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Sample records for kong chinese children

  1. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  2. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

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    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  3. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

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    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  4. Learning and Socializing Preferences in Hong Kong Chinese Children.

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    Chen, Eva E; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Lai, Veronica K W; Poon, Sze Long; Gaither, Sarah E

    2018-04-30

    The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; M age  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification. Overall, children preferred in-group members, though out-group exposure and the relative social status of out-groups mattered as well. At a young age, children's specific experiences with different races influence how they learn and befriend others across racial group lines. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  5. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  6. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9-12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18-54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children.

  7. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015

  8. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  9. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  10. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

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    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  11. Emotion socialization practices in Italian and Hong Kong-Chinese mothers.

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    Fiorilli, Caterina; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chicchio, Carlo; Chan, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    Parents' emotion socialization practices are their ways of handling their children's emotional experiences in light of cultural expectations surrounding emotions. Such practices are thought to significantly affect children's social adjustment. We compared the parenting practices of Italian and Hong Kong Chinese samples in an ethnological validation study of the maternal responses to children's emotion scale (MRCES). Participants were 71 Italian mothers (M = 39.45) and 71 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers (M = 37.75) with children aged 6-9 years. The results confirmed the two-factor structure identified by the scale's authors, namely coaching/emotion-encouraging and emotion dismissing approaches, respectively. Each of the two factors displayed satisfactory internal consistency. The Chinese mothers obtained higher scores than the Italian mothers on both subscales. Our findings suggested that parents' emotion socialization practices for coping with children's emotions received different degrees of emphasis and were underpinned by different meaning in the Hong Kong and Italian cultural groups. These cultural differences are discussed in relation to their effect on children's socio-emotional development.

  12. Corporal Punishment and Physical Maltreatment against Children: A Community Study on Chinese Parents in Hong Kong

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    Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Method: Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children,…

  13. Emotion socialization practices in Italian and Hong Kong-Chinese mothers

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    Fiorilli, Caterina; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chicchio, Carlo; Chan, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    Background Parents? emotion socialization practices are their ways of handling their children?s emotional experiences in light of cultural expectations surrounding emotions. Such practices are thought to significantly affect children?s social adjustment. We compared the parenting practices of Italian and Hong Kong Chinese samples in an ethnological validation study of the maternal responses to children?s emotion scale (MRCES). Participants were 71 Italian mothers (M?=?39.45) and 71 Hong Kong-...

  14. "My Way or Mom's Way?" The Bilingual and Bicultural Self in Hong Kong Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Shao, Yi; Li, Yexin Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of language to the development of a cultural self. Bilingual children ages 8-14 from Hong Kong (N = 125) were interviewed in either English or Chinese. They recalled autobiographical events and described themselves, and indicated their agreement with Chinese interdependent versus Western independent values.…

  15. Corporal punishment and physical maltreatment against children: a community study on Chinese parents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2006-08-01

    This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children, marital satisfaction, perceived social support, evaluation of child problem behaviors, and reactions to conflicts with children. Descriptive statistics, analyses of variances, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The rates of parent-to-child physical aggression were 57.5% for corporal punishment and 4.5% for physical maltreatment. Mothers as compared to fathers reported higher rates and more frequent use of corporal punishment on their children, but this parental gender effect was insignificant among older parents and those with adolescent children. Boys as compared to girls were more likely to experience higher rates and more frequent parental corporal punishment, especially in middle childhood at aged 5-12. Furthermore, parents perpetrated more frequent physical maltreatment on younger as compared to older children. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that significant correlates of parental corporal punishment were: children's young age, male gender, and externalizing behaviors as well as parents' young age, non-employment, and marital dissatisfaction. For parent-to-child physical maltreatment, significant correlates were externalizing behaviors of children and parental marital dissatisfaction. Hong Kong Chinese parents commonly used corporal punishment on their children, which was associated with characteristics of children, parents, and family.

  16. Filial Piety and Psychosocial Adjustment in Hong Kong Chinese Early Adolescents

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    Leung, Angel Nga-man; Wong, Stephanie Siu-fong; Wong, Iris Wai-yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Is the Confucian concept of filial piety relevant for understanding contemporary Chinese children's psychological well-being? This study of 231 Hong Kong Chinese fifth and sixth graders demonstrated that parental warmth and two facets of children's filial piety belief were uniquely associated with life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social…

  17. Chinese Parenting in Hong Kong: Links among Goals, Beliefs and Styles

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    Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…

  18. Screening for Chinese Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong: The Use of the Teachers' Behaviour Checklist

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    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Primary school teachers rated the frequency of occurrence of 65 reading-related behavioural characteristics in a sample of 251 Grade 1 to Grade 6 Chinese school children in Hong Kong. These behavioural characteristics were in the areas of general performance, reading, dictation, writing, mathematics, language, memory, concentration, sequential…

  19. Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners

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    Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

  20. Nearwork-induced transient myopia in preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese.

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    Wolffsohn, James Stuart; Gilmartin, Bernard; Li, Roger Wing-hong; Edwards, Marion Hastings; Chat, Sandy Wing-shan; Lew, John Kwok-fai; Yu, Bibianna Sin-ying

    2003-05-01

    To compare the magnitude and time course of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) in preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese myopes and emmetropes. Forty-five Hong Kong Chinese children, 35 myopes and 10 emmetropes aged 6 to 12 years (median, 7.5), monocularly viewed a letter target through a Badal lens for 5 minutes at either 5.00- or 2.50-D accommodative demand, followed by 3 minutes of viewing the equivalent target at optical infinity. Accommodative responses were measured continuously with a modified, infrared, objective open-field autorefractor. Accommodative responses were also measured for a countercondition: viewing of a letter target for 5 minutes at optical infinity, followed by 3 minutes of viewing the target at a 5.00-D accommodative demand. The results were compared with tonic accommodation and both subject and family history of refractive error. Retinal-blur-driven NITM was significantly greater in Hong Kong Chinese children with myopic vision than in the emmetropes after both near tasks, but showed no significant dose effect. The NITM was still evident 3 minutes after viewing the 5.00-D near task for 5 minutes. The magnitude of NITM correlated with the accommodative drift after viewing a distant target for more than 4 minutes, but was unrelated to the subjects' or family history of refractive error. In a preadolescent ethnic population with known predisposition to myopia, there is a significant posttask blur-driven accommodative NITM, which is sustained for longer than has previously been found in white adults.

  1. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis

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    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also…

  2. Associations between Maternal Physical Discipline and Peer Victimization among Hong Kong Chinese Children: The Moderating Role of Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M.; Tom, Shelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression…

  3. Dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong.

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    Chu, C H; Fung, D S; Lo, E C

    1999-12-11

    To describe the dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors which affect their caries status. 658 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years from six randomly selected kindergartens in Hong Kong were surveyed in December 1997. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory variables for caries status was completed by their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1997). Caries experience as measured by the mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were found to be 0.9, 1.8, and 3.3 respectively. Overall, 61% of the children had a zero dmft score. Children born in Mainland China had a higher mean dmft score (4.6) than those born in Hong Kong (1.4). Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's dental caries status and their oral health practices as well as their socio-economic background. Parents' education level, dental knowledge and attitudes were also associated with the children's dental caries experience. In general, the caries status of Hong Kong Chinese preschool children was similar to that of children in industrialised countries and was better than that of children in the nearby areas. However, special dental programmes should be made available to children from lower socio-economic classes and new immigrants from Mainland China because they are the high risk groups for caries in Hong Kong.

  4. Working memory and sentence comprehension of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific language impairment.

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    Siu, Elaine; Man, David W K

    2006-09-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment present with delayed language development, but do not have a history of hearing impairment, mental deficiency, or associated social or behavioral problems. Non-word repetition was suggested as an index to reflect the capacity of phonological working memory. There is a paucity of such studies among Hong Kong Chinese children. This preliminary study aimed to examine the relationship between phonological working memory and Specific Language Impairment, through the processes of non-word repetition and sentence comprehension, of children with Specific Language Impairment and pre-school children with normal language development. Both groups of children were screened by a standardized language test. A list of Cantonese (the commonest dialect used in Hong Kong) multisyllabic nonsense utterances and a set of 18 sentences were developed for this study. t-tests and Pearson correlation were used to study the relationship between non-word repetition, working memory and specific language impairment. Twenty-three pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (mean age = 68.30 months; SD = 6.90) and another 23 pre-school children (mean age = 67.30 months; SD = 6.16) participated in the study. Significant difference performance was found between the Specific Language Impairment group and normal language group in the multisyllabic nonsense utterances repetition task and the sentence comprehension task. Length effect was noted in Specific Language Impairment group children, which is consistent with the findings of other literature. In addition, correlations were also observed between the number of nonsense utterances repeated and the number of elements comprehended. Cantonese multisyllabic nonsense utterances might be worth further developing as a screening tool for the early detection of children with Specific Language Impairment.

  5. The approaches Hong Kong Chinese mothers adopt to teach their preschool children to prevent influenza: a multiple case study at household level.

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    Lam, Winsome; Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the population is at risk of seasonal influenza infection twice a year. Seasonal influenza is significantly associated with the increased hospitalization of children. Maintaining personal hygiene and vaccination are the most effective measures to prevent influenza infection. Research demonstrates a positive relationship between the health practices applied by parents and the behaviour of their children highlighting the importance of parental heath education. However, there is minimal research that provides an understanding of how Hong Kong Chinese parents teach their children to prevent seasonal influenza. Mixed methods research was undertaken that employed a multiple-case study approach to gain an understanding of parental teaching practices regarding seasonal influenza prevention. Purposive intensity sampling was adopted to recruit twenty parents and their healthy children. A thematic analysis was employed to examine the qualitative interview data and the quantitative survey data were examined descriptively. These data were then integrated to provide a more rigorous understanding of parental teaching strategies. Comparisons were made across cases to reveal commonalities and differences. Five major themes were identified: processes parents used to teach personal hygiene; parent-child interaction during teaching; approaches to managing children's health behaviours; enhancing children's healthy practices; and parents' perspective of the role of the nurse in health promotion. This study provided valuable insight into the approach of Hong Kong Chinese parents in teaching their children to prevent seasonal influenza. The results indicate that parents can be better supported to develop effective strategies to teach their preschool children hygiene practices for seasonal influenza prevention. Partnerships with community nurses can play a role in building effective parent-child interactions to enhance children's learning and adoption of healthy practices.

  6. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  7. Plotting Confucian and Disability Rights Paradigms on the Advocacy-Activism Continuum: Experiences of Chinese Parents of Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong

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    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study represents an initial effort to understand the advocacy journey of Chinese parents of children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Qualitative methods involving individual and group interviews were used to solicit detailed recount and perceptions of the experiences of 25 parents. Findings revealed a largely sequenced three-stage journey of…

  8. School Experience of Chinese Sexual Minority Students in Hong Kong

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    Kwok, Diana K.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexism faced by sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning [LGBQ]) students has been extensively studied internationally in the past 2 decades but has only recently received attention from Hong Kong Chinese society. Chinese LGBQ students are not guaranteed to be included in Hong Kong schools, where antidiscrimination…

  9. The association between reading abilities and visual-spatial attention in Hong Kong Chinese children.

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    Liu, Sisi; Liu, Duo; Pan, Zhihui; Xu, Zhengye

    2018-03-25

    A growing body of research suggests that visual-spatial attention is important for reading achievement. However, few studies have been conducted in non-alphabetic orthographies. This study extended the current research to reading development in Chinese, a logographic writing system known for its visual complexity. Eighty Hong Kong Chinese children were selected and divided into poor reader and typical reader groups, based on their performance on the measures of reading fluency, Chinese character reading, and reading comprehension. The poor and typical readers were matched on age and nonverbal intelligence. A Posner's spatial cueing task was adopted to measure the exogenous and endogenous orienting of visual-spatial attention. Although the typical readers showed the cueing effect in the central cue condition (i.e., responses to targets following valid cues were faster than those to targets following invalid cues), the poor readers did not respond differently in valid and invalid conditions, suggesting an impairment of the endogenous orienting of attention. The two groups, however, showed a similar cueing effect in the peripheral cue condition, indicating intact exogenous orienting in the poor readers. These findings generally supported a link between the orienting of covert attention and Chinese reading, providing evidence for the attentional-deficit theory of dyslexia. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Parental Involvement in Primary Children's Homework in Hong Kong

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    Tam, Vicky C.; Chan, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws upon an ecological perspective to examine parental involvement in homework and its relationship with primary school children's educational outcomes within the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong. Data were collected using homework diaries and questionnaires administered to 1,309 pairs of students and parents spanning all…

  11. Mothers' Beliefs about Children's Learning in Hong Kong and the United States: Implications for Mothers' Child-Based Worth

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    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Lam, Shui-fong

    2013-01-01

    Chinese and American mothers' beliefs about children's learning and parents' role in it were examined using notions salient in Chinese culture. Mothers from Hong Kong ("n" = 66) and the United States ("n" = 69) indicated their endorsement of the ideas that children's learning reflects children's morality, and parents' support…

  12. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  13. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children *

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing Jing.; Baranowski, Tom.; Lau, W C Patrick.; Chen, Tzu An.; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. Methods The psychometric properties of the PAQ-C with 742 Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed with the scale's internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) ...

  14. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

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    Ma, Yuanyi; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates…

  15. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and fertility awareness among Chinese university students in Hong Kong: a comparison with Western samples.

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    Chan, C H Y; Chan, T H Y; Peterson, B D; Lampic, C; Tam, M Y J

    2015-02-01

    What are the levels of awareness regarding female fertility and the intentions and attitudes towards parenthood among Chinese university students in Hong Kong compared with their counterparts in the West? Chinese university students in Hong Kong were similarly over-optimistic about the age-related fertility decline, although they were less inclined to have children and undergo fertility treatment compared with their Western counterparts. Past studies of highly educated young adults in Europe and the USA have found that they are not sufficiently aware of the age-related decline in female fertility, and falsely believe that advanced reproductive treatments such as IVF will overcome fertility problems associated with age. Little is known about the perceptions of Chinese students in Hong Kong, a modernized Chinese city where the fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese university students in Hong Kong was conducted in 2013. Results were compared with two similar studies in Sweden and the USA. A total of 367 university students in Hong Kong (275 female, 92 male; mean age 23) responded to an e-mail invitation to participate in an online survey. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and awareness regarding female fertility were assessed using the Swedish Fertility Awareness Questionnaire. Like their Western counterparts, a large proportion of Chinese university students underestimated the age-related fertility decline (92%) and overestimated the fertility treatment success rate (66%). However, they were less inclined to have children, were more aware of and less concerned with infertility and were less motivated to seek solutions in the event of a fertility problem. These comparisons were significant at P International comparisons warrant caution because the Hong Kong sample was older than the US sample (mean age 20), but not older than the Sweden sample (mean age 24). While this study was consistent with past

  16. The Chinese number naming system and its impact on the arithmetic performance of pre-schoolers in Hong Kong

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    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan

    2012-06-01

    Asian children, including Chinese children, perform better than their English-speaking peers in cross-national mathematics studies. This superior Asian performance is attributed to several factors including cultural beliefs, educational systems and practices, and the Chinese number naming system. Given the limited empirical evidence on pre-school mathematics learning in Chinese societies, the outcomes of Western studies are often borrowed and adopted in curriculum planning in Asian schools. The study reported in this paper investigated the performance of Hong Kong Chinese pre-school children based on Western studies involving English-speaking children, and examined the relationship between the Chinese number naming system and children's performance in number and operation concepts. Data were collected from 299 pre-school children aged between 3 and 5 years. The learning sequence of the children in mastering number and operation concepts was established using the Rasch Model. This study provides empirical evidence for the feasibility of borrowing lists of mathematics concepts from studies of English-speaking children to serve as a reference for school-based curriculum planning in a Chinese-speaking context. However, it is not enough to establish the relationship between children's performance and the Chinese number naming system. Classroom instruction and cultural beliefs in mathematics learning are also important in explaining children's performance.

  17. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  18. The contribution of parent-child numeracy activities to young Chinese children's mathematical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yingyi; Yang, Wen; Song, Zhanmei

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of recent research has shown that parent-child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers' involvement in such activities. This study aimed to examine both mother-child and father-child numeracy activities in Hong Kong Chinese families and both parents' unique roles in predicting young Chinese children's mathematics ability. A sample of 104 Hong Kong Chinese children aged approximately 5 years and their mothers and fathers participated in this study. Mothers and fathers independently reported the frequency of their own numeracy activities with their children. Children were assessed individually using two measures of mathematical ability. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate the contribution of parent-child numeracy activities to children's mathematical ability. Mothers' participation in number skill activities and fathers' participation in number game and application activities significantly predicted their children's mathematical performance even after controlling for background variables and children's language ability. This study extends previous research with a sample of Chinese kindergarten children and shows that parent-child numeracy activities are related to young children's mathematical ability. The findings highlight the important roles that mothers and fathers play in their young children's mathematical learning. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities in Hong Kong: Implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer.

  20. Reliability and validity of psychosocial and environmental correlates measures of physical activity and screen-based behaviors among Chinese children in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Jo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient participation in physical activity and excessive screen time have been observed among Chinese children. The role of social and environmental factors in shaping physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Chinese children is under-investigated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of a questionnaire to measure child- and parent-reported psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity and screen-based behaviors among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Methods A total of 303 schoolchildren aged 9-14 years and their parents volunteered to participate in this study and 160 of them completed the questionnaire twice within an interval of 10 days. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, kappa statistics, and percent agreement were performed to evaluate test-retest reliability of the continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs were conducted to assess convergent validity of the emergent scales. Cronbach's alpha and ICCs were performed to assess internal and test-retest reliability of the emergent scales. Criterion validity was assessed by correlating psychosocial and environmental measures with self-reported physical activity and screen-based behaviors, measured by a validated questionnaire. Results Reliability statistics for both child- and parent-reported continuous variables showed acceptable consistency for all of the ICC values greater than 0.70. Kappa statistics showed fair to perfect test-retest reliability for the categorical items. Adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability were observed in most of the emergent scales. Criterion validity assessed by correlating psychosocial and environmental measures with child-reported physical activity found associations with physical activity in the self-efficacy scale (r = 0.25, P r = 0.25, P r = 0.14, P r = -0.22, P r = 0.12, P = 0.053. Conclusions The findings

  1. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  2. Chinese Children's Perceived School Satisfaction: The Role of Contextual and Intrapersonal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of school contextual factors and intrapersonal factors to school satisfaction among a sample of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. A total of 760 children completed the School Satisfaction Subscale of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children along with self-report measures of…

  3. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  4. Doubling over ten years of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tin-choi Gary; Chan, Juliana; Chan, Amy; Wong, Patrick; Hui, Stanley; Chow, Ferrie; Tong, Spencer; Chan, Cecilia

    2007-07-05

    Obesity is now an epidemic in most parts of the world. In this cross sectional study, we report the most recent data on obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working population and compare the changes over 10 years. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 5882 adult subjects from the working class in Hong Kong were recruited (2716 men (46.2%) and 3166 women (53.8%)). They were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. Results of this study were compared with the data collected from a prevalence survey for cardiovascular risk factors in a Hong Kong Chinese working population conducted in 1990 (1513 subjects, 910 men (60.1%) and 603 women (39.9%)). Standardized percentages of overweight, obesity, and central obesity, in Hong Kong Chinese working population were 59.7%, 35.0%, 26.7% in men and 32.0%, 21.7%, 26.7% in women. Compared to the data collected in 1990, the percentage of obesity increased by 5% in men and reduced by 6% in women. The percentage of central obesity doubled in men (from 12.2% to 26.7%) but remained stable in women. There is a doubling of the percentage of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men over previous decade. Education and proper lifestyle modification program to tackle this social health issue are urgently indicated.

  5. Comparing State Hegemonies: Chinese Universities in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2005-01-01

    After World War II, Chinese residents of Singapore demanded the establishment of local Chinese universities. The ruling regime, however, which was under the shadow of the neighboring Malay-dominated Malay Peninsula, was forced to suppress the development of such schools. In Hong Kong, the British needed to install a Chinese university to counter…

  6. School Adjustment, Social Support, and Mental Health of Mainland Chinese College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Raymond Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of school adjustment and social support with the mental health of mainland Chinese college students studying in Hong Kong. During the spring semester in 2011, 384 mainland Chinese college students across the postsecondary institutions in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire. Results showed that better school…

  7. Teaching Receptive Naming of Chinese Characters to Children with Autism by Incorporating Echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jin-Pang; Wu, Kit-I

    1997-01-01

    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to four Hong Kong children (ages 8-10) with autism was assessed. Results from two experiments indicated echolalia was the active component contributing to the successful acquisition and maintenance of receptive naming of Chinese characters.…

  8. Hong Kong Chinese daughters' intergenerational caregiving obligations: a cultural model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, E

    2001-11-01

    This paper, based on a study carried out in Hong Kong, outlines the caregiving obligations of Hong Kong Chinese daughters towards their frail elderly parents. A cultural model approach drawn from cognitive anthropology is taken to focus on how Chinese caregiving daughters develop a sense of what is right and emotionally fulfilling and acquire the motivation to care for their parents. An ethnographic approach was used in the study and techniques included guided and open-ended interviews and non-participatory observations. A total of 20 co-residential caregiving daughters were interviewed in their homes on average twice over the course of one year. All interviews were conducted in Cantonese. Although the sample was small, daughters' accounts are structured by reference to cultural models and this structure provides the common basis for generalisability of results. Concepts of Confucian antecedents, reciprocity and personhood and other modern ideas of filial duty are explored. Conclusions are drawn about the shifting rights and obligations of Chinese caregiving daughters within the contemporary urban realities of Hong Kong. The findings of this study have relevance for the development of welfare policy for older Chinese persons and the chronically ill, and to all services involving women. The findings will also serve to inform family caregiver education programs.

  9. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

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    Yuanyi Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy

  10. An Evaluation of the Intermediation Role of Hong Kong in Chinese Foreign Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhua He

    2007-01-01

    Two different data sources can be used to study Hong Kong's role in intermediating China's foreign trade. One is the bilateral trade statistics between Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland reported by National Bureau of Statistics of China, and the other is the bilateral trade statistics published by Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong. The corresponding statistics are not comparable to each other because of the different statistical criteria adopted by each source. Hong Kong's intermed...

  11. Visuomotor Integration and Executive Functioning Are Uniquely Linked to Chinese Word Reading and Writing in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Lam, Chun Bun; Cheung, Ka Chun

    2018-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the associations of visuomotor integration and executive functioning with Chinese word reading and writing in kindergarten children. A total of 369 Chinese children (mean age = 57.99 months; 55% of them were girls) from Hong Kong, China, completed tasks on visuomotor integration, executive functioning, and…

  12. Stress and coping of Hong Kong Chinese family members during a critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Winter Y-Y; Chan, Sally W-C

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong Chinese families during a critical illness and to examine the relationships between stress and coping. Admissions to intensive care unit are usually an unanticipated event, which imposes stress on the family. Family's wellness is one of the significant factors affecting patient's well-beings. Much work has been conducted in Western societies. Stress and coping in Chinese families of critically ill patients have rarely been discussed. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted, using the Impact of Events Scale and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. A convenience sample of 133 participants was recruited from a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Many were patients' children with age between 30 and 49. A total of 39.1% (n = 52) of the participants were males and 60.9% (n = 81) were females. The participants experienced high level of stress (mean = 25.1, SD = 8.3). Higher level of stress were experienced by female (t = -4.6; d.f. = 1, 131; P = 0.00), those with lower educational attainment (F = 3.0; d.f. = 2, 130; P = 0.05) and those whose relatives were admitted to the intensive care unit unexpectedly (t = -2.2; d.f. = 1; P = 0.03). Patients' length of stay in the unit was significantly correlated with levels of stress (r = 0.5, P stress had significant correlation with coping strategies utilization (r = 0.5, P stress-coping pattern 'fatalistic voluntarism'. This study contributes to the understanding of Hong Kong Chinese families' stress and coping during a critical illness. Comprehensive assessments of family members' psychosocial needs are important to plan appropriate interventions to alleviate their stress and strengthen their coping skills. The findings will serve as guidance for nurses in delivering culturally sensitive and competent interventions.

  13. Hong Kong homeopathy: how it arrived and how it connected with Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2010-07-01

    Translated as 'Shunshi Liaofa' in Mandarin, homeopathy received considerable attention from local physicians, thanks to Dr Heribert Schmidt who shared his views on the similarities between this western medical therapy and Chinese medicine during his visit to Hong Kong in 1954. Considered widely as non-scientific and superstitious, Chinese medicine was pushed to the periphery during the 1950s. On the contrary, adopted by western advanced countries, homeopathy was generally regarded as scientific and reliable. Schmidt's acknowledgement of the scientific roots of Chinese medicine excited many traditional therapists. The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of how homeopathy was introduced to Hong Kong and discuss its relationship with scientification of Chinese medicine. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Language Ability on Chinese Immigrants’ Earning in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Man Ng

    2015-01-01

    After the handover of Hong Kong sovereignty to China in 1997, the language importance gap between English and Putonghua in Hong Kong has been narrowing, even English language is remain an international language and being adopted in legal documents, but foreign investors cannot avoid speaking Putonghua when doing business with Chinese enterprises, these language importance changes provide a new discourse to human capital theorists.  In Hong Kong, natives are desire to be proficient in Putonghu...

