriate PEEP. At defined time points, hemodynamic measures, ventilation parameters, and EIT recordings, as well as blood samples, were taken. After euthanization, lungs were removed for subsequent histopathological and cytological examination. The combination of PEEP and F IO 2 differed between groups, although respiratory compliance, gas exchange, and histopathological examinations, as well as hemodynamics, did not show any statistical differences between the EIT and control groups. However, in the control group, the PEEP/F IO 2 settings followed the given coupling; in the EIT group, divergent individual combinations of PEEP and F IO 2 ranges occurred. PEEP setting by EIT facilitates a more individual ventilation therapy. However, in our relatively short ARDS observation period of 24 h, no significant differences appeared in common clinical parameters compared with a control group. Copyright

  16. Double-lumen tubes and auto-PEEP during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, J; Ott, M; Karzai, W; Grimm, A; Wirth, S; Schumann, S; Loop, T

    2016-01-01

    Double-lumen tubes (DLT) are routinely used to enable one-lung-ventilation (OLV) during thoracic anaesthesia. The flow-dependent resistance of the DLT's bronchial limb may be high as a result of its narrow inner diameter and length, and thus potentially contribute to an unintended increase in positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP). We therefore studied the impact of adult sized DLTs on the dynamic auto-PEEP during OLV. In this prospective clinical study, dynamic auto-PEEP was determined in 72 patients undergoing thoracic surgery, with right- and left-sided DLTs of various sizes. During OLV, air trapping was provoked by increasing inspiration to expiration ratio from 1:2 to 2:1 (five steps). Based on measured flow rate, airway pressure (Paw) and bronchial pressure (Pbronch), the pressure gradient across the DLT (ΔPDLT) and the total auto-PEEP in the respiratory system (i.e. the lungs, the DLT and the ventilator circuit) were determined. Subsequently the DLT's share in total auto-PEEP was calculated. ΔPDLT was 2.3 (0.7) cm H2O over the entire breathing cycle. At the shortest expiratory time the mean total auto-PEEP was 2.9 (1.5) cm H2O (range 0-5.9 cm H2O). The DLT caused 27 to 31% of the total auto-PEEP. Size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb did not impact auto-PEEP significantly. Although the DLT contributes to the overall auto-PEEP, its contribution is small and independent of size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb. The choice of DLT does not influence the risk of auto-PEEP during OLV to a clinically relevant extent. DRKS00005648. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Excavation response in respect of the repository concept for the Konrad mine as seen by the mining authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehl, W.

    1989-01-01

    In connection with the securing technical check-up of the repository concept for the Konrad mine the Mining Authority of Lower Saxony was asked for a comment on the mining concern of the Konrad plan by the Ministry for Environmental Protection of Lower Saxony. Referring to excavation response the valuation of rock-mechanical data, efficiency of the dams, underground convergences and mining subsidence are important to the realisation of the repository concept

  18. Voyeuristi alla finestra: Peeping Tom, dalla leggenda al cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Staiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with voyeuristic attitudes and ʹscopic powerʹ, i.e. the power to gaze at forbidden things and people without being seen. Indeed, its object par excellence coincides with female nakedness, while its subject is an invisible masculinity, which takes delight in looking. The paper is based on a study of the Anglo-Saxon legend of Lady Godiva and it is strictly connected with the subject of my dissertation in progress – metaphorical and physical blindness in 18th century French literature (since several voyeurs got blind because of their instincts and desires. Lady Godiva’s voyeur, called Peeping Tom, is struck blind for having looked out of his window and seen the noblewoman riding naked. This legend has inspired many artists in different fields, and nowadays its heroine is very famous and venerated. In particular, this essay focuses on the relation between this legend and compulsive looking (or scopophilia in two renowned films, Rear Window by Alfred Hitchcock, and Peeping Tom by Michael Powell.

  19. The tectonics of the area around the Konrad Mine (Salzgitter) based on reflection seismic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaritz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Reflection seismic investigations were carried out to determine the safety of the final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. The layer thickness since the Zechstein and the position of the most important geological horizons are described. On the basis of the seismic sections, the Thiede and Vechelde-Broistedt salt structures and the fault systems of the Konrad Graben and Immendorf fault are briefly analysed. The development of the structures in this area is explained by a combination of halokinesis and epirogenic-tectonic processes. The iron-ore deposit is syngenetic with the surrounding salt stocks. This has to be taken into consideration for a reconstruction of the paleogeography and assessment of the deposit. (orig.) [de

  20. The Konrad mine - the planned German repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.

    1990-07-01

    This report deals with the planned Konrad repository and describes the current state of affairs. In particular, the technical concept is explained and a survey of the radioactive waste intended for disposal is given. The safety assessments which have been made, including the derivation of preliminary waste acceptance requirements, are described and the principles of the waste package control are outlined. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Control of materials harmful to water in the German Konrad repository - 16125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, Karin; Brennecke, Peter; Steyer, Stephan; Gruendler, Detlef; Boetsch, Wilma; Haider, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid a pollution of the near surface ground water during the post closure phase of the Konrad repository the acceptable amount of material harmful to water in the radioactive waste is restricted. For this purpose the KONRAD plan approval order includes waste requirements referring to the German water law ('water law permission'). In a first part of this contribution the water law permission for the KONRAD repository is introduced. This permission contains a list of materials harmful to water with the respective limitations in mass and many instructions and proposals regarding the registering and balancing of these materials as well as quality assurance aspects. The second part deals with the implementation of the water law permission in the waste acceptance criteria. The waste producer has to describe his waste in a standardized way with respect to the material composition. The operator of the repository has to check this description and to register and balance the materials and substances harmful to water. This procedure is based on a standardized list of materials and a list of containers. In the third part quality control measures used for the proof of the compliance with the acceptance criteria (with respect to the water law permission) are described. In particular objective of the quality control, possible quality control options and acceptable margins are dealt with. (authors)

  2. [Jan Kusberg, Kleine Geschichte St. Petersburgs. (Regensburg, 2009) ; Ingrid Bohn. Kleine Geschichte Stockholms. (Regensburg, 2008) ; Konrad Dittrich. Kleine Lübecker Stadtgeschichte. (Regensburg, 2007)] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Jan Kusberg, Kleine Geschichte St. Petersburgs. (Regensburg, 2009) ; Ingrid Bohn. Kleine Geschichte Stockholms. (Regensburg, 2008) ; Konrad Dittrich. Kleine Lübecker Stadtgeschichte. (Regensburg, 2007)

  3. Peep Aaviksoo kukutas EMT-kesksus / Jaan Männik ; interv. Vallo Toomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Jaan, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    EMT nõukogu esimees ja Eesti Telekomi juhatuse esimees Jaan Männik vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Peep Aaviksoo lahkumisega Eesti Mobiiltelefoni juhi kohalt. Vt. samas: Aaviksoo selgitab lahkumise põhjusi. Peep Aaviksoo kiri. Kommenteerivad Radiolinja Eesti juhatuse esimees Sami Seppänen, Tele2 Eesti juhatuse esimees Üllar Jaaksoo, Ühispanga analüütik Sven Kunsing

  4. Requirements on waste forms for the planned Konrad repository based on criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1988-02-01

    In the framework of the safety analyses for the planned Konrad repository it has been investigated whether a criticality incident may be possible during the operational phase or in the post-operational phase. The analysis has shown that the criticality safety is ensured by limitation of a mass concentration of the fissile material in the waste form group and by determination of a maximum permissible mass of fissile material per waste package. The resulting requirements of the waste packages, including a mixture in the cross-section of an emplacement room, are explained. (orig.) [de

  5. Technical and logistic provisions for the delivery of radioactive wastes in the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeppinghaus, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of radioactive waste delivery to the final repository Konrad is planned for 2019. The main issue for the technical and logistic provisions is the development of a concept for the transport of the licensed radioactive waste containers to the site, including a turning concept for cylindrical waste forms and planning, construction and manufacture of transport equipment. Further issues include a logistic concept considering specific boundary conditions as administrative processes, priorities, special features of the delivering institutions and technical requirements of the repository.

  6. Safety analysis of the transportation of radioactive waste to the Konrad final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentuc, F.N.; Bruecher, W.

    2010-01-01

    A transport risk assessment study has been conducted for transport of radioactive waste with negligible heat-generation to the German final repository Konrad. This study is a revision of the former Konrad Transport Study performed by GRS in 1991 implementing updated waste data among other improved methods and assumptions for the purpose of a more realistic approach to risk assessment. The first part of the transport risk assessment study concerns the radiological consequences from normal (accident-free) transportation of radioactive material, i.e. the radiation exposure of transport personnel and the public. Based on the assessed detailed information on transport arrangements and on the average number and radiological characteristics of waste packages the maximum annual effective doses for the representative persons were estimated. The risk associated with transport incidents and accidents has been quantified for the area within a radius of 25 km around the repository site. The probabilistic method adopted in this study considers parameters as the frequency and severity of railway or road accidents, characteristics of radioactive waste and transport packagings and the frequency of atmospheric dispersion conditions. From a large set of parameter combinations the spectrum of potential radiological consequences and of the associated probability of occurrence was assessed. (orig.)

  7. Effect of PEEP, blood volume, and inspiratory hold maneuvers on venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Moller, Per W; Weber, Alberto; Bloch, Andreas; Bloechlinger, Stefan; Haenggi, Matthias; Sondergaard, Soren; Jakob, Stephan M; Magder, Sheldon; Takala, Jukka

    2016-09-01

    According to Guyton's model of circulation, mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and resistance to venous return (RVR) determine venous return. MSFP has been estimated from inspiratory hold-induced changes in RAP and blood flow. We studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and blood volume on venous return and MSFP in pigs. MSFP was measured by balloon occlusion of the right atrium (MSFPRAO), and the MSFP obtained via extrapolation of pressure-flow relationships with airway occlusion (MSFPinsp_hold) was extrapolated from RAP/pulmonary artery flow (QPA) relationships during inspiratory holds at PEEP 5 and 10 cmH2O, after bleeding, and in hypervolemia. MSFPRAO increased with PEEP [PEEP 5, 12.9 (SD 2.5) mmHg; PEEP 10, 14.0 (SD 2.6) mmHg, P = 0.002] without change in QPA [2.75 (SD 0.43) vs. 2.56 (SD 0.45) l/min, P = 0.094]. MSFPRAO decreased after bleeding and increased in hypervolemia [10.8 (SD 2.2) and 16.4 (SD 3.0) mmHg, respectively, P waterfall. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Evaluation of lung and chest wall mechanics during anaesthesia using the PEEP-step method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P; Stenqvist, O; Lundin, S

    2018-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are common. Between patients there are differences in lung and chest wall mechanics. Individualised mechanical ventilation based on measurement of transpulmonary pressures would be a step forward. A previously described method evaluates lung and chest wall mechanics from a change of ΔPEEP and calculation of change in end-expiratory lung volume (ΔEELV). The aim of the present study was to validate this PEEP-step method (PSM) during general anaesthesia by comparing it with the conventional method using oesophageal pressure (PES) measurements. In 24 lung healthy subjects (BMI 18.5-32), three different sizes of PEEP steps were performed during general anaesthesia and ΔEELVs were calculated. Transpulmonary driving pressure (ΔPL) for a tidal volume equal to each ΔEELV was measured using PES measurements and compared to ΔPEEP with limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). ΔPL calculated with both methods was compared with a Bland-Altman plot. Mean differences between ΔPEEP and ΔPL were mechanical properties among the lung healthy patients stresses the need for individualised ventilator settings based on measurements of lung and chest wall mechanics. The agreement between ΔPLs measured by the two methods during general anaesthesia suggests the use of the non-invasive PSM in this patient population. NCT 02830516. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Research project for the determination of the suitability of the mine ''Konrad'' as a final repository for radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A feasibility study of the Konrad mine for its use as a final repository for radioactive waste products was performed in 1978, 1979 and 1980. The report summarizes the most important results gained in the fields of geosciences and technical aspects of disposal operations

  10. Dosimetric and QA aspects of Konrad inverse planning system for commissioning intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Shrikant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT planning is performed using the Konrad inverse treatment planning system and the delivery of the treatment by using Siemens Oncor Impression Plus linear accelerator (step and shoot, which has been commissioned recently. The basic beam data required for commissioning the system were generate. The quality assurance of relative and absolute dose distribution was carried out before clinical implementation. The salient features of Konrad planning system, like dependence of grid size on dose volume histogram (DVH, number of intensity levels and step size in sequencer, are studied quantitatively and qualitatively. To verify whether the planned dose [from treatment planning system (TPS] and delivered dose are the same, the absolute dose at a point is determined using CC01 ion chamber and the axial plane dose distribution is carried out using Kodak EDR2 in conjunction with OmniPro IMRT Phantom and OmniPro IMRT software from Scanditronix Wellhofer. To obtain the optimum combination in leaf sequencer module, parameters like number of intensity levels, step size are analyzed. The difference between pixel values of optimum fluence profile and the fluence profile obtained for various combinations of number of intensity levels and step size is compared and plotted. The calculations of the volume of any RT structure in the dose volume histogram are compared using grid sizes 3 mm and 4 mm. The measured and planned dose at a point showed good agreement (< 3% except for a few cases wherein the chamber was placed in a relatively high dose gradient region. The axial plane dose distribution using film dosimetry shows excellent agreement (correlation coefficient> 0.97 in all the cases. In the leaf sequencer module, the combination of number of intensity level 7 with step size of 3 is the optimal solution for obtaining deliverable segments. The RT structure volume calculation is found to be more accurate with grid size of

  11. PEEP-ZEEP technique: cardiorespiratory repercussions in mechanically ventilated patients submitted to a coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PEEP-ZEEP technique is previously described as a lung inflation through a positive pressure enhancement at the end of expiration (PEEP, followed by rapid lung deflation with an abrupt reduction in the PEEP to 0 cmH2O (ZEEP, associated to a manual bilateral thoracic compression. Aim To analyze PEEP-ZEEP technique's repercussions on the cardio-respiratory system in immediate postoperative artery graft bypass patients. Methods 15 patients submitted to a coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG were enrolled prospectively, before, 10 minutes and 30 minutes after the technique. Patients were curarized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. To perform PEEP-ZEEP technique, saline solution was instilled into their orotracheal tube than the patient was reconnected to the ventilator. Afterwards, the PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O throughout 5 ventilatory cycles and than the PEEP was rapidly reduced to 0 cmH2O along with manual bilateral thoracic compression. At the end of the procedure, tracheal suction was accomplished. Results The inspiratory peak and plateau pressures increased during the procedure (p Conclusion The PEEP-ZEEP technique seems to be safe, without alterations on hemodynamic variables, produces elevated expiratory flow and seems to be an alternative technique for the removal of bronchial secretions in patients submitted to a CABG.

  12. Sediment geology and halokinetic processes in the Upper Jurassic of Konrad mine, Bleckenstedter Mulde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomann, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Konrad mine is the only North German mine that is located in the Upper Jurassic. Lithologically, the sediment rock of the mine is not the same as in the rest of the Jurassic of Niedersachsen. The rock strata of the Bleckenstein trough are a special kind of facies. The report attempts to describe the effects of halokinetic movements on facies distribution. It describes the sedimentary and diagenetic, history of the whole Oxfordian and parts of the Kimmeridgian in the mine field on the basis of selected underground roadways. This necessitates a sufficient number of test points and sampled material. Sampling and mapping were carried out in the mine between January and July 1989. (orig.). 43 figs., 3 tabs [de

  13. Judicial progress in Germany's nuclear waste disposal policy the Konrad repository decisions of 26 march 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhne, G.

    2007-01-01

    Its exists three final repository sites in Germany, an overview of the status of these sites is necessary to understand concretely the situation. Morsleben, is actually the only final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. Gorleben is the site of a salt dome which is under exploration as an eventual repository for high level radioactive waste but the study is under a decree of exploration moratorium of at least three years, in order to allow for investigation into conceptual and safety issues. The Konrad ore mine is the site under preparation for a final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. The present article will briefly address three aspects of the court reasoning: the legal character of the plan approval notice (act of discretion or strict execution of laws), the necessity of planning and safety aspects. (N.C.)

  14. Differential Effects of Intraoperative Positive End-expiratory Pressure (PEEP) on Respiratory Outcome in Major Abdominal Surgery Versus Craniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Myrthe A C; Ladha, Karim S; Melo, Marcos F Vidal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined whether (1) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has a protective effect on the risk of major postoperative respiratory complications in a cohort of patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies, and (2) the effect of PEEP is differed......: Within the entire study population (major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies), we found an association between application of PEEP ≥5 cmH2O and a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications compared with PEEP 5 cmH2O was associated with a significant lower...... undergoing major abdominal surgery. Our data suggest that default mechanical ventilator settings should include PEEP of 5-10 cmH2O during major abdominal surgery....

  15. New system for the container conditioning of liquid waste in the German future finale repository 'Schacht Konrad'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, H.

    2012-01-01

    The full text of publication follows. On-site the NPP Gundremmingen liquid radioactive waste from the NPP water treatment plant is stored in resin or concentrate collecting tanks. These liquid wastes are cemented in containers in order to temporarily store them in the Bavarian interim storage Mitterteich until they are transported into final repository in 'Schacht Konrad'. With this new system liquid radioactive waste is for the first time conditioned directly into containers destined for final repository in 'Schacht Konrad'. Thus, a very secure and sustainable procedure was developed which also provides high profitability. The conditioning plant for resins and concentrate extracts the liquid waste from the respective collecting tank and transports the waste to the separation tank. This separation tank is dimensioned to ensure complete filling of a Konrad container with only one batch. Within the tank there is the option to adjust the suspensions solids content by either extracting supernatant water or by adding de-ionised water. The specific activity is analysed and after the radiologic data and the solids content are available, the containers are cemented. The required amount of cement is based on the solids content and is automatically added. In the mixer, cement and primary waste suspension are mixed. This mixture is filled into the Konrad container via the allocator. The allocator is a funnel-shaped inlet equipped with a movable tube which makes sure the mixture is evenly spread and also ensures optimal filling of the Konrad container. While filling is ongoing, the container is covered by a lowerable splash guard to avoid contamination. The room situation in Gundremmingen and the specific activities of the primary waste suspension make it necessary to disperse the plant to several rooms. Main components such as separation tanks and pumps are installed in shielded rooms. All activities are conducted remotely controlled and are supervised from the central

  16. Raudna põhikooli spordihoone Heimtalis = Raudna School Sports Facility in Heimtali / Peep Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Peep, 1936-

    2009-01-01

    2008. a. valminud spordihoonest, mille autor on Peep Jänes, projekteerija GS-Dis, sisekujundajad Signe ja Gildardas Stokas. Spordihoone rajati 1860. a. ehitatud mõisa ringtalli välismüüri sisealale ja restaureeriti ajalooline ringmüür

  17. Ventilation area measured with eit in order to optimize peep settings in mechanically ventilated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankman, P; Groot Jebbink, E; Preis, C; Bikker, I.; Gommers, D.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which can be used to visualize ventilation. Ventilation will be measured by impedance changes due to ventilation. OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to optimize PEEP settings based on the ventilation area of

  18. Regulations for the disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad repository - 59105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hagen G.; Bandt, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    In Germany low / medium level waste, which is classified here as radioactive waste with negligible heat generation, will be disposed of in the Konrad underground repository. The construction and the operation of this nuclear facility required authorization by different fields of law, i.e., by nuclear law, mining law and water law. Whereas the nuclear law considers solely radiological aspects, the relevant permit issued according to the water law considers the impact of radioactive as well as non-radioactive harmful substances. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) as operator of the repository and permit holder has (a) to record the disposed of radioactive and non-radioactive harmful substances and (b) to balance them. To meet these requirements BfS has developed a concept, which led to a site specific solution. Threshold values were defined for recording and for balancing the harmful substances. It had to be verified that by disposal of radioactive waste packages according to these values an adverse effect on the near-surface groundwater can be excluded. The Lower Saxony Water Management, Coastal Protection and Nature Conservation Agency (NLWKN) as the responsible water law regulatory authority approved the operator's concept as appropriate to comply with the requirements of the Water Law Permit. Nonetheless, collateral clauses were imposed to assure this. (authors)

  19. Geotechnical conditions at the Konrad mine. Excavation of drifts and rooms in squeezing rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Missal, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The Konrad mine is a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter in Germany. The mine will be rebuilt in the next few years into a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. During this conversion drifts and rooms for operating the repository are extended and newly constructed at shaft 2 on the 2nd floor level (depth 850 m). The planned useful life for the rooms is 40 years. In this period, maintenance-free operation has to be ensured. The bedrock is characterized by complex geology. In addition, the mudstone layers show partly a squeezing behavior. For the proof of stability and usability, the observation method is applied. Therefore numerical prediction models are necessary, which can reproduce the three dimensional stress redistribution and convergences in the rock mass. These numerical calculations are flanked by an extensive geotechnical measurement program in order to detect the real behavior of the bedrock. The underground support system consists of a slotted lining with sliding anchors in the areas where squeezing rock is present. This allows converging of the bedrock. During the convergence period a bearing ring is formed within the rock mass. Afterwards the final lining is created in reinforced shotcrete. One major issue is the assessment of the convergence period taking into account the numerical prediction model and the measurement program.

  20. CERN Library | Konrad Kleinknecht presents: "Risiko Energiewende: Wege aus der Sackgasse" | 19 November

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2015-01-01

    Thursday, 19 November 2015 at 4 p.m. CERN Library (52-1-052) Coffee will be served at 3.30 p.m.   The opting-out from the nuclear energy programme in Germany was hastily decided in the summer of 2011. Now it has become evident that there are no realistic plans for the conversion of the energy supply infrastructure in the foreseen ten-years time frame. Time is too short to reorganise our whole energy distribution system and consequently our economy. What is missing is a solid empirical base to tackle the issues of the reliability of supply, of the affordability, of the economical impact and social justice. Therefore, this conversion risks to be a failure, due to its contradictions. In his book, Konrad Kleinknecht tries to identify problems and to find solutions. For him, the following questions arise:  how far can we cover part of the energy provision through wind and solar energy? What sources of energy are efficient an...

  1. Bussijuhtide kindrali rasked päevad / Peep Peterson ; interv. Tanel Raig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Transpordi- ja Teetöötajate Ametiühingu esimees Peep Peterson vastab bussijuhtide ja tööandjate vahelisi lahkhelisid, ametiühinguliikumist ning kokkuleppe sõlmimist puudutavatele küsimustele. Kommenteerivad: Villem Tori. Streikija iseloomuga raske vastane; Henn Pärn. Peterson saavutas maksimumide maksimumi; Harri Taliga. Ametiühingu liidritel erinevad arusaamad. Lisa: Fakte eluloost

  2. Effect of patient position and PEEP on hepatic, portal and central venous pressures during liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, L; Rizell, M; Houltz, E; Karlsen, K; Wiklund, J; Odenstedt Hergès, H; Stenqvist, O; Lundin, S

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that blood loss during liver resection may be reduced if central venous pressure (CVP) is kept at a low level. This can be achieved by changing patient position but it is not known how position changes affect portal (PVP) and hepatic (HVP) venous pressures. The aim of the study was to assess if changes in body position result in clinically significant changes in these pressures. We studied 10 patients undergoing liver resection. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CVP were measured using fluid-filled catheters, PVP and HVP with tip manometers. Measurements were performed in the horizontal, head up and head down tilt position with two positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. A 10° head down tilt at PEEP 5 cm H(2) O significantly increased CVP (11 ± 3 to 15 ± 3 mmHg) and MAP (72 ± 8 to 76 ± 8 mmHg) while head up tilt at PEEP 5 cm H(2) O decreased CVP (11 ± 3 to 6 ± 4 mmHg) and MAP (72 ± 8 to 63 ± 7 mmHg) with minimal changes in transhepatic venous pressures. Increasing PEEP from 5 to 10 resulted in small increases, around 1 mmHg in CVP, PVP and HVP. There was no significant correlation between changes in CVP vs. PVP and HVP during head up tilt and only a weak correlation between CVP and HVP by head down tilt. Changes of body position resulted in marked changes in CVP but not in HVPs. Head down or head up tilt to reduce venous pressures in the liver may therefore not be effective measures to reduce blood loss during liver surgery. 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  3. Development of a central final repository management for the coordination of the waste for Schacht Konrad from public authorities; Aufbau des zentralen Endlagerungsmanagements fuer die Koordination der Konrad-Abfaelle aus der oeffentlichen Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffunder, Iris; Dominke-Bendix, Carola; Waldek, Achim [Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Betriebsstaette Karlsruhe; Wunn, Christoph [admoVa Consulting GmbH, Bad Camberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The central final repository management is supposed to fulfill the following tasks: active collaboration of Konrad contract draft, signing of internal contracts and agreements, cooperation contract with GNS, cooperation with coordination authorities, inventory taking of wastes (existing inventory and prognosis) and interim storage capacities of public authorities, development of planning and management software, optimization of the final repository documentation, container management, logistics concept, long-term disposal planning and prognosis, planning and coordination of the annual waste amount, management and documentation of disposed waste allocation, coordination of transport schedules, consulting service for waste obligations (final repository requirements, product control, documentation).

  4. Politics and legislation related to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Socio-juridical case study on the Konrad ore mine; Politik und Recht der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Mit einer rechtssoziologischen Fallstudie ueber Schacht Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pape, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The energy revolution leads not only to build more wind turbines and the much-discussed circuit line from northern to southern Germany. Instead, the now old energy form of nuclear power needs to be handled. The disposal is one of the biggest unsolved issues of our time. In the conflict between energy and environment policies, the radioactive contamination of nuclear energy must be disposed of. The book is a highly topical compendium of legal and political aspects, which are not sufficiently taken into account because of their specialty in the public discourse. Based on the case study Konrad almost all legal and political priorities are treated very understandable.

  5. Development of a central final repository management for the coordination of the waste for Schacht Konrad from public authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, Iris; Dominke-Bendix, Carola; Waldek, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The central final repository management is supposed to fulfill the following tasks: active collaboration of Konrad contract draft, signing of internal contracts and agreements, cooperation contract with GNS, cooperation with coordination authorities, inventory taking of wastes (existing inventory and prognosis) and interim storage capacities of public authorities, development of planning and management software, optimization of the final repository documentation, container management, logistics concept, long-term disposal planning and prognosis, planning and coordination of the annual waste amount, management and documentation of disposed waste allocation, coordination of transport schedules, consulting service for waste obligations (final repository requirements, product control, documentation).

  6. Transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad: Radiation exposure resulting from normal transport and radiological risks from transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposures of members of critical groups of the general population and of transport personnel resulting from normal transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad have been evaluated in detail. By applying probabilistic safety assessment techniques radiological risks from transport accidents have been analysed by quantifying potential radiation exposures and contaminations of the biosphere in connection with their expected frequencies of occurrence. The Konrad transport study concentrates on the local region of the waste repository, where all transports converge. (orig.) [de

  7. Homecoming as a National Founding Myth: Jewish Identity and German Landscapes in Konrad Wolf’s I was Nineteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ashkenazi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Konrad Wolf was one of the most enigmatic intellectuals of East Germany. The son of the Jewish Communist playwright Friedrich Wolf and the brother of Markus Wolf—the head of the GDR’s Foreign Intelligence Agency—Konrad Wolf was exiled in Moscow during the Nazi era and returned to Germany as a Red Army soldier by the end of World War Two. This article examines Wolf’s 1968 autobiographical film I was Nineteen (Ich war Neunzehn, which narrates the final days of World War II—and the initial formation of postwar reality—from the point of view of an exiled German volunteer in the Soviet Army. In analyzing Wolf’s portrayals of the German landscape, I argue that he used the audio-visual clichés of Heimat-symbolism in order to undermine the sense of a homogenous and apolitical community commonly associated with this concept. Thrown out of their original contexts, his displaced Heimat images negotiate a sense of a heterogeneous community, which assumes multi-layered identities and highlights the shared ideology rather than the shared origins of the members of the national community. Reading Wolf from this perspective places him within a tradition of innovative Jewish intellectuals who turned Jewish sensibilities into a major part of modern German mainstream culture.

  8. Tectonics of the southern Bleckenstedt trough in the mining area of the oolitic iron ore deposit (midle coral oolithe) of Konrad mine near Salzgitter, Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloenbach, R.

    1985-01-01

    The regional tectonic development of the Bleckenstedt trough and the large-scale faults in Konrad mine (N-S, trough fault, NW-SE, Sauingen trough, E-W, Bleckenstedt fault), which date from a different period, were evaluated, and a tectogenetic analysis of the small-scale tectonic structure was related to halokinetic movements. (DG) [de

  9. Konrad Ottenheym and Krista De Jonge (eds., The Low Countries at the Crossroads. Netherlandish Architecture as an Export Product in Early Modern Europe (1480-1680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Konrad Ottenheym & Krista De Jonge (eds., The Low Countries at the Crossroads. Netherlandish Architecture as an Export Product in Early Modern Europe (1480-1680, (Architectura Moderna, vol. VIII. Turnhout, Brepols, 2013. 514 pp. ISBN 978-2-503-54333-8. € 130,00.

  10. Between preservation and transformation. First considerations about the recovery of the peep districts in Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gullì

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration policy of the PEEP districts, can contribute to the enrichment of the theoretical framework formulated for the protection of the heritage of the Modern Movement. In 2011, the Municipality of Parma, showing a new awareness in relation to assets until now rarely considered, devices a specific field of study within its structural urbanistic plan. In the absence of a regulatory framework of reference, it is crucial to build up the appropriate frameworks of knowledge directed to operational decisions. This can be done by specifically dedicated archives to which to entrust with the definition of a body of rules of urban planning and housing tailored to the particularities of these settlements and to the real questions of transformation that can arise in them.

  11. Evaluation of disposal possibilities and potential in the Konrad iron-ore mine based on experiments for the handling and isolation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen und Umwelftorschung (GSF) has established, at the conclusion of feasibility studies, that the suitability of the Konrad mine for the disposal of low-level waste and decommisioning waste has been proved, as well as the radiological safety of the disposal operations. On 31 August 1982, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) submitted an application for licensing to the State Authority of Lower Saxony

  12. La Agresión Y La Guerra Desde El Punto De Vista De La Etología Y La Obra De Konrad Lorenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Palacio F.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the debate about the innate or social origin of aggression and tendency to war among human beings. The essay rejects the reductionist positions that try to explain behavior only in terms of biology and instinct or else of learning and context influence. It displays the central arguments in the debate using the etiology's point of view, in particular the works of Konrad Lorenz.

  13. Friedrich Konrad Griepenkerl (1782-1849), Braunschweigi Collegium Carolinumi professor ja Braunschweigi Lauluakadeemia esimene direktor / Andreas Waczkat ; tõlkinud Anu Sõõro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Waczkat, Andreas, 1964-

    2009-01-01

    Friedrich Konrad Griepenkerl töötas 1821. aastast alates Collegium Carolinumis filosoofia ja esteetika professorina. Ta oli esimene professor, kelle professionaalne karjäär hõlmas muusikat. Ehkki Griepenkerl ei olnud akadeemiline muusikaõpetaja, oli tema muusikaline tegevus Braunschweigis professorikohaga tihedalt seotud, kuna ta jõudis avalike loengute kaudu laia kunsti- ja muusikahuvilise publikuni. Peale selle asutas ta lauluringi, millest sai hiljem Braunschweigi lauluakadeemia.

  14. Effect of PEEP and inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary gas exchange during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation with small volumes of perfluorocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M; Kuhlen, R; Falter, F; Reyle-Hahn, M; Dembinski, R; Rossaint, R

    2000-04-01

    Partial liquid ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) can improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch in acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of the present study was to compare gas exchange and hemodynamics in experimental ALI during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation at two different levels of PEEP, with and without the inhalation of nitric oxide. Seven pigs (24+/-2 kg BW) were surfactant-depleted by repeated lung lavage with saline. Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were assessed in all animals during gaseous and subsequent partial liquid ventilation at two levels of PEEP (5 and 15 cmH2O) and intermittent inhalation of 10 ppm NO. Arterial oxygenation increased significantly with a simultaneous decrease in cardiac output when PEEP 15 cmH2O was applied during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation. All other hemodynamic parameters revealed no relevant changes. Inhalation of NO and instillation of perfluorocarbon had no additive effects on pulmonary gas exchange when compared to PEEP 15 cmH2O alone. In experimental lung injury, improvements in gas exchange are most distinct during mechanical ventilation with PEEP 15 cmH2O without significantly impairing hemodynamics. Partial liquid ventilation and inhaled NO did not cause an additive increase of PaO2.

  15. A comparison of results from groundwater flow modelling for two conceptual hydrogeological models for the Konrad site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Fein, E.; Storck, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive wastes with negligible heat production are planned to be disposed of into a deep iron ore formation at the Konrad site. This repository will be bedded in a low permeable formation called Oxfordian in a depth of 800 - 1300 m below the surface. The host formation is largely covered with clay of a few hundred meters thickness. The hydrogeological model area has an extension of 14 km in the west-east and 47 km in the north-south direction. The geological formations within the model area are disturbed by several fractured zones with a vertical extension of several hundred meters intersecting different horizontal layers. Due to this fact two hydrogeological models have been developed: The first one handles the fractured zones by globally increased permeabilities of the geological formations. The second handles the fractured zones by locally increased permeabilities, leaving the permeabilities of undisturbed areas unchanged. For both models, groundwater flow calculations have been carried out including parameter variations of permeability values. The results of the calculations are presented as flow paths which are compared for both models. Computer code used: SWIFT. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  16. Geoscientific investigations in the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad for safe disposal of certain radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1980-01-01

    Besides the disposal of high-active waste in a salt formation the national policy of the Federal Republic of Germany provides for a second underground storage facility for non-α-emitting and low-active waste. Due to the short decay times of such wastes the demands made on the geological barrier are in some respect different, in particular as regards long-term stability and impermeability to liquids. Within the 1000-year-phase all wastes will have reached a concentration with a content of radionuclides far below that of a uranium deposit. The abandoned iron ore mine Konrad (Lower Saxony) has some exceptional geological features which make it a very good choice for a radioactive waste repository. The mine is 1200 m deep. Stopes and galleries are extremely dry. The hanging rock formations are mainly claystones. The mining installations are of modern design. The geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have to examine in detail the covering claystone formations for their extension and mineralization, the origin and the age of the mine's seepage water as well as the mechanical stability of the underground cavities during and after the operational period. Via radiological investigations a catalogue of various low-active waste types, the waste volumina and the total activities accumulating over a period of 30 years is being established. For a safety assessment the hazard indices of a uranium ore deposit containing 0.2 wt% U 3 O 8 and a waste repository corresponding to the above figures were compared. The research programme has not been terminated yet since it is being financed by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) of the Federal Republic of Germany until the end of 1981

  17. 'Swapping wastes' planned by nuclear power plant operators in order to exert an influence on the government's radwaste repository project Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, K.; Stroetmann, C.

    1992-01-01

    An 'exchange of waste', which would involve taking back high-level radioactive, heat-generating waste in place of low-level radioactive waste from reprocessing, whereby the amount of high-level radioactive waste would be smaller, corresponding in the degree of radioactivity to that of the low-level radioactive waste, is not provided for in the reprocessing contracts with BNFL and is also not approved by the federal government. There is still an urgent need for waste disposal facilities for radioactive waste with negligible generation of heat. Thus the waste disposal project Konrad is not superfluous, but rather should be accelerated quickly. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Politics and legislation related to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Socio-juridical case study on the Konrad ore mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The energy revolution leads not only to build more wind turbines and the much-discussed circuit line from northern to southern Germany. Instead, the now old energy form of nuclear power needs to be handled. The disposal is one of the biggest unsolved issues of our time. In the conflict between energy and environment policies, the radioactive contamination of nuclear energy must be disposed of. The book is a highly topical compendium of legal and political aspects, which are not sufficiently taken into account because of their specialty in the public discourse. Based on the case study Konrad almost all legal and political priorities are treated very understandable.

  19. FCT (functional computed tomography) evaluation of the lung volumes at different PEEP (positive-end expiratory pressure) ventilation pattern, in mechanical ventilated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papi, M.G.; Di Segni, R.; Mazzetti, G.; Staffa, F.; Conforto, F.; Calimici, R.; Salvi, A.; Matteucci, G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate with FCT (functional computed tomography) total lung volume and fractional lung volumes at different PEEP (positive end expiratory pressure) values in acute mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Nine ICU (intensive care unity) patients (1 lung pneumonia, 2 polytrauma, 2 sepsis, 3 brain surgery, 1 pulmonary embolism); mean age 48 ± 15 years, 6 male, 3 female; GE 16 MDCT scan was performed with acquisition from apex to diaphragma in seven seca at different PEEP values. Raw CT data were analysed by an advantage workstation to obtain volume density masks and histograms of both lungs and each lung and these density ranges were applied: - 1000 - 950 hyper-ventilated lung, -900 - 650 well aerated lung, -950 - 500 all aerated lung, -500 + 200 lung tissue. Total and fractional lung volumes, Hounsfield unit (HU) were calculated and compared at different PEEP values (0, 5, 10, 15 cm H 2 O). In four patients lung volumes were compared between the more and the less involved lung at increased PEEP. Statistic analysis: comparison means-medians tests. Results Data calculated at five PEEP showed unexpected decrease of total lung volume and increase of lung density (HU); proportionally no significant improvement of oxigenation. (orig.)

  20. FCT (functional computed tomography) evaluation of the lung volumes at different PEEP (positive-end expiratory pressure) ventilation pattern, in mechanical ventilated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papi, M.G.; Di Segni, R.; Mazzetti, G.; Staffa, F. [Dept. of Radiology, S. Giovanni HS, Rome (Italy); Conforto, F.; Calimici, R.; Salvi, A. [Dept. of Anesthesiology, S. Giovanni HS, Rome (Italy); Matteucci, G. [Dept. of Pneumology, S. Giovanni HS, Rome (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate with FCT (functional computed tomography) total lung volume and fractional lung volumes at different PEEP (positive end expiratory pressure) values in acute mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Nine ICU (intensive care unity) patients (1 lung pneumonia, 2 polytrauma, 2 sepsis, 3 brain surgery, 1 pulmonary embolism); mean age 48 {+-} 15 years, 6 male, 3 female; GE 16 MDCT scan was performed with acquisition from apex to diaphragma in seven seca at different PEEP values. Raw CT data were analysed by an advantage workstation to obtain volume density masks and histograms of both lungs and each lung and these density ranges were applied: - 1000 - 950 = hyper-ventilated lung, -900 - 650 well aerated lung, -950 - 500 all aerated lung, -500 + 200 lung tissue. Total and fractional lung volumes, Hounsfield unit (HU) were calculated and compared at different PEEP values (0, 5, 10, 15 cm H{sub 2}O). In four patients lung volumes were compared between the more and the less involved lung at increased PEEP. Statistic analysis: comparison means-medians tests. Results Data calculated at five PEEP showed unexpected decrease of total lung volume and increase of lung density (HU); proportionally no significant improvement of oxigenation. (orig.)

  1. "THE EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF POSITIVE END EXPIRATORY PRESSURE (PEEP ON PHARMACOKINETICS OF PHENYTOIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BRAIN INJURY UNDER MECHANICAL VENTILATION."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Elham Hadidi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Positive ventilation has shown to have an influence on pharmacokinetic and disposition of some drugs.Beacause phenytoin with a narrow therapautic range, is the most commonly used drug for prophylaxis and treatment of early seizures after acute brain injuries, in the present study the effect of short term PEEP (5-10 cm H2O for at least 8 hours on phenytoin serum concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters such as Vmax and clearance in brain injured patients under mechanical ventilation was examined. Ten patients with moderate to severe acute brain injury who were placed on mechanical ventilation with an initial PEEP level of 0-5 cm H2O were included in the study. Patients received phenytoin loading dose of 15 mg/kg followed by a maintenance daily dose of 3-7 mg/kg initiated within 12 hours of loading dose. Sampels were taken on two different occasions before and after PEEP elevation. Total phenytoin serum concentrations were determined by HPLC method. A time invarient Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetic model was used to calculate Vmax and clearance for each patient.Derrived variables were calculated as follows: Vmax, 3.5-6.8 and 3.7-8.2 mg/kg/day; Clearance, 0.1-0.7 and 0.1-1.2 l/kg/day (before and after PEEP elevation, respectively. Our data have shown a wide range of variability (2.6-32.5 mg/l in phenytoin serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences in the measured total concentrations (p=0.721 and calculated Vmax and clearance (p=0.285before and after PEEP elevation. Administration of fluid and inotropic agents, limitation in application of higher levels of PEEP and drug interactions, shall be considered as possible explanations for these findings.

  2. The Konrad hearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides an interim assessment: Attempts to break off early the hearing failed. Neither have significant points be found which would provide a technically motivated reason for reexamination. After the hearing, a positive plan approving decision should be taken as soon as possible. The discussion about the energy-policy consensus will have its effects on this. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Rasked vestlused. Kuidas ma talle seda ütlen / Irene Metsis, Sami Seppänen, Peep Sooman ; intervjueerinud Heli Lehtsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metsis, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Skanska EMV administratsioonijuhi Irene Metsise, AS-i Elisa Eesti tegevdirektori Sami Seppäneni ja Pindi Kinnisvara juhatuse liikme Peep Soomani soovitused negatiivse sõnumi edastamiseks töötajale. Vt. samas: 4 nõuannet juhile, kuidas end keeruliseks vestluseks ette valmistada

  4. Simplified method of checking the observance of maximum permissible activity of waste forms to be placed in the Konrad shaft for final waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Piefke, F.