  15. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  16. Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

  17. Effects of Phonological Training on the Reading and Reading-Related Abilities of Hong Kong Children with Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chih Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness training by examining outcomes among Chinese children who learn Chinese without phonetic system training. Fifty-six Hong Kong children from the 3rd to 6th grades were recruited. Two-thirds of the children had been officially identified as dyslexic by the local government, and the remainder were considered high risk for dyslexia. The children were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group, with the groups matched as closely as possible by age and gender. Children in the experimental group were trained by onset-rime-level phonological training. The training lasted ~3 weeks, with 15 daily sessions lasting ~20 min each. Our results indicated that children in the experimental group made significant improvements in Chinese character reading, onset awareness, rime awareness, and rapid naming after training. The association between phonological awareness and Chinese character reading, especially the association between rime awareness and Chinese character reading, also changed after training. The benefits of phonological awareness training were more obvious for children younger than 10 years old. The results of the present study can be extended to provide another approach to Chinese learning for children suffering from reading difficulties who are not responding to the usual approach in their region.

  18. Factor structure of the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire among Hong Kong Chinese caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the factor structure of the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (C-MLQ) in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese caregivers of patients with chronic illness (N = 223). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure. Findings confirm that, identical to the original version, C-MLQ showed the same two-factor structure: Presence and Search. Correlation between Presence and Search was found to be positive and moderate (r = .47). This study establishes empirically the same factor structure as the original version of MLQ among caregivers in Hong Kong. The relationship between Presence and Meaning is discussed in the contexts of Chinese culture and caregiving. Results suggest caregivers' continuing need for meaning in life. Medical social workers may help caregivers to integrate their caregiving experience with their sense of meaning in life and search for meaning in life to sustain their caregiving role.

  19. Depressive symptoms of elderly Chinese in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the socio-cultural context is an important pre-requisite for understanding global aging and mental health. This study aimed to examine the variation in the types of depressive symptoms of aging Chinese in three ethnic Chinese societies. Data were based on a mixed purposive and random sample of aging Chinese in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei. The 891 Chinese participants of 65 years or older were included. Depressive symptoms were measured by a Chinese 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the scale when used with elderly Chinese in the three cities. There are 'within-ethnic group' differences in manifestation of depressive symptoms. Symptoms of the elderly Chinese in Guangzhou and Hong Kong were similarly related to items that indicate uncertainty and disinterest in living. The ones in Taipei expressed symptoms indicating disinterest and a negative mood. These differences were probably due to the variations in the socio-cultural, demographic, and structural characteristics among the three cities. Depressive symptoms can be culturally related and manifested differently by people sharing a similar ethnicity. The same ethnicity does not mean homogeneity. The findings should be useful for mental health practitioners in Western societies working with older Chinese immigrants. Knowing the mental health characteristics of these client groups will facilitate the designing of appropriate assessment and intervention tools to fit the culturally unique mental health needs of different subgroups in these ethno-cultural communities.

  20. Chinese translation and validation of a parental feeding style questionnaire for parents of Hong Kong preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson; Keung, Vera; Lee, Albert; Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin

    2014-11-21

    Childhood obesity is a major public health issue in many countries, including China. The importance of parenting relative to the healthy development of children requires the development of instruments for assessing parental influence on child dietary pattern. This study aimed to confirm the internal reliability and validity of a self-report measure on parental feeding styles, including emotional feeding, instrumental feeding, prompting or encouragement to eat, and control over eating. A 27-item parental feeding style questionnaire (PFSQ) was translated into Chinese and then translated back into English to verify consistency. The questionnaire was then used to conduct a cross-sectional survey on the parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. The internal reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined by Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. 4,553 completed questionnaires were received. Cronbach's alpha of subscales ranged from 0.63 to 0.81, and the overall reliability was good (alpha = 0.75). The factor structure of this questionnaire was similar to that of the original and Turkish versions. One-factor structure was identified for emotional feeding, instrumental feeding (four items), and prompting or encouragement to eat, whereas a two-factor structure was revealed for control over eating. The Chinese version of the PFSQ has good reliability and validity in assessing parental feeding styles in Hong Kong. Researchers can use this instrument to improve their understanding on how parental feeding styles may affect the dietary patterns and ultimately the weight statuses of children among Chinese-speaking populations across different countries.

  1. Family beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine for Hong Kong women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peggy Burrows

    2003-01-01

    To explore beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine related to the breast cancer experience of Hong Kong Chinese women and their families. Interpretive phenomenology. Hong Kong, China. A purposive sample of 20 Hong Kong Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer at various stages of the illness trajectory and at least one other family member. A semistructured, three-hour interview was translated, transcribed, and back-translated. Many women and their family members believed that diet was responsible for their cancer and recurrence. They integrated their cultural beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine to manage illness symptoms and prevent recurrence. Families were anxious and confused about conflicting messages from various sources about dietary practices to promote their health and prevent recurrence. Food and diet alternatives should be discussed with the understanding that beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine are embedded in culture and that many Chinese women and their families seek a combination of Eastern Chinese medicine and Western medicine strategies to manage the illness trajectory. Many Chinese families have different beliefs about food and diet and the role that food plays in managing the cancer experience. Often, Chinese people will not seek clarification if they do not understand information. If information does not fit with their predominant belief systems, families may not implement it, nor will they discuss a situation if they think the conversation will result in a relationship of conflict with healthcare providers.

  2. Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Hong Kong focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; and the economy. In 1984 the population of Hong Kong totaled 5.4 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000; life expectancy is 76 years. Hong Kong adjoins Guangdong province on the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland. It consists of Hong Kong and Lan Tao islands, the Kowloon Peninsula, and more than 200 smaller islands. Hong Kong's population consists of about 98% ethnic Chinese and 2% other ethnic groups, mostly European. Only 57.2% of the population were born in Hong Kong. Cantonese is the Chinese dialect spoken by most of the territory's population, but English is widely understood. Not until after 1949 did Hong Kong develop into a leading manufacturing, commercial, and tourist center. Hong Kong's foreign relations are the responsibility of the British government, but considerable autonomy has been permitted in the area of commercial relations. Following the June 30, 1997, expiration date of the lease on the New Territories, which comprise 92% of Hong Kong's total area, Hong Kong will become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997. Hong Kong has little arable land and virtually no natural resources. The colony always has depended on foreign trade. Hong Kong has developed into a center of light manufacturing and international finance. In 1984, Hong Kong's foreign trade was valued at $57 billion. Hong Kongs economy has recovered strongly from the 1981-82 recession.

  3. Cultural specificity of socioemotional selectivity: age differences in social network composition among Germans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Stoeber, Franziska S; Yeung, Dannii Yuen-lan; Lang, Frieder R

    2008-05-01

    We examined age differences in social network composition among 330 Germans and 330 Hong Kong Chinese, aged 20 to 91 years. We measured social network composition with the Social Convoy Questionnaire. In both cultures, older age was associated with the same number of close social partners and fewer peripheral social partners than was younger age. However, the patterns of age differences in specific relationships differed across cultures: Age was negatively associated with the proportion of nuclear family members among Germans but the association was positive among Hong Kong Chinese. Age was positively associated with the proportion of acquaintances among Germans but the association was negative among Hong Kong Chinese. We discuss the findings in terms of whether the socioemotional selectivity theory holds in both cultures.

  4. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  5. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  6. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  7. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  8. The Determinants of Early Refractive Error on School-Going Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayaraman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Refractive error is a common social issue in every walks of human life, and its prevalence recorded the highest among Chinese population, particularly among people living in southern China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia. Refractive error is the simplest disorder to treat and supposed to cost the effective health care intervention. The present study included 168 Chinese school-going children aged 10 to 12 years; they were selected from different schools of urban Malaysia. It was surprising to see that 112 (66.7% children had the early onset of refractive error; refractive error was also detected late among the primary school or secondary school students. The findings revealed that the determinants of refractive error among Chinese children were personal achievements and machine dependence. The possible reasons for the above significant factors emerged could be attributed to the inbuilt culture and traditions of Chinese parents who insist that their children should be hardworking and focus on school subjects so that their parents allow them to use luxury electronic devices.

  9. Predicting influenza vaccination intent among at-risk chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Low, Lisa P L; Lee, Iris F K; Lee, Diana T F; Ng, Wai Man

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with major chronic illnesses are very susceptible to influenza and its serious complications, but many do not obtain vaccinations. Little is known about factors associated with intention to obtain influenza vaccination among at-risk Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intent to obtain influenza vaccination among at-risk Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. This multicenter descriptive correlational study recruited a convenience sample of 306 Chinese older adults with medical risk factors for influenza and its serious complications from the general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Interviews were conducted to assess intent to obtain influenza vaccination for the coming year, health beliefs about influenza, and discomfort following past vaccinations. The current influenza vaccination rate was 58.5%; only 36.3% intended to get vaccinated the following year. After controlling for clinical and demographic factors in a logistic regression model, perceived susceptibility predicted intention to obtain future vaccination (OR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.14, 1.78]), whereas postvaccination discomfort was negatively associated with intention (OR = 0.063, 95% CI [0.006, 0.63]). Intention to obtain influenza vaccination was low among at-risk Chinese older adults. Strengthening health beliefs and creating strategies to provide positive influenza vaccination experiences are possible approaches to interventions to improve uptake of influenza vaccination rates.

  10. Smoking among Hong Kong Chinese women: behavior, attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Sc; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-02-25

    The numbers of women smoking have risen 72.5% since 1990 with the increasing population - from 56,100 to 96,800 in 2012, reflecting an alarming situation in Hong Kong. The study aimed to describe the smoking behaviour, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong. A qualitative cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interview was conducted with Chinese women from five community centres in different districts in Hong Kong in 2010. A purposive sample of 73 female participants (24 current smokers, 20 ex-smokers and 29 never-smokers) were recruited. The 73 women were classified by their smoking status and age to form 15 focus groups. Most informants knew about the general health hazards of smoking, such as cancer and heart or respiratory diseases, but not about the female-specific health consequences of smoking. A few smokers considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up. Moreover, a few relied on smoking as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Additionally, a few smokers had misconceptions about giving up: that a loss of concentration would result, that continued smoking would not further affect their health as they had become desensitised to the chemicals in tobacco smoke or that quitting would harm their health. This study generates new knowledge about the behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking of current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in Hong Kong, which is unique as a Chinese but highly westernized community but with a very low female smoking prevalence.

  11. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  12. Homework Involvement and Functions: Perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C. W.; Chan, Raymond M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of Chinese students and parents in Hong Kong on homework involvement, assignment type and homework functions. The relationships of homework perceptions to student and parent attributes are also assessed. The sample includes 1393 pairs of students and their parents from 36 primary schools in Hong Kong. Findings…

  13. Coping with a child with acute lymphocytic leukemia: the experiences of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Betty Shuc Han

    2009-01-01

    Using a qualitative approach, this article aims to describe the experiences of Hong Kong Chinese fathers whose children were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The experiences and coping strategies used were viewed from the gender perspective. Two in-depth interviews scheduled to coincide with the disease trajectory of acute lymphocytic leukemia were conducted with 9 fathers, and data were analyzed using the matrix system described by Miles and Huberman. Four categories were identified, including fathers' initial reactions to the child's confirmed diagnosis, the decision to disclose the child's diagnosis to others, social support of the fathers, and their effective coping mechanisms. Previous research has shown that men are expected to be emotionally strong to support their spouse. Findings from this study indicate that Hong Kong Chinese fathers need emotional support especially at the onset of the child's diagnosis. Implications for healthcare professionals include the need for ongoing psychosocial support and education over the course of the child's illness. Thus, assessment of the different coping strategies used by the fathers plays a vital role in providing quality care to these fathers. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also included.

  14. Acceptability and applicability of an American health videogame with story for childhood obesity prevention among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese ...

  15. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  16. Borderline personality disorder subscale (Chinese version) of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II personality disorders: a validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H M; Chow, L Y

    2011-06-01

    Borderline personality disorder is an important but under-recognised clinical entity, for which there are only a few available diagnostic instruments in the Chinese language. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. The present study aimed to assess the validity of the Chinese version of the Borderline Personality Disorder subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese. A convenience sampling method was used. The subjects were seen by a multidisciplinary clinical team, who arrived at a best-estimate diagnosis and then by application of the SCID-II rater using the Chinese version of the Borderline Personality Disorder subscale. The study was carried out at the psychiatric clinic of the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 87 patients of Chinese ethnicity aged 18 to 64 years who attended the clinic in April 2007 were recruited. The aforementioned patient parameters were used to examine the internal consistency, best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of the Chinese version of the subscale. The Borderline Personality Disorder subscale (Chinese version) of SCID-II had an internal consistency of 0.82 (Cronbach's alpha coefficient), best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement of 0.82 (kappa), sensitivity of 0.92, and specificity of 0.94. The Borderline Personality Disorder subscale (Chinese version) of the SCID-II rater had reasonable validity when applied to Cantonese-speaking Chinese subjects in Hong Kong.

  17. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  18. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Validation of the Beliefs against Volunteering Scale among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…

  20. Brief Report: Application of the TEACCH Program on Chinese Pre-School Children with Autism--Does Culture Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Shek, Daniel T. l.; Lam, Lorinda L.; Tang, Florence L. Y.; Cheung, Penita M. P.

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted on 34 children with autism to evaluate the usefulness of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program for Chinese pre-school children in Hong Kong. Eighteen children received full-time center-based TEACCH program training. The control group included 16…

  1. A comparison of fathers' and mothers' contributions in the prediction of academic performance of school-age children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W

    2009-04-01

    Asystematic study of the linkages between gender issues and parenting is made among Chinese families. This study examines sex differences in parenting attributes across fathers and mothers and towards sons and daughters, and compares the contributions of fathers and mothers to the prediction of academic performance across boys and girls. Four parenting attributes are included: nurturance, psychological control, parental involvement in education, and parental academic efficacy. Data were collected from 461 Chinese father-mother-child triads of children studying Grade 3 to 5 in Hong Kong. Findings of this study, based on multivariate analysis of variance, showed that parental roles followed traditional Chinese cultural expectations. Compared to the fathers, Chinese mothers of school-age children in Hong Kong were more loving and caring, more involved in children's education, and more efficacious in promoting children's academic performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis examining the role of child's sex as a moderator showed cross-sex influence in parental contribution to academic performance with respect to parental psychological control and academic efficacy. Specifically, boys benefited more from maternal efficacy than girls did and they were also more hampered by mothers with high psychological control, while girls' academic performance was more enhanced by paternal academic efficacy than boys. A gender-balance approach that highlights the significance of gender in moderating parental contributions to academic performance was thus supported. Future research should continue to focus on psychological control and domain-specific parental attributes as potential sources of gender-linked parent-child associations. Investigations should also explore other cognitive and noncognitive domains of child outcome, different child age groups, as well as Chinese populations in various geographical regions.

  2. The Impact of Visual-Spatial Attention on Reading and Spelling in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations of visual-spatial attention with word reading fluency and spelling in 92 third grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Word reading fluency was measured with a timed reading task whereas spelling was measured with a dictation task. Results showed that visual-spatial attention was a unique predictor of…

  3. Validation of the Chinese version of the Modified Caregivers Strain Index among Hong Kong caregivers: an initiative of medical social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Chan, Christopher L F; Suen, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Family caregivers may often experience caregiving stress and burden. To systematically assess this issue, medical social workers may need to use a brief and valid measurement in their practice. In the Hong Kong Chinese context, one additional challenge is to examine whether a measurement developed in the West is valid for Hong Kong Chinese caregivers. Thus, medical social workers in Hong Kong initiated this research study to validate the Chinese version of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index (C-M-CSI). A total of 223 Chinese caregivers of patients with various chronic illnesses were recruited for this validation study. C-M-CSI demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .91), concurrent validity with the Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory, and discriminant validity with the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Factor analysis yielded a single factor as the original M-CSI, which explained 49 percent of variance. Construct validity was shown by differentiating spousal and nonspousal caregivers, as well as caregivers of patients with and without behavioral problems. C-M-CSI is recommended as a brief and valid measurement that can be used by medical social workers in assessing the caregiving strain of Chinese caregivers of patients in Hong Kong.

  4. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a Model of Suicidal Ideation for Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Watkins, David

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a model of suicidal ideation with family cohesion, expressiveness, conflicts, teacher support, teacher-student relationships and peer support as antecedents, and self-esteem and depression as mediators. Data was collected from survey questionnaires with 433 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The results showed that only family…

  6. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Attitude: A Comparison between Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph; Tao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares risk perception and risk-taking attitude between Hong Kong and mainland China undergraduate students using a Chinese version of the 30-item domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale (Blais and Weber 2006b). Compared with their counterparts from mainland China, Hong Kong university students reported higher levels of risk…

  7. Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders: validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population.

  8. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  9. Acculturative stressor and meaning of life as predictors of negative affect in acculturation: a cross-cultural comparative study between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Joubert, Lynette; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the predictive effects of acculturative stressor and meaning of life on negative affect in the process of acculturation between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Four hundred mainland Chinese students studying at six universities in Hong Kong and 227 Chinese international students studying at the University of Melbourne in Australia completed a questionnaire that included measures of acculturative stressor, meaning of life, negative affect and demographic information. The Australian sample was found to have a higher level of acculturative stressor and negative affect than the Hong Kong sample. Acculturative stressor had a positive impact on negative affect in both samples, but the impact of different domains of acculturative stressor on negative affect varied between the two groups. Finally, meaning of life partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stressor and negative affect in the Hong Kong sample, but no such effect was found in the Australia sample. Acculturative stressor is a critical risk factor for negative affect in acculturation for Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Meaning of life acted as a protective factor that mitigated negative affect for mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong, but not for the Chinese international students in Australia. The theoretical and practical implications for resilience-based and meaning-oriented intervention for Chinese international students are discussed.

  10. Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Yy; Li, Liping; Lau, Patrick Wc; Wong, Tze Wai

    2014-02-03

    The chronic health effects from exposure to ambient air pollution are still unclear. This study primarily aims to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities in Chinese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,203 school children aged 8-10 in three districts with different air pollution levels in Hong Kong. Annual means for ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in each district were used to estimate participants' individual exposure. Two questionnaires were used to collect children's respiratory morbidities and other potential risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression was fitted to estimate the risks of air pollution for respiratory morbidities. Compared to those in the low-pollution district (LPD), girls in the high-pollution district (HPD) were at significantly higher risk for cough at night (ORadj. = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.71-2.78) and phlegm without colds (ORadj. = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.74-8.47). In addition, marginal significance was reached for elevated risks for asthma, wheezing symptoms, and phlegm without colds among boys in HPD (adjusted ORs: 1.71-2.82), as well as chronic cough among girls in HPD (ORadj. = 2.03, 95% CI: 0.88-4.70). Results have confirmed certain adverse effects on children's respiratory health from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. PM10 may be the most relevant pollutant with adverse effects on wheezing and phlegm in boys. Both PM10 and NO2 may be contributing to cough and phlegm in girls.

  11. Myopia prevalence in Chinese-Canadian children in an optometric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Desmond; Schmid, Katrina L; Woo, George C

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of myopia in Chinese children living in urban East Asian countries such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China has been well documented. However, it is not clear whether the prevalence of myopia would be similarly high for this group of children if they were living in a Western country. This study aims to determine the prevalence and progression of myopia in ethnic Chinese children living in Canada. Right eye refraction data of Chinese-Canadian children aged 6 to 12 years were collated from the 2003 clinical records of an optometric practice in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction (SER) equal or less than -0.50 D. The prevalence of myopia and refractive error distribution in children of different ages and the magnitude of refractive error shifts over the preceding 8 years were determined. Data were adjusted for potential biases in the clinic sample. A questionnaire was administered to 300 Chinese and 300 Caucasian children randomly selected from the clinic records to study lifestyle issues that may impact on myopia development. Optometric records of 1468 children were analyzed (729 boys and 739 girls). The clinic bias adjusted prevalence of myopia increased from 22.4% at age 6 to 64.1% at age 12 and concurrently the portion of the children that were emmetropic (refraction between -0.25 and +0.75 D) decreased (68.6% at 6 years to 27.2% at 12 years). The highest incidence of myopia for both girls ( approximately 35%) and boys ( approximately 25%) occurred at 9 and 10 years of age. The average annual refractive shift for all children was -0.52+/-0.42 D and -0.90+/-0.40 D for just myopic children. The questionnaire revealed that these Chinese-Canadian children spent a greater amount of time performing near work and less time outdoors than did Caucasian-Canadian children. Ethnic Chinese children living in Canada develop myopia comparable in prevalence and magnitude to those living in urban East Asian

  12. Children Exposed to Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study of Co-Occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the co-occurrence of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) and examined the association between them. Method: The cross-sectional study recruited a population-based sample of 1,094 children aged 12-17 years in Hong Kong. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the children. The…

  13. The Protective Function of Meaning of Life on Life Satisfaction among Chinese Students in Australia and Hong Kong: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Joubert, Lynette; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the predictive effects of acculturative stressors and meaning of life on life satisfaction between Chinese students in Australia and in Hong Kong. Participants: In 2006, the researchers recruited 606 Chinese students studying abroad at the University of Melbourne in Australia and at 6 universities in Hong Kong.…

  14. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Anita; Chan, Grace; Shiu, YY; Lam, Ko-Chuen; Young, Daniel; Ho, Daniel WH; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants’ cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. PMID:23440076

  15. The effect of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chan, Sophia S C

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the impact of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of Hong Kong Chinese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 elementary schools from the three highest and three lowest median household income districts. A total of 1,725 pupils were recruited with 898 pupils came from low-income and 827 from high-income families. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. The data were collected from 2012 to 2013. Children from low-income families reported statistically significant lower scores in self-esteem and quality of life, but higher scores in depressive symptoms than those from high-income families. Income disparity had their greatest impact on children's self-esteem. This study has addressed a gap in the literature by comparing the self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and quality of life among children living in low- and high-income families. The results add further evidence to the literature that poverty and income disparity may have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Wc Patrick; Chen, Tzu An; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane

    2016-03-01

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properties of the PAQ-C with 742 Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed with the scale's internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) in the overall sample, and multistep invariance tests across gender groups as well as convergent validity with body mass index (BMI), and an accelerometry-based MVPA. The Cronbach alpha coefficient (α=0.79), composite reliability value (ρ=0.81), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (α=0.82) indicate the satisfactory reliability of the PAQ-C score. The CFA indicated data fit a single factor model, suggesting that the PAQ-C measures only one construct, on MVPA over the previous 7 days. The multiple-group CFAs suggested that the factor loadings and variances and covariances of the PAQ-C measurement model were invariant across gender groups. The PAQ-C score was related to accelerometry-based MVPA (r=0.33) and inversely related to BMI (r=-0.18). This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C in Chinese children. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. The Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese Families: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Sin, Tammy C. S.; Choi, Siu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of the Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in Hong Kong Chinese families, using randomized controlled trial design. Methods: The participants included 111 Hong Kong Chinese parents with children aged 2--7 years old, who were randomized into the intervention group (n = 54) and control group (n…

  18. Couple Relationship Standards and Migration: Comparing Hong Kong Chinese with Australian Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W Kim; Leung, Patrick; Hung-Cheung, Chan; Chau-Wan, Lau; Hiew, Danika; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-12-14

    Rates of international migration are increasing, which raises the question of how migration might influence couple relationship standards and impact on the standards of migrants forming intercultural relationships. We compared relationship standards in n = 286 Chinese living in Hong Kong, China, with standards in n = 401 Chinese migrants to a Western country (Australia) by administering the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS). We also compared these two groups to n = 312 Westerners living in Australia. We first tested the structural invariance of the CWICSS across the three samples with a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. There was marginal but acceptable fit of a model of two positively correlated latent factors: Couple Bond (with four indicators, such as demonstration of love and caring) and Family Responsibility (also with four indicators, such as extended family relations and preserving face). Within the limitations of the study, results suggest migration is associated predominantly with differences in women's, but not men's, relationship standards. Migrant Chinese women show alignment of Couple Bond standards with Western standards, and divergence of Family Responsibility standards from Western standards. Discussion focused on how migration and intercultural relationship experiences might differentially influence various domains of relationship standards, gender differences in migration effects on standards, and the implications for working with culturally diverse couples. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  19. Hopelessness, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. Lai; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships among perceived hopelessness, family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined. Results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to hopelessness, but negatively related to parent-adolescent communication. Compared with father-adolescent…

  20. Development and validation of a fine-motor assessment tool for use with young children in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M H; Lai, Cynthia Y Y; Chiu, Amy S M; Yip, Calvin C K

    2011-01-01

    Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong Preschool Fine-Motor Developmental Assessment [HK-PFMDA]) for use with young children in a Chinese population and (2) examine the HK-PFMDA's psychometric properties. The HK-PFMDA was developed by a group of occupational therapists specializing in the area of developmental disabilities in Hong Kong. A panel of 21 experts reviewed the content validity of the instrument. Rasch item analysis was used to examine the model fit of items against the rating scale model, and to explore the dimensionality of the test. Intra- and interrater reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity were examined. The participants included 783 children without disabilities, 45 with autistic spectrum disorder, and 35 with developmental delay. The Rasch analysis suggested that the 87-item HK-PFMDA had a unidimensional structure, as the items explained most (91.6%) of the variance. The HK-PFMDA demonstrated excellent intra- (ICC = .99) and interrater reliability (ICC = .99), and internal consistency (α ranging from .83 to .92). In terms of validity, the HK-PFMDA had significant positive correlations with both age and the convergent measures of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2). A set of normative data for local children aged from birth to 6 years was established. The HK-PFMDA has shown excellent psychometric properties and is suitable for clinical application by occupational therapists in the assessment of fine-motor skills development of young children in Chinese populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between Vision and Visual Perception in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Cheung; Tang, Minny Mei-Miu; Fu, Ching-Wah; Leung, Ka-Yan; Pang, Peter Chi-Kong; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Although superior performance in visual motor and visual perceptual skills of preschool children has been documented in the Chinese population, a normative database is only available for the US population. This study aimed to determine the normative values for these visuomotor and visual perceptual tests for preschool children in the Hong Kong Chinese population and to investigate the effect of fundamental visual functions on visuomotor and visual perceptual skills. One hundred seventy-four children from six different kindergartens in Hong Kong were recruited. Distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and stereopsis were tested, along with two measures of visual perception (VP): Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS). Raw VMI and TVPS scores were converted into standard/scaled scores. The impact of basic visual functions on VP (VMI and TVPS) was examined using multiple regression. Visual functions were generally good: only 9.2 and 4.6% of subjects had unilateral and bilateral reduced habitual vision, respectively (distance visual acuity in the better eye >0.3 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]). Performance in the VMI and in the visual memory and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS exceeded that reported for age-matched children from the United States. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence that age had the strongest predictive value for the VMI and VP skills. In addition, near visual acuity was weakly associated with performance in the VMI and the visual discrimination and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS, accounting for a limited proportion of the intersubject variability (R memory/spatial relationships of TVPS subtests, perhaps attributed to greater exposure to such material during their preschool home education. This study provided normality data for VMI and four subtests of the TVPS for Hong Kong Chinese preschool children as a reference for future studies.

  2. Using "Reading to Learn" (R2L) Pedagogy to Teach Discussion Genre to Non-Chinese-Speaking Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Mark Shiu-kee; Tai, Chung Pui; Shi, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Non-Chinese-speaking (NCS) South Asian students, as ethnic minority group in Hong Kong, are the main disadvantaged social cohort in Chinese language learning. It has been a challenge for L1 Chinese teachers to conduct L2 Chinese teaching to NCS students with diversified native languages and socio-cultural backgrounds. "Reading to Learn,…

  3. Sexual dysfunction among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong: prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-03-01

    Although female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a serious public health issue endangering women's well-being, systematic research on FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong is quite scarce. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong. This study was based on a community-based survey across Hong Kong conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 2012 with 1,518 married women aged 21-49 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition classification was adopted to assess FSD. It was found that 25.6% of the married women surveyed reported at least one form of sexual dysfunction and that the prevalence of six domains of sexual dysfunction was as follows: 10.6% for lack of interest in sex, 10.5% for not finding sex pleasurable, 9.3% for lubrication difficulties, 8.8% for inability to achieve orgasm, 8.8% for orgasm delay, and 8.4% for physical pain during sex. Multivariate analyses showed that low education and income, average or poor health, lower frequency of sex, abortion history, traditional attitudes toward sex, and marital dissatisfaction are all significant risk factors for different components of FSD. It was also been found that four domains of FSD (the exceptions being orgasm delay and physical pain during sex) have severe consequences for married women's life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The prevalence of FSD is lower among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong than among women in the United States and some Asian countries. The risk factors associated with FSD include sociodemographic factors, physical health, sexual experience and attitudes, and relationship factors. FSD has significant consequences for married women's life quality. These findings have great implications for FSD prevention and relevant service delivery. © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  4. Education, Culture and Politics: The Evolution of Chinese Education at the University of Hong Kong, 1911-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The University of Hong Kong (HKU), following its establishment in 1911, has assumed the mission of bridging British and Chinese cultures, to prepare European and Chinese elite youth for political and other professional careers, and thus to improve Britain's cultural influence in competition with other western powers with regard to China. Dominated…

  5. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Hong Kong Chinese Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.; Wu, Joseph; Shardlow, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on social work students' attitudes toward lesbians and gays in East Asian countries where intolerance toward nonheterosexuality has been documented. This article presents findings from the first study in Hong Kong using a Chinese version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) to measure…

  6. The Role of SES in Chinese (L1) and English (L2) Word Reading in Chinese-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and word reading in both Chinese (L1) and English (L2), with children's cognitive/linguistic skills considered as mediators and/or moderators. One hundred ninety-nine Chinese kindergarteners in Hong Kong with diverse SES backgrounds participated in this study. SES…

  7. The Role of Stroke Knowledge in Reading and Spelling in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lap-yan; Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the types of orthographic knowledge that are important in learning to read and spell Chinese words in a 2-year longitudinal study following 289 Hong Kong Chinese children from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Multiple regression results showed that radical knowledge significantly predicted children's word reading and spelling…

  8. Promoting social-emotional learning in Chinese schools: A feasibility study of PATHS implementation in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Kam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot study of a reduced version of the PATHS Curriculum, a Usdeveloped evidence-based SEL program, among schools in Hong Kong SAR (China. Three hundred and sixteen 12th grade students in three elementary schools participated in the study. A limited number of first grade PATHS lessons were adapted and translated into Chinese. Twelve teachers learned and adopted these lessons in their teaching. Students in these classrooms learned about different emotions and practiced self-control. The intervention lasted four months. After the intervention, students showed improvement in emotion understanding, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior. No change was observed in the level of children's problem behaviors. Over 65% of the teachers reported a high degree of satisfaction and willingness to adopt the intervention. The effects of the intervention varied among schools, with variations in the level of intervention and principal support, but not in the quality of implementation. Discussion is focused on the factors that could shape the adoption and implementation of SEL programs, especially the role of the difference in school systems between Hong Kong and the United States.

  9. Family Processes and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Y. C. L. Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships between perceived family functioning (systemic correlate, parent-adolescent communication (dyadic correlate, and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to global family functioning and parent-adolescent communication. Regression analyses indicated that the dyadic and systemic factors had similar importance in predicting suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Caregiving Perceptions of Chinese Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Ho, Gladys S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In this study, we tested the effects of three different coping strategies (i.e. problem-focused, emotion-focused and relationship-focused coping) on both positive and negative caregiving perceptions. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twelve Chinese mothers of children with intellectual disability from a major non-governmental…

  11. Preschool Predictors of Dyslexia Status in Chinese First Graders with High or Low Familial Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2014-01-01

    The present 4-year longitudinal study examined preschool predictors of Grade 1 dyslexia status in a Chinese population in Hong Kong where children started learning to read at the age of three. Seventy-five and 39 Chinese children with high and low familial risk respectively were tested on Chinese word reading, oral language skills, morphological…

  12. The Unintended Hegemonic Effects of a Limited Concession: Institutional Incorporation of Chinese Schools in Post-War Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of Chinese schools in post-Second World War Hong Kong, this paper explores the unintended consequences of an incomplete hegemonic project. After World War II, anti-imperialist pressures and rising educational demands in the local setting propelled the colonial authorities to be more active in providing and funding Chinese schools.…

  13. The Challenges for Educational Achievements of Young Mainland Chinese Migrants in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu-Cheung

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's population has increased by around one million per decade from the end of World War II till the 1990s. A large proportion of this growth came from the mass influx of migrants from Mainland China, and the children born to them. During the 1960s and 1970s when Hong Kong's economy was booming rapidly, career advancement opportunities were…

  14. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. H. Siu; Daniel T. L. Shek; Frank H. Y. Lai

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the correlates and predictors of prosocial behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. A sample of 518 high school students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of antisocial and prosocial behavior, prosocial norms, pragmatic values, moral reasoning, and empathy. Preliminary analyses showed that there were gender differences in some of the measures. While correlation analyses showed that parental education, prosocial norms, pragmatic values, moral reasonin...

  15. Validation of the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS) for primary school students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Wong, Agnes S K; Leung, Howard W H; Cheng, Joyce S; Chiu, Billy H W; Tse, Linda F L; Chung, Raymond C K

    2013-09-01

    There are more children diagnosed with specific learning difficulties in recent years as people are more aware of these conditions. Diagnostic tool has been validated to screen out this condition from the population (SpLD test for Hong Kong children). However, for specific assessment on handwriting problem, there seems a lack of standardized and objective evaluation tool to look into the problems. The objective of this study was to validate the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS), which is designed to measure both the process and production of handwriting. The construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of CHAS was analyzed using the data from 734 grade 1-6 students from 6 primary schools in Hong Kong. Principal Component Analysis revealed that measurements of CHAS loaded into 4 components which accounted for 77.73% of the variance. The correlation between the handwriting accuracy obtained from HAS and eyeballing was r=.73. Cronbach's alpha of all measurement items was .65. Except SD of writing time per character, all the measurement items regarding handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and pen pressure showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (r=.72-.96), while measurement on the numbers of characters which exceeded grid showed moderate reliability (r=.48). Although there are still ergonomic, biomechanical or unspecified aspects which may not be determined by the system, the CHAS can definitely assist therapists in identifying primary school students with handwriting problems and implement interventions accordingly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral health status and behaviours of preschool children in Hong Kong

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    Chu Chun-Hung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a major public health problem in many countries. Since the last territority-wide dental survey of Hong Kong preschool children was conducted in 2001, a survey to update the information is necessary. This study aimed to describe the dental caries experience of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors affecting their dental caries status. Methods A stratified random sample of children from seven kindergartens in Hong Kong was surveyed in 2009. Ethical approval from IRB and parental consent was obtained. Clinical examinations of the children were performed by two calibrated examiners using disposable dental mirrors, an intra-oral LED light and ball-ended periodontal probes. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory factors for caries status was completed by the children’s parents. Caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Multifactor-ANOVA was used to study the relationship between dental caries experience, and the background and oral health-related behaviours of the children. Results Seven hundred children (53% boys, mean age 5.3 ± 0.7 years were examined. The mean dmft score of the surveyed children was 2.2 and 51% of them had no caries experience (dmft = 0. Most (>95% of the decayed teeth were untreated. Statistically significant correlations were found between dental caries experience of the children and their oral health-related habits, family income, parental education level and parental dental knowledge. Conclusions Early childhood dental caries was prevalent among the preschool children in Hong Kong. Their caries experience was associated with their oral health-related behaviours, socio-economic background, and parental education and dental knowledge.

  17. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  18. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Vincent C. H.; Zhang, Anthony L.; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170

  19. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragh Brosnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China.

  20. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Kid-KINDLR Questionnaire for Measuring the Health-related Quality of Life of School-aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Phoebe L.C. Chan; Serena S.W. Ng; Dora Y.L. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Background: The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Kid-KINDLR questionnaire were examined with school-aged children in Hong Kong. Methods: A total of 112 healthy children were selected by convenience sampling from two primary schools and 30 children with global developmental delay were selected from an outpatient occupational therapy department of a convalescent hospital. The Kid-KINDLR questionnaire was translated using independent forward and backward transl...

  2. The Familial Risk and HLA Susceptibility among Narcolepsy Patients in Hong Kong Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Fong, S.Y.Y.; Lam, Ching W.; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Ng, Margaret H. L.; Li, Albert M.; Ho, C.K.W.; Cheng, Suk-Hang; Lau, Kin-Mang; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore the familial aggregation and HLA susceptibility of narcolepsy in Hong Kong Chinese by objective sleep measurements and HLA typing. Design: Case control design Participants: Twelve narcoleptic probands, 34 first-degree relatives, and 30 healthy controls. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Each subject underwent a standardized nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG), followed by a daytime multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). HLA typing was performed for all subjects. One relative (2.9%) was diagnosed as suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy. Nearly 30% of the relatives fulfilled the criteria of narcolepsy spectrum disorder (shortened mean sleep latency [MSL] and/or the presence of sleep onset REM periods [SOREMPs]). When using the population data for comparison, the relative risk of narcolepsy in first-degree relatives was 85.3. The odds ratio of narcolepsy spectrum disorder in first-degree relatives was 5.8 (95% CI: 1.2 – 29.3) when compared to healthy controls. There existed 6 multiplex families, in which all 10 relatives with narcolepsy spectrum disorders, including all 3 relatives with multiple SOREMPs, were positive for HLA DQB1*0602. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a definitive familial aggregation of narcolepsy, narcolepsy spectrum disorders, and possibly cataplexy in Hong Kong Chinese. This familial aggregation supported an inherited basis for narcolepsy spectrum. The tight co-segregation of HLA DQB1*0602 and narcolepsy spectrum disorders might suggest that HLA typing, especially DQB1*0602, at least partly confer the familial risk of narcolepsy. In addition, our study suggested that the subjective questionnaire measurements including Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were unable to detect the presence of narcolepsy spectrum disorders among the relatives. A stringent objective measurement-based design for family studies is suggested for future study. Further studies are indicated for the determination

  3. A cross-sectional study of the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduate males and females in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing Chi; Li, Mei Kuen; Chan, Wai Ying Veronica; Choi, Yuen Yu; Fong, Chi Hung Sandra; Lam, Ka Wah Kara; Sham, Wun Chi; So, Ping Ping; Wong, Kit; Yeung, Kuen Ha; Yeung, Tsz Yan

    2013-12-01

    To explore the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong and to compare those of (1) male and female undergraduates with those of (2) undergraduates studying health-related vs. nonhealth-related programmes. Menstruation is typically viewed as a forbidden topic or a troublesome experience. These negative beliefs and attitudes result from existing myths and taboos associated with cultural factors and health education levels. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all universities in Hong Kong. Undergraduates were invited through convenience sampling to complete a questionnaire assessing their attitudes and beliefs towards menstruation. A questionnaire on 'beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation' was adopted. Questionnaires were self-administered by the respondents. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, and a response rate of 96.6% was obtained; 416 completed questionnaires were collected and analysed. Many Chinese undergraduates agreed that menstruation is annoying, causes disability, involves prescription and proscription and is not pleasant. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese male undergraduates with those of female undergraduates, females tended to disagree that menstruation should be maintained secret, but tended to agree that it was annoying. When comparing the beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation of Chinese undergraduates studying health-related programmes with those under nonhealth-related programmes, the latter group exhibited a higher level of belief in prescription and proscription for menstruation than the former group. Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong were influenced by the traditional Chinese culture and social environment, resulting in negative attitudes towards menstruation. This study recommends that sex education, especially reproductive health education, be extended to tertiary education. This study provides relevant information on planning

  4. Determinants of infant growth: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L L; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lam, T H; Schooling, C Mary

    2010-11-01

    A high rate of infant growth may be associated with adult cardiovascular disease. We investigated factors associated with infant weight growth in a large sample from the recently transitioned population of Hong Kong. We used a nonlinear shape invariant model with random effects among 5949 term, singletons (77% follow-up) from a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" to investigate factors associated with weight growth in the first year of life. Overall birth weight was lower but infant growth was more rapid than the 2006 WHO standards. Shorter gestation and lower birth order were associated with lower birth weight and faster infant growth. Female sex, maternal smoking in pregnancy, and a mother born in Hong Kong were associated with lower birth weight, but not with faster growth. Higher maternal education was associated with faster infant growth, grades 10-11 (1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.05), greater than or equal to grade12 (1.07, CI = 1.04-1.09) compared with less than or equal to grade 9. Infant growth may respond more rapidly to socio-economic development than birth weight. Whether mother's education is associated with rapid infant growth via current conditions or her own "constitution" is unclear, nevertheless we believe this study illustrates the importance of contextually specific research for understanding the determinants of population health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual and Social Predictors of Prosocial Behavior among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Frank H. Y.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the human ecological model, this study hypothesized that individual competence in empathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and social influence from parents, peers, and school are the key determinants of prosocial behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. We recruited a sample of high school students who engaged in volunteering activities regularly (N = 580). They completed a self-administrated questionnaire designed to measure prosocial behavior and its hypothesized predictors usi...

  6. Post-retirement voluntary work and psychological functioning among older Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine S K; Yan, Elsie C W

    2005-03-01

    This study examined demographic and psychosocial differences between older Chinese volunteers and non-volunteers. The influences of work-related factors on older Chinese volunteers' post-retirement psychological functioning and life satisfaction were also explored. A total of 501 older Chinese in Hong Kong were individually interviewed. About 65% of them were involved in community voluntary work since their retirement, with an average of four hours per week. Compared to those without voluntary work experiences, older Chinese volunteers had higher educational attainment and reported better physical health, higher self-efficacy, greater life satisfaction, and less psychological distress. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that salient correlates of a low level of psychological distress in older Chinese volunteers were high educational attainment, high self-efficacy, perceived good physical health, and high levels of perceived rewards and satisfaction from voluntary work. Self-efficacy and perceived rewards from voluntary work were also salient correlates of life satisfaction for older Chinese volunteers. As hypothesized, work-related factors of perceived rewards and work satisfaction remained significant correlates of older volunteers' psychological well-being, even after controlling for demographic and individual psychosocial factors. Limitations and implications of the study were also discussed.

  7. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  8. Adolescent-parent relations in Hong Kong: parenting styles, emotional autonomy, and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, C; Chang, L

    1998-12-01

    This 4-phase study of Hong Kong Chinese adolescent-parent relationships (906 adolescents and 1,091 parents) revealed the following: (a) Adolescents and their parents differ in their perceptions of parenting style. (b) Autonomy is negatively associated with parents' perceived authoritative parenting style and school achievement. (c) Neither parenting style nor measures of parents' beliefs in training their children (R. Chao, 1994) are associated with self-reports of school achievement. However, (d) parents of students from the highest (Band 1) academically oriented schools in Hong Kong rated themselves as higher in authoritativeness and lower in authoritarianism than parents of adolescents from the lowest academically oriented (Band 5) schools. Findings are discussed in relation to posited differences in adolescent-parent relationships in Western and Chinese cultures.

  9. The impact of immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Bai, Dorothy Li; Chan, Noel P T; Wong, Janet Y H; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Researchers have found breastfeeding disparities between immigrant and native-born women in many countries. However, most studies on immigration and breastfeeding practices have been in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of length of time since immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants living in Hong Kong. We recruited 2704 mother-infant pairs from the postnatal wards of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. We examined the effect of migration status on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was progressively shorter as the time since immigration increased. When compared with mothers who had lived in Hong Kong for Hong Kong-born participants had a 30% higher risk of stopping any breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.10-1.63]) and exclusive breastfeeding (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11-1.58]). In both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants, breastfeeding cessation was associated with return to work postpartum and the husband's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding. Intention to exclusively breastfeed and to breastfeed for >6 months, and previous breastfeeding experience substantially reduced the risk of breastfeeding cessation for both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants. Health care professionals should consider immigration history in their assessment of pregnant women and provide culturally adapted breastfeeding support and encouragement to this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. South Asian Students' Needs for Cantonese and Written Chinese in Hong Kong: A Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.; Chuk, Joanne Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative data obtained from 15 South Asian (SA) B.Ed. (EL) (Bachelor of Education in English Language) students, this study reports on SA students' difficulty in mastering Mandarin-based written Chinese and the vernacular Cantonese in Hong Kong. For convenience, SA here also refers to students whose homeland is the Philippines. Since…

  11. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children's psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A random sample of 42 children aged 10-13, with 25 from low- and 17 from high-income families were asked to voluntarily response to a demographic sheet and undergo individual semi-structured interviews which lasted about 25-30 min. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (reference UW 12-237). The findings of this study revealed that the living environment, physical health, social life and ability to function at school of children from low-income families are severely impaired. It fills a gap in the literature by showing how poverty and income disparity affect the daily lives of children from low-income families on different levels. Also, adopting a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are possible factors mediating the effects of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of children from low-income families. It is vital for healthcare professionals going beyond their normal roles to give advice on healthy lifestyles and behaviors by building multidisciplinary partnerships with schools and the community. Additionally, healthcare professionals should also target on these two possible factors to develop and implement appropriate interventions for promoting the psychological well-being among children living in poverty. Trial registration NCT02877719. 19 August 2016 retrospectively registered.

  12. A model for facilitating translational research and development in China: Call for establishing a Hong Kong Branch of the Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Bian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With significant improvements in living standards in China and the aging population that accompanies these improvements, the market demand for high-quality orthopaedic biomaterials for clinical applications is tremendous and growing rapidly. There are major efforts to promote cooperation between different scientific institutes with complementary strengths for the further development of the biomaterial industry in China to achieve the technological level of developed countries. An excellent example is that the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST; Beijing, China established the Chinese National Engineering Research Centres (CNERCs, which serve as a major initiative in driving basic and applied technological research and development (R&D in mainland China. To create a win-win situation with Hong Kong, the MOST and the Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Commission are jointly establishing the Hong Kong Branch of the CNERCs. Through an amicable arrangement, the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK; Shatin, Hong Kong and the Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Biomaterials (i.e., Main Centre in Chengdu, People's Republic of China have decided to apply to establish the Hong Kong Branch of the CNERC for Biomaterials at the CUHK. The effort in establishing the Hong Kong Branch of Biomaterials seeks to promote further collaboration with the Main Centre with the goals of promoting synergy and a win-win cooperation between mainland China and Hong Kong in scientific research, talent cultivation, clinically driven novel biomaterials product design, and preclinical and clinical testing. It will thus become a model for the successful collaboration between the Hong Kong research institutions and the mainland CNERCs in the area of biomaterials. Such initiatives will facilitate close collaboration in translational medicine associated with biomaterial development and application.

  13. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, learning motivations, and learning outcomes. Convergent findings suggest that a materialist orientation in elementary school children lowers intrinsic learning motivations, fosters extrinsic learning motivations, and leads to poorer learning outcomes. Materialism was linked directly to lower exam performance, and this link was mediated by lower mastery and heightened performance goals, with patterns not differing between British and Hong Kong Chinese children (Study 1). A follow-up showed that initial materialism predicted worse exam grades 1 year later, suggesting a detrimental long-term effect on Chinese children's school performance (Study 2). We then tested relationships between materialism and learning experimentally, by priming a momentary (state) orientation toward materialism. Writing about material possessions and money affected Chinese children's learning motivations, so that they endorsed lower mastery and higher performance goals (Study 3). A video-diary materialism prime had significant effects on actual learning behaviors, leading British children to (a) choose a performance-oriented learning task over a mastery-oriented task and (b) give up on the task more quickly (Study 4). This research has important implications for personality psychology, educational policy, and future research.

  14. Social Construction of National Reality: Chinese Consciousness versus Hong Kong Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lai Tony Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The struggle to break away from the parent state and claim for independence often results in political unrest, terrorist activities and even ethnic cleansing. In East Asia, the hostilities between people from Hong Kong and mainland China also intensify rapidly in recent years. The late 2000s and early 2010s witness a surge in anti-Mainlander sentiment in Hong Kong and a call for self-determination, resulting in a series of political upheavals. In literatures, irredentist and secessionist advocators generally defend themselves in terms of common blood, race and culture. None of them regards the issue from human agency theory. This paper has two objectives. Firstly, based largely on the works of Max Weber, W.I. Thomas, Alfred Schutz and Peter Berger, this paper constructs a theoretical framework, namely, the social construction of national reality, which allows us to explain the origin of national identity and the reason for people to call for autonomy or secession. It will argue that collective consciousness originates from everyday life experience taken for granted during socialization. Individuals make sense of the external world. Experiences taken for granted become the actor’s stock of knowledge. A common scheme of knowledge shared by the community serves to differentiate in-group (nationals and out-group (foreigners. Collective consciousness thus defines national identity and hence a nation. Unless people (both in-group and out-group interact with and learn from each other, different stocks of knowledge taken for granted will create conflict. This theory is applied to explain growing Sinophobia in Hong Kong. The confrontation between traditional Chinese consciousness and emerging Hong Kong consciousness undermines the peaceful coexistence among Hongkongers and Mainlanders, unless both parties redefine their stock of knowledge via dynamic learning. The paper concludes that in order to reduce the conflicts in the regions, understanding the

  15. Hong Kong faces uncertain future as oil supply centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Paul [Pearl Oil Ltd. (Hong Kong)

    1997-09-01

    Hong Kong`s first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as `a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong` fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory`s oil industry either. (author)

  16. The influence of the Chinese zodiac on fertility in Hong Kong SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Joseph; Cheung, Y B

    2002-11-01

    The annual total of births in Hong Kong SAR fell substantially in the past 20 years; hence the total fertility rate (TFR) followed the downward trend and dropped to a low of 0.9 below replacement level in 2000. Despite the long-term downward trend, short-run increases in the annual total of births and the TFR were exhibited. Such temporary fertility increases are identified in the Dragon Years of 1988 and 2000. The phenomenon of fertility changes associated with zodiacal animal years is examined in this paper with a view to gaining some insight into whether Chinese cultural preferences and folklore beliefs might have influenced prospective parents' reproductive behaviour. The paper explains the underlying philosophy of the Chinese astrological tradition and discusses how zodiacal preferences affect fertility between 1976 and 2000. The paper also explores why zodiacal influences on Chinese fertility before 1976 did not exist. It is unquestionable that the Dragon Year preference exerts an influence on fertility of modern Chinese populations through zodiacal birth-timing motivations. Birth rate rise in the Dragon Year is due to changes in timing of births that will have little effect on cumulative fertility.