    1986-10-01

    The requirements to be met by waste forms destined for final storage in the Konrad shaft among others define maximum permissible activity levels which have been determined from the various parts of the safety analyses. For waste forms with very low activity levels, it is suitable to compile all the very specific requirements in one checking list, and to perform the checking as simply as adequate. On the basis of the compilation of requirements defined for normal operation of the storage facility, hypothetical accidents, thermal loads affecting the host rock, and criticality safety, the maximum permissible activities are derived that are to be checked by the simplified control measures explained. The report explains the computer programs for the ANKONA code. (orig.) [de

  5. Transport logistics for the transport of radioactive waste form public authorities to the final repository Konrad. Presentation of a simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, Iris; Karbstein, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The final repository Konrad will start operation in 2019. The licensed disposal amount of 303.000 m 3 is planned with 10.000 m 3 per year. The waste delivery can be performed by road or rail transport. The infrastructure boundary conditions have to be considered with the transport planning. The transport logistics concept is presented using the examples of the interim storage facilities Lubmin and Karlsruhe. The planned disposal regime for low- and intermediate-level wastes requires a comprehensive logistics concept that provides a delivery according to the schedule. The experience values from transport simulation experiments will be considered in the frame of the planning software EPALKO development as control function and optimization parameters.

  6. Final feasibility study of possibilities and potentials of the disused iron ore mine Konrad (FRG) for low-level waste and decommissioning waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Stippler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The ''Institut fur Tieflagerung'' of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- and Umweltforschung, in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, carries out geoscientific and technical investigations in the disused iron ore mine Konrad. The aim is to prove the mine's feasibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste and decommissioning waste as well as the use of the existing mining installations. The investigations were initiated in 1975 and are being financed by the Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1978 the work is being supported as well by the Commission of the European Community in the scope of two years each. So far an amount of 60 mio DM has been spent, 86% for maintenance and further operation of the mine and 14% for research work

  7. Monitoring of intratidal lung mechanics: a Graphical User Interface for a model-based decision support system for PEEP-titration in mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, S; Lozano-Zahonero, S; Schumann, S; Guttmann, J

    2014-12-01

    In mechanical ventilation, a careful setting of the ventilation parameters in accordance with the current individual state of the lung is crucial to minimize ventilator induced lung injury. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has to be set to prevent collapse of the alveoli, however at the same time overdistension should be avoided. Classic approaches of analyzing static respiratory system mechanics fail in particular if lung injury already prevails. A new approach of analyzing dynamic respiratory system mechanics to set PEEP uses the intratidal, volume-dependent compliance which is believed to stay relatively constant during one breath only if neither atelectasis nor overdistension occurs. To test the success of this dynamic approach systematically at bedside or in an animal study, automation of the computing steps is necessary. A decision support system for optimizing PEEP in form of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) was targeted. Respiratory system mechanics were analyzed using the gliding SLICE method. The resulting shapes of the intratidal compliance-volume curve were classified into one of six categories, each associated with a PEEP-suggestion. The GUI should include a graphical representation of the results as well as a quality check to judge the reliability of the suggestion. The implementation of a user-friendly GUI was successfully realized. The agreement between modelled and measured pressure data [expressed as root-mean-square (RMS)] tested during the implementation phase with real respiratory data from two patient studies was below 0.2 mbar for data taken in volume controlled mode and below 0.4 mbar for data taken in pressure controlled mode except for two cases with RMS rational decision-making model for PEEP-titration.

  8. Mida arvate ideest, et kõrgkoole võiks juhtida ülikoolivälistest inimestest koosnev nõukogu? / Jaak Aaviksoo, Maris Mälzer, Peeter Kreitzberg, Peep Sürje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tartu Ülikooli eelmine rektor Jaak Aaviksoo, Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu esimees Maris Mälzer, Riigikogu kultuurikomisjoni esimees Peeter Kreitzberg ja Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rektor Peep Sürje

  9. Kas omakeelsel haridusel ja teadusel on tulevikku? / Kirsti Siitonen, Jolanta Zabarskaite, Josep Soler-Carbonell, Rainer Enrique Hamel ; intervjueerinud Peep Nemvalts ; tõlkinud Doris Kareva, Aili Künstler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    TLÜ teaduskeelekeskus korraldas koos TLÜ eesti keele ja kultuuri instituudiga 29. ja 30. augustil rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Rahvuskeeled teaduses ja kõrghariduses". Sel teemal vastavad TLÜ teaduskeelekeskuse juhataja Peep Nemvaltsi küsimustele konverentsi rahvusvahelised esinejad

  10. Viis aastakümmet raamatukogunduse radadel / Anne Veinberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinberg, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Kikas, Konrad. Verba volant, scripta manent : viis aastakümmet raamatukogunduse ja infoteaduse radadel = Verba volant, scripta manent : five decades on the field of librarianship and information science. - Tallinn : Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2008. - 366 lk. : ill. portr. - (Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Raamatukogu töid. A ; 5)

  11. Development of the status of W and T for the realization of a long-term safety demonstration for the final repository using the examples VSG and Konrad. Report on the Working package 2. Review and development of safety-related assessments of disposal facilities of wastes with negligible heat generation; development and provision of the necessary set of tools using the example of the final repository Konrad; Entwicklung des Standes von W and T bei der Fuehrung eines Langzeitsicherheitsnachweises fuer Endlager an den Beispielen VSG und Konrad. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 2. Untersuchung und Entwicklung von sicherheitstechnischen Bewertungen fuer Endlager fuer Abfaelle mit vernachlaessigbarer Waermeentwicklung und Bereitstellung des notwendigen Instrumentariums am Beispiel des Endlagers Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Juergen; Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Hartwig-Thurat, Eva

    2015-09-15

    In the research project on the ''Review and development of safety-related assessments of disposal facilities with negligible heat generation; development and provision of the necessary set of tools, using the example of the Konrad disposal facility'' (3612R03410), the state of the art in science and technology of the safety-related assessments and sets of tools for building a safety case was examined. The reports pertaining to the two work packages described the further development of the methodology for accident analyses (WP 1) and of building a safety case (WP 2); also, comparisons were drawn on a national and international scale with the methods applied in the licensing procedure of the Konrad disposal facility. A safety case as well as its underlying analyses and methods always has to be brought up to date with the development of the state of the art in science and technology. In Germany, two safety cases regarding the long-term safety of disposal facilities have been prepared. These are the licensing documentation for the Konrad disposal facility in the year 1990 and the research project regarding the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse Gorleben - VSG) in the year 2013, both reflecting the state of development of building a safety case at the respective time. Comparing the two above-mentioned examples of safety cases and taking recent international recommendations and national regulations into account, this report on Work Package 2 presents the development of the international state of the art in science and technology. This has been done by summarising the essential differences and similarities of each element of the safety case for the Konrad disposal facility on the one hand and the VSG and the international status on the other hand.

  12. "THE EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF POSITIVE END EXPIRATORY PRESSURE (PEEP) ON PHARMACOKINETICS OF PHENYTOIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BRAIN INJURY UNDER MECHANICAL VENTILATION."

    OpenAIRE

    "Elham Hadidi; Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh; Mohammad Reza Rouini; Behzad Eftekhar; Mohammad Abdollahi; Atabak Najafi; Mohammad R. Khajavi; Saeed Rezaee; Reza Ghaffari; Minoo Afshar"

    2005-01-01

    Positive ventilation has shown to have an influence on pharmacokinetic and disposition of some drugs.Beacause phenytoin with a narrow therapautic range, is the most commonly used drug for prophylaxis and treatment of early seizures after acute brain injuries, in the present study the effect of short term PEEP (5-10 cm H2O for at least 8 hours) on phenytoin serum concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters such as Vmax and clearance in brain injured patients under mechanical ventilation was e...

  13. Uus töölpeinguseadus : nagu Soomes lama ajal? Ei, veel karmim / Maret Maripuu, Tarmo Kriis, Peep Peterson ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Vestlusringis on sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu, Eesti tööandjate keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis ja transpordi ametiühingu juhatuse esimees Peep Peterson. Lisatud: mida eelnõu muudab? ; ametiühingute keskliidu juhi Harri Taliga kommentaar: dzhungliseaduste tagasitulek? ; Helmes ASi nõukogu esimehe Jaan Pillesaare kommentaar: praegune seadus on tobe

  14. Development of the status of W and T for the realization of a long-term safety demonstration for the final repository using the examples VSG and Konrad. Report on the Working package 2. Review and development of safety-related assessments of disposal facilities of wastes with negligible heat generation; development and provision of the necessary set of tools using the example of the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, Juergen; Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Hartwig-Thurat, Eva

    2015-09-01

    In the research project on the ''Review and development of safety-related assessments of disposal facilities with negligible heat generation; development and provision of the necessary set of tools, using the example of the Konrad disposal facility'' (3612R03410), the state of the art in science and technology of the safety-related assessments and sets of tools for building a safety case was examined. The reports pertaining to the two work packages described the further development of the methodology for accident analyses (WP 1) and of building a safety case (WP 2); also, comparisons were drawn on a national and international scale with the methods applied in the licensing procedure of the Konrad disposal facility. A safety case as well as its underlying analyses and methods always has to be brought up to date with the development of the state of the art in science and technology. In Germany, two safety cases regarding the long-term safety of disposal facilities have been prepared. These are the licensing documentation for the Konrad disposal facility in the year 1990 and the research project regarding the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse Gorleben - VSG) in the year 2013, both reflecting the state of development of building a safety case at the respective time. Comparing the two above-mentioned examples of safety cases and taking recent international recommendations and national regulations into account, this report on Work Package 2 presents the development of the international state of the art in science and technology. This has been done by summarising the essential differences and similarities of each element of the safety case for the Konrad disposal facility on the one hand and the VSG and the international status on the other hand.

  15. Development of new testing methods for the numerical load analysis for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protz, C.; Voelzke, H.; Zencker, U.; Hagenow, P.; Gruenewald, H.

    2011-01-01

    The qualification of steel sheet containers as intermediate-level waste container for the final repository is performed by the BAM (Bundeasmt fuer Materialpruefung) according to the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) requirements. The testing requirements include the stacking pressure tests, lifting tests, drop tests thermal tests (fire resistance) and tightness tests. Besides the verification using model or prototype tests and transferability considerations numerical safety analyses may be performed alternatively. The authors describe the internal BAM research project ConDrop aimed to develop extended testing methods for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad using numerical load analyses. A finite element model was developed using The FE software LS-PrePost 3.0 and ANSYS 12.0 and the software FE-Code LS-DYNA for the simulation of the drop test (5 m height). The results were verified by experimental data from instrumented drop tests. The container preserves its integrity after the drop test, plastic deformation occurred at the bottom plate, the side walls, the cask cover and the lateral uprights.

  16. NOAA People Empowered Products (PeEP): Combining social media with scientific models to provide eye-witness confirmed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codrescu, S.; Green, J. C.; Redmon, R. J.; Minor, K.; Denig, W. F.; Kihn, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA products and alerts rely on combinations of models and data to provide the public with information regarding space and terrestrial weather phenomena and hazards. This operational paradigm, while effective, neglects an abundant free source of measurements: millions of eyewitnesses viewing weather events. We demonstrate the capabilities of a prototype People Empowered Product (PeEP) that combines the OVATION prime auroral model running at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center with Twitter reports of observable aurora. We introduce an algorithm for scoring Tweets based on keywords to improve the signal to noise of this dynamic data source. We use the location of the aurora derived from this new database of crowd sourced observations to validate the OVATION model for use in auroral forecasting. The combined product displays the model aurora in real time with markers showing the location and text of tweets from people actually observing the aurora. We discuss how the application might be extended to other space weather products such as radiation related satellite anomalies.

  17. Efecto del incremento de la PEEP en la actividad muscular respiratoria evaluado con electromiografía de superficie en individuos sanos bajo ventilación espontánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a mechanically ventilated patient with increased airway resistance, the expiratory time span is insufficient to exhale all the inspired volume. In order to maintain oxygenation and to reduce the workload of respiratory muscles, it is common to apply an extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP that reduces tissue collapsibility, counterbalancing the increased resistance. Several studies have shown the usefulness of surface electromyography (sEMG to quantify the work of breathing (WOB, particularly in patients with obstructive diseases. Objective: To assess the effect of incremental PEEP in the respiratory muscle activity through sEMG in healthy volunteers noninvasively ventilated. Methods: Study of muscle activity in 10 healthy male volunteers, noninvasively ventilated for 20 minutes. The extrinsic PEEP was applied from 0 to 5 cm H2O in steps of 1 cm H2O at 30 seconds intervals. Results: The bio-potentials of diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid muscles revealed different breathing patterns in response to incremental PEEP: 1 increase in the workload of both muscles during inspiration and expiration; 2 increase in the workload of only one muscle; 3 a remarkable increase in muscle activity only in expiration. Conclusion: In noninvasively ventilated volunteers, sEMG quantitatively relates the PEEP level with changes in sternocleidomastoid and diaphragm activity.

  18. Loengud seaduseelnõude koostajaile / Margit Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Margit

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Juristide Liidu poolt koostöös Riigikantselei ja Justiitsministeeriumiga korraldatud loengusarjast: Õigusloome ja normitehnika: areng ja probleemid. Sõnavõtjad loengutel: Raul Narits, Katre Kont-Kontson, Lauri Mälksoo, Raigo Sõlg, Jüri Heinla, Anno Aedmaa, Aare Kasemets, Juhani Lemmik, Ülo Siivelt, Külli Koit, Aare Reenumägi, Mall Gramberg, Toomas Sepp, Julia Laffranque, Kristel Aguraiuja, Aime Vettik, Hille Saluäär, Hiie Tamm, Kristina Nõgols, Eve Randvere

  19. Eesti panusest projektis "Education 2030" / Eve Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Eve, 1955-

    2016-01-01

    OECD projektist "Education 2030", mille eesmärgiks on võtmekompetentside täpsustamine. Käsitlus hõlmab lisaks kognitiivsetele ka sotsiaalseid ja emotsionaalseid aspekte. Eesti võimalustest projekti panustada, projekti "Education 2030" tegevustest ja suundumustest

  20. Keskkond / Peep Pobbul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pobbul, Peep

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 40-41; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 40-41. AS-i Eesti Raudtee keskkonna-alastest projektidest

  1. The Peep Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Three years ago, the author and Linda Arbuckle (University of Florida ceramic professor and internationally known majolica clay artist) were on the phone discussing how electric kilns just don't have any artistic design flair to them. The round kiln has basic properties that allow it to function properly, but its looks are far from exciting. They…

  2. Further development of the methodology for the realization of safety analyses concerning the controllability of operational malfunctions and accidents. Report on the working package 1. Review and development of safety-related assessment for final repositories for wastes with negligible heat generation and the provision of the necessary set of tools using the example of the final repository Konrad; Weiterentwicklung der Methodik fuer die Durchfuehrung von Sicherheitsanalysen zur Beherrschung von Betriebsstoerungen und Stoerfaellen. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 1. Untersuchung und Entwicklung von sicherheitstechnischen Bewertungen fuer Endlager fuer Abfaelle mit vernachlaessigbarer Waermeentwicklung und Bereitstellung des notwendigen Instrumentariums am Beispiel des Endlagers Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig-Thurat, Eva; Uhlmann, Stephan

    2015-09-15

    In the research project on the ''Review and development of safety-related assessments of disposal facilities with negligible heat generation; development and provision of the necessary set of tools, using the example of the Konrad disposal facility'' (Untersuchung und Entwicklung von sicherheitstechnischen Bewertungen fuer Endlager fuer Abfaelle mit vernachlaessigbarer Waermeentwicklung; Entwicklung und Bereitstellung des notwendigen Instrumentariums am Beispiel des Endlagers Konrad - Forschungsvorhaben 3612R03410), the state of the art in science and technology of the safety-related assessments and sets of tools for building a safety case was examined. The reports pertaining to the two work packages described the further development of the methodology for accident analyses (WP 1) and of building a safety case (WP 2); also, comparisons were drawn on a national and international scale with the methods applied in the licensing procedure of the Konrad disposal facility. As part of the project, the report of Work Package 1 depicts the methodology of the operating safety analysis in order to control malfunctions and incidents (accident analysis) using the example of the Konrad mine accident analysis. Set of criteria in this connection is the state-of-the-art international and national comprehensive body of legislation identifying the incident requirements. In extracts complementary safety analysis procedures of other countries are presented where applicable. It becomes apparent, that the majority of the investigated countries use a deterministic accident analyses to identify incidents. Here, common international practice is to com-plement the deterministic accident analysis by a probabilistic analysis. This procedure acts on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) terms of reference using both deterministic and probabilistic methods for the determination of facility hazard potentials. Based on the Konrad mine method, aspects of incident

  3. Influence of posture and positive end-tidal expiratory pressure (PEEP) on clearance of Tc99m-DTPA from the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.R.; Maublant, J.; Sietsema, K.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.

    1984-01-01

    The clearance of Tc99m-DTPA aerosols from the lung has been used to detect and quantitate alterations in the permeability of the pulmonary epithelium. Clearance of the radionuclide is accelerated by both chronic and acute injuries to the lung and by smoking. Several laboratories have reported that Tc99m-DTPA clearance from upper lobes exceeded that from lower lobes in upright subjects. To investigate this phenomenon further the authors studied subjects with simultaneous anterior and posterior cameras in upright and supine positions. In the upright position, clearance from both the anterior and posterior upper regions of interest (ROI's) exceeded the lower regions (-1.64 +- .42 S.D. vs. -0.75 +- .41, anterior, p < .05, n=6), -1.04 +- .23 vs. -0.50 +- .36, posterior. All units = %/min. This difference was not observed in the supine subjects. Clearance from the anterior chest exceeded that from the posterior chest in the supine subjects (-1.28 +- .45 vs. -0.05 +- 1.08) and a small increase in radio-activity was observed in at least one ROI of 5 of 6 subjects from the posterior camera. An increase in activity is likely to be secondary to labeling of blood pool, which would have greatest affect where pulmonary blood volume is largest. Computer processing of the entire lung without observer bias in ROI placement showed similar effects of posture over non-peripheral ROI's. Five subjects breathed on PEEP to cause airspace distention, causing clearance to double. Both dependency and airspace distention appear to influence clearance of aerosolized DTPA, the latter may occur by stretching of epithelial pores

  4. Investigation of continuous effect modifiers in a meta-analysis on higher versus lower PEEP in patients requiring mechanical ventilation--protocol of the ICEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Sauerbrei, Willi; Royston, Patrick; Briel, Matthias

    2014-05-20

    Categorizing an inherently continuous predictor in prognostic analyses raises several critical methodological issues: dependence of the statistical significance on the number and position of the chosen cut-point(s), loss of statistical power, and faulty interpretation of the results if a non-linear association is incorrectly assumed to be linear. This also applies to a therapeutic context where investigators of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are interested in interactions between treatment assignment and one or more continuous predictors. Our goal is to apply the multivariable fractional polynomial interaction (MFPI) approach to investigate interactions between continuous patient baseline variables and the allocated treatment in an individual patient data meta-analysis of three RCTs (N = 2,299) from the intensive care field. For each study, MFPI will provide a continuous treatment effect function. Functions from each of the three studies will be averaged by a novel meta-analysis approach for functions. We will plot treatment effect functions separately for each study and also the averaged function. The averaged function with a related confidence interval will provide a suitable basis to assess whether a continuous patient characteristic modifies the treatment comparison and may be relevant for clinical decision-making. The compared interventions will be a higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation strategy in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The continuous baseline variables body mass index, PaO2/FiO2, respiratory compliance, and oxygenation index will be the investigated potential effect modifiers. Clinical outcomes for this analysis will be in-hospital mortality, time to death, time to unassisted breathing, and pneumothorax. This project will be the first meta-analysis to combine continuous treatment effect functions derived by the MFPI procedure separately in each of several RCTs. Such an approach requires individual

  5. Kutsekeskkooli õpilaste koosseisust / Peep Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Peep

    2001-01-01

    Helme Kutsekeskkoolis 1985-1988, 1991-1992.a. läbi viidud uuringutest, milles määrati õpilaste IQ, käitumine, õppetöös edasijõudmine. Võrdluseks teisi Eesti koolide õpilaste seas läbi viidud intelligentsusuuringuid (Juhan Tork, 1939 ; Eda Heinla, 1988-1990 ; Juha Sõerd, 1973 ; A.Sukamägi, K.Tamm, 1994)

  6. Weimar, Euroopa kultuuripealinn / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. Euroopa kultuuripealinnast Weimarist. Linna minevikust, Weimaris elanud suurmehi, juubelitest, mida tähistatakse 1999. a. 1552. a. asus Weimarisse Lucas Cranach, isa alustatut jätkas Lucas Cranach noorem. 1919. a. alustas Walter Gropiuse juhtimisel Weimaris tegevust Bauhaus, kus aastatel 1922-1925 töötasid ka Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee

  7. Pommisatelliit Eesti kohal / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep, 1963-

    1997-01-01

    Discovery Channel Europe presenteeris Pirital toimunud telemessil videofilmi "Profid. Pommirühm" ("Professionals : Bomb Squad"), stsenarist, režissöör ja operaator Rein Kotov : Inglismaa - Eesti - Taani 1997

  8. Tarbekunstist ja kunstitarbest / Peep Ilmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilmet, Peep, pseud., 1948-

    2010-01-01

    4. rahvusvahelisest köitekunsti näitusest "Scripta manent" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis, näituse arengust, eesti köitekunstist, autori soovitused eesti köitekunsti rikastamiseks. Raamatu sisu kaitse ja ligipääsetavuse nõudest

  9. Mitmehäälne jutukogu / Katre Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Katre

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Narrative Episodes from the Tulalang Epic / [jutustavad] Ampatuan Ampalid, Letipa Andaguer, Adriano Ambangan ; [koostanud ja tõlkinud] Hazel J. Wrigglesworth. Manila : Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 2008

  10. Reaalainete ja keskkonnaõpetuse integreerimisest / Ülle Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Ülle

    2000-01-01

    Keskkonnaõpetuse rollist reaalainete populaarsuse tõstjana, kasutades projektõppe meetodit. Õppekava integreerimisest ning rahvusvahelistest keskkonnaprojektidest (USA juhitav keskkonnasuunitlusega teadus- ja haridusprogramm GLOBE ja Norra algatatud energiaprojekt SPARE)

  11. Projekt "RADAR" - teerajaja Setomaal / Ülo Kask, Martin Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Ülo, 1952-

    2009-01-01

    RADAR projekt - taastuvate energiaallikate alase teadlikkuse tõstmine agro-energeetilise ahela mudelite arendamise abil. Projektis osales 7 riiki: Itaalia, Suurbritannia, Rootsi, Eesti, Läti, Horvaatia ja Bulgaaria

  12. Füüsikute aasta / Jaan Aarik, Jaak Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarik, Jaan, 1951-

    2014-01-01

    2014. aasta Nobeli füüsikapreemia pälvisid Jaapani teadlased efektiivsete sinist valgust kiirgavate valgusdioodide eest, Nobeli keemiapreemia pälvisid ühiselt sakslane ning ameeriklased ülilahutusega fluorestsents mikroskoopia arendamise eest

  13. Sotsiaal-majanduslik staatus tervise tausttegurina / Margo Kikas, Ene Lausvee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Margo

    2008-01-01

    Uuringust seoste kohta Eesti inimeste tunnetatud tervise ning sotsiaal-majandusliku ja psühhosotsiaalse seisundi vahel. Uuring tugineb Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaaltöö eriala üliõpilaste poolt aastatel 2001-2002 tehtud anonüümsel ankeetküsitlusel põhiliselt toimetulekuraskuste, krooniliste haiguste, puudega või riskikäitumisega isikute seas

  14. Abkanzeln von Minderheiten-Sprache / Konrad Heilmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heilmann, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese intervjuust BBC ajakirjanikule Tim Whewell'ile 23. veebr. 2008, kus president muuhulgas väitis, et vene keele rääkimine tähendaks Nõukogude okupatsiooniga leppimist. Reageeringutest sellele mõtteavaldusele

  15. Konrad Adenauer’s Military Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-13

    Ausgabe. Hans-Peter Schwarz and 45 Rudolf Morsey, Hg. Vol. 1, Briefe 1945-1947 hg. v. Hans Peter Mensing. Berlin: Siedler Verlag, 1983. Vol. 2, Briefe 1949...Dietrich, Rudolf Morsey and Hans-Peter Schwarz, ed. Quellen zur Geschichte des Parlarnentarismus und der politischen Partein. Bd. 3, Auftakt zur Ara...New York: Penguin, 1982. Steiner , Jirg. European Democracies. New York: Longman, 1986. Taylor, A.J.P. The Origens of the Second World War. 2d. ed. New

  16. Efeitos da compressão torácica manual versus a manobra de PEEP-ZEEP na complacência do sistema respiratório e na oxigenação de pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva Effects of manual rib-cage compression versus PEEP-ZEEP maneuver on respiratory system compliance and oxygenation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Renato Antunes dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com incapacidade de desempenhar suas funções ventilatórias podem ser submetidos à ventilação mecânica invasiva. A fisioterapia respiratória atua no tratamento destes pacientes com a finalidade de melhorar sua função pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da compressão torácica manual versus a manobra de pressão expiratória final positiva-pressão expiratória final zero (PEEP-ZEEP na complacência do sistema respiratório e na oxigenação de pacientes em ventilação mecânica invasiva. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo bicêntrico, prospectivo, randomizado e crossover, incluindo pacientes em ventilação mecânica invasiva em modo controlado por um período superior a 48 horas. Os protocolos de fisioterapia respiratória foram realizados de forma aleatória, com intervalo de 24 horas entre eles. Dados da complacência do sistema respiratório e da oxigenação foram coletados antes da aplicação dos protocolos e 30 minutos após a aplicação dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: Doze pacientes completaram o estudo. Na análise intragrupo, em ambas as técnicas houve aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume corrente (p=0,002, da complacência estática (p=0,002 e complacência dinâmica (p=0,002. Com relação à oxigenação, no grupo compressão torácica manual, a saturação periférica de oxigênio aumentou com diferença significativa (p=0,011. CONCLUSÕES: A compressão torácica manual e a manobra de PEEP-ZEEP têm efeitos clínicos positivos e não diferem entre si. Em relação à oxigenação encontramos um comportamento favorável da saturação periférica de oxigênio no grupo compressão torácica manual.OBJECTIVES: Patients unable to perform breathing functions may be submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation. Chest physiotherapy acts directly on the treatment of these patients for the purpose of improving their lung function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the

  17. Midagi enamat kui hea film / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Libahundi needus" : stsenaristid Margus Kasterpalu, Ilmar Raag ja Rainer Sarnet : režissöör Rainer Sarnet : osades Katariina Lauk, Rene Reinumägi : Shop of Dreams - Eesti Televisioon 2005

  18. IFLA 39. aastakongress Baltimaades / Peep Moorast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moorast, Peep

    2002-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline maastikuarhitektide föderatsiooni IFLA 39. kongress deviisiga "Muutused maastikus" Baltimaades 7.-13. X 2002. Kongressi peakorterist Riias korraldati väljasõite Lätisse, Eestisse ja Leetu. Eesti Põllumajandusülikoolis sümpoosionil esinesid Eestist Tiina Tammet ja Peeter Vassiljev. Eestile esitati kutse astuda IFLA liikmeks

  19. Eesti mood esitles end Stockholmis / Peep Sooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooman, Peep, 1978-

    1999-01-01

    Eesti moepäevadel Stockholmis esitleti moeshow'l üle 80 rõivakollektsiooni, osalesid: Baltika, Klementi, Sangar, Zik-Zak (Ivo Nikkolo), Katrin Kuldma Moemaja, Arne Studio, Hipo, Uljas & Tütred, Virulane, Althea.

  20. Andmekaitseõigusest andmekaitseasutuse pilguga / Peep Viljar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peep, Viljar, 1970-

    2018-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu ja USA andmekaitseõiguse alusvalikute võrdlus, selgitatakse, millele keskendudb Eesti Andmekaitse Inspektsioon oma töös, andmekaitse üldmääruse trahvide regulatsioonist ja sellega seotud probleemidest Eestis

  1. Mälestustahvel Oslo valitsusele / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2016-01-01

    Otsustati tähistada Oslos asuv hoone, kus 1953. aastal nimetati ametiise Eesti Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis. Sõjajärgsetel aastatel organiseerusid eestlased Rootsis. Kuna Rootsis oli pagulaste poliitiline tegevus keelatud, siis toimus eksiilvalitsuse ametisse määramine Oslos. Kui 20. augustil 1991 taastati iseseisev Eesti riik, siis tunnustas seda ka Eesti Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis. Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis lõpetas oma tegevuse 7. oktoobril 1992. aastal. 2. oktoobril 2015 toimunud mälestustahvli avamisest

  2. Poliitikauuringud ja õiguspoliitika kujundamine Eestis / Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruks, Peep, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Poliitikauuringutest lääneriikides (USA-s) ning Ida- ja Kesk-Euroopa üleminekuühiskondades. Mõttekeskustest (think tank), Eesti poliitikauuringute keskusest PRAXIS ning projektidest "Avaliku sektori ja kolmanda sektori õigusloome alane koostöö" ja "Eesti kriminaalmenetluse optimeerimine"

  3. Privacy : Plug the Internet Peep Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Denebo, Petra; Linder, Anna-Katrine

    2001-01-01

    The Internet is a relatively new technology that has developed explosively during the last 10 years. The Internet-technology has been accepted rapidly by users, but the legal and ethical aspects have not been updated at the same rapid rate. Trust in electronic services or products is founded on knowledge and an understanding of what happens during a session and of the effects that might occur. Within electronically based services there are obvious risks for invisible and undesired results suc...

  4. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible manufacturing pathways, to identify the best balance of energy consumption and environmental impact. This model has been created and populated with energy consumption data for individual SSJ processes and process platforms. Technology feasibility cases studies were executed, to validate the model, and confirm the ability to create lower buy-to-fly ratio performs and machine these to final configuration aircraft components. This model can now be used as a tool to select manufacturing pathways that offer significant energy savings and, when coupled with a cost model, drive implementation of the SSJ processes.

  5. The Konrad safety case: licensee point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The protection of man and environment is the most important principle with regard to radioactive waste disposal. This fundamental principle is reflected in the licensing prerequisites for a repository. Since it is intended to dispose of radioactive waste in deep geological formations in the Federal Republic of Germany, possible releases via the water path must be investigated and assessed in particular with regard to the safety of a repository during the post-closure phase. Thus, respective investigations comprise the radiological long-term effects (radionuclide-specific radiation exposures) as well as the possible pollution of near-surface groundwater by organic and inorganic chemo-toxic substances. (author)

  6. Dr. Heinz von zur Mühlen - teenekas Tallinna ajaloo uurija / Peep Pillak ; foto: Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2003-01-01

    ülevaade üheks paremaks Eesti ja Liivimaa, eriti aga Tallinna keskaja asjatundjaks peetava baltisakslasest ajaloolase eluteest ja teaduslikest uurimustöödest, mille eest pälvis 11. sept. 2002 Tallinna teenetemärgi

  7. Väitlus tumma tekstiga : Hans Anton Schults ja Andres Saal / Katre Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Katre

    2006-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse H. A. Schults'i (1866-1905) 1903. a. Jakob Hurdale saadetud kirjutisi, kus ta polemiseerib oma kaasaegse Andres Saaliga arutledes "vanade eestlaste" moraali, rahvuse ja religiooni teemal

  8. Lugemisoskuse ja -motivatsiooni seosed õpetajate kasvatusstiilidega esimeses klassis / Piret Soodla, Eve Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soodla, Piret, 1973-

    2014-01-01

    Esimeste klasside õpilaste ja nende õpetajate seas läbi viidud pikiuuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida, kas ja kuidas erinevad õpilaste lugemisoskus ja motivatsioon kolme tüüpi kasvatusstiiliga õpetajate klassides

  9. 78 FR 47271 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... since 1960, with the mission ``to increase food and fiber productivity by developing new technology for... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f) as provided for in 36 CFR 800.2(d)(3)). Following the public comment period...

  10. Kuidas puutuvad ring, kolmnurk ja ruut lillepeenrasse? / Ülle Kikas, Terje Hõim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Ülle, 1949-

    2016-01-01

    2012. aastal alustas haridus- ja teadusministeerium koostöös Tartu Ülikooli ja tarkvara tootva Wolframi konsortsiumiga arvutipõhise statistika arendusprojekti, et viia statistika õpetamine koolides vastavusse tänapäeva võimaluste ja nõudmistega

  11. Eesti nimekaim ilukirurg jagab enesekindlust / Peep Pree ; intevjueerinud Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pree, Peep, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Vestlus Tartu esteetilise kirurgia erakliiniku Clinica juhatajaga tööst, vastutustundest, ebaõnnestumistest. Kommenteerivad Tartu linnapea Laine Jänes ja Tartu Ülikooli arstiteaduskonna emeriitprofessor Ennu Sepp

  12. Kolm jääaegset triumfi / Peep Pedmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedmanson, Peep

    2002-01-01

    Tallinnas ja Tartus tuli ekraanile USA joonisfilm "Jääaeg" ("Ice Age"), mille dubleerimisse on režissöör Janno Põldma juhtimisel kaasatud parimad eesti näitlejad. Eriti Anu Lambi meisterlikkusest laisklooma dubleerimisel ning arvutianimatsiooni kõrgest tasemest

  13. Kuidas kirjutada eesti rahva vastupanust okupatsioonivõimudele? / Peep Varju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varju, Peep

    2009-01-01

    Eestlaste vastupanust Teise maailmasõja ajal, ajalootõlgendusest taasiseseisvumise esimestel aastatel. Ettekanne Jüri Kuke mälestusele pühendatud Langenud Vabadusvõitlejate Päeva XIII aulakonverentsil Tartu Ülikoolis 28. märtsil 2009

  14. Sõjakurjategijate ja nende ohvrite kohtlemisest Eesti Vabariigis / Peep Varju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varju, Peep

    2009-01-01

    Autor kritiseerib 1949. aasta märtsiküüditamises kannatanute võimalusi õigusabile ja küüditajate üle kohtumõistmise venimist. Viited okupatsioonirežiimide poolt represseeritud isiku seadusele

  15. Ventilator-induced mediator release: role of PEEP and surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Haitsma, Jack

    2002-01-01

    textabstractLung protective ventilation such as the ARDSnet low tidal volumes strategy can reduce mortality in ARDS patients. The lmowledge that an essential therapy such as mechanical ventilation on the intensive care influences patient outcome has given rise to the re-evaluation of current ventilation practices. This review addresses the current state of lung protective strategies and their physiological rationale. Latest knowledge on the instigation and progression of lung injury by mechan...

  16. Gerd Kanter alistas keerulised tuuled ja tugevad vastased / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 17. märts, lk. 13. Maailmameister Gerd Kanter võitis viiendat korda Euroopa talvised karikavõistlused. Mihkel Kukk viskas oda 78.41 ning täitis Pekingi olümpia B-normi

  17. Ettevaatust, bussid jäävad seisma! / Peep Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Peep, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Narva Postiljon, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 5; Narvskaja Gazeta, 23. okt. 2004, lk. 4; Sakala, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 26. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 28. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 29. okt. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 29. okt. 2004, lk. 15; Linnaleht : Pärnu, 29. okt. 2004, lk. A4; Valgamaalane, 6. nov. 2004, lk. 2. Transpordi ametiühing andis autoettevõtete liidule üle nõudmise, milles taotleb kõigile bussijuhtidele lisatasudeta Eesti keskmist palka. Kokkuleppele tuleb jõuda enne 2005. aasta 1. jaanuari

  18. ``Peeps,'' cream, heads, and food coloring in a vacuum jar

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePino, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    This note describes some methods of adding interest to the standard vacuum jar demonstrations. Marshmallow animals, shaving cream, doll heads, and food coloring add some spark to these demos. These new twists have been well received by the students.

  19. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  20. Loe raha, ole paindlik ning kuula klienti / Peep Ehasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehasalu, Peep, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtete TOP 100 1. koht. Kolmandat aastat järjest edetabeli tippu jõudnud Tele2 edu rajaneb kolmel sambal. Lisad: Tele2 Eesti AS; Tele2 pürgib maruliselt kõrgustesse. Kommenteerivad Andrus Hiiepuu, Inna Kramer ja Agne Kivisaar.

  1. Eesti arhiivid Euroopa kontekstis / Lea Kõiv, Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõiv, Lea, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    2005. aastal toimus konverents "Eesti arhiivid Euroopa kontekstis". Selle konverentsil esitatud ettekannete baasil ilmunud kogumikust "Die Archive Estlands im Europäischen Kontxt/Estonian Archives in the European Context". Kogumikus sisalduvatest artiklitest

  2. Schaulust und Horror Soziokulturelle - Perspektiven auf PEEPING TOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ballhausen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Geschichte des Kinos und des Films ist mindestens ebenso sehr eine Geschichte des Schreckens (und der damit verbundenen Schaulust wie sie eine Geschichte des Dokumentarischen zu sein scheint. Es sind die außergewöhnlichen Körper und deren Bewegungen, die das Publikum zu allen Zeiten faszinierten, schockierten und zum Schauen und Sehen lockten. Besonders das Genre des Horrorfilms ist mit diesem zentralen Aspekt des Kinos besonders deutlich verbunden.

  3. Law and Morality under Evil Conditions: The SS Judge Konrad Morgen

    OpenAIRE

    Pauer-Studer, Herlinde

    2012-01-01

    In Anglo-American legal theory the issue of Nazi law has to a large extent been seen in light of the exchange between HLA Hart and Lon L Fuller in the 1958 issue of the Harvard Law Review. That discussion centred on a particular problem that arose in the aftermath of the Nazi regime, namely, under which statutes could conduct that seemed legal in the Third Reich but grossly immoral under post-war rule-of-law conditions be tried by post-war courts. The famous Grudge Informer Case ra...

  4. Avati mälestuskivi Heinrich Marga sünnikohas / Peep Pillak ; fotod: Peep Pillak ja Valitsuse Kommunikatsioonibüroo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2008-01-01

    1. oktoobril avati mälestuskivi Eesti Vabariigi valitsuse eksiilis peaministri presidendi ülesannetes Heinrich Marga sünnikohas Põlvamaal Kõlleste (Krootuse) vallas Ihamaru külas Otsa talu juures

  5. Visualization of flow patterns in shaking vessels with various geometry; Shushu no kika keijo wo motsu yodo kakuhan sonai no ryudo jotai no kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Y; Hiraoka, S; Tada, Y; Ue, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Koh, S [Toyo Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, Y [Keimyung University, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-10

    The flow patterns in shaking vessels with various geometries were visualized with a tracer method using aluminum powder. The spherical and conical vessels were effective for the shake mixing in the same manner as the cylindrical vessel, because these vessels have circular cross sections that develop the rotational flow. Neither a rectangular vessel nor a cylindrical vessel with baffles should be used for shake mixing, because rotational flows are not developed in these vessels. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Heterogeneity of O blood group in India: Peeping through the window of molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harita Gogri

    2018-01-01

    Results And Discussion: Overall, ten different genotypes were identified. Three rare alleles, namely, O05, O11, and O26 were seen in the mixed group category. These results suggest that there is an internal heterogeneity in the mixed group while Dhodias and Parsis, the groups which were screened earlier, seem to be more homogenous groups. An important piece of information emerges out from this study, that is, O01O02 genotype is expressing some selective force in population groups screened in India as well as many other groups worldwide. Conclusion: In the future, molecular genotyping of the ABO blood group system among different ethnic and tribal Indian groups would help in generating data to fill up the gaps in the molecular ABO map of the world.

  7. Tunni analüüs - mis see on? / Peep Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Peep

    2001-01-01

    Tunni analüüs, õppe-kasvatustöö eesmärgid. Tunni analüüs on hinnangu andmine protsessidele, mille kutsub esile õpetaja tegevus (või tegevusetus) tunnis. Tunni läbiviimise protsessi mõjutavad õpilaste koosseis klassis, erinevate õppevormide ja õppemeetodite kasutamine, kasutatud õppevõtete otstarbekus, erinevad metoodikad ja õppesüsteemid

  8. Kuulus velotuur võib jõuda Eesti teedele / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 29. nov., lk. 12. Maailma mainekaima velotuuri Tour de France korraldajad on pöördunud Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi poole ettepanekuga alustada 2018. aasta võidusõitu Tallinnast

  9. Heterogeneity of O blood group in India: Peeping through the window of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogri, Harita; Ray, Sabita; Agrawal, Snehal; Aruna, S; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Gorakshakar, Ajit

    2018-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of ABO blood group system has identified more than 60 "O" group alleles based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in the ABO gene. Heterogeneity of O group alleles has been observed in various countries from South America, Europe, Middle East, and Asia. India is a vast country with more than 1300 million population which is divided into various ethnic and tribal groups. However, very little is known about the heterogeneity of O alleles in Indians. A total of 116 O group individuals from the mixed population of Mumbai, India, were enrolled in the present study. DNA was extracted using the standard phenol-chloroform method. The exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and/or DNA sequencing. The genotyping results were compared with our earlier findings. Overall, ten different genotypes were identified. Three rare alleles, namely, O05, O11, and O26 were seen in the mixed group category. These results suggest that there is an internal heterogeneity in the mixed group while Dhodias and Parsis, the groups which were screened earlier, seem to be more homogenous groups. An important piece of information emerges out from this study, that is, O01O02 genotype is expressing some selective force in population groups screened in India as well as many other groups worldwide. In the future, molecular genotyping of the ABO blood group system among different ethnic and tribal Indian groups would help in generating data to fill up the gaps in the molecular ABO map of the world.