  17. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

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    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  18. Leadership Competencies among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: "The Connection with Emotional Intelligence and Successful Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined components of leadership competencies in relation to emotional intelligence and successful intelligence among 498 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. These students rated themselves significantly higher on goal orientation than leadership flexibility, which was also rated significantly higher than leadership self-efficacy.…

  19. Holistic versus Analytic Processing: Evidence for a Different Approach to Processing of Chinese at the Word and Character Levels in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Phil D.; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Among 30 Hong Kong Chinese fourth graders, sensitivities to character and word constructions were examined in judgment tasks at each level. There were three conditions across both tasks: the real condition, consisting of either actual two-character compound Chinese words or real Chinese compound characters; the reversed condition, with either the…

  20. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Victimization in a Representative Sample in Hong Kong Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…

  1. Decision-making for non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: Hong Kong Chinese women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J Y C; Yi, H; Ahmed, S

    2016-05-01

    Individual autonomy in antenatal screening is internationally recognized and supported. Policy and practice guidelines in various countries place emphasis on the woman's right to make her own decision and are related to concepts such as self-determination, independence, and self-sufficiency. In contrast, the dominant perspective in Chinese medical ethics suggests that the family is pivotal in making medical decisions, hence providing support for relational autonomy. This study explored Hong Kong Chinese pregnant women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome. A qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 36 women who had undertaken NIPT in Hong Kong. The findings show that most Hong Kong Chinese women valued aspects of both relational and individual autonomy in decision-making for NIPT. Women expected support from doctors as experts on the topic and wanted to involve their husband in decision-making while retaining control over the outcome. Somewhat surprisingly, the findings do not provide support for the involvement of family members in decision-making for NIPT. The adequacy of current interpretations of autonomy in prenatal testing policies as an individual approach needs discussion, where policy developers need to find a balance between individual and relational approaches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Validation of a questionnaire on behaviour academic competence among Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K; Leung, Shirley S L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Besides, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive domain of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour, as well as the Strength and Difficulty Scale (SDQ). Their teachers completed the questionnaire on academic competence behaviour. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the scale, with one item deleted. The parent and teacher versions of the revised scale correlated positively with the cognitive domain of the PDAS and the prosocial scale of the SDQ and negatively with SDQ total problem behaviour score. Children with developmental delay were assigned lower scores by their parents and teachers, compared with preschool children, on the revised versions of the academic competence behaviour scale. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of this revised scale were above .80. The results suggested that the two versions of academic competence behaviour scales were promising instruments for the assessment of academic competence behaviour among Chinese preschool children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aetiological bases of 46,XY disorders of sex development in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel O K; But, W M; Lee, C Y; Lam, Y Y; Ng, K L; Loung, P Y; Lam, Aimen; Cheng, C W; Shek, C C; Wong, W S; Wong, K F; Wong, M Y; Tse, W Y

    2015-12-01

    Disorders of sex development are due to congenital defects in chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex development. The objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of this group of disorders in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Five public hospitals in Hong Kong. Patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development under the care of paediatric endocrinologists between July 2009 and June 2011. Measurement of serum gonadotropins, adrenal and testicular hormones, and urinary steroid profiling. Mutational analysis of genes involved in sexual differentiation by direct DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, 64 patients were recruited for the study. Their age at presentation ranged from birth to 17 years. The majority presented with ambiguous external genitalia including micropenis and severe hypospadias. A few presented with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Baseline and post-human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels were not discriminatory in patients with or without AR gene mutations. Of the patients, 22 had a confirmed genetic disease, with 11 having 5α-reductase 2 deficiency, seven with androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme deficiency, Frasier syndrome, NR5A1-related sex reversal, and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. Our findings suggest that 5α-reductase 2 deficiency and androgen insensitivity syndrome are possibly the two most common causes of 46,XY disorders of sex development in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Since hormonal findings can be unreliable, mutational analysis of the SRD5A2 and AR genes should be considered the first-line tests for these patients.

  4. Barriers of Chinese primary care attenders to seeking help for psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai Sing; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lo, Tak Lam; Chao, David Vai Kiong; Lam, Edmund Wing Wo

    2016-05-15

    Most of the previous studies on help seeking for psychological distress were derived from Western countries. This study investigated the barriers to help-seeking for psychological distress among Chinese primary care attenders in Hong Kong. Nine focus groups and 6 individual interviews were conducted among Chinese primary care attenders with/without known distress, patients' significant others and the general public. The identified barriers were investigated in a questionnaire survey with data from 1626 primary care attenders recruited from 13 private clinics and 6 public clinics. Worries about side effects of drugs (79.9%, 95% CI:(77.9%, 81.8%)) and drug dependency (74.7%, 95% CI:(72.5%, 76.8%)) were rated as the top barriers in the survey. Qualitative interviews found both worries and actual experience of the side effects of drugs, which weakened patients' trust in the treatment. Factor analysis on all barrier items suggested three factors: 1) worries of treatment, 2) uncertainties on primary care physicians' capacity, 3) public's limited knowledge on distress and sources of help. Distress level, education level and age were associated with factor 1, whereas distress level and healthcare setting were associated with the other two factors. Qualitative interviews revealed that not having a regular primary care physician in the public setting discouraged disclosure of psychological problems. The findings were based on self-reported data from the respondents. Hong Kong is influenced by a mixed Chinese and Western culture. Relevant public education in a Chinese context should target at reducing patients' worries of drug treatment and strengthening the image of primary care physicians as a feasible source of help. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Linguistic influence on mathematical development is specific rather than pervasive: revisiting the Chinese Number Advantage in Chinese and English children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winifred eMark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative linguistic transparency of the Asian counting system has been used to explain Asian students’ relative superiority in cross-cultural comparisons of mathematics achievement. To test the validity and extent of linguistic transparency in accounting for mathematical abilities, this study tested Chinese and British primary school children. Children in Hong Kong can learn mathematics using languages with both regular (Chinese and irregular (English counting systems, depending on their schools’ medium of instruction. This makes it possible to compare groups with varying levels of exposure to the regular and irregular number systems within the same educational system, curriculum, and cultural environment. The study included three groups of first/second graders and third/fourth graders with varying degrees of experience to the Chinese language and counting systems: no experience (UK; n=49; spoke Chinese at home and learnt to count in English at school (HK-E; n=43; spoke Chinese at home and learnt to count in Chinese at school (HK-C; n=47. They were compared on counting, numerical abilities and place value representation. The present study also measured nonverbal reasoning, attitude towards mathematics, involvement of parents, and extra-curricular mathematics lessons to explore alternative explanations of children’s numeric ability. Results indicated that students in HK-C were better at counting backward and on the numeric skills test than those in HK-E, who were in turn better than the UK students. However, there was no statistical difference in counting forward, place value understanding, and a measure of arithmetic. Our findings add to existent literature suggesting that linguistic transparency does not have an all-pervasive influence on cross-national differences in arithmetic performance.

  6. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  7. The experiences of Hong Kong Chinese parents of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, B S

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Respondents consisted of a convenience sample of nine mothers and eight fathers. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were scheduled to coincide with the disease trajectory, and were analyzed using the matrix system described by Miles and Huberman. Major categories identified include parental reactions, methods used by the parents to disclose the child's diagnosis to others, changes in the family routine, and the preferred sources of parental support. Implications for health professionals include a need for thorough psychosocial assessment of the affected children, parents, and siblings. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  8. Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language.

  9. Burnout and Life Satisfaction: Does Gratitude Intervention Make a Difference among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a gratitude intervention programme in promoting life satisfaction and reducing burnout symptoms. Sixty-three Hong Kong Chinese school teachers aged 22-54 participated in an eight-week count-your-blessings study that used a pre-test/post-test design. Increases in life satisfaction and the sense of…

  10. Treatment-related stresses and anxiety-depressive symptoms among Chinese outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sing; Chiu, Alice; Tsang, Adley; Chow, Chun-Chung; Chan, Wing-Bun

    2006-12-01

    Based on focus group findings, a descriptive instrument was developed to examine the relationship among treatment-related stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, distress, and impairment of 333 Chinese outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Hong Kong. It was found that the main stresses included fears of diabetes complications, work impairment, lifestyle adjustment, stigmatization, and discrimination. Over 1/4 of patients concealed their DM from family members in order not to make the latter worry. 28.3% felt that life was not worth living. 33.6% of patients exhibited four or more anxiety and depressive symptoms accompanied by significant distress and/or impairment. These patients were more likely to be female, of lower educational level, and unemployed. Diabetes complications, concealment of DM, and feeling of being a burden to the family predicted anxious-depressed status. The study showed that treatment-related stresses and anxiety-depressive symptoms were common and associated among Chinese diabetes outpatients in Hong Kong.

  11. Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction among children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H S S; Lau, P H B; Fong, K H; Poon, D; Lam, C C C

    2005-10-01

    To study children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong, their neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction in society. Parents' opinion on current medical and rehabilitation services was also sought. Systematic survey using questionnaires. Four associations in Hong Kong: Child Assessment Service, Hong Kong Association for Parents of Children with Physical Disabilities, Association of Parents of the Severely Mentally Handicapped, and Hong Kong Physically Handicapped and Able-Bodied Association. Parents of children with cerebral palsy. Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction. Information from 181 children with cerebral palsy was analysed. Among them, 56% were boys. The mean age was 7 years 6 months (standard deviation, 3 years 11 months). The most common diagnostic type was spastic cerebral palsy. Co-morbidities in children with cerebral palsy were common. Limitation in daily activities including mobility and self-care tasks was considerable and this posed great stress to parents when taking care of their children. Children's participation in both social and leisure activities was regarded as a low priority. A high percentage (70%) of parents reported difficulty in travelling. The reasons involved problems in transportation, building access (entry and exit), and attitudes of the general public. These environmental factors restricted the social participation of the children and their families. Over 75% of parents were satisfied with the current medical and rehabilitation services. Children with cerebral palsy have multiple and complex needs. The findings of this study may serve as a reference for parents, service providers, and policy makers to work in partnership to achieve a more comprehensive health-care service for children with cerebral palsy and to facilitate better integration into the community.

  12. Subjective Well-Being of Hong Kong Chinese Teachers: The Contribution of Gratitude, Forgiveness, and the Orientations to Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and forgiveness contribute to subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) above the contribution of the three orientations to happiness in a sample of 143 Hong Kong Chinese teachers. Gratitude and forgiveness correlated substantially and significantly with each other,…

  13. Body image and eating attitudes among adolescent Chinese girls in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Maria S C; Yuen, Mantak

    2003-02-01

    The study investigated the relation between body image and eating attitudes among adolescent girls in Hong Kong. A sample of 358 senior secondary school girls completed the measures assessing body-part satisfaction and behaviors associated with eating. Analysis indicated that even though only 4.8% of the girls were overweight, 85.16% desired to weigh less. These Chinese teenage girls were concerned about their weight, and the desire for slimness was widespread. Correlations indicated that higher Body Mass Index was associated with lower satisfaction with weight. Lower scores on weight satisfaction were associated with higher scores on attitudes of dieting and food preoccupation.

  14. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage.

  15. Postgraduate education for Chinese medicine practitioners: a Hong Kong perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in

  16. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  17. Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being among Hong Kong Chinese Older Adults: Exploring the Moderating Role of Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Fung, Helene H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and psychological well-being--self-esteem and relatedness satisfaction--among 102 Hong Kong Chinese older adults. It also tested whether independent-interdependent self-construal moderated the association. Physical activity, self esteem, relatedness satisfaction, and self-construal…

  18. Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…

  19. An Exploratory Study on the Quality of Life of Older Chinese People Living Alone in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jik Joen

    2005-01-01

    This study successfully interviewed 109 randomly selected Chinese people aged 60 and over living alone in two public housing estates in an urban area of Hong Kong. The results show that mental health status, number of days staying in hospital, life satisfaction, age, and self-esteem are significant factors in predicting the life quality of older…

  20. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems, characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features of Hong Kong English are noticeable

  1. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  2. Lifestyle and Addictive Behaviors Among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong, Macau, Taipei, Wuhan, and Zhuhai-a First Cross-subculture Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Lau, Maggie; Kan, Ming Yue; Chiang, I-Chyun; Hu, Yih-Jin; Gong, Jie; Li, Lue; Ngok, King-Lun

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the differences in prevalence rates of common health behavior among adolescents in the five Chinese cities and the influential factors at the contextual and individual levels. We compared the standardized rates of three lifestyle behaviors (sedentary, dietary, and physical activity) and three addictive behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and participation in gambling) among a sample of 13,950 adolescents. The sample was randomly selected from five cities, including Hong Kong, Macau, Taipei, Zhuhai, and Wuhan. Population size, GDP per capita, and literacy at the city level as well as parental monitoring and school performance at the student's level were assessed. Multi-level mixed effect models were used to examine the interaction of individual level factors with study sites. The six health behaviors differed significantly across sites with the highest rates of alcohol consumption in Hong Kong (39.5 %), of cigarette smoking in Macau (9.8 %), and of gambling in Taipei (37.1 %) and Hong Kong (35.9 %). The city-level measures were associated with only a few behavioral measures. Relative to Hong Kong, parental monitoring had stronger association with the three addictive behaviors in the other sites. Findings suggest that although the study sites share similar Chinese culture, students in the five cities differed from each other with regard to levels of health behaviors. Relative to the broad socioeconomic development, differences in parental monitoring played a significant role in explaining the observed difference.

  3. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P H Chau

    Full Text Available Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK. Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading, knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799 and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846. The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115 than that among those who were not aware of the slogan

  4. Examining the association between participation in late-life leisure activities and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace T Y; Fung, Ada W T; Tam, Cindy W C; Lui, Victor W C; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, W M; Lam, Linda C W

    2010-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that participation in late-life leisure activity may have beneficial effects on cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation and cognitive function in an elderly population of community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese. 512 participants were assessed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey of the prevalence of cognitive impairment among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 years and over. Leisure activities were classified into four categories (physical, intellectual, social and recreational). Information regarding leisure activity participation, cognitive function and other variables was collected. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the association between leisure activity participation and cognitive function. A higher level of late-life leisure activity participation, particularly in intellectual activities, was significantly associated with better cognitive function in the elderly, as reflected by the results of the Cantonese Mini-mental State Examination (p = 0.007, 0.029 and 0.005), the Category Verbal Fluency Test (p = 0.027, 0.003 and 0.005) and digit backward span (p = 0.031, 0.002 and 0.009), as measured by the total frequency, total hours per week and total number of subtypes, respectively; the Chinese Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (p = 0.045) and word list learning (p = 0.003), as measured by the total number of subtypes; and digit forward span (p = 0.007 and 0.015), as measured by the total hours per week and total number of subtypes, respectively. Late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with better cognitive function among community-dwelling Hong Kong elderly Chinese.

  5. Executive Functioning Skills Uniquely Predict Chinese Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-five Hong Kong Chinese children were tested across both the 2nd and 3rd years of kindergarten (ages 4-5 years) on tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and word reading. With age, vocabulary knowledge, and metalinguistic skills statistically controlled, the…

  6. Development and validation of the interview version of the Hong Kong Chinese WHOQOL-BREF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K F; Wong, W W; Tay, M S M; Chu, M M L; Ng, S S W

    2005-06-01

    The Hong Kong Chinese version of the WHOQOL-BREF was designed as a self-administered questionnaire and has limitations in clinical application on subjects who have limitations in reading or writing. An interview version is therefore needed to avoid sampling biases in clinical studies. Since there are significant differences in the written Chinese and spoken Cantonese, which is a dialect commonly spoken among people in Hong Kong, and adaptation process for converting the written Chinese into spoken Cantonese was necessary. The interview version was designed to allow administration in both face-to-face interview and telephone interview mode. Three members of the research team translated the formal written Chinese in the self-administered version of the WHOQOL-BREF(HK) into colloquial Cantonese separately. Brief notes extracted from the facet definitions of the WHOQOL-100 were added in brackets after some questions to further explain the intention of the questions. Two series of focus groups were conducted and subsequently the field test version was produced. 329 subjects were recruited by convenient sampling method for the field test. The interview version and the self-administered version was found equivalent. The ICC values of the domain scores ranged from 0.73 in the environment domain to 0.83 in the psychological domain. The face-to-face interview and telephone interview mode of administration were also found equivalent. The ICC for the domain scores ranged from 0.76 in the social interaction domain to 0.84 in the psychological domain. The other psychometric properties of the interview version were found comparable to the self-administered version. The self-administered and the interview version of the WHOQOL-BREF are regarded as identical in group comparison. The authors advise that it is acceptable to use different versions on different subjects in the same study, provided that the same version is applied on the same subject throughout the study.

  7. Adventure Education and the Acculturation of First-Generation Chinese Canadians in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Simon; Gidlow, Bob; Cushman, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research that demonstrates how parents in first-generation Chinese families in Vancouver, Canada, most of them from Hong Kong, control their children's involvement in local adventure education (AE) programs and in so doing minimize the likelihood of intergenerational culture conflict involving those children. The research…

  8. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  9. Unmet supportive care needs: a cross-cultural comparison between Hong Kong Chinese and German Caucasian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Au, Angel H Y; Wong, Jennifer H F; Lehmann, Claudia; Koch, Uwe; Fielding, Richard; Mehnert, Anja

    2011-11-01

    The comparison of psychosocial needs across different cultural settings can identify cultural and service impacts on psychosocial outcomes. We compare psychosocial needs in Hong Kong Chinese and German Caucasian women with breast cancer. Completed questionnaires were collected from 348 Chinese and 292 German women with breast cancer for assessing unmet psychosocial needs (Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form), psychological distress (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), and listed physical and psychological symptoms. Only 11% of the participants reported not needing help for any of the 34 items. More German (14%) than Chinese women (8%) reported no unmet needs (χ(2) = 6.16, P = .013). With both samples combined, the Health System and Information domain unmet needs were the most prevalent, apart from one Psychological need domain item, "Fear about the cancer spreading." Chinese and German samples differed significantly in prevalence and patterns of unmet psychosocial needs. Multivariate adjustment for demographic, clinical, and sample characteristics, psychological distress, and symptoms showed that significantly greater unmet Health system and Information, and Patient care and support domain needs, associated with the presence of symptoms (β = .232, P German group membership, among others. German women reported more anxiety (t = 10.45, P German, but not Chinese women reporting greater anxiety and depression had greater unmet Psychological and Sexuality domain needs (P culture-specific differences in supportive care needs exist. Hong Kong Chinese women prioritize needs for information about their disease and treatment, whereas German Caucasian women prioritize physical and psychological support. Planning for cancer supportive care services or interventions to reduce unmet needs must consider cultural and/or health service contexts.

  10. Managing Workplace Conflict in the United States and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Catherine H.; Brett, Jeanne M.

    2001-07-01

    We propose that managers have norms (standards of appropriate behavior) for resolving conflict, that these norms are culturally based, and that they explain cultural differences in conflict management outcomes. We confirm that the traditionally American norms of discussing parties' interests and synthesizing multiple issues were exhibited more strongly by American managers than by their Hong Kong Chinese counterparts. In addition, we confirm that the traditionally Chinese norms of concern for collective interests and concern for authority appeared more strongly among Hong Kong Chinese managers than among their American counterparts. American managers were more likely than Hong Kong Chinese managers, to resolve a greater number of issues and reach more integrative outcomes, while Hong Kong Chinese managers were more likely to involve higher management in conflict resolution. Culture had a significant effect on whether parties selected an integrative outcome rather than an outcome that involved distribution, compromise, higher management, or no resolution at all. Conflict norms explained the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching an outcome involving distribution, compromise, or higher management; however, conflict norms did not fully explain the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching no resolution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Cross, culture, confusion: conflict and community in a Chinese church in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Weichong Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Through oral history, this project studies a church congregation consisting of families from Hong Kong who came to Canada after the 1970s, professing Chinese ethnicity, while laying claims also to Canadian and Christian identities. As congregants made lives and raised children in both Chinese and Canadian cultures, they changed the way they imagined themselves as a community. Their divergent Chinese, Christian, and Canadian self-identifications affected their varied understandings and experie...

  12. Hong Kong faces uncertain future as oil supply centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Hong Kong's first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as 'a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong' fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory's oil industry either. (author)

  13. Attitudes towards and perceptions of visual loss and its causes among Hong Kong Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tak Fai; Lee, Vincent; Fan, Dorothy; Lau, Mason; Michon, John

    2004-06-01

    As part of a study of visual function among Hong Kong Chinese adults, their attitudes and perceptions related to visual loss were examined. These included fear of visual loss, negative functional impacts of visual loss, the relationship between ageing and visual loss and help-seeking behaviours related to visual loss. Demographic factors associated with these variables were also studied. The study population were people aged 40 and above randomly selected from the Shatin district of Hong Kong. The participants underwent eye examinations that included visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, visual field, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. The primary cause of visual disability was recorded. The participants were also asked about their attitudes and perceptions regarding visual loss using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of bilateral visual disability was 2.2% among adults aged 40 or above and 6.4% among adults aged 60 or above. Nearly 36% of the participants selected blindness as the most feared disabling medical condition, which was substantially higher than conditions such as dementia, loss of limbs, deafness or aphasia. Inability to take care of oneself (21.0%), inconvenience related to mobility (20.2%) and inability to work (14.8%) were the three most commonly mentioned 'worst impact' effects of visual loss. Fully 68% of the participants believed that loss of vision is related to ageing. A majority of participants would seek help and advice from family members in case of visual loss. Visual function is perceived to be very important by Hong Kong Chinese adults. The fear of visual loss is widespread and particularly affects self-care and functional abilities. Visual loss is commonly seen as related to ageing. Attitudes and perceptions in this population may be modified by educational and outreach efforts in order to take advantage of preventive measures.

  14. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  15. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty; Yiu, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese parents and children in Hong Kong with significant behavior problems. Method: The participants (intervention group, 48; comparison group, 62) completed questionnaires on child behavior problems and parenting stress before and after…

  16. Clinical experience with a chronic pain management programme in Hong Kong Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Alice K Y; Chu, M C; Chen, P P; Ma, M; Gin, Tony

    2007-10-01

    To describe experience with a chronic pain management programme in Hong Kong Chinese patients. Prospective study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Patients with chronic pain who participated in the first six Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement programmes between 2002 and 2005. Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement is a 14-day structured, multidisciplinary out-patient programme conducted over 6 weeks. It includes pain education, cognitive re-conceptualisation, training in communication skills and coping strategies, graded physical exercises and functional activities training. It aims to improve patient function and quality of life, despite persistent pain. Changes in scores from baseline values after joining the programme, with respect to several assessment tools. These included the following: visual analogue pain scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Self-efficacy Questionnaire, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36 Questionnaire, and duration of physical tolerances, medication utilisation, and work status records. Forty-five patients were available for analysis. After the Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement programme, improvements in Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36 Questionnaire (role physical and vitality), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were demonstrated (P<0.05). The duration of standing and sitting tolerances increased (P<0.05). An improvement in employment rate was also evident (P=0.01). The initial results of our management programme in Chinese patients with chronic pain are encouraging. This type of programme should be promoted more widely in this group of patients, as it appears to improve physical function, psychological well-being, and productivity.

  17. Telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Bel Wong,2 Isaac Ip,2 Kenny Chui,2 Daniel Young,2 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region Purpose: Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers of PWD in alleviating caregiver burden and enhancing caregiving self-efficacy. Subjects and methods: In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 38 family caregivers of PWD were randomly allocated into an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received psychoeducation from a registered social worker over the phone for 12 sessions. Caregivers in the control group were given a DVD containing educational information about dementia caregiving. Outcomes of the intervention were measured by the Chinese versions of the Zarit Burden Interview and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-efficacy. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention and control groups. Results: The level of burden of caregivers in the intervention group reduced significantly compared with caregivers in the control group. Caregivers in the intervention group also reported significantly more gain in self-efficacy in obtaining respite than the control group. Conclusion: A structured telephone intervention can benefit dementia caregivers in terms of self-efficacy and caregiving burden. The limitations of the research and recommendations for intervention are discussed. Keywords: telephone intervention, psychoeducation, dementia caregivers

  18. The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

    OpenAIRE

    Amic G. Ho

    2016-01-01

    Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong societ...

  19. Press Ideology and Organizational Control in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joseph Man; Lee, Chin-Chuan

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the entire Chinese journalist population of Hong Kong to determine how news organizations in the highly politicized environment of Hong Kong exercise institutional control on recruitment and newswork. Finds that press ideology is a major determinant of its organizational control. (MS)

  20. Identifying the Unique Role of Orthographic Working Memory in a Componential Model of Hong Kong Kindergarteners' Chinese Written Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhong; McBride, Catherine; Yip, Laiying

    2018-01-01

    We sought to test a componential model of Chinese written spelling, including the role of orthographic working memory (OWM), among Hong Kong kindergartners. One hundred seventeen kindergartners were recruited. OWM was measured using a visual orthographic judgment and a delayed copying task. Orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and…

  1. Dimensionality and Typology of Perfectionism: The Use of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale with Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality and typology of perfectionism based on the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale with a sample of 380 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-dimensional model that includes constructs of personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism,…

  2. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly Chinese private nursing home residents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eddie Siu Lun; Kong, Bernard Ming Hei; Wong, Mike Tak Po; Draper, Brian; Lin, Ka Leung; Ho, Shuk Kuen Sabrina; Wong, Chun Por

    2004-08-01

    Privately-owned Nursing homes (PNH) in Hong Kong present a unique setting of institutional care where elderly with the whole spectrum of health status live together. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in a group of Cantonese-speaking Chinese private nursing home elderly living in Hong Kong, and to identify associated psychosocial and health factors. METHODOLOGICAL RESULTS: Two hundred and forty five residents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Using the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form (GDS-SF), we detected significant depressive symptoms in 29% of subjects. Univariate analysis revealed some associated socio-economic risk factors including current non-Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA) recipients, education levels and low abilities for social activities. Low vision, swallowing difficulties and low levels of basic activities of daily living (BADL) as reflected by the total Modified Barthel Index of less than 61 were important health predictors. Depression was also associated with features of self-perception of financial inadequacy, life dissatisfaction, poor self-perceived health, poor attitudes towards living arrangement and suicidal thoughts. Stepwise logistic regression identified swallowing problems, current non-CSSA recipient and low BADL ability as independent risk factors. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the nursing home elderly requires the attention of Government authorities, health care and social service providers.

  3. Both obesity and lack of physical activity are associated with a less favorable health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary T C

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among obesity, physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in Hong Kong Chinese adults. A cross-sectional study involving 876 subjects (32.9% men and 67.1% women, mean age: 34.8 +/- 7.9 years) from a nonmanual working population. The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36, Chinese version) was used for health-related QOL. Level of physical activity was assessed with self-reported questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2. 31% of men and 9% of women were obese (overall 16.0%). Obese subjects had lower scores on some of the SF-36 subscales. As the level of physical activity decreased, mean scores on most SF-36 subscales also progressively decreased. Obese women who had no regular physical activity had lower scores on some QOL subscales than obese women who had some regular physical activity. Among this Hong Kong Chinese sample, both obesity and lack of physical activity are associated with lower scores on QOL.

  4. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  5. Examining the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Fung, Ada Wai Tung; Tam, Cindy Woon Chi; Lui, Victor Wing Cheong; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Chan, Wai Man; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Five hundred and five participants, not clinically demented at the baseline, were analysed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 and over. Information regarding leisure activity participation, global cognitive function and important sociodemographic variables was collected. Late life leisure activity profiles were classified into intellectual, social, physical and recreational categories, and were measured by total hours per week, total frequency and total number of subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation at the baseline and the incidence of global cognitive decline at the 22-month follow-up. The incidence of global cognitive decline was defined as a one-point drop in z-score of the Cantonese version of the mini-mental state examination (CMMSE). At the follow-up, a higher level of participation in intellectual activities was significantly associated with a lower incidence of global cognitive decline as measured by both the total hours per week (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.003)), and the total number of subtypes (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.58-0.95, p=0.018)). A higher level of late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with less global cognitive decline among community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A prospective evaluation of health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese patients with chronic non-cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Chen, P P; Lee, A; Ma, M; Fong, C M; Gin, T

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Prospective cross-sectional survey. Regional public hospitals, Hong Kong. Patients attending out-patient pain management clinics between 1 July 2002 and 28 February 2003 were approached to complete a set of standardised questionnaires. Demographic profiles, treatment modality, litigation, compensation, social welfare status, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and Medical Outcomes Survey short-form health survey (SF36). Data from 166 patients were analysed. The median numeric pain rating score was 6 (interquartile range, 2-10). Work-related injury occurred in 34.3% of patients, while another 34% were involved in pain-related litigation and 32% were receiving disability or unemployment benefit. Sixty-four percent of patients were managed by three or more disciplines, while 54.8% were also receiving complimentary alternative medical treatment, mainly traditional Chinese medicine (49.7%). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Score indicated clinical anxiety or depression in 71.1% of patients. All SF36 subscale scores were lower than the local population norm. Unemployed patients had higher depression scores (P = 0.005), while students or retirees had lower physical functioning scores (P = 0.004). Patients who were single had higher role emotion scores than those who were married or separated/widowed (P = 0.011). Logistic regression analysis showed that younger age (odds ratio = 0.95), being married (6.62), work-related injury (15.63) or higher general scores (1.03) were more likely to be associated with litigation. Social welfare benefit was associated with unemployment (3.39) and a lower level of physical functioning (0.98). There was a high prevalence of clinical anxiety, depression, and severe impairment in the health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Specific factors affected the health-related quality of life

  7. Cultural similarities and differences in the perception of emotional valence and intensity: a comparison of Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Ho, Samuel M Y; Bonanno, George A

    2013-01-01

    Despite being challenged for their ecological validity, studies of emotion perception have often relied on static, posed expressions. One of the key reasons is that dynamic, spontaneous expressions are difficult to control because of the existence of display rules and frequent co-occurrence of non-emotion related facial movements. The present study investigated cross-cultural patterns in the perception of emotion using an expressive regulation paradigm for generating facial expressions. The paradigm largely balances out the competing concerns for ecological and internal validity. Americans and Hong Kong Chinese (expressors) were presented with positively and negatively valenced pictures and were asked to enhance, suppress, or naturally display their facial expressions according to their subjective emotions. Videos of naturalistic and dynamic expressions of emotions were rated by Americans and Hong Kong Chinese (judges) for valence and intensity. The 2 cultures agreed on the valence and relative intensity of emotion expressions, but cultural differences were observed in absolute intensity ratings. The differences varied between positive and negative expressions. With positive expressions, ratings were higher when there was a cultural match between the expressor and the judge and when the expression was enhanced by the expressor. With negative expressions, Chinese judges gave higher ratings than their American counterparts for Chinese expressions under all 3 expressive conditions, and the discrepancy increased with expression intensity; no cultural differences were observed when American expressions were judged. The results were discussed with respect to the "decoding rules" and "same-culture advantage" approaches of emotion perception and a negativity bias in the Chinese collective culture.

  8. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex Mh; Lo, Edward Cm; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-08

    This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children's diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion.

  9. "I Am Not Qualified to Be a Honkongese Because of My Accented Cantonese": Mainland Chinese Immigrant Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the identity construction and language practice of a group of mainland Chinese immigrant students studying at a secondary school in Hong Kong, and explores the underlying reasons for, as well as the individual and group identities derived from, those language choices and practices. The data were collected through…

  10. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be introduced to the service industry

  11. Factors related to stress and coping among Chinese nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, P; Tak-Ying, S A; Wyatt, P A

    2000-06-01

    Few empirical studies have investigated the issues linked to Hong Kong nurses work-related health. The present study investigated factors related to stress and coping among Chinese nurses in Hong Kong. The researchers employed a cross-sectional survey and made within-group comparisons of nurses' stress and coping. Using stratified random sampling the researchers selected nurses from the mailing list of a local professional organization. One hundred and sixty-eight (33.6%) nurses responded. Nurses reported lower stress levels than other workers assessed with the same measure. Paediatric nurses reported the highest stress levels. Nurses at the lower grades reported higher stress levels than nurses at the higher grades. Single nurses had marginally higher stress scores than married nurses and females had slightly higher stress scores than males. However, none of these results were statistically significant. The respondents' major sources of stress were related to nursing issues like too much work, interpersonal relationships, and dealing with hospital administration. The respondents coped with their stresses by seeking support from friends and colleagues, using different cognitive strategies and through leisure activities. There was a statistically significant link between the respondents' stress and sickness levels. The results raise issues about the nature of nurses' working experiences.

  12. Chinese men and women in the United States and Hong Kong: body and self-esteem ratings as a prelude to dieting and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Katzman, M A

    1998-01-01

    The present study compared the body and weight satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression of Chinese male and female university students in Hong Kong and the United States and assessed the impact of these ratings on compensatory behavior such as dieting and exercise. Self-report measures were administered to 501 Chinese participants in the language of their university's locale. Females reported significantly more body dissatisfaction and depression, and males reported greater weight dissatisfaction (the majority of men wishing to be larger). Overall, Chinese subjects in Hong Kong reported significantly more body and weight dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem, higher depression, more dieting, and less exercise as compared to their counterparts in the United States. Asian students in this study mirrored gendered patterns previously reported in Caucasian samples with respect to the relation of body image, self-esteem, and mood. For both sexes, there appeared to be a caricatured mimicking of the bodies perceived to be associated with the dominant culture--men wanted to be larger while the women wanted to be even more petite.

  13. Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Sham, Aprille

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents' attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married, and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. Postmenopausal women tended to have more positive attitude toward menopause. Although menopause status did not seem to be associated with QoL, attitude toward menopause, self-reported health status, as well as social and lifestyle factors were associated with QoL in Chinese midlife women.

  14. Cantonese-English Code-Switching Research in Hong Kong: A Y2K Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major works on code switching in Hong Kong to date. Four context-specific motivations commonly found in the Hong Kong Chinese Press--euphemism, specificity, bilingual punning, and principle of economy--are adduced to show that English is one of the important linguistic resources used by Chinese Hongkongers to fulfill a variety of…

  15. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems), characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features ...

  16. Biochemical and molecular diagnosis of tyrosinemia type I with two novel FAH mutations in a Hong Kong chinese patient: recommendation for expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chloe Miu; Lam, Ching-Wan; Chim, Stella; Siu, Tak-Shing; Ng, King-Fai; Tam, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type I is an autosomal recessive disorder in tyrosine metabolism. In areas without expanded newborn screening, patients present with acute hepatorenal failure in early infancy. Diagnosis can be elusive when clinical presentation is non-specific and biochemical abnormalities are masked by secondary changes. This is the first Hong Kong Chinese report. A two-month-old Chinese male infant with unremarkable antenatal and postnatal history presented with progressive abdominal distension for three days. He suffered from end-stage liver failure, hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy. Diagnostic work-up was complicated starting from rule-out sepsis, intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, septic ileus, poisoning to metabolic diseases. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data was described. The patient showed increases in multiple plasma amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, and hyper-excretions of 4-hydroxyphenyl-acetate, -pyruvate, and -lactate, as well as N-acetyltyrosine which could be seen in liver failure due to both tyrosinemia type I and non-metabolic conditions. Because of the volatile nature, succinylacetone was almost undetectable. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis of FAH with two novel mutations, viz. NM_000137.2:c.1063-1G>A and NM_000137.2:c.1035_1037del. Living-related liver transplantation was done. However, the patient still suffered many complications after the severe metabolic insult with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral atrophy, global developmental delay and cortical visual impairment. Because of the lack of expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong, this child unfortunately presented in the most severe form of tyrosinemia type I. Expanded newborn screening can save life and reduce the burden of diagnostic complexity. This illustrates the need for expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Adolescent and parental perceptions of medical decision-making in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decision-making, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decision-making. 'Healthy Adolescents' and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and 'Sick Adolescents' and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk-taking, openness to divergent opinions, pressure from parents and doctors, submission to parental authority and preference for autonomy in medical decision-making are surveyed by a 50-item questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale. Findings indicate that Chinese adolescents aged 14-16 perceive themselves to possess the necessary cognitive abilities and maturity in judgment to be autonomous decision-makers like their Western counterparts. Paradoxically, although they hesitate to assert their autonomy, they are also unwilling to surrender that autonomy to their parents even under coercion or intimidation. Parents tend to underestimate their adolescents' preferences for making autonomous decisions and overestimate the importance of parental authority in decision-making. '14-and-above' Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong perceive themselves as capable of autonomous decision-making in medically-related matters, but hesitate to assert their autonomy, probably because of the Confucian values of parental authority and filial piety that are deeply embedded in the local culture. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Social-cultural factors of HIV-related stigma among the Chinese general population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-10-01

    HIV-related stigma in the wider community compounds the suffering of people living with HIV (PLWH) and hampers effective HIV prevention and care. This study examines the level of public stigma toward PLWH in Hong Kong and associated social-cultural factors. A telephone survey was conducted in June-July 2016 with 1080 Chinese adults aged 18-94 randomly selected from the general population. The results indicate substantial degree of public stigma toward PLWH. Overall, 58.1% of the participants endorsed at least one statement indicating negative social judgment of PLWH. Over 40% attributed HIV infections to irresponsible behaviors and nearly 30% perceived most PLWH as promiscuous. About 20% considered HIV to be a punishment for bad behavior and believed that PLWH should feel ashamed of themselves. These statistics indicate that HIV-related stigma among the general Hong Kong population had no noticeable reduction in a decade but is lower than that among rural and urban populations in China. Our findings suggest that the lower stigma in Hong Kong may be linked to higher education levels rather than Hongkongers' more Westernized outlook. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that education level (β = -.19), homophobia (β = .30), and conformity to norms (β = .14) were independent predictors of HIV-related stigma but not age, income, or cultural orientations. By differentiating between associated social-cultural factors, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the layered nature of HIV-related stigma: not broadly grounded in religion or Chinese culture but stemming from more specific social-cultural beliefs - perceptions of norm violation and negative attitudes toward homosexuality, which were not mutually exclusive. These findings have implications for HIV-related stigma reduction by providing evidence for the importance of addressing homophobia. Existing HIV publicity activities should be re-examined for inadvertent contribution

  19. Associations of perceived interparental relationship, family harmony and family happiness with smoking intention in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Tzu Tsun; Wang, Man Ping; Leung, Lok Tung; Wu, Yongda; Chen, Jianjiu; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin

    2017-10-06

    To examine the associations of perceived interparental relationship, family harmony and family happiness with smoking intention in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional surveys of 15 753 primary (grades 4-6) and 38 398 secondary (grades 7-12) never-smoking students from 71 to 75 randomly selected primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong, 2012-2013. Outcome variable was smoking intention which denoted any affirmative response to smoke within the coming year or when a cigarette was offered by a good friend. Exposure variables were perceived interparental relationship and family harmony each measured on a five-point scale from 'very good' to 'very bad' and perceived family happiness on a four-point scale from 'very happy' to 'not happy at all'. Potential confounders included age, sex, family structure, perceived family affluence, parental smoking and sibling smoking. In primary students, the adjusted ORs (AORs) (95% CI) of smoking intention generally increased with more negative perception of the family relationship: up to 3.67 (1.91 to 7.05) for interparental relationship, 7.71 (4.38 to 13.6) for family harmony and 5.40 (3.41 to 8.55) for family happiness. For secondary students, the corresponding AORs (95% CI) were 2.15 (1.64 to 2.82) for interparental relationship, 2.98 (2.31 to 3.84) for family harmony and 2.61 (1.80 to 3.79) for family happiness. All p for trend happiness were associated with higher odds of smoking intention with dose-response relationships in never-smoking Chinese children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Children's perception of their family relationship may be an important intervening point for preventing youth from initiating smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Xie

    Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese

  1. Electronic cigarette use and its association with smoking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Leung, Lok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used in adolescents with unknown impacts on conventional cigarette smoking. We examined the associations of e-cigarette use with smoking intention, nicotine addiction and smoking cessation in Chinese adolescents. A total of 45,128 students (age 14.6 ± 1.9; boys 51.4%) from 75 randomly selected schools in Hong Kong reported e-cigarette use (in the past 30 days), conventional cigarette use and socio-demographic characteristics in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of intention to smoke, morning smoking urge, intention to quit and quit attempts; and beta-coefficient (β) of cigarette consumption per day were calculated in relation to e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use was associated with intention to smoke with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.74 (1.30-2.31) in all students, 2.18 (1.12-4.23) in never and 2.79 (2.05-3.79) in ever smokers (non-significant interaction by smoking status). The associations were also significant in experimental and former smokers but not in current smokers. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was significantly associated with heavier smoking (β 2.54, 95% CI 1.28-3.81) and morning smoking urge (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.50-3.11), and non-significantly associated with lower quit intention (0.76, 0.52-1.09) and attempts (0.80, 0.56-1.23). E-cigarette use was associated with smoking intention in never, experimental and former smokers in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with nicotine addiction but not quit intention and attempts. Prospective studies with detailed measurements on e-cigarette use are warranted for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing the mental health literacy of Chinese people in Australia, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: Implications for mental health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Cheng, Chi-Wei; Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Ng, Ting Kin; Pan, Shu-Man; He, Xuesong; Poon, Ada

    2017-10-01

    Using data of 200, 522, 572, and 287 Chinese from Australia, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan respectively, this study aimed at comparing the mental health literacy of Chinese people from different communities, and between Chinese communities and the Australian general public. The participants were asked questions that assessed their recognition of depression and schizophrenia. Compared with the Australians, much lower percentages of Chinese in the four Chinese communities could correctly identify depression and early schizophrenia. Commonalities in the preference for 'psychiatrist', 'psychologist', 'Chinese medical doctor', and 'Chinese traditional healer', a lack of knowledge of medications, and a higher likelihood of endorsement of traditional Chinese medicines were found among the four Chinese communities. Differences in the preference for 'general practitioner' and 'social worker', and a higher percentage of endorsement of herbal medicines were observed among the different Chinese communities. Cultural factors such as Chinese perceptions of mental illness, and socio-contextual factors such as differences in mental health care system in the four communities were offered to explain these commonalities and differences. Mental health promotion programmes for Chinese people may need to consider the above-mentioned cultural and socio-contextual factors so that specific promotion programmes can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  4. Association between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in Hong Kong Chinese: the 'better health for better Hong Kong' health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T C; Chan, J C N; Chan, A W Y; Wong, P T S; Hui, S S C; Tong, S D Y; Ng, S-M; Chow, F; Chan, C L W

    2007-02-01

    To study the inter-relationships between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in subjects from a working population. A cross-sectional observation study under the 'Better Health for Better Hong Kong' Campaign, which is a territory-wide health awareness and promotion program. 4793 subjects (2353 (49.1%) men and 2440 (50.9%) women). Their mean age (+/-s.d.) was 42.4+/-8.9 years (range 17-83 years, median 43.0 years). Subjects were randomly selected using computer-generated codes in accordance to the distribution of occupational groups in Hong Kong. The mean daily sleeping time was 7.06+/-1.03 h (women vs men: 7.14+/-1.08 h vs 6.98+/-0.96 h, Pworking hours reaching significance in the whole group as well as among male subjects. Those with short sleeping hour (6 h or less) and long working hours (>9 h) had the highest BMI and waist in both men and women. Based on multiple regression analysis with age, smoking, alcohol drinking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean daily sleeping hours and working hours as independent variables, BMI was independently associated with age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women, whereas waist was associated with age, smoking and blood pressure. In men, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours were independently associated with BMI, whereas waist was independently associated with age, smoking, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours in men. Obesity is associated with reduced sleeping hours and long working hours in men among Hong Kong Chinese working population. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implication on prevention and management of obesity.

  5. Perceptions of professional attributes in medicine: a qualitative study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny C; Hsu, Enoch K; Hui, Edwin C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. Medical professionalism has been widely discussed in western scholarly literature. However, since Hong Kong has a mixed Chinese-western culture, it remains uncertain whether Hong Kong health care professionals, medical students, and patients see medical professionalism in exactly the same way as westerners. The objective of the present study was to explore perceptions of medical professionalism in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Individual semi-structured interviews. SETTING. Medical faculty preceptors, residents, interns, nurses, and students from the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong. Subjects were recruited at an out-patient clinic of Queen Mary Hospital. PARTICIPANTS. We interviewed 39 subjects, including six medical faculty preceptors, six hospital residents, four medical interns, eight nurses, eight out-patients, and seven medical students. The interviews were transcribed and coded. Grounded theory was employed for framing and analysing the interviews. RESULTS. A total of 30 primary themes were identified and grouped under three secondary themes, ie 'Expectations of a professional doctor', 'Work values', and 'Patient care'. In general, the primary themes were consistent with recognised professional attributes in western bioethics, such as knowledge and skills, holistic care, and communication skills. A closer analysis suggested that traditional Chinese thought also played an important role in shaping the medical professionalism of Hong Kong. Challenges to be faced by Hong Kong doctors due to recent social changes were also identified. CONCLUSIONS. Medical professionalism in Hong Kong is shaped by both western medical ethics and traditional Chinese thought. The values treasured by Hong Kong health care professionals as well as technological advance, and the city's proximity to Mainland China makes Hong Kong health care unique. It is important to maintain the present work attitudes and at the same time adapt to new social changes.

  6. A validation study of the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P Y; Wong, L L; Chan, C C; Leung, Jess L M; Yung, C Y

    2014-12-01

    To validate the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional study. Cognition clinic and memory clinic of a public hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 272 participants (dementia, n=130; mild cognitive impairment, n=93; normal controls, n=49) aged 60 years or above were assessed using HK-MoCA. The HK-MoCA scores were validated against expert diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) criteria for dementia and Petersen's criteria for mild cognitive impairment. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve and regression analyses. Additionally, comparison was made with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. The optimal cutoff score for the HK-MoCA to differentiate cognitive impaired persons (mild cognitive impairment and dementia) from normal controls was 21/22 after adjustment of education level, giving a sensitivity of 0.928, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.920. Moreover, the cutoff to detect mild cognitive impairment was 21/22 with a sensitivity of 0.828, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.847. Score of the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect mild cognitive impairment was 26/27 with a sensitivity of 0.785, specificity of 0.816, and area under the curve of 0.857. At the optimal cutoff of 18/19, HK-MoCA identified dementia from controls with a sensitivity of 0.923, specificity of 0.918, and area under the curve of 0.971. The HK-MoCA is a useful cognitive screening instrument for use in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. A score of less than 22 should prompt further diagnostic assessment. It has comparable sensitivity with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination for detection of mild cognitive impairment. It is brief and feasible to conduct in the

  7. Gender difference in self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese with cardiac diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J Y Y; Tam, S F; Man, D W K; Cheng, L C; Chiu, S W

    2003-03-01

    Self-esteem is an indicator of a person's subjective quality of life due to its close relationship to a person's behavioural competence, positive self-experience, and sense of self-actualization. The present study aimed to investigate the basis of self-esteem in people with cardiac diseases, according to gender, after their cardiac surgery. The findings showed that there were prominent gender differences in the subjects' self-esteem. Women (agedlife events importance and the satisfaction of three life events than men. The study also found cultural uniqueness: Hong Kong Chinese (both men and women) with cardiac diseases generally indicated that social (interpersonal) self-concept dimensions were more important than achievement (personal) self-concept dimensions in their life perception. These findings are noteworthy for setting optimum goals of rehabilitation apart from return to work.

  8. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of School-Based Active Videogame Intervention on Chinese Children's Aerobic Fitness, Physical Activity Level, and Psychological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung; Wang, Jing Jing; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group played an AVG, Xbox 360, twice per week during after-school hours, each for 60 minutes over 12 weeks in duration. The control group received no intervention. Children's body-mass index (BMI), objective PA, aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen consumption [VO 2max ]), PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed. Compared with the control group, significant increases were found in the intervention group in VO 2max [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58 (0.74, 2.42) mL/(kg·min)], objective moderate-to-vigorous PA [6.73 (1.70, 11.76) min/day], and total PA [27.19 (9.33, 45.04) min/day], but not for BMI. No significant differences in PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were observed. A 12-week (60 minutes × twice per week) school-based AVG intervention can improve Chinese children's aerobic fitness and PA level. These findings indicated that AVGs could be used as an alternative means to engage Chinese children in PA in school setting. However, the treatment effects of AVGs on PA-related psychological correlates and body composition need more investigation.