  10. Eesti Memento Liidu tööst nimekirjade koostamisel aastail 1989-2004 / Peep Varju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varju, Peep

    2007-01-01

    1991. aasta sügisel sõlmiti leping Eesti Riigiarhiivi ja Vene Föderatsiooni Arhiiviameti vahel. 1992. aasta juulis alustas tööd Okupatsioonide repressiivpoliitika uurimise riiklik komisjon (ORURK). ORURKi andmete võrdlus Memento tulemustega. Olulise tähtsusega andmete kogumisel oli töine kontakt Tomskis elava Vadim Maķejeviga, kelle abiga avanesid täies ulatuses kohalikud arhiivid. Uurimistöö tulemusena ilmunud väljaannetest

  11. El moep y el Peep Luces amarillas en el tablero de las decisiones empresariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Kaplan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre la variada gama de posibilidades que debe manejar uma organizacion, en el momento de tomar decisiones o politicas con respecto a lineas de producto, puntos de yenta etc., es posible que se plantee la eleccion de continuar con la produccion o comercializacion de un determinado producto o servicio.

  12. Kes kaitseks Eesti ohvitsere NKVD-KGB laimu eest? / Peep Varju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varju, Peep

    2008-01-01

    Autor polemiseerib Eesti Ekspressis ilmunud artiklitega Eesti endiste ohvitseride kohta, kus käsitletakse nende väidetavat koostööd KGBga. Vaatluse all on ohvitserid Ain Mere, Harald Nugiseks, Alfons Rebane ja Harald Riipalu

  13. Prügiveo hind hakkab olenema inimesest endast / Peep Aaviksoo ; interv. Jaan Rõõmussaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaviksoo, Peep, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Stolitsa, 5. nov. 2004, lk. 3. AS-i Tallinna Prügila taotles prügi ladestamishinna tõstmist, ettevõtlusameti hinna ja tarbijakaitse osakond pidas taotletavat hinda liiga kõrgeks. Tallinna abilinnapea vastab küsimustele prügimajanduse kota

  14. Politsei on tsiviilühiskonna lihased / Ignar Fjuk ; interv. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fjuk, Ignar, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, 18. sept. 2001, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 18. sept. 2001, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 20. sept. 2001, lk. 7; Valgamaalane, 20. sept. 2001, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 25. sept. 2001, lk. 2. Hinnang politseireformi sildi all toimunud koondamistele. Autor: Reformierakond. Parlamendisaadik

  15. Kuues üritus tõi Roman Šebrlele maailmameistritiitli / Raigo Pajula, Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Raigo, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    32-aastane tšehh Roman Šeberle on nüüd mitmevõistlejana triumfeerinud kõikidel tiitlivõistlustel. Jaapanis Osakas sai ta MMi kuldmedali. Esimest korda suurvõistlusel osalenud Andres Raja sai 16. koha

  16. Remo Holsmer: mees Kalevi pingi taga / Remo Holsmer ; interv. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holsmer, Remo, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Reformierakonna Tallinna piirkonnajuht Remo Holsmer vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema tööd Kalevi korvpalliklubi managerina, korvpalli taset Eestis, Kalevisse välismängijate leidmist, Tallinna Kalev-Tartu Rock vastasseisu ning suhteid Jaak Salumetsaga

  17. Johan Kõpu pärand on mitmekülgne / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2008-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Rohtmets, Priit. Rektor Johan Kõpp / toimetaja Mart Orav; resümeede tõlge: saksa keelde Reet Bender, inglise keelde Saskia Kangro, vene keelde A & A Lingua; kujundus Kalle Toompere. Tallinn : Aasta Raamat, 2007. 144 lk.

  18. Rastotshitelstvo - glavnaja problema tsentristskoi upravõ / Remo Holsmer ; interv. Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Holsmer, Remo, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu Eesti Reformierakonna fraktsiooni esimehe hinnangul ajab Keskerakond Tallinnas riigi omale vastandlikku poliitikat, tähelepanu on suunatud vaid Lasnamäel ja Põhja-Tallinnas elavatele toetajatele. Reformierakonna fraktsioon on algatanud eelnõu lasteaedadele makstava nn. pearaha tõstmise kohta 2009. a. ja teinud ettepaneku vähendada maamaksu

  19. Vabale turule pole alternatiivi / Johnny Munkhammar ; interv. Lillemägi, Peep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Munkhammar, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    Konverentsil Restart esinenud Rootsi majandusanalüütik ja kommentaator võrdleb praegust kriisi 1929. aasta omaga, tema arvates on tegu poliitikute möödalaskmistega, mitte turumajanduse läbikukkumistega. Nüüd oli vaja valitsuste sekkumist, kuid kaugemas perspektiivis pole valitsuste sekkumine turumehhanismide toimimisse õige

  20. Peeping thread from a laparotomy scar: Misery of an old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of modern methods of various surgical techniques for treating complicated patients, there are still some unreported incidents in day to day practice where simple surgical procedure ends up in unwanted complications. This may be attributed sometimes to the negligence of treating doctors and sometime to the patient himself. We present here one such case where unnecessary morbidity added to the patient after surgery.

  1. Kuusalus saab rattad alla autotreileritööstus / Peep Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talimaa, Peep

    2008-01-01

    OÜ-le Trucks & Trailers kuuluvast Kuusalu treileritehasest. Lisa: Kuusalu treileritehase ajalugu ja eellugu; Autotreileri valmimine; Üldandmeid treilerite kohta; Kuusalu treileritehase ajalugu ja eellugu

  2. Nuclear physics in India: a perspective and a peep into future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the field of nuclear physics in India began some 40 years ago. A brief account of the research activities in both experimental and theoretical nuclear physics is given. It is noted, that the research so far made and being conducted does not match the international standards. So far no new experimental or calculational techniques in accelerator technology has been developed in India. So also no new experiment based on an experimental or theoretical idea developed for the first time in India has been performed. Reasons for giving high priority to the development of nuclear physics as one of the most basic subjects of physics are discussed. Programmes for future must be formulated in such a way that the available funds are put to optimum use. For this purpose it is suggested that: (1) there should be a partnership between universities and the Department of Atomic Energy in setting up of the experimental facilities, (2) there should be corresponding change in the administrative procedures of the universities (3) collaborative programmes with foreign countries should be taken up with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency and to raise the level of research to that of international standards, (4) an attempt should be made to develop an Asian Centre of Nuclear Physics in India which should house a proton synchrotron and a high energy linear accelerator around which research activities in medium energy range can be developed, (5) the universities should be encouraged to develop strong theoretical nuclear physics centres, and (6) schools of theoretical nuclear physics around very good senior research scientists should be developed. (M.G.B.)

  3. Millised mõtted on peidus parimate töösturite peas? / Peep Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talimaa, Peep

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Auhind 2008 parima tööstusettevõtte tiitli võitnud AS Favor edu põhjustest, tulevikuperspektiividest ja ootustest riigile. Vt. samas: Eesti parimad ettevõtted on ABB ja Tallink Grupp. Lisa: Konkursi "Ettevõtluse auhind 2008" laureaadid ja kandidaadid

  4. Eesti tipprallimehed koondusid ühise kaubamärgi alla / Peep Pahv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pahv, Peep, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    WRC-sarjas osalevad Urmo Aava ja Kuldar Sikk, PWRC-sarjas startivad Martin Rauam ja Silver Kütt ning juunioride sarjas sõitvad Jaan Mölder ja kaardilugeja Frederic Miclotte on tänavusteks võistlusteks registreerinud võistkonna World Rally Team Estonia

  5. Universiteedi instituudid / Peep Nemvalts ; kommenteerivad Peeter Vihma, Hagi Šein, Andi Kivinukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nemvalts, Peep

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna ülikooli struktuuri muutustest ning terminite instituut, teaduskond ja osakond kasutusest, sisaldab sotsioloogia magistrandi, Rahvusvaheliste ja Sotsiaaluuringute Instituudi riigiteaduste osakonna assistendi Peeter Vihma, Balti Filmi- ja Meediakooli direktori Hagi Šeini, matemaatika-loodusteaduskonna dekaani Andi Kivinuki kommentaare

  6. Jahindus = Hunting / Jüri Tõnisson, Kaarel Roht, Peep Männil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnisson, Jüri, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Jahimeeste poolt loendatavate ulukite arvukus ja küttimine. Statistilised andmed 1985-2005. aasta jahihooajast. Põdra arvukus ja küttimine 1960-2005. Erinevate jahiulukite populatsioonide seisund Eesti metsades. Tabelid, diagrammid, graafikud

  7. Jahindus = Hunting / Jüri Tõnisson, Kaarel Roht, Peep Männil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnisson, Jüri, 1946-

    2008-01-01

    Jahimeeste poolt loendatavate ulukite arvukus ja küttimine. Statistilised andmed 1985-2006. aasta jahihooajast. Põdra arvukus ja küttimine 1960-2006. Erinevate jahiulukite populatsioonide seisund Eesti metsades. Tabelid, diagrammid, graafikud

  8. A Peep into the Uncertainty-Complexity-Relevance Modeling Trilemma through Global Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Carpena, R.; Muller, S. J.; Chu, M.; Kiker, G. A.; Perz, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Model Model complexity resulting from the need to integrate environmental system components cannot be understated. In particular, additional emphasis is urgently needed on rational approaches to guide decision making through uncertainties surrounding the integrated system across decision-relevant scales. However, in spite of the difficulties that the consideration of modeling uncertainty represent for the decision process, it should not be avoided or the value and science behind the models will be undermined. These two issues; i.e., the need for coupled models that can answer the pertinent questions and the need for models that do so with sufficient certainty, are the key indicators of a model's relevance. Model relevance is inextricably linked with model complexity. Although model complexity has advanced greatly in recent years there has been little work to rigorously characterize the threshold of relevance in integrated and complex models. Formally assessing the relevance of the model in the face of increasing complexity would be valuable because there is growing unease among developers and users of complex models about the cumulative effects of various sources of uncertainty on model outputs. In particular, this issue has prompted doubt over whether the considerable effort going into further elaborating complex models will in fact yield the expected payback. New approaches have been proposed recently to evaluate the uncertainty-complexity-relevance modeling trilemma (Muller, Muñoz-Carpena and Kiker, 2011) by incorporating state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (GSA/UA) in every step of the model development so as to quantify not only the uncertainty introduced by the addition of new environmental components, but the effect that these new components have over existing components (interactions, non-linear responses). Outputs from the analysis can also be used to quantify system resilience (stability, alternative states, thresholds or tipping points) in the face of environmental and anthropogenic change (Perz, Muñoz-Carpena, Kiker and Holt, 2013), and through MonteCarlo mapping potential management activities over the most important factors or processes to influence the system towards behavioral (desirable) outcomes (Chu-Agor, Muñoz-Carpena et al., 2012).

  9. Avati mälestuskivi Heinrich Marga sünnikohas / Peep Pillak ; Peeter Margna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    1. oktoobril 2008 avati mälestuskivi Heinrich Margale (1. oktoober 1911 - 2. august 2004) Põlvamaal Kõlleste vallas Ihamaru külas Otsa talus. Heinrich Mark õppis Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas aastatel 1933-1938. Lisatud Peeter Margna sõnavõtt Heinrich Marga mälestuskivi avamisel

  10. Peeping through heart′s window: A case report of Fallots tetralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhowate R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect. A combination of four abnormalities in heart allow oxygen rich and oxygen-depleted blood to mix. The resulting low-oxygen blood then circulates through the body. A child with the condition tends to develop slowly, eat poorly and grow slowly and may experience "blue" spells on crying and dyspnea on exertion. A 12 year old child with this congenital heart defect and cleft palate with cleft lip is discussed. Details of the latest diagnostic and treatment procedures are also presented.

  11. Order to initiate a plan approval procedure under atomic energy law - final waste disposal site Salzgitter ('Konrad' pit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The extend and limits up to which an order under Article 85 III of the Basic Law is binding follows directly from the competential rights the Basic Law assigns to the Federal Government and the state governments. An infringement of these rights can only be asserted before the Federal Constitutional Court as a Federal Government-State Government conflict. 2. On the interpretation and application of Article 85 III of the Basic Law. (orig.) [de

  12. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone formation. Thus, these proteins having potential to modulate calcium oxalate crystallization will throw light on understanding and controlling urolithiasis in humans.

  13. Suur põgenemine 1944 : eestlaste lahkumine läände ning selle mõjud / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Välis-Eesti uuringute keskuse ja Rootsi Eesti saatkonna korraldatud teaduskonverensist (Tartu, 22. okt. 2004), kus arutluse all oli 1944. a. suur põgenemine läände ja selle mõjud tänasesse päeva

  14. Giving peeps to my props: Using 3D printing to shed new light on particle transport in fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S. D.; Du Frane, W. L.; Vericella, J. J.; Aines, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Smart tracers and smart proppants promise new methods for sensing and manipulating rock fractures. However, the correct use and interpretation of these technologies relies on accurate models of their transport. Even for less exotic particles, the factors controlling particle transport through fractures are poorly understood. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory into the transport properties of particles in natural rock fractures. Using three dimensional printing techniques, we create clear-plastic reproductions of real-world fracture surfaces, thereby enabling direct observation of the particle movement. We will also discuss how particle tracking of dense particle packs can be further enhanced by using such specially tailored flow cells in combination with micro-encapsulated tracer particles. Experimental results investigating the transport behavior of smart tracers and proppants close to the neutrally buoyant limit will be presented and we will describe how data from these experiments can be used to improve large-scale models of particle transport in fractures. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Omavalitsuste ühinemine väärib tähelepanu ja toetust / Peep Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Peep, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Võrumaa Teataja, 27. märts 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 30. märts 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 30. märts 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 30. märts 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 31. märts 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 1. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 2. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 2. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 2. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Nädaline, 6. apr. 2004, lk. 4; Vooremaa, 13. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 13. apr. 2004, lk. 2. Reformierakonna toetusest omavalitsuste kiirele ühinemisele

  16. Kolonel Arthur von Buxhoevedeni (VR 1/2) ja tema abikaasa Kira ümbermatmine kodumaa mulda / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2015-01-01

    Vabadusristi kavaler kolonel Arthur von Buxhoeveden ja tema abikaasa Kira sängitati sõjaväeliste austusavaldustega kodumaa mulda Tallinna Kaitseväe kalmistul 12. septembril. Kolonel Arthur von Buxhoeveden'i elukäigust

  17. Eesti NSV julgeolekukomitee esimees sõpru võitmas ja inimesi mõjustamas / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2016-01-01

    Hoiuraamatukokku jõudnud trükistest. ENSV KGB esimehe Karl Kortelaineni pühenduse ja allkirjaga trükisest. Tegemist on koopiaga Dale Carnegie raamatust "Kuidas võita sõpru ja mõjustada inimesi" vene keeles

  18. Complejo residencial económico y popular - P.E.E.P. - Nueva Liguria – Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceroni, Eugenio

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the construction of a building compound, built with government funds. This group contains, besides the housing units, both in 21 m-high tower form and in 18 m-high elongated building, a series of public and private services, namely: — Parking lots. — Underground garages. — Landscaped areas. — Play and sports grounds. — Religious, social, medical, cultural, and shopping centres, etc.

    Se describe en este artículo la realización de un complejo de edificios, construidos con ayuda estatal. Este complejo, además de los edificios destinados a viviendas —cuya tipología varía desde edificios-torre, con una altura de 21 m, hasta edificios lineales con una altura de 18 m—, está dotado de una serie de servicios públicos y privados tales como: — Aparcamientos. — Garajes subterráneos. — Zonas verdes. — Campos de juego. — Centros religioso, social, médico, cultural, comercial, etc.

  19. Act on Gender: A Peep into Intra-Household Water Use in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Harriden, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Intra-household water use and management from a gender perspective has remained a relatively under-researched theme in developed countries. Australia is no exception, with the lack of research particularly evident in the many rural and peri-urban communities. These communities have experienced significant water scarcity in recent years. In this…

  20. IMF soovitab uue töölepinguseaduse kiiresti vastu võtta / Peep Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Peep, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Tallinnskii Vestnik juuli 2008, lk. 3. Eestis viibinud IMF-i delegatsiooni hinnangul sõltub Eesti majanduskasvu taastumine suurel määral majanduse konkurentsivõimest, delegatsioon toetab kavatsust leida edasisi võimalusi kokkuhoiuks ning soovitab töölepinguseaduse eelnõu kiiresti vastu võtta ja ellu viia. Rahandusminister Ivari Padari arvamus IMF-i hinnangute kohta

  1. Gut Alp im Kirchspiel St. Matthäi, Jerwen : Albu mõis, Järva-Madise kihelkond, Järvamaa / Konrad Heilmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heilmann, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    Albu mõis on vanim ordumõis Järvamaal, esmakordselt mainitud 1282. Mõisast, selle lähiümbrsusest ja omanikest läbi ajaloo. 1995-2000 restaureerimise käigus 200 aastat vana krohvikorra alt avastatud seinamaalingutest

  2. Variables asociadas con el fenómeno de la deserción de los estudiantes en la Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Johanna; Garzón, Gustavo; Gómez, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    Los avances investigativos sobre deserción reflejan múltiples variables causales de dicho fenómeno, variables sociales, económicas y académicas, entre otras. No existen perfiles definidos para describir y explicar con precisión la forma en que se comportan cada una de estas variables por la heterogeneidad de población. La presente investigación, cuyo objetivo general fue identificar las variables sociodemográficas, financieras y académicas relacionadas con la deserción de los estudiantes en l...

  3. Mobile marketing will take big part in marketing / Ingrid Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    Mobiiltelefoniturunduse populaarsus kasvab kiiresti ning tulevikus muutub SMS-i või MMS-i teel toodete pakkumine igapäevaseks nähtuseks, leiab Inpoc Baltics juht Mart Kikas. Kommenteerib Rauno Stüff. Lisa

  4. Inimesed ja mesilased / Rein Tootmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootmaa, Rein

    2005-01-01

    Nukufilm "Gene+ratio" : stsenarist, kunstnik ja režissöör Mait Laas : konsultant Paavo Matsin : operaatorid Ragnar Neljandi, Raivo Möllits : helilooja Tiit Kikas : Nukufilm OÜ - Icon Film (Saksamaa) 2005

  5. Changes in ventilatory mechanics caused by variations in PEEP and pressure support: study in healthy subjects under non-invasive mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Muñoz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The proposed technique allowed to find compliance and resistance values consistent with those set in the mechanical simulator, which, in turn, coincide with those reported in the literature for healthy subjects. This information is useful for decision-making in intensive care units..

  6. Õigushariduse akrediteerimise õiguslikest alustest ja protsessist Eestis (Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna näitel) / Kalle Merusk, Raul Narits, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merusk, Kalle, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Õigusteaduse õppekavade akrediteerimisest eri kõrgkoolides ning Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna tegevusest. Lisatud ülevaade olulisematest teadustöödest Tartu Ülikooli avaliku õiguse instituudis ja eraõiguse instituudis 1997. a. ning Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas 1993.-1998. a. kaitstud magistritööde ja teaduskonna õppejõudude poolt mujal kaitstud tööde nimekiri

  7. On legal bases and process of accreditation of teaching of law in Estonia (University of Tartu Faculty of Law case) / Kalle Merusk, Raul Narits, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merusk, Kalle, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Õigusharidust andvate õppeasutuste akrediteerimisest; Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnast ning selle avaliku õiguse ja eraõiguse instituutidest, õppeprogrammist, magistri- ja doktoriõppest ning teadustegevusest. Lisatud andmed 1993.-1998. a. kaitstud teadustööde kohta, õppejõudude osalemise kohta seaduseelnõude ettevalmistamisel ning publikatsioonide kohta

  8. Juridica minevikust, tulevikust ja veebist 200. numbri künnisel / Peep Pruks ; komment. Hanno Pevkur, Priit Pikamäe, Norman Aas ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruks, Peep, 1963-

    2013-01-01

    Vastused küsimusele, mida on Juridica seni andnud kasulikku ja mida ootaksite ajakirjalt tulevikus rohkem. Valiku statistilistest andmetest, mida Google Analyticsi abil on võimalik veebis Juridica kasutamise kohta tuvastada. Tabel. Graafikud

  9. Julgesti, vennad, nüüd tööle : haiglajuht seletab valitsusele, et vajalik palgaraha on haigekassa reservis / Peep Põdder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põdder, Peep, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Jõgeva haigla juhataja kirjutab tervishoiuprobleemidest, pidades tervishoidu esimeseks julgeolekuküsimuseks ning kritiseerides ekssotsiaalminister Eiki Nestori tegevust ja andes nõu sotsiaalminister Jaak Aabile

  10. Õigusteaduse osa Eesti õiguskorra kujunemises : teaduskonverents professor Kalle Meruski 60. juubeli auks / koost. Peep Pruks. K. Meruski bibliograafia: Maia Ruttu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisu: Programm. Õigusteaduse rollist Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse aluspõhimõtete sisustamisel / Raul Narits. Keskkonnaõiguse kodifitseerimise teaduslikud alused / Hannes Veinla. "Kord Vestmann peal ja Piibeleht all, siis jälle..." : praktika ja õigusteaduse vahekord õiguse kujundamisel 19. sajandi Läänemereprovintsides / Marju Luts-Sootak. Teaduslik analüüs tsiviilõigusloomes / Paul Varul. Õiguslaenud ja võrdlev õigusteadus Eesti eraõiguse süsteemi kujundamisel / Irene Kull. Professor Meruski juubeliks / Märt Rask. Kolleegi kiituseks / Raul Narits. Professor Kalle Merusk : õpetaja ja inimene / Ivo Pilving. Kalle Merusk : valikbibliograafia 1990-2009 / koost. Maia Ruttu

  11. A randomized pilot study comparing the role of PEEP, O2 flow, and high-flow air for weaning of ventilatory support in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yo Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of evidence to guide step-wise weaning of positive pressure respiratory support for premature infants. This study sought to compare the efficacy of three weaning protocols we designed to facilitate weaning of very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g preterm infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP support. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of VLBW preterm infants who received positive pressure ventilatory support in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU from April 2008 through March 2009. When these infants were weaned to CPAP as their last step of respiratory support, they would be randomly assigned to one of the following three groups as their further weaning methods (M: (M1 CPAP group, (M2 O2 flow group, and (M3 air flow group. The time period they needed to wean off any kind of respiratory support, as well as the likelihood of developing relevant prematurity related morbidities, were compared among patients using different weaning modalities. Results: 181 patients were enrolled in the study. Their gestational age (GA and birth weight (BW were 29.1 ± 2.5, 28.7 ± 2.4, 28.7 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD weeks and 1142 ± 232, 1099 ± 234, 1083 ± 219 g, in M1, M2 and M3, respectively. The time (period needed to wean off support was 16.0 ± 10.0 days (M1, 11.6 ± 6.4 days (M2, and 15.0 ± 8.9 days (M3, respectively (p = .033. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD were both significantly higher in the O2 flow group (p = .048. Conclusions: Although using low oxygen flow significantly shortens CPAP weaning time, it may increase risks of BPD and ROP, both known to be related to oxygen toxicity. Unless the infant has BPD and is O2-dependent, clinicians should consider using air flow or just splinting with no support at all when weaning NCPAP. Key Words: weaning, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, very low birth weight, nasal air flow

  12. Художник Мяги и его мифы / Кейу Вирро, Хейди Тооме

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Вирро, Кейу, 1987-

    2009-01-01

    Maalikunstnik Konrad Mäest ja tema tööde populaarsuse kasvust. Konrad Mäe maalide hindadest 1.detsembril toimunud E-kunstisalongi oksjonil. Kommenteerivad galerist Tiia Karelson ja kunstiajaloolane Heie Treier

  13. Videomuinasjutt algastme eesti keele tundi : miks ka mitte? / Ene Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Ene

    2002-01-01

    Rets. : Tungal, Leelo. Videomuinasjutt "Printsess Mari ja konn Konrad" [Videosalvestis] = A fairytale on video "Princess Mari and frog Konrad". - Tallinn : Elav Teadus, 1993. - 1 videokassett (VHS) (120 min) + 1 raamat (32 lk.)

  14. Hemodynamic responses to external counterbalancing of auto-positive end-expiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigorri, F; de Monte, A; Blanch, L; Fernández, R; Vallés, J; Mestre, J; Saura, P; Artigas, A

    1994-11-01

    To study the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on right ventricular hemodynamics and ejection fraction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and positive alveolar pressure throughout expiration by dynamic hyperinflation (auto-PEEP). Open, prospective, controlled trial. General intensive care unit of a community hospital. Ten patients sedated and paralyzed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing mechanical ventilation. Insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter modified with a rapid response thermistor and a radial arterial catheter. PEEP was then increased from 0 (PEEP 0) to auto-PEEP level (PEEP = auto-PEEP) and 5 cm H2O above that (PEEP = auto-PEEP +5). At each level of PEEP, airway pressures, flow and volume, hemodynamic variables (including right ventricular ejection fraction by thermodilution technique), and blood gas analyses were recorded. The mean auto-PEEP was 6.6 +/- 2.8 cm H2O and the total PEEP reached was 12.2 +/- 2.4 cm H2O. The degree of lung inflation induced by PEEP averaged 145 +/- 87 mL with PEEP = auto-PEEP and 495 +/- 133 mL with PEEP = auto-PEEP + 5. The PEEP = auto-PEEP caused a right ventricular end-diastolic pressure increase, but there was no other significant hemodynamic change. With PEEP = auto-PEEP + 5, there was a significant increase in intravascular pressures; this amount of PEEP reduced cardiac output (from 4.40 +/- 1.38 L/min at PEEP 0 to 4.13 +/- 1.48 L/min; p 10% in only five cases and this group of patients had significantly lower right ventricular volumes than the group with less cardiac output variation (right ventricular end-diastolic volume: 64 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 26 mL/m2; right ventricular end-systolic volume: 38 +/- 6 vs. 65 +/- 21 mL/m2; p < .05) without significant difference in the other variables that were measured. Neither right ventricular ejection fraction nor right ventricle volumes changed as PEEP increased, but there were marked interpatient

  15. Kitsas silmaring on nuhtluseks endale, teistele, kogu riigile / Raivo Juurak, Kaiko Lippur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2014-01-01

    Westholmi Gümnaasiumi riigikaitseõpetuse õppetooli juhataja Kaiko Lippur selgitab, et riigikaitseõpetus on eelkõige õpilaste silmaringi laiendamiseks. Küsimusele, mida riigikaitseõpetus annab, vastavad Westholmi gümnaasiumi õpilased Jaan Kaarel Sepp, Marie Helen Lisete Kikas ja Kaisa-Mai Kallaste ning Rocca al Mare kooli lapsevanem Katariina L. Martens

  16. Pop / Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Queens Of The Stone Age "Era Vulgaris", Bob Marley & The Wailers "Exodus: 30th Anniversary Edition", Sophie Ellis Bextor "Trip The Light Fantastic", The Police "The Police", Armand Van Helden "Ghettoblaster", Rihanna "Good Girl Gone Bad", Tiit Kikas "String Theory", Ryan Adams "Easy Tiger"

  17. Professional Preparation in School Psychology: A Summary of Information from Programs in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes prominent themes found in descriptions of school psychology programs in Estonia (Kikas, 2014), Greece (Hatzichristou & Polychroni, 2014), Hong Kong (Lam, 2014), Romania (Negovan & Dinca, 2014), Sweden (Schad, 2014), United Kingdom (Wood, 2014), and United States (Joyce & Rossen, 2014). This paper summarizes…

  18. Sügisene moevaatemäng / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad Viru keskuses, korraldaja Anu Kikas. Arne Niidu, Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre kollektsioonidest. Kalle Aasamäe, Lilli Jahilo, Aet Alevi, Anu Samarüütel-Longi ja Tanel Veenre kommentaarid

  19. Nukufilmi erootika / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Kaks eesti nukufilmi - "Laud" : autorid Jelena Girlin ning Mari-Liis Bassovskaja : operaator ja kaasrežissöör Urmas Jõemees : helilooja Malle Maltis : Nukufilm OÜ 2004 ja "Generatio" : stsenarist, kunstnik ja režissöör Mait Laas : konsultant Paavo Matsin : operaatorid Ragnar Neljandi, Raivo Möllits : helilooja Tiit Kikas : Nukufilm OÜ - Icon Film (Saksamaa) 2005

  20. Stenbocki maja õues kuuleb põnevaid kodumaiseid artiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Stenbocki maja õuemuusika kontserdisarja kontsertidest: 18. juunil esinevad Rein Rannap ja Tiit Kikas, 2. juulil kontsert "Jazz Emotion" (Sofia Rubina), 16. juulil eesti-ukraina folkansambel Svjata Vatra, juuli eelviimasel nädalal kontsert "Tshellopalavik" (C-Jam ja Kaire Vilgats), augustis kontsert "Hea-tuju-laulud" (Revalia kammermeeskoor), 20. aug. kontsert "Aeg ei peata" (esitusel Ott Arderi sõnadele loodud laulud)

  1. Rasta-revolutsioon : ikka ja jälle. White label : Nikns Suns - Imed. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaadist "Bob Marley And The Wailers. Exodus". Ansamblist. Heliplaatidest: Taraf De Haidouks "Maskarada", Los Desterrados "Tu", Prince "Planet Earth", Manu Chao "La Radiolinia", Kanye West "Graduation", 50 Cent "Curtis", Vaiko Eplik ja Eliit 2", "Shahrukh. The King Khan. Vol 3", Big &Rich "Between Raising Hell and Amazing Graze", Tiit Kikas"String Theory"

  2. Setting individualized positive end-expiratory pressure level with a positive end-expiratory pressure decrement trial after a recruitment maneuver improves oxygenation and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Mugarra, Ana; Gutierrez, Andrea; Carbonell, Jose Antonio; García, Marisa; Soro, Marina; Tusman, Gerardo; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation, ventilation, and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation compared with standardized PEEP. Thirty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to the study or control group. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the beginning and end of one-lung ventilation. After the alveolar recruitment maneuver, the control group had their lungs ventilated with a 5 cm·H2O PEEP, while the study group had their lungs ventilated with an individualized PEEP level determined by a PEEP decrement trial. Arterial blood samples, lung mechanics, and volumetric capnography were recorded at multiple timepoints throughout the procedure. The individualized PEEP values in study group were higher than the standardized PEEP values (10 ± 2 vs 5 cm·H2O; P decrement trial than with a standardized 5 cm·H2O of PEEP.

  3. User interface design of electronic appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Konrad

    2002-01-01

    Foreword by Brenda Laurel. Part One: Introduction 1. Background, Bruce Thomas 2. Introduction, Konrad Baumann 3. The Interaction Design Process, Georg Rakers Part Two: User Interface Design 4. Creativity Techniques, Irene Mavrommati 5. Design Principals, Irene Mavrommati and Adrian Martel 6. Design of On-Screen Interfaces, Irene Mavrommati Part Three: Input Devices 7. Controls, Konrad Baumann 8. Keyboards, Konrad Baumann 9. Advanced Interaction Techniques, Christopher Baber and Konrad Baumann 10. Speech Control, Christopher Baber and Jan Noyes 11. Wearable Computers, Christopher Baber Part Fou

  4. Rein Lang: Eesti kõige väärtuslikum ressurss on mõistus / Rein Lang ; interv. Peep Lillemägi ; komment. Siim Kallas, Jüri Pihl, Väino Linde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rein, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Justiitsminister Rein Lang vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Ameerika Ühendriike kui vabaduse kantsi, ettevõtlusvabadust Ameerika Ühendriikides ja Eestis, tööd justiitsministrina, varasemat karjääri, Eesti põhiseaduse loomist, Euroopa Liidu aluslepingu välja töötamist, avaliku võimu rolli tänapäeva maailmas ning Eesti jõudmist Euroopa rikkamate riikide hulka

  5. Clinical assessment of auto-positive end-expiratory pressure by diaphragmatic electrical activity during pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Giacomo; Coppadoro, Andrea; Patroniti, Nicolò; Turella, Marta; Arrigoni Marocco, Stefano; Grasselli, Giacomo; Mauri, Tommaso; Pesenti, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) may substantially increase the inspiratory effort during assisted mechanical ventilation. Purpose of this study was to assess whether the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) signal can be reliably used to estimate auto-PEEP in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and whether NAVA was beneficial in comparison with pressure support ventilation in patients affected by auto-PEEP. In 10 patients with a clinical suspicion of auto-PEEP, the authors simultaneously recorded EAdi, airway, esophageal pressure, and flow during pressure support and NAVA, whereas external PEEP was increased from 2 to 14 cm H2O. Tracings were analyzed to measure apparent "dynamic" auto-PEEP (decrease in esophageal pressure to generate inspiratory flow), auto-EAdi (EAdi value at the onset of inspiratory flow), and IDEAdi (inspiratory delay between the onset of EAdi and the inspiratory flow). The pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, auto-EAdi, and IDEAdi was significantly lower in NAVA as compared with pressure support ventilation, decreased with increase in external PEEP, although the effect of external PEEP was less pronounced in NAVA. Both auto-EAdi and IDEAdi were tightly correlated with auto-PEEP (r = 0.94 and r = 0.75, respectively). In the presence of auto-PEEP at lower external PEEP levels, NAVA was characterized by a characteristic shape of the airway pressure. In patients with auto-PEEP, NAVA, compared with pressure support ventilation, led to a decrease in the pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, which could be reliably monitored by the electrical activity of the diaphragm before inspiratory flow onset (auto-EAdi).

  6. National Security and the Industrial Policy Debate: Modernizing Defense Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    47. 49. Michael Schroeder and Walecia Konrad, " Nucor : Rolling Right Into Steel’s Big Time," Business Week 19 Nov. 1990: 76. 50. Clyde V. Prestowitz...Defense." The I Industrial Policy Debate. Ed. Chalmers Johnson. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1984. i 74I Schroeder, Michael and Walecia Konrad. " Nucor

  7. Final report of the nine-month visit to the Institut fuer Tieflagerung and the Asse repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1978-05-01

    The work and reports of the visit are described and presented tabularly. Highlights of the visit describing aspects of the German waste disposal program are presented including geologic storage of spent fuels at Asse and radioactive waste storage in the Konrad Iron Mine. Photographs of the Asse and Konrad mines and their activities are included

  8. Antinous: Saint or Criminal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2017-01-01

    An exploration of the Antinous myth in early modern Danish homosexual literature and drama around 1800, including interpretations of two forgotten dramas: "Hadrian" by Konrad Simonsen and "Antinous" by Palle Rosenkrantz.......An exploration of the Antinous myth in early modern Danish homosexual literature and drama around 1800, including interpretations of two forgotten dramas: "Hadrian" by Konrad Simonsen and "Antinous" by Palle Rosenkrantz....

  9. Positive end expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation: Selecting ideal patients and ventilator settings with the aim of improving arterial oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoftman Nir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in treating intraoperative hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV remains in question given conflicting results of prior studies. This study aims to (1 evaluate the efficacy of PEEP during OLV, (2 assess the utility of preoperative predictors of response to PEEP, and (3 explore optimal intraoperative settings that would maximize the effects of PEEP on oxygenation. Forty-one thoracic surgery patients from a single tertiary care university center were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was fiberoptically positioned and OLV initiated. Intraoperatively, PEEP = 5 and 10 cmH 2 O were sequentially applied to the ventilated lung during OLV. Arterial oxygenation, cardiovascular performance parameters, and proposed perioperative variables that could predict or enhance response to PEEP were analysed. T-test and c2 tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were carried out using a classification tree model of binary recursive partitioning. PEEP improved arterial oxygenation by ≥20% in 29% of patients (n = 12 and failed to do so in 71% (n = 29; however, no cardiovascular impact was noted. Among the proposed clinical predictors, only intraoperative tidal volume per kilogram differed significantly between responders to PEEP and non-responders (mean 6.6 vs. 5.7 ml/kg, P = 0.013; no preoperative variable predicted response to PEEP. A multivariate analysis did not yield a clinically significant model for predicting PEEP responsiveness. PEEP improved oxygenation in a subset of patients; larger, although still protective tidal volumes favored a positive response to PEEP. No preoperative variables, however, could be identified as reliable predictors for PEEP responders.

  10. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration and recruitment maneuver on lung inflammation and hyperinflation in experimental acid aspiration-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Aline M; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A; Malbouisson, Luiz M S; Auler, Jose O C; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.

  11. Neonatal Pneumothorax Pressures Surpass Higher Threshold in Lung Recruitment Maneuvers: An In Vivo Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pizarro, Patricio; García-Fernández, Javier; Canfrán, Susana; Gilsanz, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Causing pneumothorax is one of the main concerns of lung recruitment maneuvers in pediatric patients, especially newborns. Therefore, these maneuvers are not performed routinely during anesthesia. Our objective was to determine the pressures that cause pneumothorax in healthy newborns by a prospective experimental study of 10 newborn piglets (pneumothorax. Animals under anesthesia and bilateral chest tube catheterization were randomly allocated to 2 groups: one with PEEP and fixed inspiratory driving pressure of 15 cm H2O (PEEP group) and the second one with PEEP = 0 cm H2O and non-fixed inspiratory driving pressure (zero PEEP group). In both groups, the ventilation mode was pressure-controlled, and PIP was raised at 2-min intervals, with steps of 5 cm H2O until air leak was observed through the chest tubes. The PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O PEEP increments, and the zero PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O inspiratory driving pressure increments. Pneumothorax was observed with a PIP of 90.5 ± 15.7 cm H2O with no statistically significant differences between the PEEP group (92 ± 14.8 cm H2O) and the zero PEEP group (89 ± 18.2 cm H2O). The zero PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 35 cm H2O; the PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 60 cm H2O (P = .01). The zero PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 40 cm H2O; the PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 70 cm H2O (P = .002). Performing recruitment maneuvers in newborns without lung disease is a safe procedure in terms of pneumothorax. Pneumothorax does not seem to occur in the clinically relevant PIPs of pneumothorax PIP in poorly compliant lungs. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Aaviksoo võistleb Donald Trumpiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Peep Aaviksoole ja tema äripartneritele kuuluv IPC Investment tegeleb Rumeenias lisaks kinnisvarainvesteeringutele ka ehitusmaterjalide tootmisega. USA kinnisvaramagnaat Donald Trump on otsustanud riiki investeerida miljard eurot

  13. Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment and Overdistension During Four Levels of End-Expiratory Pressure with Protective Tidal Volume During Anesthesia in a Murine Lung-Healthy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joao Henrique Neves; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally; Bergamini, Bruno Curty; Gress, Maria Alice Kuster; Jandre, Frederico Caetano; Zin, Walter Araujo; Giannella-Neto, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    We compared respiratory mechanics between the positive end-expiratory pressure of minimal respiratory system elastance (PEEP minErs ) and three levels of PEEP during low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) ventilation in rats. Twenty-four rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Airway pressure (P aw ), flow (F), and volume (V) were fitted by a linear single compartment model (LSCM) P aw (t) = E rs  × V(t) + R rs  × F(t) + PEEP or a volume- and flow-dependent SCM (VFDSCM) P aw (t) = (E 1  + E 2  × V(t)) × V(t) + (K 1  + K 2  × |F(t)|) × F(t) + PEEP, where E rs and R rs are respiratory system elastance and resistance, respectively; E 1 and E 2 × V are volume-independent and volume-dependent E rs , respectively; and K 1 and K 2  × F are flow-independent and flow-dependent R rs , respectively. Animals were ventilated for 1 h at PEEP 0 cmH 2 O (ZEEP); PEEP minErs ; 2 cmH 2 O above PEEP minErs (PEEP minErs+2 ); or 4 cmH 2 O above PEEP minErs (PEEP minErs+4 ). Alveolar tidal recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension were assessed by the index %E 2  = 100 × [(E 2  × V T )/(E 1  + |E 2 | × V T )], and alveolar stability by the slope of E rs (t). %E 2 varied between 0 and 30% at PEEP minErs in most respiratory cycles. Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment (%E 2   30) were predominant in the absence of PEEP and in PEEP levels higher than PEEP minErs , respectively. The slope of E rs (t) was different from zero in all groups besides PEEP minErs+4 . PEEP minErs presented the best compromise between alveolar tidal recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension, during 1 h of low-V T mechanical ventilation.

  14. Influence of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Myocardial Strain Assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Franchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The effects of mechanical ventilation (MV on speckle tracking echocardiography- (STE-derived variables are not elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP ventilation on 4-chamber longitudinal strain (LS analysis by STE. Methods. We studied 20 patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit who required intubation for MV and PEEP titration due to hypoxia. STE was performed at three times: (T1 PEEP = 5 cmH2O; (T2 PEEP = 10 cmH2O; and (T3 PEEP = 15 cmH2O. STE analysis was performed offline using a dedicated software (XStrain MyLab 70 Xvision, Esaote. Results. Left peak atrial-longitudinal strain (LS was significantly reduced from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 (. Right peak atrial-LS and right ventricular-LS showed a significant reduction only at T3 (. Left ventricular-LS did not change significantly during titration of PEEP. Cardiac chambers’ volumes showed a significant reduction at higher levels of PEEP (. Conclusions. We demonstrated for the first time that incremental PEEP affects myocardial strain values obtained with STE in intubated critically ill patients. Whenever performing STE in mechanically ventilated patients, care must be taken when PEEP is higher than 10 cmH2O to avoid misinterpreting data and making erroneous decisions.

  15. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves survival in a rodent model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using high-dose epinephrine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaul, Conán

    2009-10-01

    Multiple interventions have been tested in models of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to optimize drug use, chest compressions, and ventilation. None has studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on outcome. We hypothesized that because PEEP can reverse pulmonary atelectasis, lower pulmonary vascular resistance, and potentially improve cardiac output, its use during CPR would increase survival.

  16. Pharmacologic Interventions to Improve Splanchnic Oxygenation During Ventilation with Positive End-Expiratory Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournell, A.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Picker, O.; Schwarte, L. A.; Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an indispensable tool in the management of respiratory failure to preserve or improve lung function and systemic oxygenation. However, PEEP per se may also, as has been shown in experimental animals, impair regional

  17. Salt Lake Cityst Torinoni / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm Eesti suusameeskonna valmistumisest Torino olümpiamängudeks "Tiim" : idee autorid Peep Puks, Hans Roosipuu : režissöör Peep Puks : F-Seitse 2006. Esilinastus toimus 26. mail Otepääl, ETVs 31. mail

  18. Männik ohverdas Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Telekomi nõukogu otsusest vabastada ametist EMT juhatuse esimees Peep Aaviksoo, uuest kandidaadist Valdo Kalmust ning EMT ja Elioni võimalikust ühinemisest. Diagramm: EMT turuosa libiseb Tele2-le. Vt. samas: EMT lahkuva juhi Peep Aaviksoo avalik kiri. Kommenteerivad Sami Seppänen, Üllar Jaaksoo, Monika Salu, Jaak Aaviksoo, Toomas Tamsar

  19. Ma olen Turist, ma elan siin / Mait Väljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljas, Mait

    2006-01-01

    Endise valuutapoe, praeguse klubi "Parlament" lammutamisplaanist Tallinnas Tartu mnt. 17. Arhitektid Peep Jänes ja Henno Sepmann, sisearhitekt Toivo Gans, sisekujundaja Aulo Padar. Ehitamisel osalesid ka soome arhitektid Kalle-Heiki Narinen ja Tapio Hänninen. Kommentaar Peep Jäneselt ja Aulo Padarilt

  20. Visits Service Launches New Seminar Series

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.

  1. Maailmavaatest / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Autori hinnangul vajab Euroopa konservatiivset poliitikat, mis julgeb lähtuda selgetest põhimõtetest ning väärtustest. Sarnastest põhimõtetest on varem juhindunud Winston Churchill, Konrad Adenauer ja Margaret Thatcher

  2. [Geisteswissenschaft und Publizistik im Baltikum des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts] / Manfred von Boetticher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Boetticher, Manfred von, 1947-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Geisteswissenschaft und Publizistik im Baltikum des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts (Schriften der Baltischen Historischen Kommission, 17; Baltische Biographische Forschungen, 1). Hrsg. von Norbert Angermann, Wilhelm Lenz und Konrad Maier. (Berlin: LIT-Varlag, 2011)

  3. Osavalt peidetud / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Arhitekt Tiit Silla projekteeritud avara katuseterrassiga hotell "Konrad" Tartus Küütri tänav 8. Hoone kaasautorid Martin McLean ja Keiti Kaasik (Arhitektuuribüroo Sport), sisearhitekt Kristiina Kuustuba

  4. Respiratory effects of low versus high tidal volume with or without positive end-expiratory pressure in anesthetized dogs with healthy lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Valentina; Bufalari, Antonello; Grasso, Salvatore; Ferrulli, Fabienne; Crovace, Alberto Maria; Lacitignola, Luca; Staffieri, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of 2 tidal volumes (T V s) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung mechanics, aeration, and gas exchange in healthy anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS 40 mixed-breed dogs with healthy lungs. PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) with different ventilatory settings: T V of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H 2 O (low T V group), T V of 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H 2 O (low T V plus PEEP group), T V of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 0 cm H 2 O (high T V group), or T V of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H 2 O (high T V plus PEEP group). Expired CO 2 and respiratory rate were titrated on the basis of a predetermined stepwise protocol. Gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and pulmonary aeration were evaluated by means of CT 30 minutes after starting mechanical ventilation at the assigned setting. RESULTS Partial pressures of arterial and expired CO 2 were higher in the low T V and low T V plus PEEP groups than in the high T V and high T V plus PEEP groups. Peak and plateau airway pressures were higher in the PEEP group than in the other groups. Static lung compliance was higher in the high T V plus PEEP group than in the low T V group. Relative percentages of atelectatic and poorly aerated lung were lower in the high T V plus PEEP group than in the other groups. Oxygenation was similar among groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Differences in T V and PEEP application during mechanical ventilation may affect respiratory function in anesthetized dogs with healthy lungs. Ventilation with a T V of 15 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H 2 O significantly improved lung compliance and reduced the amount of atelectatic and poorly aerated lung.

  5. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  6. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Lígia de A; Samary, Cynthia S; Oliveira, Milena V; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Schultz, Marcus J; Abreu, Marcelo G; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery. Thirty-five Wistar rats were used, of which 28 were anesthetized, and a laparotomy was performed with standardized bowel manipulation. Postoperatively, animals (n = 7/group) were randomly assigned to 4 hours of ventilation with: (1) tidal volume (VT) = 7 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 1 cm H2O without recruitment maneuvers (RMs) (low VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking the low-VT/low-PEEP strategy of PROVHILO; (2) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 3 cm H2O with RMs before laparotomy and hourly thereafter (low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+), mimicking the protective ventilation strategy of IMPROVE; (3) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 6 cm H2O with RMs only before laparotomy (low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+), mimicking the strategy used after intubation and before extubation in PROVHILO; or (4) VT = 14 mL/kg and PEEP = 1 cm H2O without RMs (high VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking conventional ventilation used in IMPROVE. Seven rats were not tracheotomized, operated, or mechanically ventilated, and constituted the healthy nonoperated and nonventilated controls. Low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+ and low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+, compared to low VT/low PEEP/RM- and high VT/low PEEP/RM-, resulted in lower ΔPRS (7.1 ± 0.8 and 10.2 ± 2.1 cm H2O vs 13.9 ± 0.9 and 16.9 ± 0.8 cm H2O, respectively; Pmechanical power (63 ± 7 and 79 ± 20 J/min vs 110 ± 10 and 120 ± 20 J/min, respectively; P = .007). Low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+ was associated with less alveolar collapse than low VT/low PEEP/RM- (P = .03). E-cadherin expression was higher in

  7. TÜ ja TPÜ uusi magistreid 2002 / Tiia Margus, Hille Roots, Krista Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Margus, Tiia

    2003-01-01

    TÜ eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse osakonnas kaitsesid 2002.a. magistritööd N. Gordejeva, T. Leemets, S. Mäearu, M. Raadik, A. Tavast, K. Kikas, S. Iva, T. Iva, N. Kuznetsov, K. Strandson, L. Talejeva, M. Allik, V. Ernštreits, K. Kuldnokk, K. Praakli, E. Laanes, A. Pilv, K. Talviste, L. Hion, P. Noorhani, R. Hindrikus, J. Oras, L. Jääts. TPÜ eesti keele ja soome-ugri keelte magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogu ees kaitsesid magistritööd M. Pesti, K. Aava, J. Kallas, A. Lange, I. Kivirähk

  8. Regions on plasmid pCU1 required for the killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Thatte, V; Gill, S; Iyer, V N

    1985-01-01

    Plasmid pCU1 was Kik+ (promotes killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae). All Tn5 insertions within the tra region of pCU1 were Kik-. Two other regions, kikA and kikB, were needed. They may be separated on different plasmids, but both must be mobilized into Klebsiella pneumoniae. Establishment of one kik region in K. pneumoniae followed by receipt of the second did not lead to killing. Kik was therefore intracellular and required concerted and transient action of both regions.

  9. Kolmene ülikool esitles professoreid ja kirjanduspreemia laureaate

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikool esitles 3. aastapäeva aktusel aasta jooksul professoreiks valituid: Lorenzo Cañás Bottos, Jyrki Käkönen, Aaro Toomela, Airi Värnik, Marika Mägi, Priit Reiska, Eve Kikas ja Karsten Brüggemann. Selgusid ka tänavused Tallinna Ülikooli kirjanduspreemia laureaadid. Algupärase ilukirjanduse vallas pälvis auhinna romanist, luuletaja ja tõlkija, doktorant Maarja Kangro, tõlkepreemia sai kirjanik ja tõlkija Arvo Valton

  10. Fields of dreams[Oil field development in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, Marshall

    2001-04-01

    The steady increase in deepwater development projects in the US Gulf of Mexico is discussed, and individual field descriptions are given with details of the development, the water depth, onstream date, and location for the Typhoon (Chevron), Prince (El Paso), Brutus (Shell), Nansen/Boomvang (Kerr-McGee), Canyon Express (TotalFinaElf), Medusa (Murphy), Horn Mountain (BP), NaKika (Shell), Crazy Horse (BP), Serrano/Oregano (Shell), and Crosby (Shell) projects. Information on the production, reserves, water depths and locations of >100 projects in the area are tabulated.

  11. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus : kommenteeritud väljaanne / toimetuskolleegium: Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Berit Aaviksoo, Oliver Kask, Lasse Lehis, Lauri Madise, Ülle Madise, Kalle Merusk, Lauri Mälksoo, Raul Narits, Vallo Olle, Peep Pruks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kommentaaride autorid ja sisu: Sissejuhatus / Raul Narits, Lauri Madise, Heinrich Schneider. Preambul / Raul Narits, Heinrich Schneider. I ptk. / Kalle Merusk, Taavi Annus, Madis Ernits, Heiki Lindpere, Lauri Madise. II ptk. / Oliver Kask, Madis Ernits, Taavi Annus, Peeter Roosma, Rait Maruste, Eerik Kergandberg, Ivo Pilving, Uno Lõhmus, Merilin Kiviorg, Einar Vene, Ülle Madise. III ptk. / Oliver Kask. IV ptk. / Lauri Madise, Aaro Mõttus, Jüri Põld, Tiina Runthal. V ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Ülle Madise, Jüri Põld, Urmas Reinsalu. VI ptk. / Kalle Merusk, Jüri Põld. VII ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Jüri Liventaal, Jüri Põld. VIII ptk. / Lasse Lehis. IX ptk. / Kristi Land, Heiki Lindpere, Lauri Madise, Heiki Pisuke. X ptk. / Oliver Kask, Enn Markvart, Jüri Põld. XI ptk. / Ülle Madise, Janek Laidvee, Heinrich Schneider. XII ptk. / Berit Aaviksoo, Mihkel Allik, Enn Markvart, Raul Narits, Aare Reenumägi, Peeter Roosma. XIII ptk. / Raul Narits, Uno Lõhmus, Madis Ernits, Jüri Põld. XIV ptk. / Vallo Olle, Arno Almann, Jüri Liventaal, Ülle Madise. XV ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Aaro Mõttus. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse rakendamise seadus / Oliver Kask, Raul Narits, Peeter Roosma. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse täiendamise seadus / Berit Aaviksoo, Julia Laffranque, Ülle Madise, Jüri Põld. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus 1990-2008 : bibliograafia (seisuga september 2008) / koost. Maia Ruttu

  12. Relationship of end-expiratory pressure, lung volume, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.A.; van der Zee, H.; Line, B.R.; Malik, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the dose-response effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and increased lung volume on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Clearance of lung radioactivity was expressed as percent decrease per minute. Base-line clearance was measured while anesthetized sheep (n = 20) were ventilated with 0 cmH 2 O end-expiratory pressure. Clearance was remeasured during ventilation at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 cmH 2 O PEEP. Further studies showed stepwise increases in functional residual capacity (FRC) (P less than 0.05) measured at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cmH 2 O PEEP. At 2.5 cmH 2 O PEEP, the clearance rate was not different from that at base line (P less than 0.05), although FRC was increased from base line. Clearance rate increased progressively with increasing PEEP at 5, 10, and 15 cmH 2 O (P less than 0.05). Between 15 and 20 cmH 2 O PEEP, clearance rate was again unchanged, despite an increase in FRC. The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA shows a sigmoidal response to increasing FRC and PEEP, having both threshold and maximal effects. This relationship is most consistent with the hypothesis that alveolar epithelial permeability is increased by lung inflation

  13. Respiratory System Mechanics During Low Versus High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Substudy of PROVHILO Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antini, Davide; Huhle, Robert; Herrmann, Jacob; Sulemanji, Demet S; Oto, Jun; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Kaczka, David W; Vidal Melo, Marcos Francisco; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Cinnella, Gilda

    2018-01-01

    In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications when compared to low PEEP (0-2 cm H2O) approach without recruitment breaths. However, effects of intraoperative PEEP on lung compliance remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that higher PEEP leads to a dominance of intratidal overdistension, whereas lower PEEP results in intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (R/D). To test our hypothesis, we used the volume-dependent elastance index %E2, a respiratory parameter that allows for noninvasive and radiation-free assessment of dominant overdistension and intratidal R/D. We compared the incidence of intratidal R/D, linear expansion, and overdistension by means of %E2 in a subset of the PROVHILO cohort. In 36 patients from 2 participating centers of the PROVHILO trial, we calculated respiratory system elastance (E), resistance (R), and %E2, a surrogate parameter for intratidal overdistension (%E2 > 30%) and R/D (%E2 mechanical ventilation with protective tidal volumes in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, lung recruitment followed by PEEP of 12 cm H2O decreased the incidence of intratidal R/D and did not worsen overdistension, when compared to PEEP ≤2 cm H2O.

  14. Open lung approach versus standard protective strategies: Effects on driving pressure and ventilatory efficiency during anesthesia - A pilot, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Tusman, Gerardo; León, Irene; Romero, Esther; Gracia, Estefania; Mugarra, Ana; Arocas, Blanca; Pozo, Natividad; Soro, Marina; Belda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Low tidal volume (VT) during anesthesia minimizes lung injury but may be associated to a decrease in functional lung volume impairing lung mechanics and efficiency. Lung recruitment (RM) can restore lung volume but this may critically depend on the post-RM selected PEEP. This study was a randomized, two parallel arm, open study whose primary outcome was to compare the effects on driving pressure of adding a RM to low-VT ventilation, with or without an individualized post-RM PEEP in patients without known previous lung disease during anesthesia. Consecutive patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were submitted to low-VT ventilation (6 ml·kg-1) and standard PEEP of 5 cmH2O (pre-RM, n = 36). After 30 min estabilization all patients received a RM and were randomly allocated to either continue with the same PEEP (RM-5 group, n = 18) or to an individualized open-lung PEEP (OL-PEEP) (Open Lung Approach, OLA group, n = 18) defined as the level resulting in maximal Cdyn during a decremental PEEP trial. We compared the effects on driving pressure and lung efficiency measured by volumetric capnography. OL-PEEP was found at 8±2 cmH2O. 36 patients were included in the final analysis. When compared with pre-RM, OLA resulted in a 22% increase in compliance and a 28% decrease in driving pressure when compared to pre-RM. These parameters did not improve in the RM-5. The trend of the DP was significantly different between the OLA and RM-5 groups (p = 0.002). VDalv/VTalv was significantly lower in the OLA group after the RM (p = 0.035). Lung recruitment applied during low-VT ventilation improves driving pressure and lung efficiency only when applied as an open-lung strategy with an individualized PEEP in patients without lung diseases undergoing major abdominal surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02798133.

  15. Cardiac output estimation using pulmonary mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hann Christopher E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP in mechanically ventilated (MV patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS decreases cardiac output (CO. Accurate measurement of CO is highly invasive and is not ideal for all MV critically ill patients. However, the link between the PEEP used in MV, and CO provides an opportunity to assess CO via MV therapy and other existing measurements, creating a CO measure without further invasiveness. This paper examines combining models of diffusion resistance and lung mechanics, to help predict CO changes due to PEEP. The CO estimator uses an initial measurement of pulmonary shunt, and estimations of shunt changes due to PEEP to predict CO at different levels of PEEP. Inputs to the cardiac model are the PV loops from the ventilator, as well as the oxygen saturation values using known respiratory inspired oxygen content. The outputs are estimates of pulmonary shunt and CO changes due to changes in applied PEEP. Data from two published studies are used to assess and initially validate this model. The model shows the effect on oxygenation due to decreased CO and decreased shunt, resulting from increased PEEP. It concludes that there is a trade off on oxygenation parameters. More clinically importantly, the model also examines how the rate of CO drop with increased PEEP can be used as a method to determine optimal PEEP, which may be used to optimise MV therapy with respect to the gas exchange achieved, as well as accounting for the impact on the cardiovascular system and its management.

  16. Prima Vista toob pargiraamatukogu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    5. ja 6. mail 2005 toimub teine Tartu kirjandusfestival "Prima Vista". Avatakse pargiraamatukogu, kus esinevad 5. mail Jürgen Rooste, Merca, Aapo Ilves, Peep Ilmet, Marko Martinson, Jüri Kaldmaa, Jaan Pehk

  17. Prevention of pectus excavatum for children with spinal muscular atrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R; Bianchi, Carlo

    2003-10-01

    To demonstrate the elimination of pectus excavatum and promotion of more normal lung growth and chest wall development by the use of high-span positive inspiratory pressure plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PIP+PEEP), patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with paradoxical breathing were placed on high-span PIP+PEEP when sleeping from the point of diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy. Although the appearance of pectus excavatum is ubiquitous in untreated infants with spinal muscular atrophy type 1, after institution of high-span PIP+PEEP, pectus resolves and lungs and chest walls grow more normally. High-span PIP+PEEP is indicated for all infants diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy who demonstrate paradoxical breathing for the purpose of promoting more normal lung and chest development.

  18. Norma majandustulemuste ootused käivad üksteisele vastu / Gea Velthut-Sokka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Velthut-Sokka, Gea, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    LHV ja Hansapanga analüütikud ennustavad Normale suurenenud kasumit ja aktsiahinna tõusu, Suprema ennustab nii käibe kui ka kasumi vähenemist. Kommenteerib Norma tegevdirektor Peep Siimon. Diagramm

  19. Põldsamm : 3G lepingu kaotus pole maailma lõpp / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Kolmanda põlvkonna mobiiltelefonivõrgu neljanda sagedusloa väljaandmise avaliku konkursi võitis Venemaa äriühingutele Alkominvest ja Praim kuuluv OÜ Crosson Capital. Bravocomi juhi Peep Põldsammi arvamus

  20. Vastuolud annavad märku muutuste vajadusest / Marit Pukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukk, Marit

    2002-01-01

    Kiiresti areneva firma struktuur vajab muutmist. Kommenteerivad gasellettevõtete juhid Argo Schneider (OÜ Albion Reisid), Peep Nork (AS Euro Truck Trade Center), Riinu Värk (AS Meditsiinigrupp) ja Tiit Elenurm

  1. "Oravad" tõmbavad Eesti Energia börsileminekule piduri peale / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Riigikogu Reformierakonna fraktsiooni kohtumisest Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi esindajatega. Fraktsiooni esimees Peep Aru räägib küsimustest, mis on seotud Eesti Energia börsilemineku kavaga

  2. Sihtasutus Eesti Rahvuskultuuri Fond...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    15. oktoobrini võetakse vastu 2003. a. stipendiumide ja kultuuriprojektide finantseerimise taotlusi. Esimest korda jagatakse stipendiume Peep Keskküla (toetatakse Eesti kunstielu arengut), Renate Jõesaare (stipendium eesti rahvusest isikule, kes on tegev kujutava kunsti alal) jt. fondidest

  3. Kas eesti keelt kummitab sõnavaravaegus? / Virve Liivanõmm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivanõmm, Virve

    2009-01-01

    Terminoloogiakonverentsist "Eestikeelne ülikool" Tartus ning Eesti teaduskeele konverentsist Tallinna Ülikoolis. Konverentsidel võtsid sõna Peeter Päll, Mats Estonius, Peeter Saari, Igor Gräzin, Peep Nemvalts, Krista Kerge, Toomas Silk

  4. Titanic või turist? / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Tartu maanteel asuva endise Turisti poe (arhitektid Peep Jänes, Henno Sepmann) asemele tahavad hoone omanikud ehitada kõrghoone nimega Titanic. Hoone ajutine võtmine muinsuskaitse alla on põhjustanud kohtuvaidluse

  5. 40 aastat uurivat õpetajat / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    ÜPUI asutamisest, minevikust ja ka tulevikust. Vestlusringis on Ühiskondliku Pedagoogika Uurimise Instituudi asutajad ja eestvedajad - Helme kutsekooli õpetaja Peep Leppik, TÜ kasvatusteaduste dotsent Inger Kraav, TPÜ emeriitprofessor Inge Unt, TPÜ dotsent Viivi Maanso

  6. Takistusriba avalikule teabele / Ivar Tallo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tallo, Ivar, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Autori arvates on riiklike registrite poolt jagatava teabe eest tasu võtmine avaliku teabe seadusega vastuolus ega vasta kaasaegsetele infotehnoloogilistele lahendustele. Vastuseks vt.Viljar Peep. Registritest 6.aug. Postimees lk. 10

  7. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  8. Bravocom süüdistab Tele2 ja EMT-d alatus konkurentsivõitluses / Kristiina Viiron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viiron, Kristiina, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Kallines Tele2 ja EMT võrgust Bravocomi mobiilinumbritele helistamise minutihind. Bravocomi juhatuse esimees Peep Põldsamm peab nii kalli hinna - 4.50 minut - kehtestamist konkurentsivõitluseks. Tabelid: Hinnavõrdlus. Lisa: Tele2 ja EMT kommentaarid

  9. Nukufilm lasi käiku pooletunnise 3D-seiklusfilmi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Stuudios Nukufilm algasid pooletunnise 3D-nukufilmi "Lisa Limone ja Maroc Orange'i tormakas armulugu" võtted. Filmi režissöör on Mait Laas, stsenaristid Kati Kovacs ja Peep Pedmanson, produtsent Arvo Nuut

  10. Verba volant, scripta manent / Milvi Tedremaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tedremaa, Milvi, 1937-2012

    1999-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Meie õppisime raamatukogundust Tartu Ülikoolis / koost. Maare Kümnik, Kaja Noodla. Tartu, 1998. Vastukaja: Peep, Laine. Mitte ainult Milvi Tedremaale // Raamatukogu (1999) nr. 4, lk. 44

  11. Ajakirjanikud ajasid metsas hundijälgi / Liisi Seil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seil, Liisi, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Hundiuurija Marko Kübarsepp viis teabepäevast "Elu koos hundiga" osalejad Soomaa metsadesse hundijälgi otsima. Kiskja kohta jagasid veel teavet Tõnu Traks, Ilmar Rootsi, Peep Männil ja Jaak Volmer

  12. Meeleavaldajad rõhutavad Bonnis kliimaleppe olulisust / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Bonnis peetaval kliimakonverentsil pole seni kasvuhoonegaaside vähendmist sätestava Kyoto lepingu osas edu saavutatud. Eesti Rohelise Liikumise koordinaator Peep Mardiste meeleavaldusest Bonnis. Eesti keskkonnaministeeriumi ametnik Andres Kratonits Bonni kliimakonverentsist

  13. Who named it in anaesthesia?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few words existed before 1846 and majority naturally came after. A peep is made .... He had discovered many elements, such as potassium, sodium, barium .... Jokichi Takamine (1854–1922), a Japanese scientist, were trying to isolate and ...

  14. Väljaspool iseennast / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Jaan Kaplinski. Silm. Hektor; John Grisham. Aguliadvokaat; Kerttu Rakke. Kalevipoeg; luulekogu "Armastuse valgus", koost. Peep Ilmet; James Woodall. John Lennon ja Yoko Ono; Donald Braider. El Greco eraelu; Åke Edwardson. Tants ingliga

  15. Tallinna Sakala keskuse projekt kütab kirgi / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2004-01-01

    Raine Karbi projekteeritud hoone ümberehituse projekt telliti Inglismaalt büroost Burrow&Cave, OÜ Arhitektuuriagentuuri projektist loobuti. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu esinaise Margit Mutso ja arhitektuurinõukogu esimehe Peep Aaviksoo kommentaar

  16. Eesti animafilmid võitsid Raumas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    pPIK mare 2010

    1999-01-01

    VI Sinise Mere filmifestivalil Raumas jagasid A-sarjas esikohta Mait Laasi "Päevavalgus" ja Peep Pedmansoni "Just Märried", teiseks jäi Märt Sildvee "Guardian Angel" ja kolmandaks Riho Undi - Hardi Volmeri "Primavera"

  17. compliance of the respiratory system as a predictor for successful

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical, ventilatory and blood gas criteria were studied. ... pressure (PIP) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) represented ... criteria for extubation, we found that bedside measurement of total ... position in neutral head-neck posture.

  18. Vene kriis kukutas Norma juhid / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    1998-01-01

    AS Norma vallandas ettevõtte tegevjuhi Peep Aaviksoo, sest ei olnud rahul ettevõtte tegevusega Venemaal. Tabelid: Norma aktsia on kukkunud, Norma kuukasum miinuses. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 9. sept. 1998, lk. 10

  19. Experimental intra-abdominal hypertension influences airway pressure limits for lung protective mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Puentes, Gustavo A; Cortes-Puentes, Luis A; Adams, Alexander B; Anderson, Christopher P; Marini, John J; Dries, David J

    2013-06-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) may complicate monitoring of pulmonary mechanics owing to their impact on the respiratory system. However, recommendations for mechanical ventilation of patients with IAH/ACS and the interpretation of thoracoabdominal interactions remain unclear. Our study aimed to characterize the influence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on airway plateau pressure (PPLAT) and bladder pressure (PBLAD). Nine deeply anesthetized swine were mechanically ventilated via tracheostomy: volume-controlled mode at tidal volume (VT) of 10 mL/kg, frequency of 15, inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:2, and PEEP of 1 and 10 cm H2O (PEEP1 and PEEP10, respectively). A tracheostomy tube was placed in the peritoneal cavity, and IAP levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm Hg were applied, using a continuous positive airway pressure system. At each IAP level, PBLAD and airway pressure measurements were performed during both PEEP1 and PEEP10. PBLAD increased as experimental IAP rose (y = 0.83x + 0.5; R = 0.98; p < 0.001 at PEEP1). Minimal underestimation of IAP by PBLAD was observed (-2.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg at an IAP of 10-25 mm Hg). Applying PEEP10 did not significantly affect the correlation between experimental IAP and PBLAD. Approximately 50% of the PBLAD (in cm H2O) was reflected by changes in PPLAT, regardless of the PEEP level applied. Increasing IAP did not influence hemodynamics at any level of IAP generated. With minimal underestimation, PBLAD measurements closely correlated with experimentally regulated IAP, independent of the PEEP level applied. For each PEEP level applied, a constant proportion (approximately 50%) of measured PBLAD (in cm H2O) was reflected in PPLAT. A higher safety threshold for PPLAT should be considered in the setting of IAH/ACS as the clinician considers changes in VT. A strategy of reducing VT to cap PPLAT at widely recommended values may not be

  20. Effect of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Central Venous Pressure in Patients under Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee, Majid; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Alimohammadi, Hossein; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Amini, Afshin; Esmailzadeh, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    Finding the probable governing pattern of PEEP and CVP changes is an area of interest for in-charge physicians and researchers. Therefore, the present study was designed with the aim of evaluating the relationship between the mentioned pressures. In this quasi-experimental study, patients under mechanical ventilation were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of PEEP change on CVP. Non-trauma patients, over 18 years of age, who were under mechanical ventilation and had stable hemodynamics, with inserted CV line were entered. After gathering demographic data, patients underwent 0, 5, and 10 cmH 2 O PEEPs and the respective CVPs of the mentioned points were recorded. The relationship of CVP and PEEP in different cut points were measured using SPSS 21.0 statistical software. 60 patients with the mean age of 73.95 ± 11.58 years were evaluated (68.3% male). The most frequent cause of ICU admission was sepsis with 45.0%. 5 cmH 2 O increase in PEEP led to 2.47 ± 1.53 mean difference in CVP level. If the PEEP baseline is 0 at the time of 5 cmH 2 O increase, it leads to a higher raise in CVP compared to when the baseline is 5 cmH 2 O (2.47 ± 1.53 vs. 1.57 ± 1.07; p = 0.039). The relationship between CVP and 5 cmH 2 O (p = 0.279), and 10 cmH 2 O (p = 0.292) PEEP changes were not dependent on the baseline level of CVP. The findings of this study revealed the direct relationship between PEEP and CVP. Approximately, a 5 cmH 2 O increase in PEEP will be associated with about 2.5 cmH 2 O raise in CVP. When applying a 5 cmH 2 O PEEP increase, if the baseline PEEP is 0, it leads to a significantly higher raise in CVP compared to when it is 5 cmH 2 O (2.5 vs. 1.6). It seems that sex, history of cardiac failure, baseline CVP level, and hypertension do not have a significant effect in this regard.

  1. Effect of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Central Venous Pressure in Patients under Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shojaee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Finding the probable governing pattern of PEEP and CVP changes is an area of interest for in-charge physicians and researchers. Therefore, the present study was designed with the aim of evaluating the relationship between the mentioned pressures. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, patients under mechanical ventilation were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of PEEP change on CVP. Non-trauma patients, over 18 years of age, who were under mechanical ventilation and had stable hemodynamics, with inserted CV line were entered. After gathering demographic data, patients underwent 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O PEEPs and the respective CVPs of the mentioned points were recorded. The relationship of CVP and PEEP in different cut points were measured using SPSS 21.0 statistical software. Results: 60 patients with the mean age of 73.95 ± 11.58 years were evaluated (68.3% male. The most frequent cause of ICU admission was sepsis with 45.0%. 5 cmH2O increase in PEEP led to 2.47 ± 1.53 mean difference in CVP level. If the PEEP baseline is 0 at the time of 5 cmH2O increase, it leads to a higher raise in CVP compared to when the baseline is 5 cmH2O (2.47 ± 1.53 vs. 1.57 ± 1.07; p = 0.039. The relationship between CVP and 5 cmH2O (p = 0.279, and 10 cmH2O (p = 0.292 PEEP changes were not dependent on the baseline level of CVP. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed the direct relationship between PEEP and CVP. Approximately, a 5 cmH2O increase in PEEP will be associated with about 2.5 cmH2O raise in CVP. When applying a 5 cmH2O PEEP increase, if the baseline PEEP is 0, it leads to a significantly higher raise in CVP compared to when it is 5 cmH2O (2.5 vs. 1.6. It seems that sex, history of cardiac failure, baseline CVP level, and hypertension do not have a significant effect in this regard.

  2. Potential hazard of the Neopuff T-piece resuscitator in the absence of flow limitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C P

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and maximum pressure relief (P(max)) at different rates of gas flow, when the Neopuff had been set to function at 5 l\\/min. (2) To assess maximum PIP and PEEP at a flow rate of 10 l\\/min with a simulated air leak of 50%. DESIGN: 5 Neopuffs were set to a PIP of 20, PEEP of 5 and P(max) of 30 cm H(2)O at a gas flow of 5 l\\/min. PIP, PEEP and P(max) were recorded at flow rates of 10, 15 l\\/min and maximum flow. Maximum achievable pressures at 10 l\\/min gas flow, with a 50% air leak, were measured. RESULTS: At gas flow of 15 l\\/min, mean PEEP increased to 20 (95% CI 20 to 21), PIP to 28 (95% CI 28 to 29) and the P(max) to 40 cm H(2)O (95% CI 38 to 42). At maximum flow (85 l\\/min) a PEEP of 71 (95% CI 51 to 91) and PIP of 92 cm H(2)O (95% CI 69 to 115) were generated. At 10 l\\/min flow, with an air leak of 50%, the maximum PEEP and PIP were 21 (95% CI 19 to 23) and 69 cm H(2)O (95% CI 66 to 71). CONCLUSIONS: The maximum pressure relief valve is overridden by increasing the rate of gas flow and potentially harmful PIP and PEEP can be generated. Even in the presence of a 50% gas leak, more than adequate pressures can be provided at 10 l\\/min gas flow. We recommend the limitation of gas flow to a rate of 10 l\\/min as an added safety mechanism for this device.

  3. Cardiac effects of positive pressure ventilation in ARDS assessed by NT-proBNP, Troponin T and Troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Sadek Nassar

    2013-01-01

    Although the increase in cardiac markers are insignificant, yet they point to the potentially harmful role played by high PEEP, low PH and low PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the heart. Currently, no clinically relevant conclusion can be drawn apart from the recommendation to attempt to lower PEEP and shorten the duration of positive pressure ventilation, even in patients with structurally normal hearts.

  4. Comparison of lung protective ventilation strategies in a rabbit model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, A T; Gunnarsson, B; Fuhrman, B P; Hernan, L J; Steinhorn, D M

    2001-11-01

    To determine the impact of different protective and nonprotective mechanical ventilation strategies on the degree of pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and hemodynamic stability in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A prospective, randomized, controlled, in vivo animal laboratory study. Animal research facility of a health sciences university. Forty-six New Zealand White rabbits. Mature rabbits were instrumented with a tracheostomy and vascular catheters. Lavage-injured rabbits were randomized to receive conventional ventilation with either a) low peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 2 cm H2O); b) high PEEP (tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 10 cm H2O); c) low tidal volume with PEEP above Pflex (open lung strategy, tidal volume of 6 mL/kg, PEEP set 2 cm H2O > Pflex); or d) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Animals were ventilated for 4 hrs. Lung lavage fluid and tissue samples were obtained immediately after animals were killed. Lung lavage fluid was assayed for measurements of total protein, elastase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and malondialdehyde. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for measurements of myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde. The need for inotropic support was recorded. Animals that received a lung protective strategy (open lung or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation) exhibited more favorable oxygenation and lung mechanics compared with the low PEEP and high PEEP groups. Animals ventilated by a lung protective strategy also showed attenuation of inflammation (reduced tracheal fluid protein, tracheal fluid elastase, tracheal fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and pulmonary leukostasis). Animals treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation had attenuated oxidative injury to the lung and greater hemodynamic stability compared with the other experimental groups. Both lung protective strategies were associated with improved oxygenation, attenuated inflammation, and

  5. Combined Effects of Ventilation Mode and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Mechanics, Gas Exchange and the Epithelium in Mice with Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (VT) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-VT combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH2O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CVLB) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VVN). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CVLB was better than CV, VVN outperformed CVLB in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury. PMID:23326543

  6. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  7. Tidal Volume Delivery and Endotracheal Tube Leak during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Intubated Newborn Piglets with Hypoxic Cardiac Arrest Exposed to Different Modes of Ventilatory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Weber, Claudia; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2017-01-01

    There are few data available on the interaction of inflations, chest compressions (CC), and delivery of tidal volumes in newborn infants undergoing resuscitation in the presence of endotracheal tube (ET) leaks. To determine the effects of different respiratory support strategies along with CC on changes in tidal volume and ET leaks in hypoxic newborn piglets with cardiac arrest. Asphyxiated newborn piglets, intubated with weight-adapted uncuffed ET, were randomized into three groups and resuscitated according to ILCOR 2010 guidelines: (1) T-piece resuscitator (TPR) group = peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio); (2) self- inflating bag (SIB) group = PIP 25 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min, inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio), and (3) ventilator group = PIP/PEEP of 25/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min. CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We observed a significant increase of leak (average increase 11.4%) when CC was added to respiratory support (p = 0.0001). Expired tidal volume was larger in the SIB group than in the two other modes which both applied PEEP. However, tidal volumes caused by CC only were larger in the two groups with PEEP than in the SIB group (without PEEP). There is interaction between lung inflations and CC affecting leak and delivery of tidal volume, which may be influenced by the mode/device used for respiratory support. Leak is larger in the presence of PEEP. However, CC cause additional tidal volume which is larger in the presence of PEEP. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Application of dead space fraction to titrate optimal positive end-expiratory pressure in an ARDS swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Weishuai; Chen, Wei; Chao, Yangong; Wang, Lan; Li, Liming; Guan, Jian; Zang, Xuefeng; Zhen, Jie; Sheng, Bo; Zhu, Xi

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to apply the dead space fraction [ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT)] to titrate the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in a swine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twelve swine models of ARDS were constructed. A lung recruitment maneuver was then conducted and the PEEP was set at 20 cm H 2 O. The PEEP was reduced by 2 cm H 2 O every 10 min until 0 cm H 2 O was reached, and VD/VT was measured after each decrement step. VD/VT was measured using single-breath analysis of CO 2 , and calculated from arterial CO 2 partial pressure (PaCO 2 ) and mixed expired CO 2 (PeCO 2 ) using the following formula: VD/VT = (PaCO 2 - PeCO 2 )/PaCO 2 . The optimal PEEP was identified by the lowest VD/VT method. Respiration and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the periods of pre-injury and injury, and at 4 and 2 cm H 2 O below and above the optimal PEEP (Po). The optimal PEEP in this study was found to be 13.25±1.36 cm H 2 O. During the Po period, VD/VT decreased to a lower value (0.44±0.08) compared with that during the injury period (0.68±0.10) (P<0.05), while the intrapulmonary shunt fraction reached its lowest value. In addition, a significant change of dynamic tidal respiratory compliance and oxygenation index was induced by PEEP titration. These results indicate that minimal VD/VT can be used for PEEP titration in ARDS.

  9. Variation of poorly ventilated lung units (silent spaces) measured by electrical impedance tomography to dynamically assess recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Savino; Mauri, Tommaso; Böhm, Stephan H; Scaramuzzo, Gaetano; Turrini, Cecilia; Waldmann, Andreas D; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Pesenti, Antonio; Volta, Carlo Alberto

    2018-01-31

    Assessing alveolar recruitment at different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels is a major clinical and research interest because protective ventilation implies opening the lung without inducing overdistention. The pressure-volume (P-V) curve is a validated method of assessing recruitment but reflects global characteristics, and changes at the regional level may remain undetected. The aim of the present study was to compare, in intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung recruitment measured by P-V curve analysis, with dynamic changes in poorly ventilated units of the dorsal lung (dependent silent spaces [DSSs]) assessed by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). We hypothesized that DSSs might represent a dynamic bedside measure of recruitment. We carried out a prospective interventional study of 14 patients with AHRF and ARDS admitted to the intensive care unit undergoing mechanical ventilation. Each patient underwent an incremental/decremental PEEP trial that included five consecutive phases: PEEP 5 and 10 cmH 2 O, recruitment maneuver + PEEP 15 cmH 2 O, then PEEP 10 and 5 cmH 2 O again. We measured, at the end of each phase, recruitment from previous PEEP using the P-V curve method, and changes in DSS were continuously monitored by EIT. PEEP changes induced alveolar recruitment as assessed by the P-V curve method and changes in the amount of DSS (p Recruited volume measured by the P-V curves significantly correlated with the change in DSS (r s  = 0.734, p recruitment measured using the P-V curve technique. EIT might provide useful information to titrate personalized PEEP. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02907840 . Registered on 20 September 2016.

  10. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics during partial liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmse, M; Fujino, Y; Hess, D; Kacmarek, R M

    1998-11-01

    Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perflubron (PFB) has been proposed as an adjunct to the current therapies for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because PFB has been also referred to as "liquid PEEP," distributing to the most gravity-dependent regions of the lung, less attention has been paid to the amount of applied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We hypothesized that higher PEEP levels than currently applied are needed to optimize gas exchange, and that the lower inflection point (LIP) of the pressure-volume curve could be used to estimate the amount of PEEP needed when the lung is filled with PFB. Lung injury was induced in 23 sheep by repeated lung lavage with warmed saline until the PaO2/FIO2 ratio fell below 150. Five sheep were used to investigate the change of the LIP when the lung was filled with PFB in increments of 5 ml/kg/body weight to a total of 30 ml/kg/body weight. To evaluate the impact of PEEP set at LIP +1 cm H2O we randomized an additional 15 sheep to three groups with different doses (7.5 ml, 15 ml, 30 ml/kg/body weight) of PFB. In random order a PEEP of 5 cm H2O or PEEP at LIP +1 cm H2O was applied. The LIP decreased with incremental filling of PFB to a minimum at 10 ml (p PFB shifts the LIP to the left, and that setting PEEP at LIP +1 cm H2O improves gas exchange at moderate to high doses of PFB.

  11. The MOST - Monitor for Oxygenation of Surface and Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    anesthesia Effectiveness of COR Bio-feedback for peripheral vasodilation Relationship of CPAP and PEEP to atelectasis Waveforms Diagnosis of irregularities...deliberate hypoxia in premature infants Servo-controlled saturation, prematures Converse 02 in home 02 therapy Determine optimal PEEP and CPAP Monitor...Kusakawa I, Ohata J, Kawano T, Honma Y. Use of Pulse Oximetry In Neonatal Anesthe- sia. J Perinatology. 1987:7;343-5. Nishimura S, Tomita Y, Horiuchi T

  12. Prediction of high airway pressure using a non-linear autoregressive model of pulmonary mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Ruby; Docherty, Paul D; Schranz, Christoph; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2017-11-02

    For mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), suboptimal PEEP levels can cause ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). In particular, high PEEP and high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) can cause over distension of alveoli that is associated with VILI. However, PEEP must also be sufficient to maintain recruitment in ARDS lungs. A lung model that accurately and precisely predicts the outcome of an increase in PEEP may allow dangerous high PIP to be avoided, and reduce the incidence of VILI. Sixteen pressure-flow data sets were collected from nine mechanically ventilated ARDs patients that underwent one or more recruitment manoeuvres. A nonlinear autoregressive (NARX) model was identified on one or more adjacent PEEP steps, and extrapolated to predict PIP at 2, 4, and 6 cmH 2 O PEEP horizons. The analysis considered whether the predicted and measured PIP exceeded a threshold of 40 cmH 2 O. A direct comparison of the method was made using the first order model of pulmonary mechanics (FOM(I)). Additionally, a further, more clinically appropriate method for the FOM was tested, in which the FOM was trained on a single PEEP prior to prediction (FOM(II)). The NARX model exhibited very high sensitivity (> 0.96) in all cases, and a high specificity (> 0.88). While both FOM methods had a high specificity (> 0.96), the sensitivity was much lower, with a mean of 0.68 for FOM(I), and 0.82 for FOM(II). Clinically, false negatives are more harmful than false positives, as a high PIP may result in distension and VILI. Thus, the NARX model may be more effective than the FOM in allowing clinicians to reduce the risk of applying a PEEP that results in dangerously high airway pressures.