  9. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian Lao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD; and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. RESULTS: The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7% of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%. Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. CONCLUSION: Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing

  10. Frequent use of household cleaning products is associated with rhinitis in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Lao, Xiang Qian; Wong, Claudie Chiu-Yi; Tan, Lixing; Zhang, Zilong; Wong, Tze Wai; Tse, Lap-Ah; Lau, Arthur P S; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the popular use of household cleaning products worldwide, there is no published study investigating the health effects of these products on rhinitis in children. We sought to investigate the household use of cleaning products and rhinitis patterns in Chinese children. A total of 2299 children were recruited from 21 primary schools with wide geographic coverage in Hong Kong. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by parents/guardians to collect detailed information on respiratory symptoms and household use of 14 types of chemical cleaning products, as well as clean water. Students were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive rhinitis patterns (never, occasional, frequent, and persistent). The total chemical burden (TCB) score was used as the exposure indicator by calculating the total time of exposure to the 14 cleaning products. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between rhinitis patterns and the use of household cleaning products. Every 10-unit increment of TCB score was associated with an increase in the odds of occasional (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41), frequent (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.60), and persistent (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.56) rhinitis after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders. Compared with the children within the lowest tertile of TCB scores, the adjusted ORs of occasional, frequent, and persistent rhinitis in children within the highest tertile were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.01-1.65), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.40-2.76), and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.10-2.54), respectively. Frequent use of chemical cleaning products at home is associated with an increase in the odds of rhinitis in Chinese primary school children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Informal and Formal Mathematical Abilities in Mainland Chinese and Chinese-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Cheng, Christine; Mottram, Lisa; Rosenblum, Stacey

    Informal and formal mathematical abilities were studied in the preschool, kindergarten, and first grade children in Beijing, China and Chinese-American children in New York City. Test of Early Mathematical Abilities-2nd Edition (TEMA-2) was administered to the three groups of children (children from Beijing, Chinese-American from lower-class, and…

  12. Cross-boundary Substance Uses Among Hong Kong Chinese Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Joseph T.F.; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T.; Lau, Mason

    2007-01-01

    The study documents the characteristics of Hong Kong residents who used substances in mainland China. Characteristics of such users were compared with those using substances elsewhere. A cross-sectional survey was used. Data analyses were stratified by gender, and multivariate analyses were performed. Respondents, Hong Kong adults aged 18–30 (n = 6,528), were interviewed using a mixed interviewer and computerized mobile phone method, at the Hong Kong-mainland China boundary. Cross-border subs...

  13. Performance of the Visual-Motor Integration of Preschool Children in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Ng

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The local reference developed in this study yielded additional insights for occupational therapists and psychologists with regard to the application of the VMI (fifth edition for Hong Kong children aged between 3 years and 6 months and 5 years and 11 months.

  14. Associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in a Hong Kong Chinese working population--the "Better Health for Better Hong Kong" (BHBHK) health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary T C; Chan, Juliana C N; Tong, Spencer D Y; Chan, Amy W Y; Wong, Patrick T S; Hui, Stanley S C; Kwok, Ruby; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2007-01-01

    Diet and nutritional status have been shown to play pivotal roles in the occurrence of many chronic diseases. In this study, we examined the patterns of dietary habits and their relationships with risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases in Hong Kong working populations. In April 2000, a 5-year territory-wide health promotion campaign supported by the Li Ka Shing Foundation was launched in Hong Kong by the Health InfoWorld of Hospital Authority. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 4841 Chinese subjects [2375 (49.1%) men and 2466 (50.9%) women, mean age: 42.4 +/- 8.9 years (median: 43.0 years, range: 17-83 years)] from the general working class were recruited. Subjects were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. A dietary questionnaire was used to assess 6 core dietary habits: daily fruit intake, vegetable intake, fluid intake, sugary drinks, regularity of daily meals and number of dining out each day. Overall, men had a worse cardiovascular risk profile and less desirable dietary habits than women. Those who had more unhealthy dietary habits were more likely to be obese and current smokers. Using logistic regression analysis with the dietary habits as independent variables, we found that obesity, smoking and constipation were independently associated with various unhealthy dietary patterns. In conclusion, there were close associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. More effective community education about healthy lifestyle is required in Hong Kong.

  15. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning across Cultures: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…

  16. Prevalence of travel related illness amongst a group of Chinese undergraduate students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah AS, A M; Hedley, A J; Fielding, R

    2000-01-01

    Regional and global travel by Asian residents is increasing. Young people seeking new experiences through travel may be particularly at risk of a wide spectrum of health problems. This study assesses travel-associated health risks and examines the prevalence and likely impact of pretravel health advice among Chinese undergraduate students in Hong Kong. Year 1 and year 3 undergraduate students of the University of Hong Kong were surveyed during September to December 1996, using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A total of 1,067 subjects were required to give a power of 95% (p =.50+/-3%). Of 1,197 students (514 male and 680 female) surveyed, 52% had traveled outside Hong Kong at least once within the previous 12 months. Of these travelers (n = 578), 41% had developed one or more health problems, 7% had to consult a doctor and 2% needed hospitalization during travel, and 8% developed health problems within 2 weeks of returning for which they had to consult a doctor. Most (75%) took no pretravel health advice and 48% took no travel health precautions. About half (41%) of those who received advice received this from nonexpert sources. Those more likely to develop health problems were aged over 20 years (Odds Ratio, 1.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.10), in financial difficulties (1.60, 1.02-2.51), ever-smokers (1.69, 1.03-2.77), reporting poorer current health status (1.64, 1.04-2.57). Also, those who sought health advice from nonprofessional sources (2.13, 1.03-4.01) and took precautions (1.88, 1.33-2.63) were more likely to develop health problems. This study demonstrated that young Chinese adults, with the benefits of higher education, are potentially at risk of a variety of avoidable travel-related health problems. Taking pretravel health advice from nonprofessional sources was common among respondents, but taking precautions did not reduce health problems. The comprehensibility and effectiveness of the advice and appropriateness of precautions taken

  17. Characteristics of TCM constitutions of adult Chinese women in Hong Kong and identification of related influencing factors: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youzhi; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Yi; Jia, Lei; He, Yanhua; Xue, Steve An; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping

    2014-05-21

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) refers to an integrated, metastable and natural specialty of individual in morphosis, physiological functions and psychological conditions. It is formed on the basis of innate and acquired endowments in the human life process, which can be divided into normal constitution and unbalanced ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of TCMCs of Chinese women in Hong Kong and its acquired influencing factors. Local Chinese women between 30 to 65 years old, were recruited from 18 districts of Hong Kong (n=944), and were assessed using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Physical Constitution Scale for their TCMC types. Social-demographic, reproductive, lifestyle, systemic health and emotional status information were collected through structured questionnaire. The associations between different independent factors and each TCMC type, as well as the complex unbalanced TCMC types were tested individually. Significant factors related to unbalanced TCMC types were identified in final models using multiple factor analysis. A total of 764 (80.9%) participants were diagnosed with unbalanced TCMCs. The most common TCMC type was Qi-deficiency constitution (53.9%), followed by Phlegm-wetness (38.9%), Yang-deficiency (38.2%), Yin-deficiency (35.5), Blood-stasis (35.4) and Qi-depressed (31%) constitution. Six hundred and eleven participants (64.7%) had at least two types of combined and unbalanced constitutions. Stepwise logistic analysis indicated that poor systemic health condition (OR, 1.76-2.89), negative emotions (OR=1.39), overweight (OR=1.58), high educational level (OR=1.18) and mental work (OR=1.44) were significantly positively correlated with certain unbalanced TCMCs. Meanwhile, aging (OR, 0.59-0.73), exercise habit (OR, 0.61-0.79) and reproductive history (OR=0.72) showed inverse associations with unbalanced constitutions. In addition, systemic health condition and emotional status, exercise habit and age

  18. Molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE transmission in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; Wong, K H; Li, P; Chan, K C; Lee, M P; Lam, H Y; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K Y; Yam, W C

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transmission history of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE epidemics in Hong Kong between 1994 and 2007. A total of 465 HIV-1 CRF01_AE pol sequences were derived from an in-house or a commercial HIV-1 genotyping system. Phylogenies of CRF01_AE sequences were analyzed by the Bayesian coalescent method. CRF01_AE patient population included 363 males (78.1%) and 102 females (21.9%), whereas 65% (314 of 465) were local Chinese. Major transmission routes were heterosexual contact (63%), followed by intravenous drug use (IDU) (19%) and men having sex with men (MSM) (17%). From phylogenetic analysis, local CRF01_AE strains were from multiple origins with 3 separate transmission clusters identified. Cluster 1 consisted mainly of Chinese male IDUs and heterosexuals. Clusters 2 and 3 included mainly local Chinese MSM and non-Chinese Asian IDUs, respectively. Chinese reference isolates available from China (Fujian, Guangxi, or Liaoning) were clonally related to our transmission clusters, demonstrating the epidemiological linkage of CRF01_AE infections between Hong Kong and China. The 3 individual local transmission clusters were estimated to have initiated since late 1980s and late 1990s, causing subsequent epidemics in the early 2000s. This is the first comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Hong Kong. It revealed that MSM contact is becoming a major route of local CRF01_AE transmission in Hong Kong. Epidemiological linkage of CRF01_AE between Hong Kong and China observed in this study indicates the importance of regular molecular epidemiological surveillance for the HIV-1 epidemic in our region.

  19. Evaluation of the Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER scale in Chinese patients in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-lin Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the Recognition Of Stroke In the Emergency Room (ROSIER scale in risk-stratifying Chinese patients with suspected stroke in Hong Kong. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic emergency department (ED over a 7-month period. Patients over 18 years of age with suspected stroke were recruited between June 2011 and December 2011. ROSIER scale assessment was performed in the ED triage area. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the impacts of diagnostic variables, including ROSIER scale, past history and ED characteristics. FINDINGS: 715 suspected stroke patients were recruited for assessment, of whom 371 (52% had acute cerebrovascular disease (302 ischaemic strokes, 24 transient ischaemic attacks (TIA, 45 intracerebral haemorrhages, and 344 (48% had other illnesses i.e. stroke mimics. Common stroke mimics were spinal neuropathy, dementia, labyrinthitis and sepsis. The suggested cut-off score of>0 for the ROSIER scale for stroke diagnosis gave a sensitivity of 87% (95%CI 83-90, a specificity of 41% (95%CI 36-47, a positive predictive value of 62% (95%CI 57-66, and a negative predictive value of 75% (95%CI 68-81, and the AUC was 0.723. The overall accuracy at cut off>0 was 65% i.e. (323+141/715. INTERPRETATION: The ROSIER scale was not as effective at differentiating acute stroke from stroke mimics in Chinese patients in Hong Kong as it was in the original studies, primarily due to a much lower specificity. If the ROSIER scale is to be clinically useful in Chinese suspected stroke patients, it requires further refinement.

  20. Performing Work: Locality, Embodied Practice and Career Mobility of Chinese Women Bankers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-wan Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Women are emerging as significant actors in international financial industries concentrated in metropolitan cities which function as national and international business hubs. Based on 17 in-depth interviews with Chinese women bankers in Hong Kong, where one finds the highest concentration of banking institutions in the world, this paper examines the interplay between locality, gender performance and the career mobility of women bankers. The author argues that branch location is embedded within hierarchical fields of power and leads to different client groups, and ultimately, to different opportunities for upward mobility. Women bankers in Hong Kong are skilled in displaying multiple identities by using differentiated styles of language and different tongues, or languages, when interacting with different client groups in different branches. This strategy involves evaluative interpretation of perception because clients themselves make class distinctions according to different service settings. Although mid-level management teams in the banking industry have recently been rapidly feminised, this paper demonstrates that the glass ceiling is still real and continues to exert its invisible, negative impact. The upward mobility of Chinese women bankers is often blocked by informal barriers deeply embedded in the social structure and culture of both local society and international companies. These structural barriers and their resultant structured disadvantages for women are the consequence of the intersection, and sometimes the collusion, of ethnic politics, business or capitalist interests and social norms. Factors and structural forces such as race, ethnicity and gender are intertwined with and compounded to produce deep and far-reaching effects that are often beyond the control of the individual actor.

  1. Individual and Social Predictors of Prosocial Behavior among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Frank H. Y.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the human ecological model, this study hypothesized that individual competence in empathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and social influence from parents, peers, and school are the key determinants of prosocial behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. We recruited a sample of high school students who engaged in volunteering activities regularly (N = 580). They completed a self-administrated questionnaire designed to measure prosocial behavior and its hypothesized predictors using a number of standardized instruments. The results of multiple regression show that social influence factors, including peer, school, and parent influence, are strong predictors of helping intention and prosocial behavior, while individual competence factors like empathy and prosocial moral reasoning are not. Male participants had higher empathy scores and helping intention than females, perceived their parents as more helpful, and their schools as more supportive of prosocial behavior. However, the significant predictors of prosocial behavior and helping intention were similar across gender. The findings indicate that social influence is strongly linked to prosocial behavior. This implies that socialization and social support for prosocial norms and behavior can exert a powerful influence on the behavior of young people in a Chinese population. PMID:26029684

  2. Individual and Social Predictors of Prosocial Behaviour among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H.Y. Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the human ecological model, this study hypothesized that individual competence in empathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and social influence from parents, peers, and school are the key determinants of prosocial behaviour among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. We recruited a sample of high school students who engaged in volunteering activities regularly (N = 580. They completed a self-administrated questionnaire designed to measure prosocial behaviour and its hypothesized predictors using a number of standardized instruments. The results of multiple regression show that social influence factors, including peer, school, and parent influence, are strong predictors of helping intention and prosocial behaviour, while individual competence factors like empathy and prosocial moral reasoning are not. Male participants had higher empathy scores and helping intention than males, perceived their parents as more helpful, and their schools as more supportive of prosocial behaviour. However, the significant predictors of prosocial behaviour and helping intention were similar across gender. The findings indicate that social influence is strongly linked to prosocial behaviour. This implies that socialization and social support for prosocial norms and behaviour can exert a powerful influence on the behaviour of young people in a Chinese population.

  3. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. H. Siu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the correlates and predictors of prosocial behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. A sample of 518 high school students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of antisocial and prosocial behavior, prosocial norms, pragmatic values, moral reasoning, and empathy. Preliminary analyses showed that there were gender differences in some of the measures. While correlation analyses showed that parental education, prosocial norms, pragmatic values, moral reasoning, and empathy were related to prosocial behavior, regression analyses showed that prosocial norms, pragmatic values, and empathy dimensions (personal distress and empathy were key predictors of it. The findings are largely consistent with theoretical predictions and previous research findings, other than the negative relationship between personal distress and prosocial behavior. The study also underscores the importance of values and norms in predicting prosocial behavior, which has been largely neglected in previous studies.

  4. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lai, Frank H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the correlates and predictors of prosocial behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. A sample of 518 high school students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of antisocial and prosocial behavior, prosocial norms, pragmatic values, moral reasoning, and empathy. Preliminary analyses showed that there were gender differences in some of the measures. While correlation analyses showed that parental education, prosocial norms, pragmatic values, moral reasoning, and empathy were related to prosocial behavior, regression analyses showed that prosocial norms, pragmatic values, and empathy dimensions (personal distress and empathy) were key predictors of it. The findings are largely consistent with theoretical predictions and previous research findings, other than the negative relationship between personal distress and prosocial behavior. The study also underscores the importance of values and norms in predicting prosocial behavior, which has been largely neglected in previous studies. PMID:22919326

  5. An investigation of predictors of successful aging in the workplace among Hong Kong Chinese older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis; Wu, Anise M S

    2012-03-01

    We examined associations between successful aging in the workplace (adaptability and health, positive relationship, occupational growth, personal security, and continuous focus on goals) and two major factors of work stressors (work family conflict and discrimination against older workers) and coping resources (perceived organizational support, supportive human resource policies, and social support from friends and family) among Chinese older workers in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we also examined whether coping resources moderate the negative effect derived from work stressors on successful aging. A total of 242 Chinese full-time workers aged 40 years or above were recruited in a self-administered questionnaire survey study in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression results showed that family-to-work conflict was significantly related to successful aging, except the dimension of personal security. Work-to-family conflict and discrimination, however, were not related to successful aging in the workplace. In terms of coping resources, perceived organizational support was related to all dimensions of successful aging in the workplace. We also found that training and development was a significant correlate of occupational growth. Social support from friends and family was positively related to three successful aging dimensions, including adaptability and health, personal security and continuous focus on goals. Finally, when facing discrimination in the workplace, support from organizations and from friends and family were particularly important for old-older workers (aged 55 years or above) to achieve better adaptability and health. Perceived organizational support and social support from friends and family were important correlates of successful aging in the workplace. Limitation and recommendations for organizational intervention were discussed.

  6. The progression of hallux valgus in the oriental Chinese population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kenneth Kin-Hoo; Tse, Lung Fung; Cheng, Hi Shan; Ho, Kevin Ki Wai

    2017-08-01

    Hallux valgus is the lateral deviation of the great toe at the MTPJ that has many attributing aetiologies. This study will aim to identify whether hallux valgus progresses over time in the oriental Chinese population in Hong Kong. Patients with acquired symptomatic hallux valgus who presented to clinic between 2008 and 2013 were included. The deformities were analysed radiologically at presentation and pre-operative and angles were measured. These angles were analysed in relation to the waiting time from presentation to surgery. A sample of 43 cases from 38 patients (Mean age 63 years, range 48-80 years) were included. Forty-one cases had a hallux valgus angle (HVA) >24° at presentation (Mean 40.4°) and all had an intermetatarsal angle (IMA) >9°. A significant difference is seen with HVA (p=0.040, t=-2.128) at presentation and pre-op but not IMA (p=0.281, t=-1.095). The average wait for surgery was 705.7days which had shown significant correlation with progression in HVA (p=0.031). No significant difference was seen between IMA and waiting time to surgery (p=0.195). The findings suggests severe hallux valgus deformity does progress over time in Hong Kong. Shorter waiting times for surgery could be beneficial to this population. Level III, retrospective comparative series. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and youth…

  8. High Degree of Autonomy: The Reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese Sovereignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choyke, Michele

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the People's Republic of China. The Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong calls for maintaining Hong Kong's lifestyle and "high degree of autonomy" for fifty years after its transition to the Hong Kong SAR...

  9. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  10. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  11. Aspects of the Two Language System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Benjamin K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents details of the language shifts among the various sections of the Chinese-speaking population in Hong Kong and analyzes patterns of allegiance. Notes that complex social, economic, and political pressures will affect future language in Hong Kong and that, within the domains of family, work, and others, the use of Modern Standard Chinese is…

  12. An Exploration of the Participation of Kindergarten-Aged Hong Kong Children in Extra Curricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed-methods research design to investigate the extra curricular participation of kindergarten-aged Hong Kong children, based on reports provided by 1260 parents, and parents' perceptions of their children's extra curricular participation, through nine individual interviews. The results of the survey indicated that…

  13. Factors Affecting the Understanding and Use of Psychoanalysis in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiol, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The majority of Western psychotherapies are known and practiced in Hong Kong, while psychoanalysis still has little resonance. A recent study finds that psychoanalysis is perceived neither as ineffective nor as necessarily in conflict with Hong Kong Chinese values. Nevertheless, Hong Kong Chinese culture influences how psychoanalysis is received and understood, when compared to Mainland China and Taiwan. It is argued that a better reception in the latter two was possible because of different social and historical backgrounds, different clinical backgrounds of those who receive training, and the more active role of Western psychoanalysts. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  14. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  15. Survey on death and dying in Hong Kong: attitudes, beliefs, and preferred end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde-Mossey, Lee Ann; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2007-01-01

    Social Workers in end-of-life and palliative care have a particular opportunity to ease the dying process by providing culturally appropriate services to the dying and their families. In today's multicultural social environment, with an ever-increasing immigrant population, social workers are challenged to be knowledgeable about diverse cultures. Recently, a forum of health care professionals and social workers in Hong Kong conducted a survey of the general population to assess death and dying attitudes, beliefs, and preferences for end-of-life care. Four-hundred-thirty Hong Kong Chinese participated in a telephone interview. Responses were compared by gender. The survey results not only contribute to an understanding of Hong Kong Chinese, but can inform social workers who practice with Chinese immigrants to the United States.

  16. Prevalence, psychosocial correlates and service utilization of depressive and anxiety disorders in Hong Kong: the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda Chiu-Wa; Wong, Corine Sau-Man; Wang, Min-Jung; Chan, Wai-Chi; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Hung, Se-Fong; Cheung, Eric Fuk-Chi; Sham, Pak-Chung; Chiu, Helen Fung-Kum; Lam, Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chiang, Tin-Po; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; van Os, Jim; Lewis, Glyn; Bebbington, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Data on mental disorder prevalence and health service utilization required to inform healthcare management and planning are lacking in Hong Kong. The current study determined the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), and examined the patterns of mental health service utilization and associated factors. We analyzed data from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS) of 5,719 Chinese adults aged 16-75 years in the general Hong Kong population, using the Chinese Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). The weighted prevalence estimate for any past-week CMD was 13.3 %, with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder being the most frequent diagnoses. CMD was positively associated with female gender, being divorced or separated, alcohol misuse, substance dependence, lack of regular physical exercise, and a family history of mental disorder. Among individuals with CMD, only 26 % had consulted mental health services in the past year; less than 10 % consulted general practitioners or family physicians. Lack of mental health service usage was significantly more likely in men and those with lower educational attainment. Apart from attention to psychosocial risks, health and lifestyle factors are important considerations for mental health promotion. Service utilization for individuals with CMD in Hong Kong remains suboptimal, and would be enhanced by strengthening community primary care.

  17. Living and dying with dignity in Chinese society: perspectives of older palliative care patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Leung, Pamela Pui Yu; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Neimeyer, Robert A; Pang, Samantha Mei Che; Tse, Doris Man Wah

    2013-07-01

    the empirical Dignity Model has profoundly influenced the provision of palliative care for older terminally ill patients in the West, as it provides practical guidance and intervention strategies for promoting dignity and reducing distress at the end-of-life. to examine the concept of 'living and dying with dignity' in the Chinese context, and explore the generalisability of the Dignity Model to older terminal patients in Hong Kong. using qualitative interviews, the concept of dignity was explored among 16 older Chinese palliative care patients with terminal cancer. Framework analysis with both deductive and inductive methods was employed. the three major categories of themes of the Dignity Model were broadly supported. However, the subtheme of death anxiety was not supported, while two subthemes of generativity/legacy and resilience/fighting spirit manifested differently in the Chinese context. Furthermore, four new emergent themes have been identified. They include enduring pain, moral transcendence, spiritual surrender and transgenerational unity. these findings highlight both a cultural and a familial dimension in the construct of dignity, underline the paramount importance of cultural awareness and competence for working with ethnically diverse groups, and call for a culturally sensitive and family oriented approach to palliative care interventions with older Chinese terminal patients.

  18. Chinese adaptation of Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CCA): A psychometric evaluation in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Tu, Xintian

    2017-10-01

    This study validated a Chinese adaptation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CCA), a self-report instrument that evaluates two emotion regulation (ER) strategies, based on the process model of ER. The ERQ-CCA was evaluated using a sample of 1381 Chinese children aged between 7 and 12 years. The internal consistencies of the two factors indicated adequate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good support as the structure proved to be identical with that of the original instrument. Multigroup CFA supported an invariant factor solution of the ERQ-CCA across several demographic variations (gender, age, registered permanent residence and migrant status) in different groups. Test-retest correlations over a 2-month period were calculated using a subsample of children (N = 70). Convergent validity was evaluated in relation to the model dimensions of the ERQ-CCA, Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory, and Chinese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents. Results indicated that the ERQ-CCA has generally satisfactory reliability and validity in investigating the use of two ER strategies during the middle childhood developmental period. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Short-Term Prognosis of Transient Ischemic Attack and Predictive Value of the ABCD2 Score in Hong Kong Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Hong Simon Chiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA in Chinese is scarce. The short-term prognosis of TIA and the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in Hong Kong Chinese patients attending the emergency department (ED were studied to provide reference for TIA patient management in our ED. Methods: A cohort of TIA patients admitted through the ED to 13 acute public hospitals in 2006 was recruited through the centralized electronic database by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA. All inpatients were e-coded by the HA according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD9. Electronic records and hard copies were studied up to 90 days after a TIA. The stroke risk of a separate TIA cohort diagnosed by the ED was compared. Results: In the 1,000 recruited patients, the stroke risk after a TIA at days 2, 7, 30, and 90 was 0.2, 1.4, 2.9, and 4.4%, respectively. Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 89%, warfarin in 6.9%, statin in 28.6%, antihypertensives in 39.3%, and antidiabetics in 11.9% of patients after hospitalization. Before the index TIA, the prescribed medications were 27.6, 3.7, 11.3, 27.1, and 9.7%, respectively. The accuracy of the ABCD2 score in predicting stroke risk was 0.607 at 7 days, 0.607 at 30 days, and 0.574 at 90 days. At 30 days, the p for trend across ABCD2 score levels was 0.038 (OR for every score point = 1.36, p = 0.040. Diabetes mellitus, previous stroke and carotid bruit were associated with stroke within 90 days (p = 0.038, 0.045, 0.030, respectively. A total of 45.4% of CTs of the brain showed lacunar infarcts or small vessel disease. There was an increased stroke risk at 90 days in patients with old or new infarcts on CT or MRI. Patients with carotid stenosis ≥70% had an increased stroke risk within 30 (OR = 6.335, p = 0.013 and 90 days (OR = 3.623, p = 0.050. Stroke risks at days 2, 7, 30, and 90 in the 289 TIA patients diagnosed by the ED were 0.35, 2.4, 5.2, and 6

  20. Hair as an indicator of environmental exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven human hair samples were taken from the Chinese residents of Hong Kong for the study of hair trace elemental level and environmental exposure. Absolute neutron-activation analysis and Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry were applied for the determination of the trace elemental level. After washing, each hair sample was air-dried at room temperature in acetone and water. The hair was weighed and encapsulated into the irradiation container. Typical sample weight was about 150 mg. The samples were irradiated at a neutron flux of 4.4x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Conditions of the irradiations and counting are tabulated. The trace element content of hair from a drug addict was found to be considerably different from other sampled peopie. Comparison of the normal concentrations of the trace elements of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong was made with those from people of various other national, socio-cultural and environmental backgrounds. It was found that together with a few other trace elements, Ni, Sr, Zr, and Hg content of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong show a higher level than those of the other sampled people. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  1. Pedometer-determined physical activity patterns in a segmented school day among Hong Kong primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide a better understanding of PA patterns and the contribution of the distinct segments within a school day to children's PA. This information may assist in developing more effective, appropriate, and timely school-based PA interventions for children in Hong Kong.