  13. Barbarid, plastiliinijänes, Miriam ja Frank Muller / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2003-01-01

    Nukufilm näitab 4 uut filmi : "Barbarid" (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Hardi Volmer, režissöör H. Volmer), "Porgand" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Pärtel Tall), "Miriami jõulupäkapikk" (stsenaristid Leelo Tungal ja Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Mait Laas), "Kuuvaatleja" (reklaamitreiler Frank Mulleri kellafirmale ; stsenarist, režissöör, kunstnik Mati Kütt)

  14. Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure prevents pulmonary inflammation in patients without preexisting lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthuis, Esther K; Choi, Goda; Dessing, Mark C; Bresser, Paul; Lutter, Rene; Dzoljic, Misa; van der Poll, Tom; Vroom, Margreeth B; Hollmann, Markus; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes aggravates lung injury in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The authors sought to determine the effects of short-term mechanical ventilation on local inflammatory responses in patients without preexisting lung injury. Patients scheduled to undergo an elective surgical procedure (lasting > or = 5 h) were randomly assigned to mechanical ventilation with either higher tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg ideal body weight and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or lower tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg and 10 cm H2O PEEP. After induction of anesthesia and 5 h thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or blood was investigated for polymorphonuclear cell influx, changes in levels of inflammatory markers, and nucleosomes. Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP (n = 21) attenuated the increase of pulmonary levels of interleukin (IL)-8, myeloperoxidase, and elastase as seen with higher tidal volumes and no PEEP (n = 19). Only for myeloperoxidase, a difference was found between the two ventilation strategies after 5 h of mechanical ventilation (P volumes and PEEP may limit pulmonary inflammation in mechanically ventilated patients without preexisting lung injury. The specific contribution of both lower tidal volumes and PEEP on the protective effects of the lung should be further investigated.

  15. Intratidal recruitment/derecruitment persists at low and moderate positive end-expiratory pressure in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Artner, Lisa; Broß, Tobias; Lozano-Zahonero, Sara; Spaeth, Johannes; Schumann, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    In paediatric patients positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is traditionally set lower than in adults. We investigated whether moderately higher PEEP improves respiratory mechanics and regional ventilation. Therefore, 40 children were mechanically ventilated with PEEP 2 and 5cmH 2 O. Volume-dependent compliance profiles were analysed as a measure of intratidal recruitment/derecruitment. Regional ventilation was assessed using electrical impedance tomography. Mean compliance was 17.9±9.9mLcmH 2 O -1 (PEEP 2cmH 2 O), and 19.0±10.9mLcmH 2 O -1 (PEEP 5 cmH 2 O, pventilation. In conclusion, mechanically ventilated paediatric patients undergo intratidal recruitment/derecruitment which occurs more prominently in younger than in older children. A PEEP of 5cmH 2 O does not fully prevent intratidal recruitment/derecruitment but homogenizes regional ventilation in comparison to 2cmH 2 O. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting material failure using mathematics; Mit Mathematik Materialversagen vorhersagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Christian [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Numerical simulations provide insights into materials, technical procedures or processes that are hardly possible by means of measurement technology, or require a lot of effort. In BAM's ConDrop research project (Numerical Drop Test Analyses of Steel Sheet Containers for the Konrad Repository), scientists are developing a method to predict the deformation and failure behaviour of containers for low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste for the Konrad repository. [German] Numerische Simulationen erlauben Einblicke in Materialien, technische Verfahren oder Prozesse, die mit Mitteln der Messtechnik kaum oder nur unter grossem Aufwand moeglich sind. Im BAM-Forschungsvorhaben ConDrop entwickeln Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler damit eine Methode, um das Verformungs- und Versagensverhalten von Behaeltern fuer schwach- und mittelradioaktive Abfaelle fuer das Endlager Konrad vorherzusagen.

  17. Novel Optical Methods for Identification, Imaging, and Preservation of the Cavernous Nerves Responsible for Penile Erections during Prostate Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 504-506...2005. 24. J. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed...tissue ap- eared as a fine lace -like pattern (Fig. 4). x Vivo Imaging of Human Prostatectomy pecimens he OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens

  18. Development of safety-relevant components for the transport and handling of final storage casks for waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, D.; Geiser, H.; Kloeckner, F.; Rittscher, D.; Schlesinger, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was the development, construction and testing of a transportation system that is able to transport cylindrical waste containers as well as containers from the deliverer to the 'KONRAD' final repository. A transport palette has been developed that can carry two cylindrical waste containers with type B requirement or classification II. An Open-All-Container for the transport of palettes and 'KONRAD' containers has been developed. A storage of cylindrical waste containers and containers in the final repository is possible with the newly developed transportation system. Safety specifications of the transportation system have been passed successfully. (orig.). 30 refs., 8 tabs., 74 figs [de

  19. Responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspers, Mechthild; Schulte, Lukas; Rüger, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Key points of the National Programme: • Radioactive Waste Management is to be carried out within German national responsibility and disposal is to be on German territory. • Disposal facilities are to be established at two sites: • Konrad facility for waste with negligible heat generation (commissioning expected in 2022, operation for 40 years); • Disposal facility for, in particular, high level waste according to Site Selection Act (site to be determined by 2031). • Dismantling of NPPs and other nuclear facilities is to be executed in due time so that arising LILW can be emplaced in Konrad facility

  20. Radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation suitable for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1987-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation in the Konrad repository. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements are derived taking the results of site-specific safety assessments as a basis. These requirements must be fulfilled by the waste packages on delivery. The waste amounts which are currently stored and those anticipated up to the year 2000 are discussed. The disposability of these waste packages in the Konrad repository was evaluated. This examination reveals that basically almost all radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation can be accepted. (orig.) [de

  1. Protective versus Conventional Ventilation for Surgery: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Binnekade, Jan M; Canet, Jaume; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Hedenstierna, Göran; Hollmann, Markus W; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Maslow, Andrew D; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Reis Miranda, Dinis; Moine, Pierre; Ng, Thomas; Paparella, Domenico; Putensen, Christian; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Schmid, Werner; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies show that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes (VT) can prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to evaluate the individual associations between VT size and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and occurrence of PPC. Randomized controlled trials comparing protective ventilation (low VT with or without high levels of PEEP) and conventional ventilation (high VT with low PEEP) in patients undergoing general surgery. The primary outcome was development of PPC. Predefined prognostic factors were tested using multivariate logistic regression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included (2,127 patients). There were 97 cases of PPC in 1,118 patients (8.7%) assigned to protective ventilation and 148 cases in 1,009 patients (14.7%) assigned to conventional ventilation (adjusted relative risk, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.88; P ventilation with low VT and high PEEP levels and 63 cases in 525 patients (12%) assigned to ventilation with low VT and low PEEP levels (adjusted relative risk, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.37; P = 0.72). A dose-response relationship was found between the appearance of PPC and VT size (R2 = 0.39) but not between the appearance of PPC and PEEP level (R2 = 0.08). These data support the beneficial effects of ventilation with use of low VT in patients undergoing surgery. Further trials are necessary to define the role of intraoperative higher PEEP to prevent PPC during nonopen abdominal surgery.

  2. Pulmonary lesion induced by low and high positive end-expiratory pressure levels during protective ventilation in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pássaro, Caroline P; Silva, Pedro L; Rzezinski, Andréia F; Abrantes, Simone; Santiago, Viviane R; Nardelli, Liliane; Santos, Raquel S; Barbosa, Carolina M L; Morales, Marcelo M; Zin, Walter A; Amato, Marcelo B P; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the effects of low and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), without recruitment maneuvers, during lung protective ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI). Prospective, randomized, and controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) [saline (0.1 mL), intraperitoneally] and ALI [paraquat (15 mg/kg), intraperitoneally] groups. After 24 hours, each group was further randomized into four groups (six rats each) at different PEEP levels = 1.5, 3, 4.5, or 6 cm H2O and ventilated with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg) and open thorax. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est, L) and viscoelastic pressure (DeltaP2, L)] and arterial blood gases were measured before (Pre) and at the end of 1-hour mechanical ventilation (Post). Pulmonary histology (light and electron microscopy) and type III procollagen (PCIII) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured after 1 hour of mechanical ventilation. In ALI group, low and high PEEP levels induced a greater percentage of increase in Est, L (44% and 50%) and DeltaP2, L (56% and 36%) in Post values related to Pre. Low PEEP yielded alveolar collapse whereas high PEEP caused overdistension and atelectasis, with both levels worsening oxygenation and increasing PCIII mRNA expression. In the present nonrecruited ALI model, protective mechanical ventilation with lower and higher PEEP levels than required for better oxygenation increased Est, L and DeltaP2, L, the amount of atelectasis, and PCIII mRNA expression. PEEP selection titrated for a minimum elastance and maximum oxygenation may prevent lung injury while deviation from these settings may be harmful.

  3. Differing responses in right and left ventricular filling, loading and volumes during positive end-expiratory pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, D.S.; Biondi, J.W.; Matthay, R.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Soufer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Using a combined hemodynamic and radionuclide technique, 20 patients with varied ventricular function were evaluated during positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application. Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) ejection fractions and cardiac output were measured, and ventricular volumes were derived. Seven patients (group 1) who had an increase in LV end-diastolic volume with PEEP and 13 patients (group 2) who had the more typical response, a decrease in LV end-diastolic volume with PEEP, were identified. Compared with group 2, group 1 patients had a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (5 of 7 vs 1 of 13, p less than 0.005) and lower cardiac output (3.9 +/- 1.6 vs 9.1 +/- 3.2 liters/min, p less than 0.005), LV ejection fraction (27 +/- 13 vs 51 +/- 21%, p less than 0.05), RV ejection fraction (15 +/- 6 vs 32 +/- 8%, p less than 0.005) and peak filling rate (1.32 +/- 0.43 vs 3.51 +/- 1.70 end-diastolic volumes/s, p less than 0.05). LV and RV volumes increased and peak filling rate decreased with PEEP in group 1, whereas in group 2 LV volume decreased and RV volume and peak filling rate remained unchanged. Using stepwise regression analysis, the change in LV volume with PEEP was related directly to baseline systemic vascular resistance and inversely to baseline blood pressure. Similarly, the change in peak filling rate with PEEP was inversely related to the change in RV end-diastolic volume. Thus, the hemodynamic response to PEEP is heterogeneous and may be related to LV ischemia

  4. OPTIMUM LEVEL OF POSITIVE END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE IN ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME CAUSED BY INFLUENZA A(H1NI)PDM09: BALANCE BETWEEN MAXIMAL END-EXPIRATORY VOLUME AND MINIMAL ALVEOLAR OVERDISTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshetskiym A I; Protsenko, D N; Boytsov, P V; Chentsov, V B; Nistratov, S L; Kudlyakov, O N; Solov'ev, V V; Banova, Zh I; Shkuratova, N V; Rezenov, N A; Gel'fand, B R

    2016-11-01

    to determine optimum level ofpositive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) according to balance between maxi- mal end-expiratory lung volume (EEL V)(more than predicted) and minimal decrease in exhaled carbon dioxide volume (VCO) and then to develop the algorithm of gas exchange correction based on prognostic values of EEL K; alveolar recruitability, PA/FiO2, static compliance (C,,,) and VCO2. 27 mechanically ventilatedpatients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by influenza A (HINJ)pdm09 in Moscow Municipal Clinics ICU's from January to March 2016 were included in the trial. At the beginning of the study patients had the following characteristic: duration offlu symptoms 5 (3-10) days, p.0/FiO2 120 (70-50) mmHg. SOFA 7 (5-9), body mass index 30.1 (26.4-33.8) kg/m², static compliance of respiratory system 35 (30-40) ml/mbar: Under sedation and paralysis we measured EELV, C VCO and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (EtCO) (for CO₂ measurements we fixed short-term values after 2 min after PEEP level change) at PEEP 8, 11,13,15,18, 20 mbar consequently, and incase of good recruitability, at 22 and 24 mbar. After analyses of obtained data we determined PEEP value in which increase in EELV was maximal (more than predicted) and depression of VCO₂ was less than 20%, change in mean blood pressure and heart rate were both less than 20% (measured at PEEP 8 mbar). After that we set thus determined level of PEEP and didn't change it for 5 days. Comparision of predicted and measured EELV revealed two typical points of alveloar recruiment: the first at PEEP 11-15 mbar, the second at PEEP 20-22 mbar. EELV measured at PEEP 18 mbar appeared to be higher than predicted at PEEP 8 mbar by 400 ml (approx.), which was the sign of alveolar recruitment-1536 (1020-1845) ml vs 1955 (1360-2320) ml, p=0,001, Friedman test). we didn't found significant changes of VCO₂ when increased PEEP in the range from 8 to 15 mbar (p>0.05, Friedman test). PEEP increase from 15 to

  5. Influence of tidal volume on ventilation inhomogeneity assessed by electrical impedance tomography during controlled mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, T; Kott, M; Schädler, D; Vogt, B; Meinel, T; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I

    2015-01-01

    The global inhomogeneity (GI) index is a parameter of ventilation inhomogeneity that can be calculated from images of tidal ventilation distribution obtained by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It has been suggested that the GI index may be useful for individual adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and for guidance of ventilator therapy. The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of tidal volume (V_T) on the GI index values. EIT data from 9 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome ventilated with a low and a high V_T of 5   ±   1 (mean  ±  SD) and 9   ±   1 ml kg"−"1 predicted body weight at a high and a low level of PEEP (PEEP_h_i_g_h, PEEP_l_o_w) were analyzed. PEEP_h_i_g_h and PEEP_l_o_w were set 2 cmH_2O above and 5 cmH_2O below the lower inflection point of a quasi-static pressure volume loop, respectively. The lower inflection point was identified at 8.1   ±   1.4 (mean  ±  SD) cmH_2O, resulting in a PEEP_h_i_g_h of 10.1   ±   1.4 and a PEEP_l_o_w of 3.1   ±   1.4 cmH_2O. At PEEP_h_i_g_h, we found no significant trend in GI index with low V_T when compared to high V_T (0.49   ±   0.15 versus 0.44   ±   0.09, p = 0.13). At PEEP_l_o_w, we found a significantly higher GI index with low V_T compared to high V_T (0.66   ±   0.19 versus 0.59   ±   0.17, p = 0.01). When comparing the PEEP levels, we found a significantly lower GI index at PEEP_h_i_g_h both for high and low V_T. We conclude that high V_T may lead to a lower GI index, especially at low PEEP settings. This should be taken into account when using the GI index for individual adjustment of ventilator settings. (paper)

  6. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Key aspect concentration; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Schwerpukt Konzentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The information brochure on the Schacht Asse II covers the following issues: without the main mine fan the operation of Asse II would not be possible; the site selection for a final repository as a democratic challenge; the final radioactive waste disposal management in Germany, Asse, Morsleben and Konrad are rather close.

  7. Mesto vstretshi - Tallinn / Aleksandra Manukjan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manukjan, Aleksandra

    2003-01-01

    22. juulil avatakse Rotermanni soolalaos rahvusvaheline Põhja- Euroopa kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Kohtumispaik". Eesti kuraator on Hanno Soans, nimetatud ka kuraatoreid teistest maadest. Osalejatest on esile toodud Laura Stasiulyte, Miklos Gaal ja Sandis Konrads, nimetatud veel 13 osaleja nimed. Projekti autor ja mänedžer on rootsi kunstnik Truls Olin

  8. State Succession in Int'l Transboundary Water Obligations: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiy Chelkeba

    7 International Crisis Group (2006), Sudan Comprehensive Peace ... the case of South Sudan has examined the theories of state succession and it reached at .... Case Study of the Nile Water Treaties, Published by Konrad Adenauer Foundation and ... The treaty is also reproduced in Office of Legal Affairs, cited above in this.

  9. [Geisteswissenschaften und Publizistik im Baltikum des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts] / Gert von Pistohlkors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pistohlkors, Gert von, 1935-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Geisteswissenschaften und Publizistik im Baltikum des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts. Hrsg. von Norbert Angermann, Wilhelm Lenz und Konrad Maier. (Schriften der Baltischen Historischen Kommission, Bd. 17; Baltische Biographische Forschungen, Bd. 1.) Lit. Münster 2011

  10. Is long distance free space quantum communication with the OAM state of light feasible [Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hamadou Ibrahim, A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available -space quantum communication with the OAM state of light feasible? A. HAMADOU IBRAHIM1,2, F.S. ROUX1, M. McLAREN1,3 , A. FORBES1,2,3 & T. KONRAD2 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...

  11. Culture (and religion) in constitutional adjudication | Rautenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, ...

  12. 1025: MAGIC 2010 Multi Autonomous Ground International Challenge. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Keeper Konrad Pilch Treasurer Benjamin Quast Secretary (Mechanical Team) Phuong Huynh Report Coordinator, T-Shirt Design, Posters , Exhibition Video...transmission 149 memcpy(&sendBuf, &frame,OPLENGHT*4); 150 //TODO :swap header and opcode..... dont know why..... 151 sendBuf[0] = OPCODE; 152 sendBuf[1

  13. Determination of Kd-values from diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, H.; Hecker, W.; Zimmerhackl, E.; Zeitler, G.; Menge, P.

    1986-01-01

    Results of diffusion measurements are reported, obtained with aqueous solutions of U-233, Ra-226, Ni-63, and Se-75 in contact with solid rock samples of the Konrad mine overlying rock. The subsequent derivation of K d -values and the method applied are explained. (orig.) [de

  14. The Social Life of Greylag Geese : Patterns, Mechanisms and Evolutionary Function in an Avian Model System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Weiß, Brigitte M.; Hemetsberger, Josef; Kotrschal, Kurt

    The flock of greylag geese established by Konrad Lorenz in Austria in 1973 has become an influential model animal system and one of the few worldwide with complete life-history data spanning several decades. Based on the unique records of nearly 1000 free-living greylag geese, this is a synthesis of

  15. Le developpement de Limacella glioderma (Fr.) R. Maire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, A.F.M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the development of Limacella guttata (Fr.) Konrad & Maublanc with that of L. glioderma (Fr.) R. Maire shows clearly that the latter is of a more primitive type. This conclusion is based on the following observations: a. Limacella guttata has a pileocarpic development: the first

  16. Some reflections on the interaction between the common law and the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    now widely accepted that ours is a mixed or hybrid legal system, which draws ... This paper was first published by the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung in their Seminar ... key aspects of the Constitution similarly relevant and then consider the ways in which .... to see what the product of a similar exercise recently would produce ...

  17. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Key aspect concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The information brochure on the Schacht Asse II covers the following issues: without the main mine fan the operation of Asse II would not be possible; the site selection for a final repository as a democratic challenge; the final radioactive waste disposal management in Germany, Asse, Morsleben and Konrad are rather close.

  18. Det skadelige 'rum'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2014-01-01

    kortlagt. Ud over Hitlers magtfulde politiske retorik er det i Hans Grimms roman Volk ohne Raum, Karl Haushofers geopolitiske rumstudier, Konrad Meyers rumforskning, Carl Schmitts udkast til en ’folkeretslig storrumsordning’ samt i Werner Bests maximer for en etnicistisk storrumsforvaltning, at rum...

  19. Lapsesamm Trullist Dostojevskini / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Raitar, Maie ; Sööt, Andres. Konrad Mägi. Kunstnik. Looming. Aeg. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Maipüha. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2011 ; Trull, Ilmar. Väike viisakas kärbes. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011

  20. 7th Expert meeting radiation protection. International developments, waste management, challenges for the radiation protection in aging nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th Expert meeting on radiation protection include contributions to the following topics: nuclear power and public opinion, IAEA safety standards, ISOE - information system on occupational exposure, European harmonization of the radiation protection education, WANO - challenges and results, CTBTO's global radiation measurement network, state of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany and worldwide, radioactive waste management and disposal in French NPPs, preparedness for final waste disposal in Schacht Konrad, actualization of the transport study Konrad, transport of NPPs' operational radioactive waste and waste from decommissioned reactor demolition to the final repository Konrad, qualification of radioactive waste casks for the final repository Konrad, radioactive waste disposal management concept in Switzerland, aging management and radiation protection, decontamination as effective measure for dose rate reduction - long-term and sustainable dose rate reduction by primary circuit decontamination, system and component decontamination for individual and collective dose reduction - practical examples, radiation protection map - electronic assistance for work planning, EPR dismantling already today? radiation protection register 2002-2010 - knowledge based on a decade of radiation monitoring, actual information on radiation protection in medicine, mobile telecommunication - actual research results.

  1. Nature, Human Nature, and Solutions to Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    This paper promotes an undergraduate course that would discuss the great ideas of Plato, St. Paul, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Jean Paul Sartre, B. F. Skinner, and Konrad Lorenz. This course would help students understand human values and behaviors while focusing on historical, world, and national problems. Tentative solutions would then be…

  2. Seltskond : [fotod] / tekst ja fotod Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    29. mail tutvustasid autorid oma lasteraamatuid Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuses: Kass, Kristiina. Petra lood. [Tallinn] : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Vainola, Kätlin. Mia, Konrad ja avanevad uksed : [jutustus] / pildid joonistanud Toomas Pääsuke. [Tallinn] : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Saarna, Meelike. Mattias ja mamma. [Tallinn] : Tänapäev, 2008

  3. Kae kunstnikku! / Harry Liivrand, Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Filmiajaloo kümme parimat filmi kunstnikest: Vincente Minnelli "Elujanu", Peter Webber "Tütarlaps pärlkõrvarõngaga", Andrei Tarkovski "Andrei Rubljov", Julie Taymor "Frida", James Ivory "Picasso: looja ja hävitaja", Ed Harris "Pollock", Julian Schnabel "Basquiat", Konrad Wolf "Goya ehk tunnetuse salakaval tee", Raoul Ruiz "Klimt", Oliver Hirschbiegel "Allakäik"

  4. Pilkupüüdvad portreed / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Tutvustatakse järgmisi portreemaale: Johann Köler "Ella von Shultz-Adajewsky portree" (1868), Paul Raud "Autoportree kaabuga" (1900), Ants Laikmaa "Marie Underi portree" (1904), Adamson-Eric "Johannes Semperi portree" (1927), Nikolai Triik "Kunstnik Konrad Mäe portree" (1908)

  5. Skaalanihe : kunstnikud räägivad / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Kunstnikud tutvustavad Kumus avanäitusel eksponeeritud kunstiteoseid: Anssi Kasitonni "Jah-monstrum", Chris Evans "Radikaalne lojaalsus", Neeme Külm "Betooni valatud lehm", Cevdet Erek "Teine sild", Heli Ryhänen "Ootus", Hans Hammert "Õhupallikabel", Veronica Brovall "Lahutus", Karsten Konrad "Supersuziseacat", Anders Krüger "Mis silma alt ära, see unustatud", Tommy Stockel "Tulevaste asjade kuju"

  6. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we found that ventilating the normal lung with high peak pressure (45 cmH(2)0) and low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cmH(2)O) did not initially result in altered alveolar mechanics, but alveolar instability developed over time. Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy, were placed on pressure control ventilation, and underwent sternotomy. Rats were then assigned to one of three ventilation strategies: control group (n = 3, P control = 14 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 3 cmH(2)O), high pressure/low PEEP group (n = 6, P control = 45 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 3 cmH(2)O), and high pressure/high PEEP group (n = 5, P control = 45 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 10 cmH(2)O). In vivo microscopic footage of subpleural alveolar stability (that is, recruitment/derecruitment) was taken at baseline and than every 15 minutes for 90 minutes following ventilator adjustments. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was determined by measuring the area of individual alveoli at peak inspiration (I) and end expiration (E) by computer image analysis. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was quantified by the percentage change in alveolar area during tidal ventilation (%I - E Delta). Alveoli were stable in the control group for the entire experiment (low %I - E Delta). Alveoli in the high pressure/low PEEP group were initially stable (low %I - E Delta), but with time alveolar recruitment/derecruitment developed. The development of alveolar instability in the high pressure/low PEEP group was associated with histologic lung injury. A large change in

  7. Open lung approach versus standard protective strategies: Effects on driving pressure and ventilatory efficiency during anesthesia - A pilot, randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ferrando

    Full Text Available Low tidal volume (VT during anesthesia minimizes lung injury but may be associated to a decrease in functional lung volume impairing lung mechanics and efficiency. Lung recruitment (RM can restore lung volume but this may critically depend on the post-RM selected PEEP. This study was a randomized, two parallel arm, open study whose primary outcome was to compare the effects on driving pressure of adding a RM to low-VT ventilation, with or without an individualized post-RM PEEP in patients without known previous lung disease during anesthesia.Consecutive patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were submitted to low-VT ventilation (6 ml·kg-1 and standard PEEP of 5 cmH2O (pre-RM, n = 36. After 30 min estabilization all patients received a RM and were randomly allocated to either continue with the same PEEP (RM-5 group, n = 18 or to an individualized open-lung PEEP (OL-PEEP (Open Lung Approach, OLA group, n = 18 defined as the level resulting in maximal Cdyn during a decremental PEEP trial. We compared the effects on driving pressure and lung efficiency measured by volumetric capnography.OL-PEEP was found at 8±2 cmH2O. 36 patients were included in the final analysis. When compared with pre-RM, OLA resulted in a 22% increase in compliance and a 28% decrease in driving pressure when compared to pre-RM. These parameters did not improve in the RM-5. The trend of the DP was significantly different between the OLA and RM-5 groups (p = 0.002. VDalv/VTalv was significantly lower in the OLA group after the RM (p = 0.035.Lung recruitment applied during low-VT ventilation improves driving pressure and lung efficiency only when applied as an open-lung strategy with an individualized PEEP in patients without lung diseases undergoing major abdominal surgery.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02798133.

  8. A Recruiting Maneuver Algorithm in Patients with Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Levikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a recruiting maneuver (RM and adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 patients (14 men and 2 women aged 46 to 78 years (range 62±5.6 years with ARDS of various genesis. RM was made, by stepwisely increasing PEEP and inspiratory pressure under the control of dynamic lung compliance and hemodynamic parameters. The values of blood gas composition and hemodynamics were determined during the study. Results. RM caused an increase in oxygenation index (OI from 153.5±48.3 to 348.5±53.2 mm Hg. Oxygenation values returned to the baseline levels 30—40 min after the PEEP was set at the closure point of +2 cm H2O. If the set PEEP was 8—10 cm H2O higher than the objective, the effect of RM was retained for as long as 24 hours. When RM was performed using the maximum pressure of 50—60 cm H2O, the cardiac index (CI was lower in all the patients and 30—50% of the baseline values were achieved in all cases, which required the optimization of cardiotonic therapy. The time of this pronounced reduction in cardiac output with RM was not longer than 5 min. After RM, during mechanical ventilation with 18—26 cm H2O PEEP, the CI did not practically differ from the baseline values (3.31±0.41 and 3.37±0.36 l/min/m2, respectively, though the dopamine dose required to maintain normal hemodynamics was somewhat higher (7.5±2.3 and 6.3±2.6 ^g/kg/min. Conclusion. Analysis of the given cases suggests that RM is highly effective in patients at the early stages of acute lung injury. The duration of RM effects may depend on the set PEEP level in individual cases. Setting PEEP at a level of +2—4 cm H2O fails to prevent repeated alveolar derecruitment in a number of patients. In these cases, it is expedient to individually adjust PEEP levels, by taking into account the long-term changes in OI and Cdyn. In

  9. Albanian thikë 'knife'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Hamp

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In the volume of essays Languages and Areas: Studies presented to George V. Bobrinskoy (Chicago 1967 66--9, I struggled to find cognates and an Inda-European background for the obviously inherited Albanian thike, which is the ordinary word for a knife. I was exploring, without finding anything anything conclusive, the possibili­ ties of Indo-Iranian. It seemed to me then, and it still does, that lndo-Iranian assures us of an etymon *kika. 'sand, ravel'; I preferred then, in consideration of śitá- = Lat. catus etc., to trace this to *kǝ-kā., a zero-grade of*kō- (= *k'eH -, rather than to *ki-kā. I further discussed the problems and limitations of the Albanian vocalism and of a suffix in -k-.

  10. Setting ventilation parameters guided by electrical impedance tomography in an animal trial of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Leonhardt, Steffen; Rossaint, Rolf

    2014-03-01

    Since mechanical ventilation can cause harm to lung tissue it should be as protective as possible. Whereas numerous options exist to set ventilator parameters, an adequate monitoring is lacking up to date. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) provides a non-invasive visualization of ventilation which is relatively easy to apply and commercially available. Although there are a number of published measures and parameters derived from EIT, it is not clear how to use EIT to improve clinical outcome of e.g. patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe disease with a high mortality rate. On the one hand, parameters should be easy to obtain, on the other hand clinical algorithms should consider them to optimize ventilator settings. The so called Global inhomogeneity (GI) index bases on the fact that ARDS is characterized by an inhomogeneous injury pattern. By applying positive endexpiratory pressures (PEEP), homogeneity should be attained. In this study, ARDS was induced by a double hit procedure in six pigs. They were randomly assigned to either the EIT or the control group. Whereas in the control group the ARDS network table was used to set the PEEP according to the current inspiratory oxygen fraction, in the EIT group the GI index was calculated during a decremental PEEP trial. PEEP was kept when GI index was lowest. Interestingly, PEEP was significantly higher in the EIT group. Additionally, two of these animals died ahead of the schedule. Obviously, not only homogeneity of ventilation distribution matters but also limitation of over-distension.

  11. A Case of Shunting Postoperative Patent Foramen Ovale Under Mechanical Ventilation Controlled by Different Ventilator Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragliola, Claudio; Di Michele, Sara; Galzerano, Domenico

    2017-06-07

    A 56-year old male with ischemic heart disease and an unremarkable preoperative echocardiogram underwent surgical coronary revascularization. An intraoperative post pump trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TOE) performed while the patient was being ventilated at a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cm H 2 O demonstrated a right to left interatrial shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Whereas oxygen saturation was normal, a reduction of the PEEP to 3 cm H 2 O led to the complete resolution of the shunt with no change in arterial blood gases. Attempts to increase the PEEP level above 3 mmHg resulted in recurrence of the interatrial shunt. The remaining of the TEE was unremarkable. Mechanical ventilation, particularly with PEEP, causes an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The resulting rise in right atrial pressure, mostly during inspiration, may unveil and pop open an unrecognized PFO, thus provoking a right to left shunt across a seemingly intact interatrial septum. This phenomenon increases the risk of paradoxical embolism and can lead to hypoxemia. The immediate management would be to adjust the ventilatory settings to a lower PEEP level. A routine search for a PFO should be performed in ventilated patients who undergo a TEE.

  12. A case of shunting postoperative patent foramen ovale under mechanical ventilation controlled by different ventilator settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pragliola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year old male with ischemic heart disease and an unremarkable preoperative echocardiogram underwent surgical coronary revascularization. An intraoperative post pump trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TOE performed while the patient was being ventilated at a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP of 8 cm H2O demonstrated a right to left interatrial shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO. Whereas oxygen saturation was normal, a reduction of the PEEP to 3 cm H2O led to the complete resolution of the shunt with no change in arterial blood gases. Attempts to increase the PEEP level above 3 mmHg resulted in recurrence of the interatrial shunt. The remaining of the TEE was unremarkable. Mechanical ventilation, particularly with PEEP, causes an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The resulting rise in right atrial pressure, mostly during inspiration, may unveil and pop open an unrecognized PFO, thus provoking a right to left shunt across a seemingly intact interatrial septum. This phenomenon increases the risk of paradoxical embolism and can lead to hypoxemia. The immediate management would be to adjust the ventilatory settings to a lower PEEP level. A routine search for a PFO should be performed in ventilated patients who undergo a TEE.

  13. Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Elizabeth E; Owen, Louise S; Thio, Marta; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Lista, Gianluca; Te Pas, Arjan; Hummler, Helmut; Nadkarni, Vinay; Ades, Anne; Posencheg, Michael; Keszler, Martin; Davis, Peter; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2015-03-15

    Extremely preterm infants require assistance recruiting the lung to establish a functional residual capacity after birth. Sustained inflation (SI) combined with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be a superior method of aerating the lung compared with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with PEEP in extremely preterm infants. The Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial was designed to study this question. This multisite prospective randomized controlled unblinded trial will recruit 600 infants of 23 to 26 weeks gestational age who require respiratory support at birth. Infants in both arms will be treated with PEEP 5 to 7 cm H2O throughout the resuscitation. The study intervention consists of performing an initial SI (20 cm H20 for 15 seconds) followed by a second SI (25 cm H2O for 15 seconds), and then PEEP with or without IPPV, as needed. The control group will be treated with initial IPPV with PEEP. The primary outcome is the combined endpoint of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. www.clinicaltrials.gov , Trial identifier NCT02139800 , Registered 13 May 2014.

  14. Bench performance of ventilators during simulated paediatric ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M A J; Freebairn, R C; Gomersall, C D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The parameters set on the ventilator were compared with either or both of the measured parameters by the test lung and the ventilator. The results revealed that none of the ventilators could consistently deliver tidal volumes within 1 ml/kg of the set tidal volume, and the discrepancy between the delivered volume and the volume measured by the ventilator varied greatly. The target tidal volume was 8 ml/kg, but delivered tidal volumes ranged from 3.6-11.4 ml/kg and the volumes measured by the ventilator ranged from 4.1-20.6 ml/kg. All the ventilators maintained pressure within 20% of the set pressure, except one ventilator which delivered pressures of up to 27% higher than the set pressure. Two ventilators maintained PEEP within 10% of the prescribed PEEP. The majority of the readings were also within 10%. However, three ventilators delivered, at times, PEEPs over 20% higher. In conclusion, as lung compliance decreases, especially in paediatric patients, some ventilators perform better than others. This study highlights situations where ventilators may not be able to deliver, nor adequately measure, set tidal volumes, pressure, PEEP or FiO2.

  15. Positive end-expiratory pressure increases pulmonary clearance of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA in nonsmokers but not in healthy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolop, K.B.; Braude, S.; Royston, D.; Maxwell, D.L.; Hughes, J.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is widely used in the treatment of severe pulmonary oedema, although its effects on the clearance of water and small solutes from alveolus to blood are not well characterized. We studied the effect of the application of 10 cmH 2 O of PEEP on the flux of inhaled 99 mTc-diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) from lung to blood in six healthy smoking and six nonsmoking subjects. The rate of flux was corrected for possible changes in pulmonary blood volume during PEEP by use of an intravenous injection of 99m Tc-DTPA. The baseline clearance rate (K,%.min -1 ) for nonsmokers was 1.48±0.12 (mean±SE) and increased to 2.40±0.29 during PEEP (p<0.05). In contrast, the mean clearance rate for smokers was 3.26±0.82 at baseline and 3.03±0.82 during PEEP (p=NS). The application of positive end-expiratory pressure appears to increase alveolar solute flux in nonsmokers but not in smokers, suggesting that the pathway for solute clearance in smokers is governed by different rate-limiting steps to those of nonsmokers

  16. Positional effects on distribution of ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, C.; Chun, K.J.; Williams, M.H. Jr.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ventilation is distributed predominantly to the dependent lung in normal persons in the decubitus position. We evaluated the distribution of ventilation in four patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using 81mKr gas. Patients were tested in the sitting and right and left decubitus positions with and without the application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). In contrast to findings in controls, ventilation was predominantly distributed to the nondependent lung in patients in the decubitus position. Mean ventilation in the right lung decreased from 51% of the total in the sitting position to 31% in the right decubitus position; it increased with the application of 10 cm PEEP. Reduced ventilation in the dependent lung most likely is caused by closure of the airways after a decrease in volume. Application of PEEP resulted in increased lung volume and preferential distribution of ventilation to the dependent lung

  17. Low pulmonary artery flush perfusion pressure combined with high positive end-expiratory pressure reduces oedema formation in isolated porcine lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Schließmann, Stephan J; Wagner, Giskard; Goebel, Ulrich; Priebe, Hans-Joachim; Guttmann, Josef; Kirschbaum, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Flush perfusion of the pulmonary artery with organ protection solution is a standard procedure before lung explantation. However, rapid flush perfusion may cause pulmonary oedema which is deleterious in the lung transplantation setting. In this study we tested the hypotheses that high pulmonary perfusion pressure contributes to the development of pulmonary oedema and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) counteracts oedema formation. We expected oedema formation to increase weight and decrease compliance of the lungs on the basis of a decrease in alveolar volume as fluid replaces alveolar air spaces. The pulmonary artery of 28 isolated porcine lungs was perfused with a low-potassium dextrane solution at low (mean 27 mmHg) or high (mean 40 mmHg) pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during mechanical ventilation at low (4 cmH 2 O) or high (8 cmH 2 O) PEEP, respectively. Following perfusion and storage, relative increases in lung weight were smaller (p < 0.05) during perfusion at low PAP (62 ± 32% and 42 ± 26%, respectively) compared to perfusion at high PAP (133 ± 54% and 87 ± 30%, respectively). Compared to all other PAP–PEEP combinations, increases in lung weight were smallest (44 ± 9% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nonlinear intratidal lung compliance was largest (46% and 17% respectively, both p < 0.05) and lung histology showed least infiltration of mononuclear cells in the alveolar septa, and least alveolar destruction during the combination of low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. The findings suggest that oedema formation during pulmonary artery flush perfusion in isolated and ventilated lungs can be reduced by choosing low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. PAP–PEEP titration to minimize pulmonary oedema should be based on lung mechanics and PAP monitoring

  18. Low tidal volume and high positive end-expiratory pressure mechanical ventilation results in increased inflammation and ventilator-associated lung injury in normal lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Caron M; Xu, Da-Zhong; Lu, Qi; Cheng, Yunhui; Pisarenko, Vadim; Doucet, Danielle; Brown, Margaret; Aisner, Seena; Zhang, Chunxiang; Deitch, Edwin A; Delphin, Ellise

    2010-06-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (Vt) and low plateau pressure reduces mortality and decreases the length of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanical ventilation that will protect normal lungs during major surgical procedures of long duration may improve postoperative outcomes. We performed an animal study comparing 3 ventilation strategies used in the operating room in normal lungs. We compared the effects on pulmonary mechanics, inflammatory mediators, and lung tissue injury. Female pigs were randomized into 3 groups. Group H-Vt/3 (n = 6) was ventilated with a Vt of 15 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 3 cm H(2)O, group L-Vt/3 (n = 6) with a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW/PEEP of 3 cm H(2)O, and group L-Vt/10 (n = 6) with a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW/PEEP of 10 cm H(2)O, for 8 hours. Hemodynamics, airway mechanics, arterial blood gases, and inflammatory markers were monitored. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for inflammatory markers and protein concentration. The right lower lobe was assayed for mRNA of specific cytokines. The right lower lobe and right upper lobe were evaluated histologically. In contrast to groups H-Vt/3 and L-Vt/3, group L-Vt/10 exhibited a 6-fold increase in inflammatory mediators in BAL (P ventilation with high PEEP resulted in increased production of inflammatory markers. Low PEEP resulted in lower levels of inflammatory markers. High Vt/low PEEP resulted in less histologic lung injury.

  19. [A comparison of leak compensation in six acute care ventilators during non-invasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X S; Wang, Y; Wang, Z T; Yan, P; Zhang, X G; Zhao, S F; Xie, F; Gu, H J; Xie, L X

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0.098 kPa) at 4 air leak level conditions (L0: 2-3 L/min, L1: 8-10 L/min, L2: 22-27 L/min, L3: 35-40 L/min). Results: In the high elastance resistance condition (L2, L3)with different leak levels, the number of auto-triggering and miss-triggering of the non-invasive ventilator Flexo was significantly less than those of the others (L2: 1, 1; L3: 1.67, 1.33, P ventilators ( P ventilators (1, 0.67, 0, P ventilators in both high airway resistance and high elastance resistance conditions with L0 and L1 leak levels and PEEP levels [ARDS, PEEP=4: (109.8±1.8) ms, (112.0±0.6) ms; ARDS, PEEP=8: (103.1±0.7) ms, (109.7±0.7) ms; COPD, PEEP=4: (207.3±1.1) ms, (220.8±1.1) ms; COPD, PEEP=8: (195.6±6.7) ms, (200.0±1.2) ms , P ventilators could be synchronized, among which V60, Stellar150 and Flexo presented a good performance features in specific conditions.

  20. Nonassociative learning promotes respiratory entrainment to mechanical ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna M MacDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator synchrony is a major concern in critical care and is influenced by phasic lung-volume feedback control of the respiratory rhythm. Routine clinical application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP introduces a tonic input which, if unopposed, might disrupt respiratory-ventilator entrainment through sustained activation of the vagally-mediated Hering-Breuer reflex. We suggest that this potential adverse effect may be averted by two differentiator forms of nonassociative learning (habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex via pontomedullary pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in 17 urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats under controlled mechanical ventilation. Without PEEP, phrenic discharge was entrained 1:1 to the ventilator rhythm. Application of PEEP momentarily dampened the entrainment to higher ratios but this effect was gradually adapted by nonassociative learning. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the pneumotaxic center weakened the adaptation to PEEP, whereas sustained stimulation of the pneumotaxic center weakened the entrainment independent of PEEP. In all cases, entrainment was abolished after vagotomy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate an important functional role for pneumotaxic desensitization and extra-pontine habituation of the Hering-Breuer reflex elicited by lung inflation: acting as buffers or high-pass filters against tonic vagal volume input, these differentiator forms of nonassociative learning help to restore respiratory-ventilator entrainment in the face of PEEP. Such central sites-specific habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex provide a useful experimental model of nonassociative learning in mammals that is of particular significance in understanding respiratory rhythmogenesis and coupled-oscillator entrainment mechanisms, and in the clinical management of mechanical ventilation in

  1. Evaluation of lung recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anup; Cole, Oana; Chikhani, Marc; Wang, Wenfei; Ali, Tayyba; Haque, Mainul; Bates, Declan G; Hardman, Jonathan G

    2015-01-12

    Direct comparison of the relative efficacy of different recruitment maneuvers (RMs) for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via clinical trials is difficult, due to the heterogeneity of patient populations and disease states, as well as a variety of practical issues. There is also significant uncertainty regarding the minimum values of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to ensure maintenance of effective lung recruitment using RMs. We used patient-specific computational simulation to analyze how three different RMs act to improve physiological responses, and investigate how different levels of PEEP contribute to maintaining effective lung recruitment. We conducted experiments on five 'virtual' ARDS patients using a computational simulator that reproduces static and dynamic features of a multivariable clinical dataset on the responses of individual ARDS patients to a range of ventilator inputs. Three recruitment maneuvers (sustained inflation (SI), maximal recruitment strategy (MRS) followed by a titrated PEEP, and prolonged recruitment maneuver (PRM)) were implemented and evaluated for a range of different pressure settings. All maneuvers demonstrated improvements in gas exchange, but the extent and duration of improvement varied significantly, as did the observed mechanism of operation. Maintaining adequate post-RM levels of PEEP was seen to be crucial in avoiding cliff-edge type re-collapse of alveolar units for all maneuvers. For all five patients, the MRS exhibited the most prolonged improvement in oxygenation, and we found that a PEEP setting of 35 cm H2O with a fixed driving pressure of 15 cm H2O (above PEEP) was sufficient to achieve 95% recruitment. Subsequently, we found that PEEP titrated to a value of 16 cm H2O was able to maintain 95% recruitment in all five patients. There appears to be significant scope for reducing the peak levels of PEEP originally specified in the MRS and hence to avoid exposing the lung to

  2. Andres Ellamaa : suurperede seostamine asotsiaalsusega mõjub koletislikult / Andres Ellamaa ; interv. Indrek Veiserik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ellamaa, Andres, 1944-

    2008-01-01

    Vestlus doktor Andres Ellamaaga suurperede toetamisest, kunstlikust viljastamisest. Lisaks: Kuidas kommenteerite dr. Andres Ellamaa 2. juuni Postimehes ilmunud artikli järel tekkinud diskussiooni avalikkuses ja meedias? Kommenteerivad Tallinna Arstide Liidu juhatuse liige Peeter Mardna ja Jõgeva haigla juhataja Peep Põdder

  3. Kriisiaasta - tasu tõusis 300 000krooni : Ülikoolid: rektorite sissetulek kasvab / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti suuremate kõrgkoolide rektorite sissetulek on aastaid kerkinud, sõltumata sellest, kas majandus õitseb või langeb. Mullust edetabelit juhib Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rektor Peep Sürje, kelle aastatasu kerkis 300 000 krooni võrra. Ka Tartu Ülikooli rektori Alar Karise ja Tallinna Ülikooli rektori Rein Raua palkadest

  4. Eesti funktsionalismi näitus Jyväskyläs / Karin Hallas-Murula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas-Murula, Karin, 1957-

    2002-01-01

    6. VIII-15. IX Alvar Aalto muuseumis Eesti Arhitekuurimuuseumi näitus "Funktsionalism Eestis". Eksponeeritakse 1930. aastate originaalprojekte, digitaliseeritud ajaloolisi fotosid ning makette. Näituse ja kataloogi on koostanud Karin Hallas-Murula, näituse kujundanud Peeter Mauer, kataloogi kujundanud Jaanus Tamme ja Jaak Peep (Tank)

  5. Millise mängufilmi tellis Sõõrumaa Falcki peoks / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm või pseudodokumentaalfilm "Hundi agoonia", mis valminud ärimees Urmas Sõõrumaa tellimustööna turvafirma Falck 15-ks sünnipäevaks : režissöör Asko Kase, produtsent Artur Talvik, stsenarist Peep Pedmanson : RUUT Pictures 2006

  6. Urmas Sõõrumaa rentis peoks terve linnahalli / Kirsti Vainküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainküla, Kirsti, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Peol esilinastub mängufilm "Hundi agoonia", mis valminud tellimustööna : režissöör Asko Kase, produtsent Artur Talvik, stsenarist Peep Pedmanson : RUUT Pictures 2006. Lisaks sõnum "Miljonäri äriimpeerium"

  7. "Siis sõi Sõõrumaa Punamütsikese ka ära..." / Jüri Muttika

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muttika, Jüri

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm või pseudodokumentaalfilm "Hundi agoonia", mis valminud ärimees Urmas Sõõrumaa tellimustööna turvafirma Falck 15-ks sünnipäevaks : režissöör Asko Kase, produtsent Artur Talvik, stsenarist Peep Pedmanson : RUUT Pictures 2006. Lisaks tutvustus "Hundi agoonia"

  8. Norma juht hämas Venemaa osas / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Norma juhatuse esimees Peep Siimon teatas osalise tööaja rakendamise vajadust 551 töötaja puhul ning põhjendab seda keerulise olukorraga Venemaal. Diagramm: Vene autoturg kasvab. Vt. samas: Eesti analüütikud osalise tööaja teadet ei pelga. Kommenteerib Valentin Jurkin

  9. Atonen ja Aaviksoo tegid eile esimese 3G kõne / Viktoria Korpan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korpan, Viktoria, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Majandusminister Meelis Atonen ja Eesti Mobiiltelefoni juht Peep Aaviksoo pidasid EMT tehnoloogiakeskuses esimese ametliku kõne 3G testvõrgus. Lisaks tavakõnele videokõnet ja kiiret andmesidet võimaldav teenus jõuab kommertskasutusse orienteeruvalt aastal 2005, lubas Aaviksoo

  10. Surfactant impairment after mechanical ventilation with large alveolar surface area changes and effects of positive end-expiratory pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); S.H. Bohm; D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe have assessed the effects of overinflation on surfactant function and composition in rats undergoing ventilation for 20 min with 100% oxygen at a peak inspiratory pressure of 45 cm H2O, with or without PEEP 10 cm H2O (groups 45/10 and 45/0, respectively).

  11. Suurfirmade 2008. aasta eelarved kinnitavad majanduse jahtumist / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti suurettevõtete juhid räägivad, kuidas nad oma ettevõtte uue aasta eelarvet on planeerinud, kui palju on arvestanud palgakasvuks. Pindi Kinnisvara arvestab oma tulude 20-protsendilise langusega. Peep Sooman, Enn Saar, Vahur Roossaar, Tarmo Noop, Siim Kallast ja Meelis Milder vastavad küsimusele, millist palgatõusu nad prognoosivad 2008. aastal

  12. Oistrahhi-festival võtab vastu belgia muusikuid / Toivo Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Belgia rahvuspühale pühendatud kontsertidest: fagotimängija Pierre Dubuisson'i esinemisest 21. juulil Pärnu raekoja saalis ja belgia bass-baritoni Lione Lhote ning Peep Lassmanni kontserdist 21. juulil Eliisabeti kirikus, Vanbrugh Quarteti kontserdist Tallinnas

  13. Effects of a preemptive alveolar recruitment strategy on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation with different tidal volumes in patients with normal pulmonary function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Dal; Kim, Sang Hun; Yu, Byung Sik; Kim, Hye Ji

    2014-08-01

    Hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) remains a major concern. The present study compared the effect of alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) on arterial oxygenation during OLV at varying tidal volumes (Vt) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). In total, 120 patients undergoing wedge resection by video assisted thoracostomy were randomized into four groups comprising 30 patients each: those administered a 10 ml/kg tidal volume with or without preemptive ARS (Group H and Group H-ARS, respectively) and those administered a 6 ml/kg tidal volume and a 8 cmH2O PEEP with or without preemptive ARS (Group L and Group L-ARS, respectively). ARS was performed using pressure-controlled ventilation with a 40 cmH2O plateau airway pressure and a 15 cmH2O PEEP for at least 10 breaths until OLV began. Preemptive ARS significantly improved the PaO2/FiO2 ratio compared to the groups that did not receive ARS (P volume combined with 8 cmH2O PEEP after preemptive ARS may reduce the risk of pulmonary injury caused by high tidal volume during one-lung ventilation in patients with normal pulmonary function.

  14. Spatial distribution of sequential ventilation during mechanical ventilation of the uninjured lung: an argument for cyclical airway collapse and expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altemeier William A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI is a recognized complication of mechanical ventilation. Although the specific mechanism by which mechanical ventilation causes lung injury remains an active area of study, the application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP reduces its severity. We have previously reported that VILI is spatially heterogeneous with the most severe injury in the dorsal-caudal lung. This regional injury heterogeneity was abolished by the application of PEEP = 8 cm H2O. We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of lung injury correlates with areas in which cyclical airway collapse and recruitment occurs. Methods To test this hypothesis, rabbits were mechanically ventilated in the supine posture, and regional ventilation distribution was measured under four conditions: tidal volumes (VT of 6 and 12 ml/kg with PEEP levels of 0 and 8 cm H2O. Results We found that relative ventilation was sequentially redistributed towards dorsal-caudal lung with increasing tidal volume. This sequential ventilation redistribution was abolished with the addition of PEEP. Conclusions These results suggest that cyclical airway collapse and recruitment is regionally heterogeneous and spatially correlated with areas most susceptible to VILI.

  15. Lung-protective ventilation in intensive care unit and operation room : Tidal volume size, level of positive end-expiratory pressure and driving pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, A.

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations have shown independent associations between three ventilator settings – tidal volume size, positive end–expiratory pressure (PEEP) and driving pressure – and outcomes in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is an increasing notion that similar

  16. Lung-protective perioperative mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, S.N.T.

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury and possibly increase risk of pulmonary complications after surgery. Use of large tidal volumes could cause overdistension of lung tissue, which can be aggravated by too high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Too low

  17. Respiratory System Mechanics During Low Versus High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Substudy of PROVHILO Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Antini, Davide; Huhle, Robert; Herrmann, Jacob; Sulemanji, Demet S.; Oto, Jun; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Hemmes, Sabrine N. T.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Pelosi, Paolo; Kaczka, David W.; Vidal Melo, Marcos Francisco; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Cinnella, Gilda

    2018-01-01

    In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications

  18. [Alveolar ventilation and recruitment under lung protective ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putensen, Christian; Muders, Thomas; Kreyer, Stefan; Wrigge, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    Goal of mechanical ventilation is to improve gas exchange and reduce work of breathing without contributing to further lung injury. Besides providing adequate EELV and thereby arterial oxygenation PEEP in addition to a reduction in tidal volume is required to prevent cyclic alveolar collapse and tidal recruitment and hence protective mechanical ventilation. Currently, there is no consensus if and if yes at which price alveolar recruitment with high airway pressures should be intended ("open up the lung"), or if it is more important to reduce the mechanical stress and strain to the lungs as much as possible ("keep the lung closed"). Potential of alveolar recruitment differs from patient to patient but also between lung regions. Potential for recruitment depends probably more on regional lung mechanics - especially on lung elastance - than on the underlying disease. Based on available data neither high PEEP nor other methods used for alveolar recruitment could demonstrate a survival benefit in patients with ARDS. These results may support an individualized titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres used for recruitment taking into consideration the regional effects. Bedside imaging techniques allowing titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres to prevent end-expiratory alveolar collapse (tidal recruitment) and inspiratory overinflation may be a promising development.

  19. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  20. Parts pakub pensionilisa kinnisvara tagatisel / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 30. jaan. lk. 4. Majandusminister Juhan Parts pakub välja ideed, mis võimaldaks pensionäril saada oma kinnisvara eest igakuist pensionilisa. Vt. samas: Skeem: Pensionilisa kinnisvara tagatisel; Vanurid koduga riskima ei tõtta. Kommenteerivad Valdek Mikkal, Triin Messimas ja Peep Sooman

  1. Teated

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kontserdid TÜ aulas: Tartu Ülikooli kammerkoori kevadkontsert 16. märtsil, pianist Peep Lassmann 18. märtsil (kavas: Sumera "Pala aastast 1981", Liszt-Rossini "Stabat Mater", Liszt-Verdi "Rigoletto parafraas", Liszt "Tuisk" ja "Hispaania rapsoodia"), saksofonikvartett Sax-Est 19. märtsil, kontsert "Richard Ritsing - 105" 28. märtsil

  2. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure variation. FJ Smith, M Geyser, I Schreuder, PJ Becker. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the effect of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on pulse pressure variation (PPV). Design: An observational study. Setting: Operating theatres of a ...

  3. Masin ei küsi kõrgemat palka / Teeli Remmelg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmelg, Teeli

    2007-01-01

    Ettevõtjad näevad tööjõupuuduse nappuse lahendusena uute masinate ostmist ja töödistsipliini parandamist. Kommenteerib Ott Licht. Küsimusele vastavad Peep Siimon, Jaanus Vihand, Viktor Valkiainen, Erkki Pärtin, Peeter Mõrd ja Triin Kaasik

  4. Virmaliste valge kuma / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Kirsi ja Marko Ekströmi valge modernne ridaelamukorter (73 mø) Helsingis. Köögimööbel valmistati Eesti firmas Idema, projekti autor Peep Savason. Idemas tehti ka tualettruumi sisustus. K. Ekströmi kommentaarid. 13 ill

  5. Director läks ja küsis / Indrek Randveer, Evelyn Karming, Priit Palk ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    EMT teenindus- ja müügidirektor Indrek Randveer, Estraveli müügidirektor Evelyn Karming, ABC King/Nero/SHU/Suurtüki turundusjuht Anne-Liis Ostov, kohvik-restoran Crepp juhataja Priit Palk ja Sokos Hotel Viru kommunikatsioonijuht Peep Ehasalu vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad nende kogemusi keerukate ja absurdsete kliendikaebuste kohta

  6. Eestil odava tööjõu eelis kadunud / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Database Central Europe'i tehtud tööjõu maksumuse uuringu järgi on tööjõukulu Eestis tunduvalt suurem kui Lätis, Leedus ning mitmes Ida-Euroopa riigis. Diagrammid. Kommenteerivad: Peep Siimon, Taavi Veskimägi, Jaak Leimann ja Ilmar Petersen

  7. The value of laparoscopic classifications in decision on definitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of laparoscopic classifications in decision on definitive surgery in patients ... was to present our clinical experience with the laparoscopic approach in patients ... in 10 cases in whom cord structures were seen entering the internal inguinal ring. ... Four canalicular testes (peeping) were treated with open orchiopexy.

  8. Teater täis sära ja müstikat / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 5 asuva Eesti Draamateatri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Mari Kurismaa, Stuudio Kurismaa. Arhitektuurne lahendus: AB Kolde Grupp ( arhitektid Peep Jänes, Indrek Suigusaar). Ehitus: AS Estconde E. Mari Kurismaast, tema tähtsamad loomingulised saavutused maalikunstnikuna ja sisearhitektina. M. Kurismaa kommentaarid. Ill.: plaan, 10 värv. vaadet

  9. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Reporting of Nonderogatory Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel, education, visits, correspondence, relatives, or contact with persons from or living in a foreign..., window-peeping, and similar situations from whatever source. Unlisted full-time employment or education; full-time education or employment that cannot be verified by any reference or record source or that...

  10. Tallinna ülikool ehitab uue Ursa maja / Mihkel Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Mihkel

    2017-01-01

    2018. a. veebruaris kavatseb Tallinna Ülikool hakata lammutama loodus- ja terviseteaduste õppehoonet ehk Ursa maja. Amortiseerunud hoone asemele ehitatakse uus, mille uksed loodetakse tudengitele avada 2019. aasta sügissemestriks. Selgitusi uue hoone kahta jagab TLÜ kantsler Peep Jonas ning kavandatava õueala kohta keskkonnakorralduse professor Helen Sooväli-Sepping

  11. Köitekunstist pärikarva / Maarja Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Maarja

    2000-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest köitekunsti ja kalligraafianäirusest "Scripta manent II" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Miks valiti tekstiautoreiks J. Kaplinski ja D. Kareva. Peeter Brambati ja Peep Laansalu videofilmis näidatakse köiteid ka seestpoolt. Filmi muusika - Peeter Vähi

  12. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    -controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; and SV-20P denotes pressure-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. With all modes of ventilation a PEEP of 7.5 cm H2O was used. In the abbreviations used, the number denotes the ventilatory frequency in breaths per minute (bpm). HFV indicates that all...

  13. Yli 100 syytä mennä Viroon / Terhi Pääskylä-Malmström

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pääskylä-Malmström, Terhi, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Did you know that there are over 100 exciting, quirky, unique and important reasons to visit Estonia! = Tiesitkö että on yli 100 jännittävää, outoa, ainutlaatuista ja tärkeää syytä tulla Viroon? / koostanud Jussi-Pekka Aukia, Peep Ehasalu. Tallinn : AS Sokotel, 2015

  14. Mis on "Sõrmuste isanda" edu saladus?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Toimetuse küsimusele vastavad Ilmar Raag ja Peep Pedmanson. Küsimuse all on Peter Jacksoni esimene film J.R.R. Tolkieni triloogia "Sõrmuste isand" alusel - "Sõrmuse vennaskond", "The Lord of the Rings : The Fellowship of the Ring" : Uus-Meremaa, Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001

  15. Effects of Inhaled Fenoterol and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Respiratory Mechanics of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Guerin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During acute ventilatory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, applying external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPe will reopen small airways and, thus, may enhance peripheral deposition as well as the physiological effects of inhaled beta-2 agonists.

  16. Eesti seep saab hoo sisse / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Kanal 2s algab uus kodumaine komöödiasari "Õpetajate tuba", mille käsikiri on Peep Pedmansonilt, lavastus Ivo Eensalult, näitlejad on Ita Ever, Eino Baskin, Madis Milling, Henrik Normann, Maria Klenskaja, Margus Tabor jt., tootjafirmaks "Ruut"

  17. Läänemere filmiamatöörid Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    5. ja 6. oktoobril peeti Tallinna Kinomajas 33. avatud Balti amatöörfilmide festival, mille žüriid juhtis Peep Puks. Ühe II auhinna sai Daniel Müntineni alias Dan Leadi animafilm "Punapäine päikeseloojang" ja ühe III auhinna Elen Lotmani tõsielufilm "Homo sapiens"

  18. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Vazquez de Anda; R.A. Lachmann; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDisturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish

  19. Effects of positive end expiratory pressure administration during non-invasive ventilation in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimanno, Grazia; Greco, Francesca; Arrisicato, Salvo; Morana, Noemi; Marrone, Oreste

    2016-10-01

    No studies have evaluated the impact of different settings of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We explored consequences of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application on effectiveness of ventilation, sleep architecture and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with ALS naïve to ventilatory treatment. In two consecutive nights, 25 patients received in random order 0 or 4 cm H2 0 of PEEP during nocturnal NIV administration (Idea Ultra ResMed) with the same level of total positive inspiratory pressure. Polysomnographies were performed to evaluate sleep and NIV quality, as well as HRV. HRV was analyzed on 4-h periods and on 5-min segments of stable NREM sleep. We did not observe differences in gas exchanges during NIV with and without PEEP. Conversely, during PEEP application increases in leaks (41.4 ± 29.3% vs 31.0 ± 25.7%, P = 0.0007) and in autotriggerings (4.2 (IQR 1.3-10.0) vs 0.9 (IQR 0.0-3.0) events/h, P NIV was associated with worse NIV and sleep quality and with higher sympathetic activity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Õpetaja, kus asub Kennedy neem? / Marii Karell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karell, Marii, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Kanal 2s algab uus kodumaine komöödiaseriaal "Õpetajate tuba", mille käsikiri on Peep Pedmansonilt, lavastaja Ivo Eensalu, kes artiklis meenutab oma kooliaegu. Lisaks sõnumid "Eino Baskin sokutas õpetaja istumise alla siili" ja "Madis Milling - rohkem kõnemees kui tangensite tagaajaja"

  1. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  2. Torontos peeti eesti dokfilmifestivali "Estdoc's" / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Toronto eesti dokumentaalfilmide festival "Estdoc's". Demonstreeriti filme: "Sinimäed" (Raimo Jõerand), "Tiim" (Peep Puks), "Mikk" (Rein Raamat, Peeter Brambat), "6 tundi" (Rein Kotov), "Erna retk" (Vaado Sarapuu), "Tõrjutud mälestused" (Imbi Paju), "Middendorfi jälgedes" (Riho Västrik), "Mehed unustatud armeest" (Indrek Treufeldt), "Nagu noor jumal" ja "Orjus Eestis" (mõlema autor Olev Remsu)

  3. Ilo Pariisi varjus / Kaia Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sisask, Kaia

    2003-01-01

    Portreefilm Pariisis giidina töötavast kirjanik Juhan Jaigi tütrest Ilo Jaik-Riedbergist "Ilo Pariisis" : stsenarist ja režissöör Peep Puks : operaatorid Arvo Vilu, Ago Ruus, Heli Arvo Vilu, Henn Liiva, Jüri Vaher : teksti loeb Anu Lamp : muusikaline kujundus Merike Vaino : filmi direktor Maie Kerma : Pro-Film 2002

  4. Telesügis: uued omasaated ja õnnemängud / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2010-01-01

    ETV ekraanile jõudvatest draamasarjadest "Klass: elu pärast" ja "ENSV" ning Mati Talviku ajaloosarjast "Ajavaod". Kanal 2 ekraanile jõudvast draamasarjast "Pilvede all", dokumentaalsarjast "Eesti maffia", saatest "Tantsud tähtedega". TV 3 ekraanile jõudvast saatest "Eesti talent" ja komöödiasarjast "Kälimehed" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson)

  5. Persistent puhnonary hypertension ofthe neonate in a developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the study period. Their clinical characteristics are dis- played in Tables IT and ITl. Comparison of the clinical, ventilatory and laboratory findings of the survivors v. the non-survivors .... Fio, = fractional concentration of inspired oxygen; PEEP = positive end expiratory ... had multi-organ failure and was assessed as having a.

  6. Kutseõpetaja - ideaalid ja reaalsus / Ülo Tikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikk, Ülo

    2003-01-01

    Kutseõpetajate koolituse üle vahetavad mõtteid TPÜ töö- ja kutseõpetuse osakonna professor Ants Tarraste, Tallinna Ehituskooli direktor Kaljo-Ilmar Tiitso, Paide Kutsekeskkooli direktori kt. Mare Veermaa, Valga Kutseõppekeskuse õpetaja Peep Leppik ja Tartu abilinnapea Vladimir ?okman

  7. Maardu ja Jõelähtme maa alla võib tulla elektrijaam / Erik Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2009-01-01

    OÜ Maardu Graniidikaevandus taotleb graniidikaevanduse luba, ettevõtte juhi Peep Siitami väitel oleks kaeveõõnte hilisem kasutamine pump-hüdroakumulatsioonijaama asukohana parim võimalus kuni 1000 megavati võimsuse ulatuses tuulikuparkide töö ühtlustamiseks

  8. Eramu Suurupis = A House in Suurupi / Tiina Mang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mang, Tiina

    2002-01-01

    2002. a. valminud eramu projekteeris Arhitektibüroo Emil Urbel. Arhitektid Emil Urbel ja Indrek Erm, sisearhitekt Tiina Mang, konstruktor Peep Rosenberg. Projekt 2000-2001. 7 ill.: I korruse plaan, sise- ja välisvaated.Emil Urbel (arhitektibüroo).

  9. Obesity does not influence the onset and offset of sevoflurane effect as measured by the hysteresis between sevoflurane concentration and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortínez, Luis I; Gambús, Pedro; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Echevarría, Ghislaine; Muñoz, Hernán R

    2011-07-01

    The onset and offset of action of anesthetic gases might be delayed by respiratory changes and gas exchange alterations present in obese patients. In this study, we assessed the influence of obesity on the hysteresis between sevoflurane and its effect as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). Because the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in obese patients has improved gas exchange, we also assessed the influence of PEEP on hysteresis. Fifteen obese and 15 normal-weight patients, ASA physical status I and II, 20 to 50 years old, scheduled to undergo general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic surgery, were prospectively studied. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl. At the end of surgery and after stable BIS values of 60 to 65, the inspired concentration of sevoflurane was increased to 5 vol% for 5 minutes or until BIS was rate constant was not influenced by body mass index or PEEP (P > 0.05). Neither obesity nor PEEP showed any influence on the PK/PD descriptors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that obesity prolongs induction or recovery times when sevoflurane, a poorly soluble anesthetic, is used to maintain anesthesia from 90 to 120 minutes.

  10. Lilleküla jalgpallistaadion = Lilleküla Football Stadium / Haldo Oravas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oravas, Haldo, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Arhitekt, projekti ja detailplaneeringu (AS Eesti Projekt, 1999) autor Haldo Oravas. Projekteerijad: ETP Grupp, projektijuht Aare Uusalu, arhitekt Peep Urb. Sisekujundaja Sirje Pohl. Projekt 2000-2001. 8 ill.: V korruse ja asendiplaan, tribüüni lõige, vaated

  11. Afbrydelsens kronotopi i britisk litteratur, 1840-1870

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    2017-01-01

    -1866), combined with a new historicist reading of Victorian advice literature, this article argues that narrative marginalisation was paradoxically a viable strategy for showing an otherwise invisible temporality. In the background, peeping out whenever the plot interrupts, is an enduring and ongoing time......, mediated by unnamed and underrepresented servants, that gives the middle-class home temporal depth and realism....

  12. Õpetatud Eesti Selts 1988-1991 : [Ülevaade koosolekutest] / Tiit Rosenberg, Maris Pruuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    1995-01-01

    Lisa: Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi taasasutamise ürik : [26 apr. 1988]. Allakirjutanute hulgas Paul Ariste, Eduard Laugaste, Leo Metsar, Aino Põldmäe, Harald Peep, Juhan Peegel, Imbi Pelkonen, Heno Sarv, Arne Merilai, Margus Kasterpalu, Heli Laanekask, Eva Aaver, Paul Hagu, Hando Runnel

  13. Effects of respiratory rate, plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure on PaO2 oscillations after saline lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Doebrich, Marcus; Otto, Cynthia M

    2002-12-15

    One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits after saline lavage. Using pressure-controlled ventilation with oxygen, ventilator settings were varied in random order over three levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory rate (RR), and plateau pressure minus PEEP (Delta). Dependence of the amplitude of PaO2 oscillations on PEEP, RR, and Delta was modeled by multiple linear regression. Before lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 3 to 22 mm Hg. After lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 5 to 439 mm Hg. Response surfaces showed markedly nonlinear dependence of amplitude on PEEP, RR, and Delta. The large PaO2 oscillations observed provide evidence for cyclic recruitment in this model of lung injury. The important effect of RR on the magnitude of PaO2 oscillations suggests that the static behavior of atelectasis cannot be accurately extrapolated to predict dynamic behavior at realistic breathing frequencies.

  14. Associations between positive end-expiratory pressure and outcome of patients without ARDS at onset of ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Filho, Roberto Rabello; Cherpanath, Thomas; Determann, Rogier; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Paulus, Frederique; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare ventilation at different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with regard to clinical important outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at onset of ventilation. Meta-analysis of

  15. Multifilm kui tõsine asi / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  16. Eesti animafilme igale maitsele / Sulev Teinemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teinemaa, Sulev, 1947-

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  17. Kuus uut Eesti filmi korraga ekraanil / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo

    1998-01-01

    21. mail esilinastuvad kinos Sõprus 'Just märried', rezh. Peep Pedmanson; 'Päevavalgus', rezh. Mait Laas; 'Primavera', rezh. Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer; 'Vares ja hiired', rezh. Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; 'Bermuda', rezh. Ülo Pikkov; 'Tom ja Fluffy', rezh. Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits

  18. Aimdusi tsivilisatsioonist / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  19. Animaalselt ja humaanselt / Karlo Funk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Funk, Karlo, 1971-

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  20. Raudna põhikooli spordihoone Heimtalis = Sports facility at Raudna Basic School in Heimtali / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Heimtali mõisa ringtalli müüride vahele rajatud spordihoonest, žürii hinnang ehitisele, mille arhitekt Peep Jänes pälvis arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia 2008. Muinsuskaitse eritingimused koostas Anu Kulbach, sisearhitektid Signe ja Gildardas Stokas, peaprojekteerija K & H

  1. Austraallased huvituvad ETV toodangust / Karin Leemet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leemet, Karin

    2000-01-01

    ETV saadet "Simson Seakülast" näidatakse peagi Austraalia telekanalil The Special Broadcasting Service. 1995. a. valminud kunstisaade on eesti skulptorist Aivar Simsonist, saate autorid Mariina Mälk, Peeter Brambat, operaator Peep Laansalu. Mari Sobolev A. Simsoni töödest

  2. Kunstigaleriist pART on võimalik tellida näitust tutvustavaid loenguid / Ülle Lätte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lätte, Ülle, 1955-

    2008-01-01

    Kunstigalerii pART näitusel "Nad rõõmustavad meid" eksponeeritakse Põltsamaalt pärit kunstnike Tiit Pääsukese, Peeter Alliku, Toivo Raidmetsa, Viive Väljaotsa, Mare Tralla, Ave Nahkuri, Peep Pedmansoni loomingut

  3. Foreseeable cost and economic impacts of the approach proposed; Absehbare Kosten und volkswirtschaftliche Effekte des vom AkEnd vorgeschlagenen Vorgehens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeskamp, H.; Brammer, K.-J. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuclear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Schlombs, H. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Under the German Atomic Energy Act, the federal government is responsible for the construction of repositories for radioactive waste. Steps to this end were initiated early on when the first nuclear power plants were commissioned in the 1960s. They resulted, among other approaches, in the decisions and site selection procedures for the Gorleben salt dome and the former Konrad iron ore mine as potential repository sites in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2000, the federal government imposed a moratorium of three up to a maximum of ten years on further exploration activities at Gorleben in order to dispel doubts held by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU). A positive plans approval decision on Konrad was publicized in May 2002. Emplacement could begin roughly in 2010-2012, once legal certainty will have been ensured. In February 1999, BMU appointed a working party to establish site selection procedures for repositories (AkEnd) which was to develop a transparent procedure of finding and selecting sites for the final storage of all kinds of radioactive waste in Germany. The procedure finally proposed by AkEnd implies considerable uncertainty, inter alia, about its legal implementability, the time required, and funding. For the Gorleben salt dome, for instance, additional exploration and procedures alone could give rise to extra costs of euro 3-5 billion, compared to merely continuing project activities. Similar extra costs are likely to arise especially to the government if emplacement in Konrad were to be delayed. Under aspects of technical safety, the speediest possible emplacement of all types of waste in deep geologic formations is preferable to all other options. Hence, further exploration of Gorleben should be completed quickly, and the Konrad project should be implemented, after due consideration of all factors. (orig.) [German] Der Bund ist gemaess Atomgesetz (AtG) fuer die Einrichtung von Endlagern fuer

  4. Qualification of old wastes for finale disposal; Qualifizierung von Altabfaellen fuer die Endlagerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullau, R.; Kloeckner, J. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Uekoetter, S. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In the frame of the interim storage and final disposal of radioactive waste forms until now about 1200 barrels filled with old radioactive waste had to be requalified. The process of requalification is described in this contribution. The storage casks contained mainly high-pressure compacted and loose mixed waste, cemented waste and casting molds, building waste and combustion residuals, conditioned in the 1980ies. In the final repository Morsleben 80% of the waste forms were cleared for final disposal in Morsleben, 20% were qualified for interim storage and final disposal in the Schachtanlage Konrad. Based on these experiences the authors summarize recommendations for further requalification of old waste forms for the disposal in the Schachtanlage Konrad.

  5. The effects of intraoperative lung protective ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure on blood loss during hepatic resection surgery: A secondary analysis of data from a published randomised control trial (IMPROVE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschwander, Arthur; Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir; Pereira, Bruno; Eurin, Mathilde; Marret, Emmanuel; Szymkewicz, Olga; Beaussier, Marc; Paugam-Burtz, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    During high-risk abdominal surgery the use of a multi-faceted lung protective ventilation strategy composed of low tidal volumes, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment manoeuvres, has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. It has been speculated, however, that mechanical ventilation using PEEP might increase intraoperative bleeding during liver resection. To study the impact of mechanical ventilation with PEEP on bleeding during hepatectomy. Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Seven French university teaching hospitals from January 2011 to August 2012. Patients scheduled for liver resection surgery. In the Intraoperative Protective Ventilation trial, patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to mechanical ventilation using low tidal volume, PEEP between 6 and 8  cmH2O and recruitment manoeuvres (lung protective ventilation strategy) or higher tidal volume, zero PEEP and no recruitment manoeuvres (non-protective ventilation strategy). The primary endpoint was intraoperative blood loss volume. A total of 79 (19.8%) patients underwent liver resections (41 in the lung protective and 38 in the non-protective group). The median (interquartile range) amount of intraoperative blood loss was 500 (200 to 800)  ml and 275 (125 to 800)  ml in the non-protective and lung protective ventilation groups, respectively (P = 0.47). Fourteen (35.0%) and eight (21.5%) patients were transfused in the non-protective and lung protective groups, respectively (P = 0.17), without a statistically significant difference in the median (interquartile range) number of red blood cells units transfused [2.5 (2 to 4) units and 3 (2 to 6) units in the two groups, respectively; P = 0.54]. During hepatic surgery, mechanical ventilation using PEEP within a multi-faceted lung protective strategy was not associated with increased bleeding compared with non-protective ventilation using zero PEEP. The current study was not

  6. Do we deliver the pressures we intend to when using a T-piece resuscitator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Roegholt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A T-piece resuscitator (TPR uses a built-in manometer to set the inflation pressures, but we are not informed what pressures are actually delivered distally. Aim of this study was to measure the proximal and distal pressures under different gas conditions when using a TPR. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A test lung was ventilated using a TPR (PIP 25 cmH₂O, PEEP 5 cmH₂O with a gas flow rate of 8 L/min. A Pressure delivered by six different TPRs was tested. To test variability 20 participants were asked to set PEEP and PIP pressures to 25/5 cmH₂O. B PIP and PEEP were measured proximal and distal of the TPR when using standard tubing or heated tubing with or without a humidifier. In experiment A mean (SD proximal PIP and PEEP of the TPRs were respectively 20.3 (0.3 cmH₂O (19.9-20.6 cmH₂O and 4.9 (0.1 cmH₂O. When 20 participants set pressures; PIP 26.7 (0.5 cm H₂O and PEEP 5.9 (0.44 cmH2O were measured. Experiment B showed that the decrease of PIP between proximal and distal pressures was not clinically significant. However there was a significant decrease of PEEP using the standard tubing (5.1 (0.1 cmH₂O proximally versus 4.8 (0.2 cmH₂O distally; p<0.001 compared to, when using a humidifier with associated tubing and the humidifier turned on, 5.1 (0.1 proximally versus 3.9 (0.2 cmH₂O distally; (p<0.001. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The accuracy of the built-in manometer of a TPR is acceptable. Most pressures set proximally are comparable to the actual pressures delivered distally. However, when using tubing associated with the humidifier PEEP decreases distally by 1.1-1.2 cmH₂O and users should anticipate on this.

  7. Human Factors Issues When Operating Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    etiquette (Parasuraman & Miller, 2004). Through natural and intuitive communication, Johnson et al., (2007) hope that this interface will instill greater...and etiquette in high criticality automated systems. Communications of the ACM, 47(4), 51-55. Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and... protocols for underwater wireless communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 97-102. Quazi, A. H., & Konrad, W. L. (1982, March 1982). Underwater

  8. Dynamic Information Collection and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    saliency: from intrinsic to extrinsic context,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Colorado Springs...ICASSP), Vancouver, Canada, 26-31 May, 2013. [19] M. Wang, J. Konrad, P. Ishwar, Y-K. Jing, and H. Rowley, “Image saliency: from intrinsic to extrinsic ...processing and inference: • Sensing-aware inference with high-dimensional signals. [1–9] Here, motivated by applica- tions involving the control of

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 2-2 Article-in-a-Box. Chief Editor's column / The First Electronic Computer · V Rajaraman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 2-4 Article-in-a-Box. Konrad Lorenz · Raghavendra Gadagkar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 3-4 Article-in-a- ...

  10. Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Mason, Ian

    2008-01-01

    a series of implementaions that properly account for multiple invocations of the derivative-taking opeatro. In "Adapting Functional Programs to Higher-Order Logic," Scott Owens and Konrad Slind present a variety of examples of terminiation proofs of functional programs written in HOL proof systems. Since......-calculus programs, historically. The anaylsis determines the possible locations of ambients and mirrors the temporla sequencing of actions in the structure of types....

  11. Safety analysis of the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Ehrlich, D.

    1991-01-01

    The safety analysis of normal operation covers an analytical study of the system parts ultimate repository - waste forms of the ultimate repository system under normal and accidental operation. On that basis a requirement concept has been developed which entails reactions on planning and design of the repository, and requirements of waste products, packagings and permissible activities. The procedure for the operational phase is explained giving the Konrad repository project as an example. (DG) [de

  12. Adverse outcomes after percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy versus surgical tracheostomy in intensive care patients: case series and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosz, Konrad; Kubisa, Bartosz; Andrzejewska, Agata; Mr?wczy?ska, Katarzyna; Hamerlak, Zbigniew; Bartkowska-?niatkowska, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Konrad Jarosz,1 Bartosz Kubisa,2 Agata Andrzejewska,3 Katarzyna Mrówczyńska,3 Zbigniew Hamerlak,4 Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska5 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, 2Thoracic Surgery and Transplantation Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 3Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 4Stomatology Department, Pomeranian Medical University, 5Anaesthesiology and Pediatric Intensive Care Department, Poznan Universit...

  13. Kas transatlantilised liitlassuhted on tõesti madalseisus? / Tiit Meren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meren, Tiit

    2005-01-01

    NATO Reservohvitseride Konföderatsiooni (CIOR) ja Konrad Adenaueri Fondi koostöös 30. jaanuarist kuni 3. veebruarini 2005 Saksamaal Wesselingis korraldatud rahvusvahelisest seminarist "NATO, the European Union and the Global war on terrorism. No go? - Routine? - New beginning?" (NATO, Euroopa Liit ja ülemaailmne sõda terrorismi vastu. Loobumine? - Rutiin? - Uus algus?). Eesti delegatsiooni kuulusid EROK president leitnant Heino Piirsalu ja EROK välistoimkonna esimees Tiit Meren. CIOR-i konverentsist Brüsselis

  14. Formal Verification of User-Level Real-Time Property Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ge , Ning; Pantel , Marc; Dal Zilio , Silvano

    2017-01-01

    International audience; To ease the expression of real-time requirements, Dwyer, and then Konrad, studied a large collection of existing systems in order to identify a set of real-time property patterns covering most of the useful use cases. The goal was to provide a set of reusable patterns that system designers can instantiate to express requirements instead of using complex temporal logic formulas. A limitation of this approach is that the choice of patterns is more oriented towards expres...

  15. Prospects for Finland and Sweden to Pursue Closer Defense Cooperation With NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    in my naval career. I would also like to recognize Professor Jeff Kline for taking special interest in my thesis topic and for providing the...Challenges for Disarmament and Peace Operations on the Political Agenda, eds. Peter Fischer - Bollin and Thomas Knirsch. VII Conference on Forte de Copacabana...Agenda, edited by Peter Fischer -Bollin and Thomas Knirsch. VII Conference on Forte de Copacabana International Security. Rio de Janeiro: Konrad-Adenauer

  16. Speeches on the inauguration of the BfS Vice-President, the Manager of the Radiation Hygiene Section and the Manager of the Nuclear Safety Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The speeches by the Federal Minister for the Environment and the gentlemen in charge of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz provide information on the perceived tasks of the Bundesamt: the principles of radiation protection, implementation of the new ICRP recommendations, the formation of the radiation protection register, cooperation on the amendment of the nuclear law with regard to disposal - terminal storage area Konrad, terminal storage project Gorleben, terminal storage area Moosleben. (HSCH) [de

  17. The Bible of Conrad of Vechta. Stylistic Change in Bohemian Book Illumination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studničková, Milada

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2006), s. 269-283 ISSN 0025-2603. [Conference on Manuscript Studies /32./. St. Louis, 14.10.2005-15.10.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA8033202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Czech book illumination * Master of Antwerp Bible * Bible of Konrad of Vechta * beginning of the 15th century Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Luces y sombras de la calidad de la democracia en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alcántara Sáez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el concepto de calidad de la democracia, contemplando la aplicación de distintos índices a la realidad política de los países de América Latina; a saber: Freedom House, IDD (Fundación Konrad Adenauer, The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU y el elaborado por Levine y Molina.