  2. The Importance of Additive Reasoning in Children's Mathematical Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relative importance of counting ability, additive reasoning, and working memory in children's mathematical achievement (calculation and story problem solving). In Hong Kong, 115 Chinese children aged 6 years old participated in 2 waves of assessments (T1 = first grade and T2 = second grade). Multiple regression…

  3. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  4. Social work at the Chinese Medicine system in Hong Kong: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-fong; Ng, Yat-nam; Bian, Zhao-xiang; Shi, Yan; Lee, Siu-ping; Ng, Ka-ying

    2008-01-01

    Dealing with health and disease is an area of concern for social workers. The establishment of medical social service in a health setting has more than 100 years of history in the USA and more than 60 years in Hong Kong. Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese Medicine (CM) used by the Hong Kong people, there has been no medical social service presence in the CM system. A pilot project demonstrated a successful interdisciplinary collaboration model between social work and CM irrespective of different social work methods, that is, individual work, groupwork, and community-based services. In this article, we will relate the opportunities and difficulties that we encountered in setting up the first medical social service in the CM system. Drawing on our experience, we found that both professions benefited from the interdisciplinary collaboration. CM was able to expand its scope of service to increase the service quality and promote primary health care in the community with the support of social work. Conversely, social workers found that CM is a good resource for providing innovative services to meet the various needs of the people in the community. There was also a ripple effect of incorporating CM elements into social service. The interface between the disciplines of social work and CM can widen the scope of their contributions on health. Implications for CM social service in social work will also be examined.

  5. IPO Waves in China and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gucbilmez, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the anatomy of IPO waves in China and Hong Kong and draw comparisons with the US IPO cycles. The lead-lag relationship between IPO initial returns and IPO volume observed in the US is absent in these two Asian markets. Similar to the US, IPO volume in Hong Kong is sensitive to changes in market conditions and exhibits seasonal variations. In sharp contrast, however, Chinese IPO activity is much less responsive to past market returns and volatility. Surprisingly, hot markets still e...

  6. Understanding Neighborhood Environment Related to Hong Kong Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study Using Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y.; Wong, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Methods Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10–11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question “What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?” Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children’s physical activity. Results Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children’s physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included “Sufficient lighting”, “Bridge or tunnel”, “Few cars on roads”, “Convenient transportation”, “Subway station”, “Recreation grounds”, “Shopping malls with air conditioning”, “Fresh air”, “Interesting animals”, and “Perfume shop”. Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included “People who make me feel unsafe”, “Crimes nearby”, “Afraid of being taken or hurt at night”, “Hard to find toilet in shopping mall”, “Too much noise”, and “Too many people in recreation grounds”. Conclusions Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities. PMID:25187960

  7. Theory of mind development in Chinese children: a meta-analysis of false-belief understanding across cultures and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Wellman, Henry M; Tardif, Twila; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Theory of mind is claimed to develop universally among humans across cultures with vastly different folk psychologies. However, in the attempt to test and confirm a claim of universality, individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes, sample specificities, and an overwhelming focus on Anglo- European children. The current meta-analysis of children's false-belief performance provides the most comprehensive examination to date of theory-of-mind development in a population of non-Western children speaking non-Indo-European languages (i.e., Mandarin and Cantonese). The meta-analysis consisted of 196 Chinese conditions (127 from mainland China and 69 from Hong Kong), representing responses from more than 3,000 children, compared with 155 similar North American conditions (83 conditions from the United States and 72 conditions from Canada). The findings show parallel developmental trajectories of false-belief understanding for children in China and North America coupled with significant differences in the timing of development across communities-children's false-belief performance varied across different locales by as much as 2 or more years. These data support the importance of both universal trajectories and specific experiential factors in the development of theory of mind.

  8. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  9. Policy Impact on the Chinese Stock Market: From the 1994 Bailout Policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Chao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 1994 bailout policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the policy impact on the Chinese stock market has changed over time. By May 2015, global investors can directly invest in a more legalized and normalized Chinese stock market, whereas they are still concerned about the policy-oriented market and its attendant risks. In this study, we employ the family of GARCH models to investigate the structural changes in risks with the implementation of a series of policies. Our results show that although many policies improve or stabilize the stock market, certain policies lead to substantial volatility. Among them, macro-control policies and transaction cost adjustments are a double-edged sword, which should be used with caution. Furthermore, with opening-up policies being launched recently, the Chinese stock market has entered a new stage in which it affects international capital markets. However, the increased risks, which may result in a sharp turnaround, cause worry.

  10. Sources and directions of social support and life satisfaction among solitary Chinese older adults in Hong Kong: the mediating role of sense of loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xue Bai,1 Shuyan Yang,2 Martin Knapp3 1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK Abstract: Based on survey data collected from 151 community-dwelling solitary Chinese older adults in Hong Kong, the present study used path analysis to examine the mediating role of sense of loneliness in the relationship between different sources and directions of social support and life satisfaction. The results showed that sense of loneliness mediated the effects of support from families, friends, and support for others on life satisfaction. In addition, a formal source of social support was not associated with life satisfaction among solitary older adults, although those with a more secure financial status had greater overall life satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of enhancing awareness among social and health care service providers about the negative effects of insufficient social support on older adults’ sense of loneliness and life satisfaction. Family and friendship networks should be expanded for solitary older adults. Keywords: life satisfaction, path analysis, solitary older adults, sense of loneliness, social support

  11. The Understanding of Emotion among Young Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yulong; Harris, Paul L.; Pons, Francisco; Zou, Hong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Qunxia

    2017-01-01

    The development of emotion understanding in young Chinese children was examined. The overall trend in the development of emotion understanding among Chinese preschoolers – as measured by the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) proved similar to that found among preschoolers in Western Europe. However, Chinese children performed better at understanding the distinction between real and apparent emotion and worse at understanding the connection between reminders and emotion. Children’s theory of...

  12. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gary T.C.; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Yeung, Vincent T.F.; Chow, Chun-Chung; Tsang, Lynn W.W.; Cockram, Clive S.

    2001-01-01

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  13. Identity and Sense of Belonging in Post-Colonial Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Fong, Yiu-Chak

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of local and national identities among secondary school students in post-colonial Hong Kong. As a Chinese society that has undergone a prolonged period of British colonial rule, the reunification of capitalist Hong Kong with the motherland under socialism in 1997 has set the context for a negotiation of…

  14. Bridging the Gap: A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Pedagogical Continuity and Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala; Tse, Shek Kam

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between pedagogical continuity in literacy education and early literacy development by comparing Chinese children in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Stratified random sampling was used to select 24 preschool and Primary 1 classes in four communities catering to middle-class families in each city. The 24…

  15. The experience of admission to psychiatric hospital among Chinese adult patients in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Linda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper reports on a study to evaluate the psychometric properties and cultural appropriateness of the Chinese translation of the Admission Experience Survey (AES. Methods The AES was translated into Chinese and back-translated. Content validity was established by focus groups and expert panel review. The Chinese version of the Admission Experience Survey (C-AES was administered to 135 consecutively recruited adult psychiatric patients in the Castle Peak Hospital (Hong Kong SAR, China within 48 hours of admission. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the scores from patients admitted voluntarily versus patients committed involuntarily, and those received physical or chemical restraint versus those who did not. The relationship between admission experience and psychopathology was examined by correlating C-AES scores with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores. Results Spearman's item-to-total correlations of the C-AES ranged from 0.50 to 0.74. Three factors from the C-AES were extracted using factor analysis. Item 12 was omitted because of poor internal consistency and factor loading. The factor structure of the Process Exclusion Scale (C-PES corresponded to the English version, while some discrepancies were noted in the Perceived Coercion Scale (C-PCS and the Negative Pressure Scale (C-NPS. All subscales had good internal consistencies. Scores were significantly higher for patients either committed involuntarily or subjected to chemical or physical restrain, independent on severity of psychotic symptoms. Conclusion The Chinese AES is a psychometrically sound instrument assessing the three different aspects of the experience of admission, namely "negative pressure, "process exclusion" and "perceived coercion". The potential of C-AES in exploring subjective experience of psychiatric admission and effects on treatment adherence should be further explored.

  16. The spillover effect of disclosure rules and materiality thresholds: Evidence from profit warnings issued in Hong Kong market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual-listed firms simultaneously follow the relevant rules in their home country and in their cross-listed country. In contrast, other firms only listed in the cross-listed country are only subject to the local regulations. Previous literature has found evidence that cross-listing can improve firms’ information transparency because of more stringent listing rules in the cross-listed country. The existing research, however, has not paid enough attention to the potential influence of dual-listed firms and their home country institutional factors (e.g. unique disclosure policies on other firms only listed in the cross-listed country (i.e. spillover effect. In the Hong Kong market, Chinese dual-listed firms are under the mandatory profit warning regulation of mainland China, but other firms listed only in Hong Kong only need to follow the voluntary disclosure rule of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Such a setting provides us with the opportunity to investigate a spillover effect, i.e. whether these Chinese dual-listed firms influence their peers only listed in Hong Kong to release profit warnings. We find that firms only listed in Hong Kong are more likely to issue profit warnings if their Chinese dual-listed peers have also issued warnings. We further find that this spillover effect increases with the market capitalization of Chinese dual-listed firms and increases with the market share of these firms before they dominate the industry. Lastly, due to an underlying duty to disclose material information in Hong Kong, the spillover effect is weaker for firms with large earnings surprises.

  17. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L

    2000-06-01

    Depression is quite common among young people in Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the association between emotional autonomy and depressive symptomatology among Chinese young people in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 young people between 16 and 18 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Significant bivariate relationships were found between depressive symptomatology and three dimensions of emotional autonomy (individuation, nondependency on parents, and deidealization of parents). Using multiple regression models, the author found that depressive symptomatology was associated with two aspects of emotional autonomy: individuation and deidealization of parents. Results indicate that the relationships between depressive symptomatology and these three aspects of emotional autonomy are similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  18. Adaptation to a Sibling Culture: The Satisfaction and Persistence Intentions of Mainland Chinese Postgraduate Students at a Hong Kong University

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    Min Zeng

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed and tested a model of the adaptation of postgraduate students to a “sibling culture”, namely, Mainland Chinese students at the University of Hong Kong. The model was based on higher education literature combined with acculturation elements for the construct of social integration. Students’ satisfaction with their experience in this cultural setting and the likelihood of their persistence were used as the indicators of their adaptation in a model linking various background variables such as academic and social integration to adaptation. The participants were 103 current research students. Analysis showed that academic integration was more strongly related than social integration to their satisfaction and likely persistence in post-graduate study at this university. Among the background variables measured, motivation and Cantonese but not English language skills showed a significant relationship with postgraduate students’ academic and social integration. Implications for research on and assistance to mainland postgraduate students in Hong Kong are discussed.

  19. Hong Kong's Cross-System University Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Yunyun, Qin; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the special case of Hong Kong higher education's institutional partnerships in the Chinese mainland. After noting the rise of cross-system university partnership in Asia, it provides a neoinstitutional perspective on the differences between the two China higher education systems. Finally, a case study of the experience of the…

  20. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale: evidence from the Hong Kong FAMILY Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hairong; Ni, Michael Y; Lee, Paul H; Tam, Wilson W S; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M; McDowell, Ian

    2014-08-01

    With China's rapid economic growth in the past few decades, there is currently an emerging focus on happiness. Cross-cultural validity studies have indicated that the four-item Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has high internal consistency and stable reliability. However, the psychometric characteristics of the SHS in broader Chinese community samples are unknown. We evaluated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SHS in the Hong Kong general population. The Chinese SHS was derived using forward-backward translation. Of the Cantonese-speaking participants aged ≥15 years, 2,635 were randomly selected from the random sample component of the FAMILY Cohort, a territory-wide cohort study in Hong Kong. In addition to the SHS, a single-item overall happiness scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short-form version 2 (SF-12) mental and physical health scales were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a single factor with high loadings for the four SHS items. Multiple group analyses indicated factor invariance across sex and age groups. Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, and 2-week test-retest reliability (n = 191) was 0.70. The SHS correlated significantly with single-item overall happiness (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.57), Family APGAR (ρ = 0.26), PHQ-9 (ρ = -0.34), and mental health-related quality of life (ρ = 0.40) but showed a lower correlation with physical health (ρ = 0.15). A regression model that included the PHQ-9 and Family APGAR scores explained 37% of the variance in SF-12 mental health scores; adding the SHS raised the variance explained to 41 %. Our results support the reliability and validity of the SHS as a relevant component in the measurement battery for mental well-being in a Chinese general population.

  1. Declines in tobacco brand recognition and ever-smoking rates among young children following restrictions on tobacco advertisements in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, R; Chee, Y Y; Choi, K M; Chu, T K; Kato, K; Lam, S K; Sin, K L; Tang, K T; Wong, H M; Wong, K M

    2004-03-01

    We compared the recognition of tobacco brands and ever-smoking rates in young children before (1991) and after (2001) the implementation of cigarette advertising restrictions in Hong Kong and identified continuing sources of tobacco promotion exposure. A cross-sectional survey of 824 primary school children aged from 8 to 11 (Primary classes 3-4) living in two Hong Kong districts was carried out using self-completed questionnaires examining smoking behaviour and recognition of names and logos from 18 tobacco, food, drink and other brands common in Hong Kong. Ever-smoking prevalence in 2001 was 3.8 per cent (1991, 7.8 per cent). Tobacco brand recognition rates ranged from 5.3 per cent (Viceroy name) to 72.8 per cent (Viceroy logo). Compared with 1991, in 2001 never-smoker children recognized fewer tobacco brand names and logos: Marlboro logo recognition rate fell by 55.3 per cent. Similar declines were also seen in ever-smoker children, with recognition of the Marlboro logo decreasing 48 per cent. Recognition rates declined amongst both boys and girls. Children from non-smoking families constituted 51 per cent (426) of the sample, whereas 34.5 per cent (284), 8.5 per cent (70), 1.7 per cent (14) and 4.4 per cent (36) of the children had one, two, three or more than three smoking family members at home, respectively. Tobacco brand recognition rates and ever-smoking prevalence were significantly higher among children with smoking family members compared with those without. Among 12 possible sources of exposure to cigarette brand names and logos, retail stalls (75.5 per cent; 622), indirect advertisements (71.5 per cent; 589) and magazines (65.3 per cent; 538) were ranked the most common. Advertising restrictions in Hong Kong have effectively decreased primary-age children's recognition of tobacco branding. However, these children remain vulnerable to branding, mostly through exposure from family smokers, point-of-sale tobacco advertisement and occasional promotions

  2. Chinese approaches to understanding and building resilience in at-risk children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tak-Yan; Shek, Daniel T L; Kwong, Wai-Man

    2007-04-01

    This article discusses the prevailing Chinese belief systems that have bearings on the perception and practices of promoting resilience among children and youth in a major city in China. It briefly describes a huge social intervention program entitled "Understanding the Adolescent Project" to combat the problems among grade 7 students identified as adolescents at risk from 2001 to 2004 in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. A critical review of the problems encountered by social workers in the delivery of the program is presented to support the move to provide the preventive program for grade 4 students with clinical symptoms on a screening tool for identification of at-risk status. Starting in 2005, a large-scale positive youth development program was being developed for all secondary one to three (grades 7 to 9) students. Encouraging results of the evaluation studies demonstrated the effectiveness of this new preventive program, entitled Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  3. Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong: Does Family Socioeconomic Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and children's physical activity (PA) behaviour during after-school hours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants included 663 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13 years) and their parents from nine primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  4. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  6. Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Chinese-American children (8 to 10 years old) and their mothers (N = 68) in California participated in the study. Mothers completed demographic information, the Family Assessment Device, Attitudes Toward Child Rearing Scale, and Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Acculturation Scale. Children's body mass index was measured, and children completed a self-administered physical activity checklist, Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory. Results indicated three variables that predicted children's body mass index: older age, a more democratic parenting style, and poor communication (R2=.263, F=8.727, p = .0001). Children whose mothers had a low level of acculturation were also more likely to be overweight than were children whose mothers were highly acculturated. This study revealed that children's ages, a democratic parenting style, and poor family communication contribute to increased body mass index in Chinese-American children. Other factors related to children's BMI and dietary intake include acculturation level of the mother and family affective responses. Future studies should examine the change in BMI over time and in different age groups and why parenting and family communication impact children's body weight.

  7. Predictors of suicide ideation and depression in Hong Kong adolescents: perceptions of academic and family climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T Y; Wong, Betty P; Chow, Bonnie W Y; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-02-01

    The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety, academic self-concept, and adolescents' perceived parental dissatisfaction with academic performance. The correlation between test anxiety and depression was especially high (r = .51). Study 2 examined how three different aspects of perceived family relationship were associated with depression and suicide ideation. Among 371 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents ages 14-20, 52.6% reported suicide ideation. Low levels of family cohesion and support and high levels of parent-adolescent conflict were positively related to depression and suicide ideation in both genders. Across both studies, depression mediated associations between academic- and family-related variables and suicide ideation. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and family climate in understanding depression and suicide ideation among Chinese adolescents.

  8. Comparison of Perceived Support for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Related Practices of Children and Young Adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the self-reported physical activity, perceived social support for, and perceived barriers to, physical activity of primary and secondary school children from Hong Kong and Australia. Hong Kong boys and girls reported spending significantly less time, outside of school hours, on physical activity than their Australian…

  9. Is Traditional Chinese Exercise Associated With Lower Mortality Rates in Older People? Evidence From a Prospective Chinese Elderly Cohort Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Lee, Siu Yin; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    The inverse association of aerobic exercise with death has been well documented. However, evidence on traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) and rate of death in older Chinese is limited. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the associations of TCE and other types of physical activity with death from all causes and specific causes in a population-based prospective cohort of 66,820 Chinese persons (≥65 years of age) who were enrolled between July 1998 and December 2001 at all 18 Elderly Health Centers in Hong Kong and followed up until May 31, 2012. During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 19,845 deaths occurred. TCE was inversely associated with death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 0.82), cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.85), cancer (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.92), and respiratory disease (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.80) but was not associated with death from accidents (excluding falls) (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.42), after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, alcohol use, smoking, body mass index, and health status. The associations did not vary by amount of TCE. Aerobic exercise had similar inverse associations as TCE, but associations for stretching exercises and walking slowly were less marked. Further studies of TCE are warranted in older Chinese. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Perspectives on the Cultural Appropriacy of Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David Robert

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact of Chinese culture on the school curriculum in Hong Kong. Argues that the Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) transplanted from western-based concepts is not commensurate with the local Chinese cultural context, and therefore leads to many problems when being implemented in schools. (Author/VWL)

  11. Cross-boundary substance uses among Hong Kong Chinese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T; Lau, Mason

    2007-09-01

    The study documents the characteristics of Hong Kong residents who used substances in mainland China. Characteristics of such users were compared with those using substances elsewhere. A cross-sectional survey was used. Data analyses were stratified by gender, and multivariate analyses were performed. Respondents, Hong Kong adults aged 18-30 (n = 6,528), were interviewed using a mixed interviewer and computerized mobile phone method, at the Hong Kong-mainland China boundary. Cross-border substance users and other types of substance users had characteristics that were quite different (e.g., education level, perceived harmfulness of substance use in general, having friends who frequently used substances in mainland China). Cross-boundary substance users also found it easier to obtain substances in mainland China than in Hong Kong (males: 60.5%, females: 39.6%) and perceived no chance of being arrested in mainland China because of substance use (men: 28.8%, women: 24.5%). They tended to use substances in discos/rave parties together with friends (men: 77%, women: 81%), and substances were often obtained for free (men: 63.2%, women: 78%). Ecstasy and ketamine were often used (men: 86.5% & 79.4%, women: 81% & 70.2%), and multiple uses of different substances were common (men: 81.3%, women: 68.6%). Lower price, peer influence, and better availability were reasons behind cross-boundary substance use behaviors. Cross-boundary substance users have specific characteristics. Prevention policies should take these characteristics into account. Regional collaborations are highly warranted.

  12. Chinese children's early knowledge about writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Yin, Li; Treiman, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    Much research on literacy development has focused on learners of alphabetic writing systems. Researchers have hypothesized that children learn about the formal characteristics of writing before they learn about the relations between units of writing and units of speech. We tested this hypothesis by examining young Chinese children's understanding of writing. Mandarin-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds completed a graphic task, which tapped their knowledge about the formal characteristics of writing, and a phonological task, which tapped their knowledge about the correspondence between Chinese characters and syllables. The 3- to 5-year-olds performed better on the graphic task than the phonological task, indicating that learning how writing appears visually begins earlier than learning that writing corresponds to linguistic units, even in a writing system in which written units correspond to syllables. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Learning about writing's visual form, how it looks, is an important part of emergent literacy. Knowledge of how writing symbolizes linguistic units may emerge later. What does this study add? We test the hypothesis that Chinese children learn about writing's visual form earlier than its symbolic nature. Chinese 3- to 5- year-olds know more about visual features than character-syllable links. Results show learning of the visual appearance of a notation system is developmentally precocious. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Sense of Self (SOS) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the cross-cultural applicability of the Sense of Self (SOS) Scale in the Hong Kong Chinese cultural context. The SOS Scale is a 26-item questionnaire designed to measure students' sense of purpose, self-reliance, and self-concept in school. Six hundred ninety-seven Hong Kong Chinese high school students participated in the…

  14. A prospective cohort study to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are culturally specific and there is limited data on the association of dietary patterns with late-life depression in Chinese. This study examined the associations between dietary patterns and baseline and subsequent depressive symptoms in community-dwelling Chinese older people in Hong Kong.Participants aged ≥65 year participating in a cohort study examining the risk factors for osteoporosis completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline between 2001 and 2003. Factor analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns: "vegetables-fruits" pattern, "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern, and "meat-fish" pattern. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and 4-year using the validated Geriatric Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression was used for cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,902 to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the presence of depressive symptoms, and for longitudinal analysis (n = 2,211 on their associations with 4-year depressive symptoms, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.The highest quartile of "vegetables-fruits" pattern score was associated with reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms [Adjusted OR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36-0.83, ptrend = 0.017] compared to the lowest quartile at baseline. Similar inverse trend was observed for the highest quartile of "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern score [Adjusted OR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.26-0.65, ptrend<0.001] compared to the lowest quartile. There was no association of "meat-fish" pattern with the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline. None of the dietary patterns were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms at 4-year.Higher "vegetables-fruits" and "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern scores were associated with reduced likelihood of baseline depressive symptoms in Chinese older people in Hong Kong. The longitudinal analyses failed to show any causal relationship between

  15. Hong Kong men with low incomes have worse health-related quality of life as judged by SF-36 scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T C; Wai, H P S; Tsang, P C C; Chan, H C K

    2006-10-01

    To analyse the association between income and health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) Chinese version in Hong Kong Chinese working population. Cross-sectional observation study. A commercial company in Hong Kong. All clerical and administrative staff of a commercial company was invited to participate; 876 of the 1003 staff agreed. The subjects were categorised into three income groups according to monthly income in Hong Kong dollars (low, 10,000-25,000; high, >25,000). The mean age of the 288 men and 588 women was 34.9 (standard deviation, 7.9; median, 34.0; range, 18-71) years. SF-36 scores on health-related quality of life. The distribution of income was 30% in high-, 54.8% in middle-, and 15.2% in low-income groups. Women had similar SF-36 scores among different income groups. In men, for most variables there was a significant positive linear correlation between income and SF-36 scores. Low income is associated with a worse health-related quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese men.