  19. Extended Nuclear Deterrence for Europe Without Forward-based Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    financial costs of nuclear burden sharing, bolsters safety and security and further reduces proliferation risks. 22 Bibliography Bildt, Carl and... Sagan , Scott D. and Waltz, Kenneth N. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed. W. W. Norton and Company New York, NY and London...Point. Center for International Relations, Reports and Analyses. Konrad-Adenauer Foundation, Warsaw, 2011, 2. 30 Bildt, Carl and Sikorski, Radek

  20. Kes ikkagi asutas Pirita kloostri? / Kersti Markus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markus, Kersti, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Tegelik kloostri ülesehitaja oli Hinrich Swalbart. Kuna birgitiinide kloostrid allusid kohalikule piiskopile ning Swalbart oli kloostri rajamisega seotud alates 1405. aastast, siis võiks väita, et Pirita kloostri rajamise idee pärineb Saksa ordu kõrgmeistri Konrad von Jungingeni lähikonnast. Nimelt sai 1405. aastal Tallinna uueks piiskopiks Johannes III Aken, kes oli eelnevalt olnud ordu kõrgmeistri kaplan

  1. 19.-25. IX toimub Rüütelkonna hoones Kumu pärlite nädal...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    23. IX kõneleb Anu Allikvee teemal "Eestlane baltisaksa kunstnike vaatepiiris"; 24. IX tutvustab Mai Levin Eugen Dückeri maale, 25. IX Ene Lamp Konrad Mäge. Vt. ka lk. 24 Tähtede nädal 26. IX-2. X - kohtumisõhtutel esinevad Marika ja Heinz Valk, Jüri Kuuskemaa, Sirje Helme, Pekka Vapaavuori, Inge Teder, Rain Lõhmus

  2. Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items. Volume 7. H2 to Lysol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    29, 263 (1934) 11) Dr. (Ref 10) Konrad, Nitrocellulose 5, 124 (1934) Impact Sensitivity, it is v sens to impact even 12) Nuevos Explosivos Industriales...INTERACTION 1a) PRESSURE-DISTANCE PROFILE BEFORE INTERACTION HUGONIOT FOR MATERIAL R / MIRROR LINE- A HUGNOT FOR HUGONIOT FOR I MATERIALL (P2 u 2) STATE2...CHARACTERISTIC ’.| ’$,"(P u REFLECTION FOR MATERIAL L / 2" " 2- CHARACTERISTIC MIRROR LINE FOR MATERIALL STATE PARTICLE VELOCITY, u PARTICLE VELOCITY. u (b

  3. Transfer systems in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Ehrlich, D.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to logistic problem definitions taking into account the waste types of the wastes to be disposed of and the mining conditions, transport and handling of radioactive wastes in a repository, particularly require the keeping of safety technological marginal conditions mainly resulting from the accident analyses carried out. The realization of these safety technological aspects is described taking the planned Konrad repository as an example. (author)

  4. Sub anno domini 1465... In casa de’ figliuoli di Aldo. Origin and advancements of the printing press in Italy through the exemplars of the Bagnacavallo ‘Giuseppe Taroni’ library

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Fabbri

    2016-01-01

    The paper contains the descriptions of the ancient books owned by the Public Library ‘Giuseppe Taroni’ in Bagnacavallo, which were selected for the exhibition Sub anno domini 1465... In casa de’ figliuoli di Aldo to celebrate the printing of the first book in Italy by Konrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz with datation included in the colophon (Subiaco, 1465) and the fifth centenary of Aldus Manutius’ death, the major Italian printer and publisher of the Renaissance age (1449-52?-1515). Among ...

  5. Foreseeable cost and economic impacts of the approach proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeskamp, H.; Brammer, K.-J.; Schlombs, H.

    2003-01-01

    Under the German Atomic Energy Act, the federal government is responsible for the construction of repositories for radioactive waste. Steps to this end were initiated early on when the first nuclear power plants were commissioned in the 1960s. They resulted, among other approaches, in the decisions and site selection procedures for the Gorleben salt dome and the former Konrad iron ore mine as potential repository sites in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2000, the federal government imposed a moratorium of three up to a maximum of ten years on further exploration activities at Gorleben in order to dispel doubts held by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU). A positive plans approval decision on Konrad was publicized in May 2002. Emplacement could begin roughly in 2010-2012, once legal certainty will have been ensured. In February 1999, BMU appointed a working party to establish site selection procedures for repositories (AkEnd) which was to develop a transparent procedure of finding and selecting sites for the final storage of all kinds of radioactive waste in Germany. The procedure finally proposed by AkEnd implies considerable uncertainty, inter alia, about its legal implementability, the time required, and funding. For the Gorleben salt dome, for instance, additional exploration and procedures alone could give rise to extra costs of euro 3-5 billion, compared to merely continuing project activities. Similar extra costs are likely to arise especially to the government if emplacement in Konrad were to be delayed. Under aspects of technical safety, the speediest possible emplacement of all types of waste in deep geologic formations is preferable to all other options. Hence, further exploration of Gorleben should be completed quickly, and the Konrad project should be implemented, after due consideration of all factors. (orig.) [de

  6. Requalification of Legacy Radioactive Waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandt, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Paulina; Spicher, Gottfried; Filss, Martin; Schauer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • Large stocks of legacy radioactive waste exist, which do not comply with the requirements of the Konrad repository. • Requalification campaigns with thousands of waste packages have successfully been carried out. • Quality assurance plans contain all necessary steps of specific (requalification) campaigns and optimize the procedures for each campaign in advance. • When sophisticated measurement equipment was needed an iterative procedure was adopted. Repeated evaluations of the nondestructive res. destructive measurements limited the measures to the necessary limit.

  7. Wojna - instynkt czy wynalazek? : przegląd koncepcji dotyczących genezy wojny

    OpenAIRE

    Olzacka, Elżbieta

    2011-01-01

    The article aims to present the most famous and influential concepts investigating the etiology of war, elaborated within the field of broadly understood social sciences over the last hundred years. I analyse the history of the dispute between naturalists and cultural determinists as well as researchers who attempted to reconcile two positions. For the first one (represented by Sigmund Freud, Konrad Lorenz, Edward O. Wilson), war has its roots in the biological condition of a huma...

  8. Talv 2015 = Winter 2015

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Aasta võitjad: Mart Kalm EKA rektoriks, Jaanus Samma Veneetsia biennaalil, Kris Lemsalu New Yorgi kunstimessil, Anu Vahtrale Köler Prize 2015, Raymond Pettiboni ja Marko Mäetamme isiknäitused Kumus, Katja Novitskova MoMa-s, Tanja Muravskajale Sadolini kunstipreemia, Tõnis Saadojale Konrad Mäe medal ja preemia, EKKM uued tegevjuhid on Marten Esko ja Johannes Säre, kunstnikupalka hakkavad saama viis Eesti kunstnikku

  9. Research Laboratory of Electronics Annual Report Number 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    approximation for modeling underwater acoustics. The summers of 1983 and 1984 mark the beginning of a series of geophysical and acoustic experiments in the...conditions, modifications in an adaptive noise cancelling algorithm such as the Widrow- Hoff least mean square algorithm, allows one to still reduce the...Stephanie Brown, Fielding Kanbe, Hiroshi Vaidyanathan, A. Ganesh Buchinger, Fritz Kayoun, Pierre H. Wang, Hong.Ming Cerrillo, Manuel V. Konrad, Cristina Wang

  10. Värvi triumf / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Neoimpressionismi jälgedes. Mägi ja Finch" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 12. septembrini 2010. Kuraator Tiina Abel, kuraatori abi Liisa Kaljula, kujundaja Inga Heamägi. Puäntillismi mõjust, Konrad Mäe pöördumisest täppiva laadi poole. Inglise päritolu belgia-soome kunstniku Alfred William Finchi avastamisest. Prantsuse ja eesti kunstnike töödest näitusel

  11. Juugendstiil / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2010-01-01

    Suurte metropolide mõju. Heimatkunst. Kristjan Raua naivism. Ants Laikmaa pastellid. Paul Raud ja juugend. Eestlased Peterburis. Nikolai Triigi ekspressionismigeenidega stiilsus. Konrad Mägi lõõmavad värvid. Aleksander Tassa minimalism. Roman Nyman ja teatridekoratsioon. August Jansen ja Peet Aren ning vene maalikool. Herbert Lukk. Laikmaa õpilased. Varaküps Erik Obermann. Balder Tomasberg. Eduard Wiiralt. Jaan Koorti juugendlik algus. Tarbekunst

  12. L΄artiste et ses perceptions: vers une nouvelle théorie de l΄art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Anches

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review to: Konrad Fiedler, Sur l’origine de l’activité artistique, deuxième édition, traduit par Inès Rotermund, Sarah Schmidt, Werner Uwer, Sacha Zilberfarb, sous la direction de Danièle Cohn, Ileana Parvu. Paris: Editions Rue d’Ulm/Presses de l’Ecole normale supérieure, 2008

  13. Association between driving pressure and development of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general anaesthesia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; El-Tahan, Mohamed R; Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A Al; Günay, Ersin; Jaber, Samir; Kokulu, Serdar; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Maslow, Andrew D; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Reis Miranda, Dinis; Moine, Pierre; Ng, Thomas; Paparella, Domenico; Ranieri, V Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; Amato, Marcelo B P; Costa, Eduardo L V; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-04-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation strategies using low tidal volume or high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improve outcomes for patients who have had surgery. The role of the driving pressure, which is the difference between the plateau pressure and the level of positive end-expiratory pressure is not known. We investigated the association of tidal volume, the level of PEEP, and driving pressure during intraoperative ventilation with the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. We did a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised controlled trials of protective ventilation during general anesthaesia for surgery published up to July 30, 2015. The main outcome was development of postoperative pulmonary complications (postoperative lung injury, pulmonary infection, or barotrauma). We included data from 17 randomised controlled trials, including 2250 patients. Multivariate analysis suggested that driving pressure was associated with the development of postoperative pulmonary complications (odds ratio [OR] for one unit increase of driving pressure 1·16, 95% CI 1·13-1·19; pprotective ventilation on development of pulmonary complications (p=0·027). In two studies that compared low with high PEEP during low tidal volume ventilation, an increase in the level of PEEP that resulted in an increase in driving pressure was associated with more postoperative pulmonary complications (OR 3·11, 95% CI 1·39-6·96; p=0·006). In patients having surgery, intraoperative high driving pressure and changes in the level of PEEP that result in an increase of driving pressure are associated with more postoperative pulmonary complications. However, a randomised controlled trial comparing ventilation based on driving pressure with usual care is needed to confirm these findings. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiologic effects of alveolar recruitment and inspiratory pauses during moderately-high-frequency ventilation delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe lung injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Cordioli

    Full Text Available To investigate whether performing alveolar recruitment or adding inspiratory pauses could promote physiologic benefits (VT during moderately-high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (MHFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.Prospective experimental laboratory study with eight pigs. Induction of acute lung injury with sequential pulmonary lavages and injurious ventilation was initially performed. Then, animals were ventilated on a conventional mechanical ventilator with a respiratory rate (RR = 60 breaths/minute and PEEP titrated according to ARDS Network table. The first two steps consisted of a randomized order of inspiratory pauses of 10 and 30% of inspiratory time. In final step, we removed the inspiratory pause and titrated PEEP, after lung recruitment, with the aid of electrical impedance tomography. At each step, PaCO2 was allowed to stabilize between 57-63 mmHg for 30 minutes.The step with RR of 60 after lung recruitment had the highest PEEP when compared with all other steps (17 [16,19] vs 14 [10, 17]cmH2O, but had lower driving pressures (13 [13,11] vs 16 [14, 17]cmH2O, higher P/F ratios (212 [191,243] vs 141 [105, 184] mmHg, lower shunt (23 [20, 23] vs 32 [27, 49]%, lower dead space ventilation (10 [0, 15] vs 30 [20, 37]%, and a more homogeneous alveolar ventilation distribution. There were no detrimental effects in terms of lung mechanics, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Neither the addition of inspiratory pauses or the alveolar recruitment maneuver followed by decremental PEEP titration resulted in further reductions in VT.During MHFPPV set with RR of 60 bpm delivered by a conventional ventilator in severe ARDS swine model, neither the inspiratory pauses or PEEP titration after recruitment maneuver allowed reduction of VT significantly, however the last strategy decreased driving pressures and improved both shunt and dead space.

  15. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on intraoperative core temperature in patients undergoing posterior spine surgery: prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyungseok; Do Son, Je; Lee, Hyung-Chul; Oh, Hyung-Min; Jung, Chul-Woo; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2018-03-01

    Objective Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) causes carotid baroreceptor unloading, which leads to thermoregulatory peripheral vasoconstriction. However, the effects of PEEP on intraoperative thermoregulation in the prone position remain unknown. Methods Thirty-seven patients undergoing spine surgery in the prone position were assigned at random to receive either 10 cmH 2 O PEEP (Group P) or no PEEP (Group Z). The primary endpoint was core temperature 180 minutes after intubation. Secondary endpoints were delta core temperature (difference in core temperature between 180 minutes and immediately after tracheal intubation), incidence of intraoperative hypothermia (core temperature of peripheral vasoconstriction-related data. Results The median [interquartile range] core temperature 180 minutes after intubation was 36.1°C [35.9°C-36.2°C] and 36.0°C [35.9°C-36.4°C] in Groups Z and P, respectively. The delta core temperature and incidences of intraoperative hypothermia and peripheral vasoconstriction were not significantly different between the two groups. The peripheral vasoconstriction threshold (36.2°C±0.5°C vs. 36.7°C±0.6°C) was lower and the onset of peripheral vasoconstriction (66 [60-129] vs. 38 [28-70] minutes) was slower in Group Z than in Group P. Conclusions Intraoperative PEEP did not reduce the core temperature decrease in the prone position, although it resulted in an earlier onset and higher threshold of peripheral vasoconstriction.

  16. Product Control of Waste Products with New Coating Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbach, H.; Steinmetz, H.J.; Odoj, R.; Wartenberg, W.; Grunau, H.

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, with the shaft KONRAD a repository for low radioactive waste will be available at the earliest in the year 2013. The previously conditioned radioactive waste has to be suitable for a longer-term interim storage. They have to be treated in a way that they are chemically stable and that their integrity is guaranteed for a long time. That is why the waste product or the container is covered/ coated for special waste such as hygroscopic waste or waste that includes aluminium. The Product Control Group for radioactive waste (PKS) has to proof the suitability of the so-treated waste for the repository KONRAD on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). This has to be done before the delivering. In this context the PKS also assesses the suitability of new coating materials for low radioactive waste products or containers and their correct technical application. The characteristics and the technical application of polyurethane coatings as well as the control of the so-coated waste for the disposal in the shaft KONRAD are described in this poster. The Poster shows the development stages of the coating and the filling. There are also shown the boundary conditions and the investigations of the Product Control Group for the use of the new coating material for radioactive waste. (authors)

  17. Ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the FRG - current progress of projects and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the state is responsible for providing for the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste, whereas the cost is borne by the waste producing establishments. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, (BMU), as the competent state authority has delegated its responsibilities in this matter to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB is allowed to have work done by third parties. For this purpose, the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE) has been founded, which since 1979 is investigating the Gorleben salt dome for suitability to serve as a repository for all type of solid, radioactive waste. The final decisions on site approval can be taken after completion of the underground exploration work, which according to current schedules is expected to be achieved at the end of the 1990s. The other candidate site, the Konrad mine, has been investigated by the GSF in the years 1976 to 1982, and on August 31, 1982 the PTB has filed an application to institute the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine to be prepared to serve as a waste repository. The plan is expected to be laid open in the first half of 1989, and hearings possibly be held in the second half. In case of plan approval, the site preparation will probably take 3 years, so that the Konrad mine will be ready to receive radioactive waste by the year 1993. (orig.) [de

  18. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  19. Mechanical ventilation strategies for intensive care unit patients without acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Weiwei; Zhao, Nana; Guo, Libo; Chi, Chunjie; Hou, Wei; Wu, Anqi; Tong, Hongshuang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Changsong; Li, Enyou

    2016-07-22

    It has been shown that the application of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy can improve the prognosis of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for intensive care unit (ICU) patients without ALI or ARDS is uncertain. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to identify the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for these patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science for studies published up to July 2015 in which pulmonary compliance or the partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FIO2) ratio was assessed in ICU patients without ALI or ARDS, who received mechanical ventilation via different strategies. The data for study characteristics, methods, and outcomes were extracted. We assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted the data, pooled the data, and used a Bayesian fixed-effects model to combine direct comparisons with indirect evidence. Seventeen randomized controlled trials including a total of 575 patients who received one of six ventilation strategies were included for network meta-analysis. Among ICU patients without ALI or ARDS, strategy C (lower tidal volume (VT) + higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)) resulted in the highest PaO2/FIO2 ratio; strategy B (higher VT + lower PEEP) was associated with the highest pulmonary compliance; strategy A (lower VT + lower PEEP) was associated with a shorter length of ICU stay; and strategy D (lower VT + zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP)) was associated with the lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary compliance. For ICU patients without ALI or ARDS, strategy C (lower VT + higher PEEP) was associated with the highest PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Strategy B (higher VT + lower PEEP) was superior to the other strategies in improving pulmonary

  20. Within-breath arterial PO2 oscillations in an experimental model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E M; Viale, J P; Hamilton, R M; McPeak, H; Sutton, L; Hahn, C E

    2000-09-01

    Tidal ventilation causes within-breath oscillations in alveolar oxygen concentration, with an amplitude which depends on the prevailing ventilator settings. These alveolar oxygen oscillations are transmitted to arterial oxygen tension, PaO2, but with an amplitude which now depends upon the magnitude of venous admixture or true shunt, QS/QT. We investigated the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the amplitude of the PaO2 oscillations, using an atelectasis model of shunt. Blood PaO2 was measured on-line with an intravascular PaO2 sensor, which had a 2-4 s response time (10-90%). The magnitude of the time-varying PaO2 oscillation was titrated against applied PEEP while tidal volume, respiratory rate and inspired oxygen concentration were kept constant. The amplitude of the PaO2 oscillation, delta PaO2, and the mean PaO2 value varied with the level of PEEP applied. At zero PEEP, both the amplitude and the mean were at their lowest values. As PEEP was increased to 1.5 kPa, both delta PaO2 and the mean PaO2 increased to a maximum. Thereafter, the mean PaO2 increased but delta PaO2 decreased. Clear oscillations of PaO2 were seen even at the lowest mean PaO2, 9.5 kPa. Conventional respiratory models of venous admixture predict that these PaO2 oscillations will be reduced by the steep part of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve if a constant pulmonary shunt exists throughout the whole respiratory cycle. The facts that the PaO2 oscillations occurred at all mean PaO2 values and that their amplitude increased with increasing PEEP suggest that QS/QT, in the atelectasis model, varies between end-expiration and end-inspiration, having a much lower value during inspiration than during expiration.

  1. Avaliação da função pulmonar de recém-nascidos com síndrome do desconforto respiratório em diferentes pressões finais expiratórias positivas Assessment of pulmonary function of preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome at different positive end expiratory pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C.T. Consolo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO\tABSTRACT \t Objetivo: verificar as alterações da função pulmonar: complacência dinâmica (Cdyn, volume corrente inspiratório (V Tinsp, pressão arterial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2, em recém-nascidos pré-termo com síndrome do desconforto respiratório. Pacientes e Métodos: estudo de caso controle, incluindo 11 pré-termos com idade gestacional Objective: to verify the alterations of pulmonary function in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The parameters analyzed were Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn, Inspiratory Tidal Volume (TVinsp, partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2. Methods: eleven preterm newborn infants, with gestational age < 35 weeks, and birth weight < 2.500 g, were include in a control case study. All infants presented RDS and were treated with 120 mg/Kg of porcine surfactant. The initial positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP was 3 cm H2O. A pneumotachograph with a graphical monitor was used to assess the pulmonary function. After each increase in the PEEP (4 and 6 cm H2O, there was an interval of 20 minutes before measuring the arterial data of pulmonary function and arterial gases. Results: there were three males and eight females (1:2,7 among the infants with RDS. The mean gestational age was 30.78. 2.05 weeks, ranging from 26 to 34 weeks. The increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O caused significant decrease in the TVinsp (6.46 ±3.43 to 4.20 ±2.35, P=0.0262. With the increase in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O, there was also a decrease in the TVinsp (5.98.± 3.33 to 4.20.± 2.35, (P=0.0044. Regarding the Cdyn, when there was an increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction was statistically significant (0.58.± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, P=0.0408 and from 4 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction in the Cdyn was also important (0.77± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, (P=0.0164. Increases in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O caused increases in the PaCO2 (52.81± 15.49 to 64.90± 12.69, (P= 0,0141. A

  2. Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies for Relief from Ventilator-Associated Lung Injury in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy: A Bicenter Randomized, Parallel, and Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence indicates that conventional mechanical ventilation often leads to lung inflammatory response and oxidative stress, while lung-protective ventilation (LPV minimizes the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI. This study evaluated the effects of LPV on relief of pulmonary injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress among patients undergoing craniotomy. Sixty patients undergoing craniotomy received either conventional mechanical (12 mL/kg tidal volume [VT] and 0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]; CV group or protective lung (6 mL/kg VT and 10 cm H2O PEEP; PV group ventilation. Hemodynamic variables, lung function indexes, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were assessed. The PV group exhibited greater dynamic lung compliance and lower respiratory index than the CV group during surgery (P0.05. Patients receiving LPV during craniotomy exhibited low perioperative inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and VALI.

  3. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  4. [Lung protective ventilation. Ventilatory modes and ventilator parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Dirk; Weiler, Norbert

    2008-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation has a considerable potential for injuring the lung tissue. Therefore, attention has to be paid to the proper choice of ventilatory mode and settings to secure lung-protective ventilation whenever possible. Such ventilator strategy should account for low tidal volume ventilation (6 ml/kg PBW), limited plateau pressure (30 to 35 cm H2O) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). It is unclear whether pressure controlled or volume controlled ventilation with square flow profile is beneficial. The adjustment of inspiration and expiration time should consider the actual breathing mechanics and anticipate the generation of intrinsic PEEP. Ventilatory modes with the possibility of supporting spontaneous breathing should be used as soon as possible.

  5. Evaluation of right and left ventricular function during adult respiratory distress syndrom using radionuclide angiocardiography conventional and tomographic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, J.Y.; Dhainaut, J.F.; Roucayrol, J.C.; Brunol, J.

    1982-01-01

    Despite numerous experimental and clinical studies, the cardiovascular effects of mechanical ventilation with positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are unclear. Specially, the constant fall in cardiac output is not well undestood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEEP on right and left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance before and after volume expansion using angioscintigraphy with red blood cells, in vitro labelled with 99m Tc, a reliable, non invasive method to assess right and left ventricular dimensions and global and segmental contractility. First results in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrom (ARDS) confirm the capabilities of such a method for evaluation of regional wall motion in both ventricles

  6. Application of the Novel Ventilation Mode FLow-Controlled EXpiration (FLEX): A Crossover Proof-of-Principle Study in Lung-Healthy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Steffen; Springer, Sebastian; Spaeth, Johannes; Borgmann, Silke; Goebel, Ulrich; Schumann, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, mechanical ventilation is achieved via active lung inflation during inspiration and passive lung emptying during expiration. By contrast, the novel FLEX (FLow-controlled EXpiration) ventilator mode actively decreases the rate of lung emptying. We investigated whether FLEX can be used during intraoperative mechanical ventilation of lung-healthy patients. In 30 adult patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures, we studied respiratory system mechanics, regional ventilation, oxygenation, and hemodynamics during ventilation with and without FLEX at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 and 7 cm H2O. The FLEX system was integrated into the expiratory limb and modified the expiratory flow profile by continuously changing expiratory resistance according to a computer-controlled algorithm. Mean airway pressure increased with PEEP by 1.9 cm H2O and with FLEX by 1 cm H2O (all P ventilated during general anesthesia. FLEX improves the homogeneous distribution of ventilation in the lungs.

  7. Influencia del reclutamiento alveolar sobre los efectos del surfactante exógeno Influence of pulmonary recruitment on exogenous surfactant effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor R. Herrera

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron los efectos producidos por una maniobra de insuflación sostenida previa a la administración de surfactante exógeno y los producidos por diferentes patrones ventilatorios sobre la respuesta al mismo. Se estudiaron 20 ratas albinas adultas a las que se les produjo una injuria pulmonar por repetidos lavados con solución fisiológica. Se evaluó el pH, PaO2, PaCO2, la presión arterial sistólica, la compliance toracopulmonar y la histología. Los animales se dividieron en 2 grupos según se les hubiera aplicado o no insuflación sostenida para evaluar el efecto inmediato de la misma. Posteriormente los grupos citados fueron subdivididos en función de la capacidad residual funcional (CRF aplicada, quedando conformados 4 grupos experimentales. El grupo 1 recibió previo al surfactante una insuflación sostenida de 30 cm H2O durante 15 segundos y se ventiló posteriormente con presión al final de la espiración (PEEP de10 cm H2O. El grupo 2, no recibió insuflación sostenida y se ventiló con PEEP 10 cm H2O. El grupo 3, recibió insuflación sostenida y se ventiló con PEEP 4 cm H2O y el grupo 4, sin insuflación sostenida se ventiló con PEEP 4 cm H2O. Los efectos inmediatos del surfactante no fueron modificados por la aplicación previa de insuflación sostenida. Se verificó durante el transcurso de la experiencia un aumento de la PaO2 asociada al aumento de la capacidad residual funcional (Grupo1 p=0.0001; Grupo2 p= 0.0001, e independiente de la insuflación sostenida. El uso de insuflación sostenida previo a la administración de surfactante sumado a la ventilación con capacidad residual funcional alta se asoció con infiltración de polimorfonucleares debajo del epitelio bronquiolar (p = 0.008. Nuestros resultados no avalan el uso de insuflación sostenida previo a la administración de surfactante exógeno.An experimental modelwas devised to study the effects of a sustained insufflation maneuver on the immediate

  8. Rahvusooperi Estonia teatrihoone publikuruumide restaureerimistöödest / Liivi Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnapu, Liivi, 1953-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektuuriajalooline ülevaade. 2005. a. restaureerimistöödest: garderoob-vestibüülist, peatrepist, ringfuajeedest, teatri- ja Valgest saalist, keldrikorruse ruumidest. Muinsuskaitse eritingimused, järelevalve: Liivi Künnapu. Projekteerijad: Peep Jänes, Indrek Suigussaar, AB Kolde Grupp. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember, Aulo Padar. Teostus: Koger ja Partnerid, projektijuht Indrek Võeras. Laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine, uuringud: KAR-Grupp. Akustik: Linda Madalik. Bibliogr. lk. 25. 8 vaadet

  9. Coherent Change Detection with COSMO SkyMed Data-experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mishra; D. Chaudhuri; C. Bhattacharya; Y.S. Rao

    2013-01-01

    Change detection is a technique in which we try to find changes between two acquisitions. These acquisitions can be from different platforms and sensors. Acquisition from satellite using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is of immense interest to military applications. Satellite has the ability to peep into the enemy territory while SAR has the capability of day and night operations, being an active sensor. Coherent change detection (CCD) can be used to detect minute changes between two images. ...

  10. Ground water in Delhi area, problems and prospects under fast urbanisation- a nuclear aided study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, P.; Datta, P.S.; Chandrasekharan, H.; Tyagi, S.K.; Singh, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes a peep into the components of urbanization in the two decades which affected the quality and availability of ground water in the Delhi territory. The recharge studies conducted in Delhi villages employing oxygen 18 and tritium tagging have been described with a view to focus attention on the sustainability of the ground water potential. 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  12. Летняя кухня - функционально и красиво / Тийна Кольк

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кольк, Тийна

    2010-01-01

    Valik arhitektuurikonkursile "Väike 2007-2009" esitatud väikeobjektidest. Korvamäe suveköök (Urmas Muru, Peeter Pere, Reet Viigipuu, Karl Õiger), Mähe puhkemaja väliköök (Emil Urbel, Indrek Erm), aiamaja Pelgulinnas (Madis Eek), Suurupi aiapaviljon (Peep Roosmann), Tabasalu vaskeramu grillikoht (Urmas Muru, Peeter Pere, Anna-Maria Erik, Ago Kuddu)

  13. Grillipaviljon, väliköök, varjualune... / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Tutvustatakse valikut arhitektuurikonkursile "Väike 2007-2009" esitatud õueobjektidest. Suurupi aiapaviljon (Peep Roosmann), aiamaja Pelgulinnas (Madis Eek), Mähe puhkemaja väliköök (Emil Urbel, Indrek Erm), Korvamäe suveköök (Urmas Muru, Peeter Pere, Reet Viigipuu, Karl Õiger), Tabasalu vaskeramu grillikoht (Urmas Muru, Peeter Pere, Anna-Maria Erik, Ago Kuddu)

  14. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of a common commercial Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilatory rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 modulates regional effects of injurious mechanical ventilation in rodent lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moo Suk; He, Qianbin; Edwards, Michael G; Sergew, Amen; Riches, David W H; Albert, Richard K; Douglas, Ivor S

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation induces heterogeneous lung injury by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB. Mechanisms regulating regional injury and protective effects of prone positioning are unclear. To determine the key regulators of the lung regional protective effects of prone positioning in rodent lungs exposed to injurious ventilation. Adult rats were ventilated with high (18 ml/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] 0) or low Vt (6 ml/kg; PEEP 3 cm H(2)O; 3 h) in supine or prone position. Dorsal-caudal lung mRNA was analyzed by microarray and MAPK phosphatases (MKP)-1 quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MKP-1(-/-) or wild-type mice were ventilated with very high (24 ml/kg; PEEP 0) or low Vt (6-7 ml/kg; PEEP 3 cm H(2)O). The MKP-1 regulator PG490-88 (MRx-108; 0.75 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline was administered preventilation. Injury was assessed by lung mechanics, bronchioalveolar lavage cell counts, protein content, and lung injury scoring. Immunoblotting for MKP-1, and IκBα and cytokine ELISAs were performed on lung lysates. Prone positioning was protective against injurious ventilation in rats. Expression profiling demonstrated MKP-1 20-fold higher in rats ventilated prone rather than supine and regional reduction in p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation. MKP-1(-/-) mice experienced amplified injury. PG490-88 improved static lung compliance and injury scores, reduced bronchioalveolar lavage cell counts and cytokine levels, and induced MKP-1 and IκBα. Injurious ventilation induces MAPK in an MKP-1-dependent fashion. Prone positioning is protective and induces MKP-1. PG490-88 induced MKP-1 and was protective against high Vt in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner. MKP-1 is a potential target for modulating regional effects of injurious ventilation.

  16. Personalizing mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, S Clark; Beitler, Jeremy R; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-03-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes remains the cornerstone for treating patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Personalizing such an approach to each patient's unique physiology may improve outcomes further. Many factors should be considered when mechanically ventilating a critically ill patient with ARDS. Estimations of transpulmonary pressures as well as individual's hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics should influence PEEP decisions as well as response to therapy (recruitability). This summary will emphasize the potential role of personalized therapy in mechanical ventilation.

  17. Personalizing mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berngard, S. Clark; Beitler, Jeremy R.; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes remains the cornerstone for treating patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Personalizing such an approach to each patient's unique physiology may improve outcomes further. Many factors should be considered when mechanically ventilating a critically ill patient with ARDS. Estimations of transpulmonary pressures as well as individual's hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics should influence PEEP decisions as well as response ...

  18. Žürii kommenteerib Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuripreemiaid 2008 / Marika Lõoke, Laila Põdra, Liina Jänes... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Peapreemia: Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur, Mihkel Tüür, Kalle Komissarov (Pärnu Keskraamatukogu hoone), tegevuspreemia: Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm, Ingrid Ruudi (projekt Gaasitoru 11. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil), aastapreemia: Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (Tartu Kesklinna Kooli juurdeehitus) ja Peep Jänes (Raudna Põhikooli spordihoone), sisearhitektuuri preemia: Tea Tammelaan, Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland, restaureerimispreemia: Mari Hammer, Tiiu Lõhmus, Helve Ilves, Villu Kadakas (Vanalinna Hariduskolleegiumi hoone)

  19. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Ehin, Andres. Seljatas sada meest; Ilmet, Peep. Tuuldunud luule; Kaplinski, Jaan. Öölinnud. Öömõtted; Kender, Kaur. Iseseisvuspäev; Kesküla, Kalev. Vabariigi laulud; Luik, Viivi. Maa taevas; Nõu, Helga. Hundi silmas; Raun, Mait. Wake up; Remsu, Olev. Haapsalu tragöödia; Sauter, Peeter. Kogu moos; Undusk, Jaan. Maagiline müstiline keel; Vint, Toomas. Kunstnikuromaan

  20. Kolmepoolne koostöölepe Tehnikaülikooli, OÜ TTÜ Sport ja SEB Ühispanga vahel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikool rektor Peep Sürje, Osaühing TTÜ Sport juhatuse esimees Andres Öpik ja AS SEB Eesti Ühispank juhatuse esimees Mart Altvee allkirjastasid kolmepoolse koostöölepingu, milles nähakse ette ühistegevused TTÜ üliõpilastele õppekavadega seotud äriplaanikonkursi korraldamisel, üliõpilaste sporditegevuse edasiarendamisel ning üliõpilastele osutatud pangateenuste parandamisel

  1. Respiratory mechanics in infants with severe bronchiolitis on controlled mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces, Pablo; González-Dambrauskas, Sebastián; Quilodrán, Julio; Valenzuela, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Rivero, Natalia; Arias, Pablo; Díaz, Franco

    2017-10-06

    Analysis of respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation (MV) is able to estimate resistive, elastic and inertial components of the working pressure of the respiratory system. Our aim was to discriminate the components of the working pressure of the respiratory system in infants on MV with severe bronchiolitis admitted to two PICU's. Infants younger than 1 year old with acute respiratory failure caused by severe bronchiolitis underwent neuromuscular blockade, tracheal intubation and volume controlled MV. Shortly after intubation studies of pulmonary mechanics were performed using inspiratory and expiratory breath hold. The maximum inspiratory and expiratory flow (QI and QE) as well as peak inspiratory (PIP), plateau (PPL) and total expiratory pressures (tPEEP) were measured. Inspiratory and expiratory resistances (RawI and RawE) and Time Constants (K TI and K TE ) were calculated. We included 16 patients, of median age 2.5 (1-5.8) months. Bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus was the main etiology (93.8%) and 31.3% had comorbidities. Measured respiratory pressures were PIP 29 (26-31), PPL 24 (20-26), tPEEP 9 [8-11] cmH2O. Elastic component of the working pressure was significantly higher than resistive and both higher than threshold (tPEEP - PEEP) (P mechanics of infants with severe bronchiolitis receiving MV shows that the elastic component of the working pressure of the respiratory system is the most important. The elastic and resistive components in conjunction with flow profile are characteristic of restrictive diseases. A better understanding of lung mechanics in this group of patients may lead to change the traditional ventilatory approach to severe bronchiolitis.

  2. Eesti täispikad dokumentaalfilmid 2005. aastal / Marianne Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Portreefilmid : Priit Pärnast "Pärnograafia" (Hardi Volmer), Ivar Heinmaast "Kutse" (Peep Puks), Veljo Tormisest "Tormise regi" (Sulev Keedus), Rein Tammikust "Teekond ruudulisel laudlinal" (Peeter Urbla), "Afanassi" (Liina Trishkina) ; probleemfilmid : "Parema elu nimel" (Märt Sildvee), "Piisa torn" (Arko Okk) ; sõjateemalised dokumentaalid : "Afganistani armid" (Ivar Heinmaa), "Hauka grupp" (Rene Vilbre), "Tõrjutud mälestused" (Imbi Paju) ; loodusfilm "Eesti kotkad" (Rein Maran)

  3. El proyecto «escuela: espacio de paz» como elementos de mejora de la convivencia escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Ángeles DÍAZ LINARES

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En la tesis doctoral presentada se aborda el estudio llevado a cabo en centros públicos y concertados, de distintos niveles educativos no universitarios de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía, con el fin de determinar si los Proyectos «escuela: espacio de Paz» (PeeP son instrumentos capaces de prevenir la violencia y mejorar la convivencia, en el marco del Proyecto educativo de los centros escolares.

  4. Battery life of portable home ventilators: effects of ventilator settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaize, Line; Leroux, Karl; Prigent, Hélène; Louis, Bruno; Khirani, Sonia; Orlikowski, David; Fauroux, Brigitte; Lofaso, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    The battery life (BL) of portable home ventilator batteries is reported by manufacturers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ventilator mode, breathing frequency, PEEP, and leaks on the BL of 5 commercially available portable ventilators. The effects of the ventilator mode (volume controlled-continuous mandatory ventilation [VC-CMV] vs pressure support ventilation [PSV]), PEEP 5 cm H2O, breathing frequency (10, 15, and 20 breaths/min), and leaks during both volume-targeted ventilation and PSV on the BL of 5 ventilators (Elisée 150, Monnal T50, PB560, Vivo 50, and Trilogy 100) were evaluated. Each ventilator was ventilated with a test lung at a tidal volume of 700 ml and an inspiratory time of 1.2 s in the absence of leaks. Switching from PSV to VC-CMV or the addition of PEEP did not significantly change ventilator BL. The increase in breathing frequency from 10 to 20 breaths/min decreased the BL by 18 ± 11% (P = .005). Leaks were associated with an increase in BL during the VC-CMV mode (18 ± 20%, P = .04) but a decrease in BL during the PSV mode (-13 ± 15%, P = .04). The BL of home ventilators depends on the ventilator settings. BL is not affected by the ventilator mode (VC-CMV or PSV) or the addition of PEEP. BL decreases with an increase in breathing frequency and during leaks with a PSV mode, whereas leaks increase the duration of ventilator BL during VC-CMV. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Multifaceted bench comparative evaluation of latest intensive care unit ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, M; Quesnel, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Degrain, M; Carteaux, G; Bonnet, F; Similowski, T; Demoule, A

    2015-07-01

    Independent bench studies using specific ventilation scenarios allow testing of the performance of ventilators in conditions similar to clinical settings. The aims of this study were to determine the accuracy of the latest generation ventilators to deliver chosen parameters in various typical conditions and to provide clinicians with a comprehensive report on their performance. Thirteen modern intensive care unit ventilators were evaluated on the ASL5000 test lung with and without leakage for: (i) accuracy to deliver exact tidal volume (VT) and PEEP in assist-control ventilation (ACV); (ii) performance of trigger and pressurization in pressure support ventilation (PSV); and (iii) quality of non-invasive ventilation algorithms. In ACV, only six ventilators delivered an accurate VT and nine an accurate PEEP. Eleven devices failed to compensate VT and four the PEEP in leakage conditions. Inspiratory delays differed significantly among ventilators in invasive PSV (range 75-149 ms, P=0.03) and non-invasive PSV (range 78-165 ms, Pventilation algorithms efficiently prevented the decrease in pressurization capacities and PEEP levels induced by leaks in, respectively, 10 and 12 out of the 13 ventilators. We observed real heterogeneity of performance amongst the latest generation of intensive care unit ventilators. Although non-invasive ventilation algorithms appear to maintain adequate pressurization efficiently in the case of leakage, basic functions, such as delivered VT in ACV and pressurization in PSV, are often less reliable than the values displayed by the device suggest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Clearance of 99mTc-labeled albumin from lungs in anesthetized guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.C.; Peterson, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma imaging was used to measure the rate of clearance of aerosolized 99m Tc-human serum albumin (HSA) from the lungs of control guinea pigs and guinea pigs that received increased lung inflation or lung injury. Anesthetized guinea pigs were ventilated for 6 min with an aerosol of HSA and the radioactivity in the chest was monitored for 2 h with a gamma camera to determine whether the clearance rate would be a reliable assessment of lung epithelial permeability. Increased lung volumes were effected by application of 5 or 7 cm H 2 O positive end-expired pressure (5-PEEP and 7-PEEP, respectively). Lung injury was induced either by intravenous oleic acid (OA, 27-73 μl/kg) or inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 , 80-100 ppm) for 2 h. Postmortem extravascular lung water volume (EVLW) provided an assessment of the degree of lung injury. Tracer clearance rates in animals receiving 5 or 7 cm H 2 O PEEP were not significantly different from controls (K = 0.15 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.10 vs 0.12 ± 0.03%/min, respectively, p > .05). Animals exposed to NO 2 had faster tracer clearance rates (K = 0.33 ± 0.21%/min, p 2 -exposed guinea pigs correlated well with injury as assessed by EVLW (r = .93, p 2 O PEEP (K = 0.58 ± 0.41%/min, EVLW = 8.1 ± 0.8 mL/g dry lung tissue, p < .05), but there was no correlation between these parameters in this injury model. It is concluded that imaging of the disappearance of radiolabeled HSA in the guinea pig can be a useful index of lung epithelial permeability, but this technique is limited to certain models of lung injury. 33 refs

  7. Suur esilinastamine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer. Aut. : M.R

  8. Animatsiooni vastu ei saa ükski / Mikk Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Mikk, 1970-

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  9. Esilinastuvad eesti animafilmid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  10. Kuus uut Eesti filmi korraga ekraanil / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  11. Experiential Marketing Sebagai Suatu Strategi Dalam Menciptakan Customer Satisfaction Dan Repeat Buying Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pemasaran

    OpenAIRE

    Indriani, Farida

    2006-01-01

    Experiential marketing represent the alternative from excellence competition had by company as asset able to improve the marketing performance. Experiential marketing had by company can assist the company to peep out the new idea in each planning compilation, peculiarly in compiling marketing strategy. That way also by improving experiential marketing strategy continously, company quickly can anticipate the change that happened around company through the strategy which application. And with ...

  12. Mäss Norma pardal / Annika Matson, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Norma väikeaktsionärid nõuavad Norma juhilt Peep Siimonilt suuremat dividendi ja et ettevõte ostaks neilt kuni kümnendiku aktsiaid tagasi turuhinnast ligi kaks korda kõrgema hinnaga. Diagramm: Norma dividendimaksed. Kommenteerib Sander Danil. Vt. ka Enn Tossi art. "Norma tegevus ajab väikeaktsionäri vihale" Äripäev 8. mai lk. 3

  13. Seitse raamatut ühtmoodi loodusest, kuid kõik erinevad / Ulvar Käärt, Mari Klein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Järva, Jaanus. Looduse aasta. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008; Järva, Jaanus. Raba : vaikuses ja varjus. Tallinn : Pegasus, 2008; Savisaar, Remo. Loodus kutsub. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008; Relve, Hendrik. Eesti looduse vägi. Tallinn : Koolibri, 2008; Tartes, Urmas, Põder, Jaak. Legendiloomad. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008; Eesti maastikud. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008; Veedla, Peep. Lindudega sõbraks / pildid joonistanud Triinu Ootsing. Tallinn : Berit Grupp, 2008

  14. Väike luulekaleidoskoop. III / Jürgen Rooste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Ülevaade järgmistest luuleraamatutest: Anmann, Aarne. Südametunnistuse mälestuseks. Tartu : A. Anmann, 2009 ; Ilmet, Peep. Meilmail. Tallinn : Varrak, 2009 ; Kasemaa, Andrus. Lagunemine. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2009 ; Kuus, Anti ; Oll, Sulev. Öö mõte on kuus. Tallinn : Akta A. K., 2008 ; Meres, Triinu. Lagunemine. Tartu : Hermes, 2009 ; Tasuja, Triin. Provintsiluule. Tartu : Värske Rõhk, 2009

  15. Postural lung recruitment assessed by lung ultrasound in mechanically ventilated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Böhm, Stephan H; Waldmann, Andreas D; Ferrando, Carlos; Marquez, Manuel Perez; Sipmann, Fernando Suarez

    2017-10-13

    Atelectasis is a common finding in mechanically ventilated children with healthy lungs. This lung collapse cannot be overcome using standard levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and thus for only individualized lung recruitment maneuvers lead to satisfactory therapeutic results. In this short communication, we demonstrate by lung ultrasound images (LUS) the effect of a postural recruitment maneuver (P-RM, i.e., a ventilatory strategy aimed at reaerating atelectasis by changing body position under constant ventilation). Data was collected in the operating room of the Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Three anesthetized children undergoing mechanical ventilation at constant settings were sequentially subjected to the following two maneuvers: (1) PEEP trial in the supine position PEEP was increased to 10 cmH 2 O for 3 min and then decreased to back to baseline. (2) P-RM patient position was changed from supine to the left and then to the right lateral position for 90 s each before returning to supine. The total P-RM procedure took approximately 3 min. LUS in the supine position showed similar atelectasis before and after the PEEP trial. Contrarily, atelectasis disappeared in the non-dependent lung when patients were placed in the lateral positions. Both lungs remained atelectasis free even after returning to the supine position. We provide LUS images that illustrate the concept and effects of postural recruitment in children. This maneuver has the advantage of achieving recruitment effects without the need to elevate airways pressures.

  16. Ventilation therapy for patients suffering from obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Sven A; Heidelmann, Lena M; Westerfeld, Andreas; Frickmann, Hagen; Körber, Mareike K; Zautner, Andreas E

    2014-01-01

    Severe bronchial obstruction due to one of the major pulmonary diseases: asthma, COPD, or emphysema often requires mechanical ventilation support. Otherwise, patients are at risk of severe hypooxygenation with consecutive overloading and dilatation of the right cardiac ventricle with subsequent failure. This review focuses on how to manage a calculated ventilation therapy of patients suffering from bronchial obstruction and relevant patents. Options and pitfalls of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in the intensive care setting regarding clinical improvement and final outcome are discussed. The non-invasive ventilation is very efficient in treating acute or chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients and is capable of shortening the duration of hospitalization. Further non-invasive ventilation can successfully support the weaning after a long-lasting ventilation therapy and improve the prognosis of COPD patients. "Permissive hypercapnia" is unequivocally established in invasive ventilation therapy of severe bronchial obstruction in situations of limited ventilation. When intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and elevated airways resistance are present PEEP may be useful although external-PEEP application relieves over-inflation only in selected patients with airway obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. Upper limit of airways peak pressure used in "protective ventilation" of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients can be exceeded under certain circumstances.

  17. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Severgnini, Paolo; Jaber, Samir; Canet, Jaume; Wrigge, Hermann; Hiesmayr, Michael; Tschernko, Edda M; Hollmann, Markus W; Binnekade, Jan M; Hedenstierna, Göran; Putensen, Christian; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2011-05-06

    Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO") trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH(2)O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy) or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH(2)O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy). The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574.

  18. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D

    2008-06-30

    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models.

  19. Predicting the lung compliance of mechanically ventilated patients via statistical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzert, Steven; Kramer, Stefan; Guttmann, Josef

    2012-01-01

    To avoid ventilator associated lung injury (VALI) during mechanical ventilation, the ventilator is adjusted with reference to the volume distensibility or ‘compliance’ of the lung. For lung-protective ventilation, the lung should be inflated at its maximum compliance, i.e. when during inspiration a maximal intrapulmonary volume change is achieved by a minimal change of pressure. To accomplish this, one of the main parameters is the adjusted positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). As changing the ventilator settings usually produces an effect on patient's lung mechanics with a considerable time delay, the prediction of the compliance change associated with a planned change of PEEP could assist the physician at the bedside. This study introduces a machine learning approach to predict the nonlinear lung compliance for the individual patient by Gaussian processes, a probabilistic modeling technique. Experiments are based on time series data obtained from patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). With a high hit ratio of up to 93%, the learned models could predict whether an increase/decrease of PEEP would lead to an increase/decrease of the compliance. However, the prediction of the complete pressure–volume relation for an individual patient has to be improved. We conclude that the approach is well suitable for the given problem domain but that an individualized feature selection should be applied for a precise prediction of individual pressure–volume curves. (paper)

  20. Neopuff T-piece resuscitator mask ventilation: Does mask leak vary with different peak inspiratory pressures in a manikin model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Rajesh; Tracy, Mark; Hinder, Murray; Wright, Audrey

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mask leak with three different peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) settings during T-piece resuscitator (TPR; Neopuff) mask ventilation on a neonatal manikin model. Participants were neonatal unit staff members. They were instructed to provide mask ventilation with a TPR with three PIP settings (20, 30, 40 cm H 2 O) chosen in a random order. Each episode was for 2 min with 2-min rest period. Flow rate and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were kept constant. Airway pressure, inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes, mask leak, respiratory rate and inspiratory time were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. A total of 12 749 inflations delivered by 40 participants were analysed. There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in the mask leak with the three PIP settings. No statistically significant differences were seen in respiratory rate and inspiratory time with the three PIP settings. There was a significant rise in PEEP as the PIP increased. Failure to achieve the desired PIP was observed especially at the higher settings. In a neonatal manikin model, the mask leak does not vary as a function of the PIP when the flow rate is constant. With a fixed rate and inspiratory time, there seems to be a rise in PEEP with increasing PIP. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Performance of the New Turbine Mid-Level Critical Care Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Romero, Jose E; Puig, Jaume; Izquierdo, Ana; Ferrando, Carlos; Belda, F Javier; Soro, Marina

    2017-01-01

    During recent years, ventilators using turbines as flow-generating systems have become increasingly more relevant. This bench study was designed to compare triggering and pressurization of 7 turbine mid-level ICU ventilators. We used a dual-chamber lung model to test 7 mid-level ICU ventilators in pressure support mode with levels of 10, 15, and 20 cm H 2 O with 2 PEEP levels of 5 cm H 2 O and the minimum level allowed by the ventilator. A ventilator was connected to the master chamber to simulate 2 different effort levels. Pressure drop, trigger delay time, time to minimum pressure, and pressure time products (PTP) during trigger and the first 300 and 500 ms were analyzed. In the trigger evaluation, the Savina had the highest delay time, whereas the C2, the V60, and the Trilogy had the lowest pressure drops and PTP values in both effort levels. In pressurization capacity assessment using ideal PTP300 and PTP500 percentages, the C2 and the V680 had the best results, and the Carina and the Savina had lower values, with no differences between both effort levels. Differences between PEEP levels did not seem to be relevant. Pressure support mode for tested ventilators worked properly, but pressurization capacity and trigger function performance were clearly superior in the newest machines. The use of PEEP did not modify the results. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenstierna Göran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. Methods The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO" trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH2O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH2O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy. The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. Discussion The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574

  3. Design and Construction of a Microcontroller-Based Ventilator Synchronized with Pulse Oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölcük, Adem; Işık, Hakan; Güler, İnan

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to introduce a novel device with which mechanical ventilator and pulse oximeter work in synchronization. Serial communication technique was used to enable communication between the pulse oximeter and the ventilator. The SpO2 value and the pulse rate read on the pulse oximeter were transmitted to the mechanical ventilator through transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) lines. The fuzzy-logic-based software developed for the mechanical ventilator interprets these values and calculates the percentage of oxygen (FiO2) and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) to be delivered to the patient. The fuzzy-logic-based software was developed to check the changing medical states of patients and to produce new results (FiO2 ve PEEP) according to each new state. FiO2 and PEEP values delivered from the ventilator to the patient can be calculated in this way without requiring any arterial blood gas analysis. Our experiments and the feedbacks from physicians show that this device makes it possible to obtain more successful results when compared to the current practices.

  4. Assessment of regional ventilation distribution: comparison of vibration response imaging (VRI) with electrical impedance tomography (EIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chang; Boehme, Stefan; Bentley, Alexander H; Hartmann, Erik K; Klein, Klaus U; Bodenstein, Marc; Baumgardner, James E; David, Matthias; Ullrich, Roman; Markstaller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a bedside technology to monitor ventilation by detecting lung sound vibrations. It is currently unknown whether VRI is able to accurately monitor the local distribution of ventilation within the lungs. We therefore compared VRI to electrical impedance tomography (EIT), an established technique used for the assessment of regional ventilation. Simultaneous EIT and VRI measurements were performed in the healthy and injured lungs (ALI; induced by saline lavage) at different PEEP levels (0, 5, 10, 15 mbar) in nine piglets. Vibration energy amplitude (VEA) by VRI, and amplitudes of relative impedance changes (rel.ΔZ) by EIT, were evaluated in seven regions of interest (ROIs). To assess the distribution of tidal volume (VT) by VRI and EIT, absolute values were normalized to the VT obtained by simultaneous spirometry measurements. Redistribution of ventilation by ALI and PEEP was detected by VRI and EIT. The linear correlation between pooled VT by VEA and rel.ΔZ was R(2) = 0.96. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -1.07±24.71 ml and limits of agreement of -49.05 to +47.36 ml. Within the different ROIs, correlations of VT-distribution by EIT and VRI ranged between R(2) values of 0.29 and 0.96. ALI and PEEP did not alter the agreement of VT between VRI and EIT. Measurements of regional ventilation distribution by VRI are comparable to those obtained by EIT.

  5. Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social balcony construction. Modernisation of a nine-storey residential building; Sozialer Balkonbau. Modernisierung eines neungeschossigen Wohnblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Klaus

    2013-01-15

    The architectural office Ebe +Ausfelder (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a concept of modernization for a residential building block in need of refurbishment within the multicultural Konrad district of Ingolstadt (Federal Republic of Germany). Beside the energetic refurbishment based on the KfW efficiency house 70 standard, this concept also considers the architectural upgrading of the building and its close environment. The south facade with the large balconies and moveable metal shutters are particularly striking. The jury of the price of design of the Wuestenrot foundation provided a certification for the exemplary renewal of the building structures from the 1960ies.

  7. Radiological risks of transports to central waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.

    1997-01-01

    Transports of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities have been a matter of frequent public concern in the recent past. News reports, protests and questions concerning the radiological risk tended to concentrate on transports to and from central waste management facilities, e.g. transports of spent fuel elements to reprocessing plants abroad (France, England), transports to intermediate storage sites (Ahaus, Gorleben), transports to operative (Morsleben) and projected (Konrad) final storage sites, and transports of vitrified high-activity waste from reprocessing plants to the intermediate storage site (Gorleben). (orig.) [de

  8. Dismantling id the reactor pressure vessel insulation and dissecting of the MZFR reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, Andreas; Stanke, Dieter; Thoma, Markus; Eisenmann, Beata; Prechtl, Erwin; Dehnke, Burckhard

    2008-01-01

    The MZFR reactor was decommissioned in 1984. The authors describe the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel insulation that consists of asbestos containing mineral fiber wool. The appropriate remote handling and cutting tools had to be adapted with respect to the restrained space in the containment. The dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel has been completed, the dissected parts have been packaged into 200 containers for the final repository Konrad. During the total project time no reportable events and no damage to persons occurred.

  9. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  10. Aspects of reactor dismantling planning following the safe entombment in the NPP Lingen (KWL); Aspekte der Abbauplanung nach dem Sicheren Einschluss im Kernkraftwerk Lingen (KWL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priesmeyer, U.; Rojahn, T.; Fries, B. [Kernkraftwerk Lingen GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The NPP Lingen (KWL) was shut-down in 1977. Due to the fact that no final repository was available the safe entombment for 25 years was chosen following the decommissioning. The conventional plant components were dismantled and removed from the plant site. The licensing procedure for reactor dismantling with final disposal in Schacht Konrad has been started. The beginning of dismantling operation is scheduled for 2013. The authors describe the preparatory work, the boundary conditions for the dismantling, radiation protection considerations with respect to manual demolition work after the rather long decay time.

  11. 6th iTi Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kampers, Gerrit; Oberlack, Martin; Wacławczyk, Marta; Talamelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects the edited and reviewed contributions presented in the 6th iTi Conference in Bertinoro, covering fundamental and applied aspects in turbulence. In the spirit of the iTi conference, the volume has been produced after the conference so that the authors had the possibility to incorporate comments and discussions raised during the meeting. In the present book the contributions have been structured according to the topics : I Theory II Wall bounded flows III Particles in flows IV Free flows V Complex flows The volume is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Konrad Bajer who prematurely passed away in Warsaw on August 29, 2014. .

  12. PREFACE: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Keith; Kephart, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    This online volume contains a selection of papers arising from two workshops organised within the six-month programme Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, from July to December 2012. The first of these was a 'satellite workshop' held at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, 15-19 October 2012, under the title Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, and with Scientific Organising Committee: Konrad Bajer (Warsaw), Mitchell Berger (Exeter), Steve Cowley (Culham Centre for Fusion Energy), Andrew Gilbert (Exeter), Gunnar Hornig (Dundee), and Clare Parnell (St Andrews). The second was the workshop Quantised Flux in Tightly Knotted and Linked Systems held at the Newton Institute, 3- 7 December 2012, with Scientific Organising Committee: Natalia Berloff (DAMTP, Cambridge), Anne-Christine Davis (DAMTP, Cambridge), Jason Cantarella (University of Georgia), Thomas Kephart (Vanderbilt University), Paul Sutcliffe (Durham University), and Tanmay Vachaspati (Arizona State University). Videos of the lectures given at this second workshop can be viewed at http://www.newton.ac.uk/webseminars. The papers published here follow a natural progression through the following topics: helicity and related invariants of magnetic fields in ideal MHD; relaxation under topological constraints; lower bounds on magnetic energy; current and vortex filaments; applications in the solar corona, tokamak plasmas, and cyclone dynamics; higher-order invariants; topology of curves and surfaces, and energy measures; tight knots; applications to Bose-Einstein condensates, QCD, and cosmic superstring theory. Some of the papers span more than one of these areas. We owe a great debt of gratitude to Konrad Bajer, who was one of the guiding spirits behind the whole Newton Institute program, and who took particular responsibility for the Satellite Workshop at ICMS

  13. Erki Kasemets : Mängiv organism = Playing organism / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Teatrikunstnik Erki Kasemetsa loomingut tuntakse kõige enam tema isiklikku elu dokumenteeriva prügikunsti järgi, kusjuures prügi ei ole talle eesmärgiks, vaid abinõuks fikseerimaks oma "elufaili", aega ja mälu. Ta on kõige totaalsem eesti kunstnik, kes võib kompromissideta oma elu ja kunstiloomingu vahele võrdusmärgi asetada. 2002. aastal tõi ca 20 aasta jooksul kogutud ja üle maalitud piimapakid installatsioonina "Life-File" talle Konrad Mäe medali

  14. Architektur als Vermittlung

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Mit Anbruch der Moderne hat sich die Architektur bewußt von den Stilen vorangegangener Epochen losgesagt und sich fortan als Ausdruck einer neuen Kultur, eines neuen Zeitgeistes legitimiert. Der Philosoph Konrad Ott setzt sich mit dem Spannungsfeld zwischen den humanistischen und ästhetischen Ansprüchen der modernen Architektur, wie sie etwa von LeCorbusier formuliert worden sind, und der Realität, die sich etwa in der "Behältnis-Architektur" der Großstädte zeigt, auseinander. Die kritische T...

  15. The first accurate description of an aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  16. Infinite sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Konrad

    1956-01-01

    One of the finest expositors in the field of modern mathematics, Dr. Konrad Knopp here concentrates on a topic that is of particular interest to 20th-century mathematicians and students. He develops the theory of infinite sequences and series from its beginnings to a point where the reader will be in a position to investigate more advanced stages on his own. The foundations of the theory are therefore presented with special care, while the developmental aspects are limited by the scope and purpose of the book. All definitions are clearly stated; all theorems are proved with enough detail to ma

  17. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Photo 01: Members of the Forum Engelberg and public figures from Geneva visit SM18, the test hall for LHC magnets: (left to right) N. Siegel, Prof. Dr. Med. Bernard Mach, Mr Alexander Höchli, H. Wenninger, Mrs Mireille Quirina, Mme Konrade Von Bremen, Mrs Thérèse Wolf, Prof. Roger Berthouzoz, Mrs Marie-Anne Heimo, Mr Bernard Ecoffey.

  18. Selectrion procedures for sites of rdatioactive waste disposal. Recommendations of the AkEnd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany

  19. Selectrion procedures for sites of rdatioactive waste disposal. Recommendations of the AkEnd; Auswahlverfahren fuer Endlagerstandorte. Empfehlungen des AkEnd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany.

  20. Release of powdered material from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Peiffer, F.; Seehars, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Possible incidents in the operational phase of the planned German repository KONRAD for radioactive waste with negligible heat production were investigated to assess the radiological consequences. For these investigations release fractions of the radioactive materials are required. This paper deals with the determination of the release of powdered material from waste packages under mechanical stress. These determinations were based on experiments. The experimental procedure and the process parameters chosen in accordance with the conditions in the planned repository will be described. The significance of the experimental results is discussed with respect to incidents in the planned repository. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. El liderazgo gerencial y desempeño laboral de los trabajadores de la empresa azucarera Andahuasi – Huaura 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Moy Chávez, Oscar Luis

    2015-01-01

    Se reporta una investigación descriptiva-correlacional, cuyo objetivo es analizar la relación existente entre clima organizacional y trabajo en equipo de los trabajadores de la Dirección Ejecutiva de Criminalística de la Policía Nacional del Perú. Se seleccionó una muestra representativa aleatoria de 100 sujetos, de ambos sexos, a quienes se les aplicó el cuestionario de Escala de Clima Organizacional de Likert Santafé de Bogotá, D.C. Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz y trabajo en equipo ...

  2. Participatory modeling - engineering and social sciences in tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Konrad, Wilfried; Noack, Vera; Scheer, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The modeling of flow and transport processes in the context of engineering in the subsurface often takes place within a field of conflict from different interests, where societal issues are touched or involved. Carbon Capture and Storage, Fracking, or nuclear waste disposal are just a few prominent examples, where engineering (or: natural sciences) and social sciences have a common field of research. It is only consequent for both disciplines to explore methods and tools to achieve best possible mutual benefits. Participatory modeling (PM) is such an idea, where so-called stakeholders can be involved during different phases of the modeling process. This can be accomplished by very different methods of participation and for different reasons (public acceptance, public awareness, transparency, improved understanding through collective learning, etc). Therefore, PM is a generic approach, open for different methods to be used in order to facilitate early expert and stakeholder integration in science development. We have used PM recently in two examples, both in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage. The first one addressed the development and evaluation (by stakeholders) of a screening criterion for site selection. The second one deals with a regional-scale brine migration scenario where stakeholders have been involved in evaluating the general importance of brine migration, the design of a representative geological model for a case study and in the definition of scenarios to be simulated. This contribution aims at summarizing our experiences and share it with the modeling community. References: A Kissinger, V Noack, S Knopf, D Scheer, W Konrad, H Class Characterization of reservoir conditions for CO2 storage using a dimensionless gravitational number applied to the North German Basin, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 7, 209-220, 2014 D Scheer, W Konrad, H Class, A Kissinger, S Knopf, V Noack Expert involvement in science development: (re

  3. The ANKONA program and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piefke, F.

    1989-01-01

    The ANKONA program was developed to check the requirements on a waste form for ultimate storage derived from the analyses of specified operation, incidents, thermal influence of host rock and the nuclear criticality safety. The version 2.0 of ANKONA is based primarily on the planning data for the Konrad repository, as of October 1986. Moreover, for the safety analysis the Radiation Protection Ordinance presently in force has been used as basis. The acceptable activities from the individual parts of the safety analyses are listed in data tables which are read in at the beginning of the program run. (orig.) [de

  4. Atomic Pioneers Book 2 From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1971-01-01

    This book gives a brief account of the lives and work of 26 men and women who contributed to the great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science from the 1800s to the mid-1900s. The 26 are: William Prout, Michael Faraday, Eilhardt Mitscherlich, Joseph Henry, Thomas Graham, Stanislao Cannizzaro, James Clerk Maxwell, Dmitri I. Mendeleev, Joseph Norman Lockyer, John William Strutt, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, Antione Henri Becquerel, Hendrik A. Lorentz, J.J. Thomson, Max Planck, Svante A. Arrhenius, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, Pieter Zeeman, Theodore W. Richards, C.T.R. Wilson, Ernest Rutherford, Francis W. Aston, Frederick Soddy, Lise Meitner, and Otto Hahn.

  5. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Pictured here in front of String 2 - the full-scale test facility for LHC sytems - are (left to right) H. Wenninger, Mme M. Quirina, Mme Marie-Anne Heimo, N. Siegel, Mme Konrade Von Bremen, Prof. Roger Berthouzoz, Mme Thérèse Wolf, Prof. Dr. Med. Bernard Mach and M. Alexander Höchli.

  6. [Clinical research of using optimal compliance to determine positive end-expiratory pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Quan-sheng; Lian, Fu; Shao, Xin-hua; Li, Zhi-bo; Wang, Zhi-yong; Li, Jun

    2012-07-01

    To observe the availability and security of optimal compliance strategy to titrate the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), compared with quasi-static pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) traced by low-flow method. Fourteen patients received mechanical ventilation with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) of Tianjin Third Central Hospital from November 2009 to December 2010 were divided into two groups(n = 7). The quasi-static P-V curve method and the optimal compliance titration were used to set the optimal PEEP respectively, repeated 3 times in a row. The optimal PEEP and the consistency of repeated experiments were compared between groups. The hemodynamic parameters, oxygenation index (OI), lung compliance (C), cytokines and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) concentration in plasma before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after the experiment were observed in each group. (1) There were no significant differences in gender, age and severity of disease between two groups. (2)The optimal PEEP [cm H(2)O, 1 cm H(2)O=0.098 kPa] had no significant difference between quasi-static P-V curve method group and the optimal compliance titration group (11.53 ± 2.07 vs. 10.57 ± 0.87, P>0.05). The consistency of repeated experiments in quasi-static P-V curve method group was poor, the slope of the quasi-static P-V curve in repeated experiments showed downward tendency. The optimal PEEP was increasing in each measure. There was significant difference between the first and the third time (10.00 ± 1.58 vs. 12.80 ± 1.92, P vs. 93.71 ± 5.38, temperature: 38.05 ± 0.73 vs. 36.99 ± 1.02, IL-6: 144.84 ± 23.89 vs. 94.73 ± 5.91, TNF-α: 151.46 ± 46.00 vs. 89.86 ± 13.13, SP-D: 33.65 ± 8.66 vs. 16.63 ± 5.61, MAP: 85.47 ± 9.24 vs. 102.43 ± 8.38, CCI: 3.00 ± 0.48 vs. 3.81 ± 0.81, OI: 62.00 ± 21.45 vs. 103.40 ± 37.27, C: 32.10 ± 2.92 vs. 49.57 ± 7.18, all P safety and usability.

  7. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Alveolar Opening in Cardiosurgical Patients with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G Zorina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the optimum alveolar opening parameters for the improvement of postoperative pulmonary oxygenizing function in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of less or more than 40% after aortocoronary bypass surgery (ACBS. Subjects and methods. Twenty patients with a LVEF of less than 40% after ACBS and with postoperative pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 less than 250 (Group 1 were examined. A control group consisted of 20 patients with a LVEF of more than 40% (Group 2. Gas exchange, respiration biomechanics, and central hemodynamic (CH parameters were monitored (a Vigilance monitor (Edvard LifeScience. Alveolar mobilization was carried out on Drager Evita-2 apparatuses in the BIPAP mode, by taking into account the previous artificial ventilation (AV parameters. The low pressure phase corresponded to the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP with volume AV, the high pressure phase was Pplato; the duration of both phases — that of inspiration and expiration (the high pressure phase was inspiration time; the low pressure phase was expiration time. Then the values of Pplato and PEEP were simultaneously increased by 2 cm H2O with a duration of 10 breathing cycles, by continuously monitoring Vt and SaO2 over this interval. By continuously monitoring Vt, a stepwise increase in PEEP and Pplato was continued until there was a Vt reduction or a negative impact of AV on CH. All alveoli were considered to be open when the maximum Vt and SaO2 were achieved. Conclusion. In Group 1 patients with Pinsp of 27—30 cm H2O, PEEP of 10—12 cm H2O, there are increases in PaO2/FiO2 and Cst. In Group 2, the increase of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst is observed with Pinsp of 30—35 cm H2O and PEEP 12—14 cm H2O. With these AV indices, there is an allowable hemodynamic reduction that results in no negative consequences and development of cardiovascular events. After switching to AV in an individually chosen mode, all

  8. Low Tidal Volume versus Non-Volume-Limited Strategies for Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkey, Allan J; Goligher, Ewan C; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Hodgson, Carol L; Adhikari, Neill K J; Wunsch, Hannah; Meade, Maureen O; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Hess, Dean; Talmor, Daniel S; Thompson, B Taylor; Brower, Roy G; Fan, Eddy

    2017-10-01

    Trials investigating use of lower tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown mixed results. To compare clinical outcomes of mechanical ventilation strategies that limit tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures (LTV) to strategies with tidal volumes of 10 to 15 ml/kg among patients with ARDS. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials investigating LTV mechanical ventilation strategies. We used random effects models to evaluate the effect of LTV on 28-day mortality, organ failure, ventilator-free days, barotrauma, oxygenation, and ventilation. Our primary analysis excluded trials for which the LTV strategy was combined with the additional strategy of higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), but these trials were included in a stratified sensitivity analysis. We performed metaregression of tidal volume gradient achieved between intervention and control groups on mortality effect estimates. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology to determine the quality of evidence. Seven randomized trials involving 1,481 patients met eligibility criteria for this review. Mortality was not significantly lower for patients receiving an LTV strategy (33.6%) as compared with control strategies (40.4%) (relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.08; heterogeneity statistic I 2  = 46%), nor did an LTV strategy significantly decrease barotrauma or ventilator-free days when compared with a lower PEEP strategy. Quality of evidence for clinical outcomes was downgraded for imprecision. Metaregression showed a significant inverse association between larger tidal volume gradient between LTV and control groups and log odds ratios for mortality (β, -0.1587; P = 0.0022). Sensitivity analysis including trials that protocolized an LTV/high PEEP cointervention showed lower mortality associated with LTV (nine trials and 1

  9. T-piece resuscitators: how do they compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinder, Murray; McEwan, Alistair; Drevhammer, Thomas; Donaldson, Snorri; Tracy, Mark Brian

    2018-05-04

    The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has seen increased use as a primary resuscitation device with newborns. Traditional TPR design uses a high resistance expiratory valve to produce positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at resuscitation. A new TPR device that uses a dual flow ratio valve (fluidic flip) to produce PEEP/CPAP is now available (rPAP). We aimed to compare the measured ventilation performance of different TPR devices in a controlled bench test study. Single operator provided positive pressure ventilation to an incremental testlung compliance (Crs) model (0.5-5 mL/cmH 2 O) with five different brands of TPR device (Atom, Neopuff, rPAP, GE Panda warmer and Draeger Resuscitaire). At recommended peak inflation pressure (PIP) 20 cmH 2 O, PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O and rate of 60 inflations per minute. 1864 inflations were analysed. Four of the five devices tested demonstrated inadvertent elevations in mean PEEP (5.5-10.3 cmH 2 O, p<0.001) from set value as Crs was increased, while one device (rPAP) remained at the set value. Measured PIP exceeded the set value in two infant warmer devices (GE and Draeger) with inbuilt TPR at Crs of 0.5 (24.5 and 23.5 cmH 2 O, p<0.001). Significant differences were seen in tidal volumes across devices particularly at higher Crs (p<0.001). Results show important variation in delivered ventilation from set values due to inherent TPR device design characteristics with a range of lung compliances expected at birth. Device-generated inadvertent PEEP and overdelivery of PIP may be clinically deleterious for term and preterm newborns or infants with larger Crs during resuscitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Different Techniques of Respiratory Support Do Not Significantly Affect Gas Exchange during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Newborn Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Maurer, Miriam; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Waitz, Markus; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We studied the short-term effects of different ventilatory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on gas exchange [arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)], hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation. We hypothesized that in newborn piglets with cardiac arrest, use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves gas exchange as measured by SaO2 during CPR as compared to using a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP. Furthermore, we explored the effects of a mechanical ventilator without synchrony to CC. Thirty newborn piglets with asystole were randomized into three groups and resuscitated for 20 min [fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21 for 10 min and 1.0 thereafter]. Group 1 received ventilation using a TPR [peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min] with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 2 received ventilation using a SIB (PIP of 20 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min) with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 3 received ventilation using a mechanical ventilator (PIP/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min). CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We found no significant differences in SaO2 between the three groups. However, there was a trend toward a higher SaO2 [TPR: 28.0% (22.3-40.0); SIB: 23.7% (13.4-52.3); ventilator: 44.1% (39.2-54.3); median (interquartile range)] and a lower PaCO2 [TPR: 95.6 mm Hg (82.1-113.6); SIB: 100.8 mm Hg (83.0-108.0); ventilator: 74.1 mm Hg (68.5-83.1); median (interquartile range)] in the mechanical ventilator group. We found no significant effect on gas exchange using different respiratory support strategies

  11. KONTEC 2013. 11{sup th} international symposium on 'Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning waste' and 11{sup th} BMBF status report on 'Decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities'; KONTEC 2013. 11. internationales Symposium 'Konditionierung radioaktiver Betriebs- und Stilllegungsabfaelle' einschliesslich 11. Statusbericht des BMBF 'Stilllegung und Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen'. Veranstaltungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    KONTEC 2013 was held in Dresden on 13 to 15 March 2013. The 11{sup th} event organized under this heading dealt with the subjects of 'Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Waste' and 'Decommissioning and Demolition of Nuclear Facilities' including the R and D Status Report by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) on the same subject. The conference was attended by an international audience from 19 countries. The program included plenary sessions on these 4 key topics: - Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning. - Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities. - Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes. - Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). These sessions were accompanied by poster sessions and short presentations under the heading of 'Kontec Direct.' The best presentations of the categories Plenary Session Presentation, Poster Presentation and Kontec-Direct have been awarded. In detail, 'Dismantling of Russian nuclear powered submarines' by Detlef Mietann, 'Requalification of 'Old Packages' for the Konrad Repository Described for the Model Case of Packages from Storage Annex A and Repackaging of Containers Holding Compacts in Hall 2 of the GNS Plant' by Martina Koessler, Sebastian Schwall and Pascal Budriks, and 'Electrochemical process development for cleaning organic, C-14-labelled waste solutions' by Hans-Juergen Friedrich. (orig.)

  12. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group; Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  14. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  15. ILK statement on the recommendations by the working group on procedures for the selection of repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany. ILK recommends to perform a comprehensive safety analysis of Gorleben and define a selection procedure including the facts about Gorleben and, in addition, to commission the Konrad repository as soon as possible. The one-repository concept established as a precondition by BMU greatly restricts the selection procedure. There are no technical or scientific reasons for such concept. ILK recommends to plan for separate repositories, which would also correspond to international practice. The geoscientific criteria proposed by AkEnd should be examined and revised. With respect to the site selection procedure proposed, ILK feels that procedure is unable to define a targeted approach. Great importance must be attributed to public participation. The final site selection must be made under the responsibility of the government or the parliament. (orig.) [de

  16. Old waste products - new requirements. Preparations for the later repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 30 years now, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has been engaged in the management of radioactive wastes produced by the operation and decommissioning of research reactors and institutes of the Research Center, the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, and the Baden-Wuerttemberg state collection center. For this purpose, the wastes delivered to HDB have been conditioned at various facilities according to the requirements specified. These conditioning requirements, however, have changed in the course of time. In the past, only minimum declaration and conditioning requirements had to be fulfilled for the ASSE repository storage facility. Since 1994, the KONRAD repository storage conditions have been adopted. They comprise a variety of quality criteria. Judging from today, duration of interim storage until transfer to a repository storage facility will take another 30 years at least. In addition to the documentary qualification of the waste products, it is therefore required to take measures to ensure long-term safety of both the waste packages and their storage. This is why the HDB, in agreement with the supervisory authority, i.e. the Federal Radiation Protection Authority, and its experts, has decided to put the waste products into KONRAD containers in certified compliance with the repository storage conditions and to backfill these containers with concrete in accordance with approved procedures. Thus, waste packages suited for repository storage will be produced and corrosion processes and the possible release of radioactivity will be prevented. (orig.)

  17. Old waste products - new requirements. Preparations for the later repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe

    2003-07-01

    For more than 30 years now, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has been engaged in the management of radioactive wastes produced by the operation and decommissioning of research reactors and institutes of the Research Center, the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, and the Baden-Wuerttemberg state collection center. For this purpose, the wastes delivered to HDB have been conditioned at various facilities according to the requirements specified. These conditioning requirements, however, have changed in the course of time. In the past, only minimum declaration and conditioning requirements had to be fulfilled for the ASSE repository storage facility. Since 1994, the KONRAD repository storage conditions have been adopted. They comprise a variety of quality criteria. Judging from today, duration of interim storage until transfer to a repository storage facility will take another 30 years at least. In addition to the documentary qualification of the waste products, it is therefore required to take measures to ensure long-term safety of both the waste packages and their storage. This is why the HDB, in agreement with the supervisory authority, i.e. the Federal Radiation Protection Authority, and its experts, has decided to put the waste products into KONRAD containers in certified compliance with the repository storage conditions and to backfill these containers with concrete in accordance with approved procedures. Thus, waste packages suited for repository storage will be produced and corrosion processes and the possible release of radioactivity will be prevented. (orig.)

  18. Efeitos de diferentes volumes correntes e da pressão expiratória final positiva sobre a troca gasosa na fístula broncopleural experimental Effects of different tidal volumes and positive end expiratory pressure on gas exchange in experimental bronchopleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Cavicchia Toneloto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo foi desenhado para identificar o efeito da pressão expiratória final positiva (PEEP e o volume corrente pulmonar ideal para ventilar animais com fístula broncopleural produzida cirurgicamente, com o intuito de reduzir a vazão da fístula sem afetar a troca gasosa. MÉTODOS: Avaliação hemodinâmica e respiratória da troca gasosa foi obtida em cinco porcos jovens, saudáveis, da linhagem Large White, ventilados mecanicamente no modo ventilatório volume controlado com FiO2 de 0.4 e relação inspiração:expiração em torno de 1:2, com freqüência respiratória mantida em 22 cpm. A fístula broncopleural foi produzida pela ressecção da língula. Um sistema de drenagem a selo d'água foi instalado e o tórax foi hermeticamente fechado. A troca gasosa e o débito da fístula broncopleural foram medidos com animais ventilados sequencialmente com volumes correntes de 4 ml/kg, 7 ml/kg e 10 ml/Kg alternando zero de pressão expiratória final positiva (ZEEP e PEEP de 10 cmH2O, sempre na mesma ordem. RESULTADOS: Esses dados são atribuídos à ventilação alveolar reduzida e às anormalidades da ventilação/perfusão que foram atenuadas com volumes correntes mais altos. PEEP aumentou o vazamento de ar pela fístula, mesmo com baixos volumes, de 2.0 ± 2,8mL para 31 ± 20,7mL (p= 0,006 e diminuiu a ventilação alveolar em todos os volumes correntes. A ventilação alveolar melhorou com altos volumes correntes, mas aumentou o débito da fístula (4 ml/kg - 2,0 ± 2,8mL e 10 mL/kg - 80,2 ± 43,9mL; p=0,001. Baixos volumes correntes resultaram em hipercapnia (ZEEP - 83,7± 6,9 mmHg e com PEEP 10 -93 ± 10,1mmHg e diminuição significativa da saturação de oxigênio arterial, em torno de 84%. CONCLUSÃO: O volume corrente de 7 ml/kg com ZEEP foi considerado o melhor volume corrente, visto que, apesar da hipercapnia moderada, a saturação de oxigênio arterial é sustentada em torno de 90%. A ventilação alveolar

  19. Intratidal Overdistention and Derecruitment in the Injured Lung: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Reza; Herrmann, Jacob; Kaczka, David W

    2017-03-01

    Ventilated patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are predisposed to cyclic parenchymal overdistention and derecruitment, which may worsen existing injury. We hypothesized that intratidal variations in global mechanics, as assessed at the airway opening, would reflect such distributed processes. We developed a computational lung model for determining local instantaneous pressure distributions and mechanical impedances continuously during a breath. Based on these distributions and previous literature, we simulated the within-breath variability of airway segment dimensions, parenchymal viscoelasticity, and acinar recruitment in an injured canine lung for tidal volumes( V T ) of 10, 15, and 20 mL·kg -1 and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 5, 10, and 15 cm H 2 O. Acini were allowed to transition between recruited and derecruited states when exposed to stochastically determined critical opening and closing pressures, respectively. For conditions of low V T and low PEEP, we observed small intratidal variations in global resistance and elastance, with a small number of cyclically recruited acini. However, with higher V T and PEEP, larger variations in resistance and elastance were observed, and the majority of acini remained open throughout the breath. Changes in intratidal resistance, elastance, and impedance followed well-defined parabolic trajectories with tracheal pressure, achieving minima near 12 to 16 cm H 2 O. Intratidal variations in lung mechanics may allow for optimization of ventilator settings in patients with ARDS, by balancing lung recruitment against parenchymal overdistention. Titration of airway pressures based on variations in intratidal mechanics may mitigate processes associated with injurious ventilation.

  20. Respiratory Management of Perioperative Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, David Ae; Pirrone, Massimiliano; Zhang, Changsheng; Fisher, Daniel F; Kacmarek, Robert M; Berra, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    With a rising incidence of obesity in the United States, anesthesiologists are faced with a larger volume of obese patients coming to the operating room as well as obese patients with ever-larger body mass indices (BMIs). While there are many cardiovascular and endocrine issues that clinicians must take into account when caring for the obese patient, one of the most prominent concerns of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative setting should be the status of the lung. Because the pathophysiology of reduced lung volumes in the obese patient differs from that of the ARDS patient, the best approach to keeping the obese patient's lung open and adequately ventilated during mechanical ventilation is unique. Although strong evidence and research are lacking regarding how to best ventilate the obese surgical patient, we aim with this review to provide an assessment of the small amount of research that has been conducted and the pathophysiology we believe influences the apparent results. We will provide a basic overview of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the obese respiratory system and review studies concerning pre-, intra-, and postoperative respiratory care. Our focus in this review centers on the best approach to keeping the lung recruited through the prevention of compression atelectasis and the maintaining of physiological lung volumes. We recommend the use of PEEP via noninvasive ventilation (NIV) before induction and endotracheal intubation, the use of both PEEP and periodic recruitment maneuvers during mechanical ventilation, and the use of PEEP via NIV after extubation. It is our hope that by studying the underlying mechanisms that make ventilating obese patients so difficult, future research can be better tailored to address this increasingly important challenge to the field of anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.