  16. Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese-English Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2018-02-01

    The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty. Chinese word reading, phonological, and morphological awareness were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in Chinese. English word reading and vocabulary were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in English. Chinese phonological awareness was an additional correlate of poor comprehension in English. Moreover, poor comprehenders in both Chinese and English showed slower rapid automatized naming scores than the other groups. Findings highlight some factors that might be critical for reading comprehension in L1 Chinese and L2 English; fluency is likely to be a critical part of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Post-Umbrella Movement: Localism and Radicalness of the Hong Kong Student Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-po Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong student movements before the Umbrella Movement showed a political outlook of voicing within norm of the establishment, using “peaceful, rational and non-violent” approaches, acknowledging the authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR and mainland Chinese governments and recognizing attachment to the motherland China. Today’s new emerging political outlook of the Hong Kong student movement has a profile of anti-establishment, using more assertive means and not excluding radical behaviour, distrust of the HKSAR and mainland authorities and assertion of radical localism. In the last two years, Hong Kong students have undergone a rapid change in their orientation, resulting in today’s outlook. This paper argues that the Umbrella Movement is the key for the turnaround and it testifies to the birth of a new social and political consciousness amongst Hong Kong students.

  18. Cognitive Development of Chinese Urban Only Children and Children with Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shulan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    First- and fifth-grade only-children and children with siblings completed 11 cognitive tasks to investigate differences in cognitive abilities that may exist due to the Chinese 1-child family planning program. Superiority of grade one only-children over children with siblings appeared for memory processes, language skills, and mathematics.…

  19. Anomalous cerebellar anatomy in Chinese children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hui eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia (DD claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  20. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  1. Children and adolescents living with atopic eczema: an interpretive phenomenological study with Chinese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Winnie K H; Lee, Regina L T

    2012-10-01

    This article is a report on a phenomenological study of Chinese mothers' experiences of caring for their children who were living with atopic eczema. A mother's attitude and personality may have a direct influence on her child's adherence to treatment for atopic eczema. Thus, good communication between healthcare professionals and the mother is essential. Treatment and care should also be culturally appropriate. Using an interpretive phenomenological method, 14 interviews were conducted in Hong Kong, China from September 2007 to August 2008, with nine mothers caring for their children who were living with atopic eczema. Crist and Tanner's circular process of hermeneutic interpretive phenomenology was chosen to guide the data analysis. Mothers' coping patterns involved persistently dealing with enduring demands and seeking alternative therapies that were aimed at curing the disease. Four themes finally emerged from the data: (1) dealing with extra mothering, (2) giving up their life, (3) becoming an expert and (4) living with blame and worry. Mothers' coping patterns involved persistently finding ways to relieve their children's suffering with the aim of curing the disease and dealing with their own emotions related to the frustration resulting from giving up their life and living with blame and worry. The study findings provide nurses with an empathic insight into mothers' feelings and the enduring demands of caring for children with atopic eczema, and help nurses to develop culturally sensitive interventions, reinforce positive coping strategies, increase family function and improve health outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Conceptions of Creativity among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This research had two objectives. The first was to determine the reliability and validity of the multifaceted assessment of creativity (MAC) for evaluating Hong Kong university students' conceptions of creativity. The second was to establish if the theory-practice and gender gaps discovered among mainland Chinese university students would be…

  3. Predictors of Suicide Ideation and Depression in Hong Kong Adolescents: Perceptions of Academic and Family Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T. Y.; Wong, Betty P.; Chow, Bonnie W.-Y.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety,…

  4. Picture norms for Chinese preschool children: name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamei Wang

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language.

  5. Patch testing of 490 patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Lam, T H

    1996-07-01

    Patch testing, using European standard allergens and suspected causative substances brought in by patients, was carried out in 490 patients with eczema in Hong Kong and 437 completed the test. Before patch testing, 244, 141 and 105 patients were diagnosed as having contact dermatitis, endogenous eczema and unclassified eczema, respectively. After patch testing, the diagnosis of the causal agent was changed in 54 contact dermatitis patients, and 18% of endogenous eczema patients and 34% of unclassified eczema patients were re-diagnosed as contact dermatitis. In the patients with a final diagnosis of contact dermatitis, 19.5% were positive to fragrance mix, followed by nickel sulfate (16.4%) and cobalt chloride (11.3%). The commonest causative agents for contact dermatitis were soap or detergent (22.0%) and traditional Chinese medicine (17.3%); the latter was a more common cause of contact dermatitis than Western medicine (9.0%) or metals (13.4%). The prevalence of allergic reaction to fragrance in Hong Kong was higher than among Chinese in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei or Singapore (78% ethnic Chinese). Dermatologists should have a high index of suspicion about traditional medications and should patch test with the suspected substance when patients give a history of use.

  6. Assessing the factor structure of the Chinese conformity to masculine norms inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Yim, K H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the factor structure and assess the reliability of the Chinese Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CCMNI-46). Using a cohort of 254 Hong Kong-born Chinese males, scale reliability determination involved the internal consistencies of the entire instrument. Ages of respondents ranged from 18 to 81 years (M = 38.05; SD = 17.3). Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the psychometric properties of the CCMNI-46, thus confirming the multidimensional structure of the CMNI-46 and the replicability of the CMNI using a Hong Kong Chinese sample. All items loaded onto the corresponding factor with the exception of one item from the emotional control subscale. The overall reliability of the CCMNI-46 was lower than previous Western studies and may well reflect the subtle diversity of masculinity across cultures. The findings offered psychometric support for use of the CCMNI-46 in research and practice regarding Hong Kong Chinese masculinity. The CCMNI-46 provides a useful template for the operationalization of masculine norms in Chinese society.

  7. Examination of the "CSI Effect" on Perceptions of Scientific and Testimonial Evidence in a Hong Kong Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2017-05-01

    Television is a powerful medium through which to convey information and messages to the public. The recent proliferation of forensic science and criminal justice information throughout all forms of media, coupled with raised expectations toward forensic evidence, has led some to suspect that a "CSI effect" ( Crime Scene Investigation effect) is taking place. The present study contributes to the literature addressing the CSI effect in two ways. First, it examines whether the CSI effect exists in the Chinese population of Hong Kong. Second, using a mock-jury paradigm, it empirically examines a more integrative perspective of the CSI effect. It was found that, although the amount of media coverage involving forensic evidence does influence participants' perception of legal evidence to some degree, such a perception does not affect participants' legal decision making. Viewers of forensic dramas were not more likely to convict the defendant when forensic evidence was presented and not less likely to convict when only testimonial evidence was presented. The only significant predictor of the defendant's culpability when scientific evidence was presented was participants' ratings of the reliability of scientific evidence. Results from the present study lend no support to the existence of the CSI effect in Hong Kong.

  8. Issues about home computer workstations and primary school children in Hong Kong: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py Szeto, Grace; Tsui, Macy Mei Sze; Sze, Winky Wing Yu; Chan, Irene Sin Ting; Chung, Cyrus Chak Fai; Lee, Felix Wai Kit

    2014-01-01

    All around the world, there is a rising trend of computer use among young children especially at home; yet the computer furniture is usually not designed specifically for children's use. In Hong Kong, this creates an even greater problem as most people live in very small apartments in high-rise buildings. Most of the past research literature is focused on computer use in children in the school environment and not about the home setting. The present pilot study aimed to examine ergonomic issues in children's use of computers at home in Hong Kong, which has some unique home environmental issues. Fifteen children (six male, nine female) aged 8-11 years and their parents were recruited by convenience sampling. Participants were asked to provide information on their computer use habits and related musculoskeletal symptoms. Participants were photographed when sitting at the computer workstation in their usual postures and joint angles were measured. The participants used computers frequently for less than two hours daily and the majority shared their workstations with other family members. Computer furniture was designed more for adult use and a mismatch of furniture and body size was found. Ergonomic issues included inappropriate positioning of the display screen, keyboard, and mouse, as well as lack of forearm support and suitable backrest. These led to awkward or constrained postures while some postural problems may be habitual. Three participants reported neck and shoulder discomfort in the past 12 months and 4 reported computer-related discomfort. Inappropriate computer workstation settings may have adverse effects on children's postures. More research on workstation setup at home, where children may use their computers the most, is needed.

  9. Item response modeling: a psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C

    2017-09-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.

  10. Hong Kong Students' Approaches to Learning: Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Bhoomiah

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a "rote" learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted…

  11. Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Perez, Christopher R; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Elizabeth A; Minnick, Mark R

    2011-12-01

    The habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy has been consistently linked to adverse outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological functioning. The present study aimed to uncover whether the suppression-health relationship is dependent on cultural context, given differing cultural norms surrounding the value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between suppression and psychological functioning seen in European Americans would not be seen among members of East Asian cultures, in which emotional restraint is relatively encouraged over emotional expression. To test this hypothesis, we asked 71 European American students and 100 Chinese students from Hong Kong to report on their use of expressive suppression, life satisfaction, and depressed mood. A moderation analysis revealed that expressive suppression was associated with adverse psychological functioning for European Americans, but not for Chinese participants. These findings highlight the importance of context in understanding the suppression-health relationship. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, L P; Ma, R C W; Lam, P M; Lok, I H; Haines, C J; So, W Y; Tong, P C Y; Cockram, C S; Chow, C C; Goggins, W B

    2008-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) frequently exhibit central obesity, glucose intolerance, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and hypertension which are characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 295 premenopausal Chinese women with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria (mean age: 30.2 +/- 6.4 years) and 98 control subjects without PCOS were evaluated for prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia. Using the 2005 modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, MetS (presence of three or more risk factors) was found in 24.9% of PCOS women compared to 3.1% of controls. The prevalence of MetS in PCOS women increased from 16.7% at under 30 years of age to 53.3% at over 40 years. MetS was also more prevalent in overweight and obese (41.3%) than normal-weight PCOS women (0.9%). However, multivariate regression analysis showed that women with PCOS had a 5-fold increase in risk of MetS (odds ratio 4.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-17.84) compared with women without PCOS even after controlling for age and BMI, suggesting PCOS alone is an independent risk factor for MetS. There is high prevalence of MetS in Hong Kong Chinese women with PCOS despite their relatively young age. Recognition of these cardiometabolic risk factors requires a high level of awareness in conjunction with early and regular screening.

  13. An Investigation on 3-6-Year-Old Chinese Children's Perception of "Death"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min

    2017-01-01

    Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…

  14. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  15. The needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y

    2014-10-01

    This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners

  16. Adulteration of proprietary Chinese medicines and health products with undeclared drugs: experience of a tertiary toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Chor Kwan; Chen, Sammy Pak Lam; Lee, Hencher Han Chih; Lam, Ying Hoo; Ng, Sau Wah; Chen, Mo Lung; Tang, Magdalene Huen Yin; Chan, Suzanne Suk San; Ng, Candy Wai Yan; Cheung, Jana Wing Lan; Chan, Tina Yee Ching; Lau, Nike Kwai Cheung; Chong, Yeow Kuan; Mak, Tony Wing Lai

    2018-01-01

    Proprietary Chinese medicines (pCMs) and health products, generally believed to be natural and safe, are gaining popularity worldwide. However, the safety of pCMs and health products has been severely compromised by the practice of adulteration. The current study aimed to examine the problem of adulteration of pCMs and health products in Hong Kong. The present study was conducted in a tertiary referral clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. All cases involving the use of pCMs or health products, which were subsequently confirmed to contain undeclared adulterants, from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 404 cases involving the use of 487 adulterated pCMs or health products with a total of 1234 adulterants were identified. The adulterants consisted of approved drugs, banned drugs, drug analogues and animal thyroid tissue. The six most common categories of adulterants detected were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.7%), anorectics (15.3%), corticosteroids (13.8%), diuretics and laxatives (11.4%), oral antidiabetic agents (10.0%) and erectile dysfunction drugs (6.0%). Sibutramine was the most common adulterant (n = 155). The reported sources of these illicit products included over-the-counter drug stores, the internet and Chinese medicine practitioners. A significant proportion of patients (65.1%) had adverse effects attributable to these illicit products, including 14 severe and two fatal cases. Psychosis, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome and hypoglycaemia were the three most frequently encountered adverse effects. Adulteration of pCMs and health products with undeclared drugs poses severe health hazards. Public education and effective regulatory measures are essential to address the problem. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Supportive care needs in Hong Kong Chinese women confronting advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Angel; Lam, Wendy; Tsang, Janice; Yau, Tsz-kok; Soong, Inda; Yeo, Winnie; Suen, Joyce; Ho, Wing M; Wong, Ka-yan; Kwong, Ava; Suen, Dacita; Sze, Wing-Kin; Ng, Alice; Girgis, Afaf; Fielding, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) are living longer, so understanding their needs becomes important. This cross-sectional study investigated the type and extent of unmet supportive care needs in Hong Kong Chinese women with advanced breast cancer. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among women with stage III or stage IV disease mostly awaiting chemotherapy (76%) to identify unmet needs using the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form, psychological morbidity using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, symptom distress using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and satisfaction with care using the Patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-9). About 27-72% of 198/220 (90%) women (mean age = 53.4 ± 9.74 (standard deviation) years) identified needs from the health system, information, and patient support (HSIPS) domain as the top 15 most prevalent unmet needs. 'having one member of hospital staff with whom you can talk to about all aspect of your condition, treatment, and follow-up' was most cited by 72% of the patients, with remaining unmet needs addressing mostly desire for information. Unmet need strength did not differ between women with stage III and stage IV disease, whereas women with first time diagnosis reported greater health system and information unmet needs compared with women with recurrent disease. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that symptom distress was consistently positively associated with all but sexuality need domains, whereas low satisfaction with care was associated with HSIPS (β = 3.270, p living (β = 2.810, p < 0.01) domains. Chinese women with ABC expressed need for continuity of care and improved information provision. High symptom distress was associated with lower levels of satisfaction with care. These unmet needs appear to reflect current care services shortcomings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparative research on response stereotypes for daily operation tasks of Chinese and American engineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Feng; Chan, Alan H S

    2004-02-01

    A group of Mainland Chinese engineering students were asked to respond to 12 questions by indicating their design conventions and expectations about operations, directions-of-motion, and descriptions of movement for items such as doors, keys, taps, and knobs. Chi-square tests demonstrated strong response stereotypes for tasks of all 12 questions. A comparison of the stereotype strengths found here with that of Hong Kong Chinese and American engineering students reported earlier indicated that stereotype strengths of engineering students from the three regions were generally different. For some cases stereotype characteristics of two regions were more alike than the other, and also for some subjects in the three regions performed similarly. The Mainland and Hong Kong Chinese were more alike in making their choices on questions of conceptual compatibility, while more consistent preferences on movement compatibility and spatial compatibility were noted between the Mainland Chinese and American students than Hong Kong Chinese.

  19. A qualitative descriptive study of risk reduction for coronary disease among the Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Choi Wan; Lopez, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Achieving optimal control and reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) risks in Hong Kong (HK) remains significant and requires exploring. This article addresses the ability to reduce CHD risks among the HK Chinese. Through secondary analysis, a qualitative descriptive design using focus group interviews and content analysis were adopted. Older and younger adults were invited for the study. An interview schedule was used to guide discussions during focus group interviews. Four categories emerged from the data: planning of health actions, control of risk-reducing behavior, perceived opportunities for understanding CHD, and chest pain appraisal. Local culture and population needs play a central role in disease perception and prevention. The findings are essential to target strategies for initiating health acts for younger adults and establish public education resources that underscore understanding of CHD risk, symptom recognition, and disease management, particularly among those middle-aged and older people at high risk and with the diseased populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measuring social skills of children and adolescents in a Chinese population: Preliminary evidence on the reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Siu, Andrew M H; Brown, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008) are designed to assist in the screening and classification of students (aged 5-18 years) who are suspected of presenting with social skills deficits and to offer guidelines in the development of interventions to remediate those types of problems. The objective of this study is to examine the preliminary reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the SSIS-RS, referred to as the SSIS-RS-C. In this study, parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors among students with typical development (n=79) were compared with those of age- and gender-matched students with a known developmental disability (n=79) using the SSIS-RS-C. The results indicated that the SSIS-RS-C subscale scores in all the disability groups were significantly different except for those in the Assertion scale for one disability group. Furthermore, the normative sample of typically developing children and adolescents (aged 5-12 and 13-18 years, n=567) from Hong Kong was established to improve the psychometric properties of the SSIS-RS-C. There were moderate to strong relationships between the common subscales across all forms of the SSIS-RS-C. Acceptable to excellent levels of internal consistency across all common subscales was also obtained. The scores for the Hong Kong sample (n=567) derived from the use of the SSIS-RS-C were then compared to the normative sample scores from the American version of the SSIS-RS. It was found that there were statistically significant differences on five out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skill subscales for children aged 5-12 years and on four out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skills subscales for the adolescent group (aged 13-18 years). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the American and Hong Kong samples on all of the SSIS-RS-C Problem Behavior scale scores. It was concluded that the SSIS-RS-C is a promising instrument for clinicians

  1. Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test in normal-hearing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Sha; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Yilin; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the Standard-Chinese version of Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and to examine the lexical and age effects on spoken-word recognition in normal-hearing children. Six lists of monosyllabic and six lists of disyllabic words (20 words/list) were selected from the database of daily speech materials for normal-hearing (NH) children of ages 3-5 years. The lists were further divided into "easy" and "hard" halves according to the word frequency and neighborhood density in the database based on the theory of Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Ninety-six NH children (age ranged between 4.0 and 7.0 years) were divided into three different age groups of 1-year intervals. Speech-perception tests were conducted using the Standard-Chinese monosyllabic and disyllabic LNT. The inter-list performance was found to be equivalent and inter-rater reliability was high with 92.5-95% consistency. Results of word-recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were all significant. Children scored higher with disyllabic words than with monosyllabic words. "Easy" words scored higher than "hard" words. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that neighborhood density, age, and word frequency appeared to have increasingly more contributions to Chinese word recognition. The results of the present study indicated that performances of Chinese word recognition were influenced by word frequency, age, and neighborhood density, with word frequency playing a major role. These results were consistent with those in other languages, supporting the application of NAM in the Chinese language. The development of Standard-Chinese version of LNT and the establishment of a database of children of 4-6 years old can provide a reliable means for spoken-word recognition test in children with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From the transnational to the Sinophone: lesbian representations in Chinese-language films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alvin Ka Hin

    2012-01-01

    This article theorizes global lesbian cinema in Chinese-language films through regionalism, diaspora studies, and Sinophone studies. Through an inter-regional analysis of Butterfly (Yan Yan Mak, 2004, Hong Kong) and diasporic and Sinophone readings of Saving Face (Alice Wu, 2005, USA), I argue that Mak's film illustrates a Hong Kong regional retranslation of a Taiwanese lesbian story, which complicates any claim to a stable "Chinese" identity. Finally, Wu's representation of lesbianism also troubles the politics of Chineseness by pointing to the ways diasporic reproduction of "community" works through the disciplining of other non-normative sexualities.

  3. Holistic Health Status Questionnaire: developing a measure from a Hong Kong Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Choi Wan; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Yeung, Siu Ming; Sum, Fok

    2016-02-25

    The increased prevalence of chronic diseases is a global health issue. Once chronic disease is diagnosed, individuals face lifelong healthcare treatments, and the disabilities and disturbances resulting from their illness will affect the whole person. A valid tool that can measure clients' holistic care needs is important to enable us to identify issues of concern and address them early to prevent further complications. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale measuring holistic health among chronically ill individuals. The research was an instrument development and validation study using three samples of Hong Kong Chinese people. The first sample (n = 15) consisted of stroke survivors who had experienced disruption of their total being, and was used as a basis for the generation of scale items. In the second and third samples (n = 319, n = 303), respondents with various chronic illnesses were assessed in order to estimate the psychometric properties of the scale. A total of 52 items were initially generated, and 7 items with a factor loading less than 0.3 were removed in the process, as substantiated by the literature and expert panel reviews. Exploratory factor analysis identified a 45-item, 8-factor Holistic Health Status Questionnaire (HHSQ) that could account for 56.38 % of the variance. The HHSQ demonstrated content validity, acceptable internal consistency (0.59-0.92) and satisfactory convergent validity from moderate to high correlation with similar constructs (r ≥ 0.46, p < 0.01). The HHSQ tapped into the relational experiences and connectedness among the bio-psycho-social-spiritual dimensions of a Chinese person with chronic disease, with acceptable psychometric properties.

  4. Cognitive effects of calligraphy therapy for older people: a randomized controlled trial in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Xue Bai1,3, Henry SR Kao4,5, Jessie CY Li1, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 3Department of Social Work and Social Administration; 4Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Department of Psychology, Fu Jen Catholic University, TaiwanBackground: This pilot study investigated the effects of calligraphy therapy on cognitive function in older Hong Kong Chinese people with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial was carried out in a sample of 31 adults aged 65 years or older with mild cognitive impairment. They were randomly assigned to receive either intensive calligraphy training led by a trained research assistant for eight weeks (calligraphy group, n = 14 or no calligraphy treatment (control group, n = 17. Participants' cognitive function was assessed by the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE before and after calligraphy treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze the data.Results: A significant interaction effect of time and intervention was detected [F (1, 29 = 9.11, P = 0.005, η2= 0.24]. The calligraphy group was found to have a prominent increase in CMMSE global score, and scores in the cognitive areas of orientation, attention, and calculation after two months (∆M = 2.36, P < 0.01, whereas their counterparts in the control group experienced a decline in CMMSE score (∆M = -0.41, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Calligraphy therapy was effective for enhancing cognitive function in older people with mild cognitive impairment and should be incorporated as part of routine programs in both community and residential care settings.Keywords: calligraphy therapy, Chinese elderly, mild cognitive impairment, cognitive function, randomized controlled trial

  5. Recognition of Emotion by Chinese and Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Roslyn; Wang, Lei

    1996-01-01

    Compared the recognition of emotion from facial expression by 72 Chinese and 72 Australian children using photographs of Chinese and Caucasian faces. Results provide some evidence for an ethnic bias effect in emotion recognition and demonstrate an increase in overall accuracy with age. Cultural differences are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Prevalence of overweight in Hong Kong Chinese children: Its associations with family, early-life development and behaviors-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jing Wang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The present study revealed a high prevalence of overweight in Hong Kong pediatric population and demonstrated the family resemblance in weight status. Further interventions and promotions should involve parents and consider the family as a unit to tackle childhood overweight.

  7. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  8. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  9. Applying Western models of volunteering in Hong Kong : The role of empathy, prosocial motivation and motive-experience fit for volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydinli, A.; Bender, M.; Chong, A.; Yue, X.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the applicability of prominent Western volunteering frameworks in Hong Kong. Two cross-sectional surveys involving a total of 268 respondents were conducted. In Study 1, we tested a model of volunteering among 149 Hong Kong Chinese adult individuals (Mage = 34.8

  10. A narrative inquiry into the Hong Kong Chinese adults' concepts of health through their cultural stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Engle Angela; Cheung, Kin; Mok, Esther; Cheung, Sharon; Tong, Edmond

    2006-03-01

    Abundant studies have investigated how health concepts held by individuals shape and are shaped by psychosocial and cultural factors, though many were limited to the conceptual level. The meaning and significance of health behaviours are better understood as an expression of something occurring over time. This narrative study explores how Hong Kong Chinese adults understand the meaning of health and the ways by which they construct and express these meanings in their lives. Additionally, by recognizing the central features of temporality, personal-social interactions within a place/culture in narrative thinking, this narrative inquiry may help health-care professionals to revisit the meaning of health promotion within the context of an individual's life situation. Five participants were recruited for the study. Data were collected through a series of audio-taped unstructured interviews and conversations with each participant. Findings underscore several features of participants' concepts and expressions of health: the significance of Confucian teachings on roles and responsibilities, Eastern view of self, Western biomedical orientation, and Hong Kong's unique work culture. Their responses not only express the attitudes and behaviours of individuals, but also the ways they engage in their constructed identity. Participants' concepts of health evolved over time according to the personal meanings attached to them at various life stages. While participants recognized the interconnectedness of the mind and body, the physical foci of traditional Western medicine remained salient in their health stories. Furthermore, there is a clear delineation of personal management of the psychological health and professional management of physical health.

  11. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype B among the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM population in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen

    Full Text Available The men-having-sex-with-men (MSM population has become one of the major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in the Asia Pacific countries. Hong Kong is located in the centre of Asia and the transmission history of HIV-1 subtype B transmission among MSM remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission dynamics of HIV-1 subtype B virus in the Hong Kong MSM population. Samples of 125 HIV-1 subtype B infected MSM patients were recruited in this study. Through this study, the subtype B epidemic in the Hong Kong MSM population was identified spreading mainly among local Chinese who caught infection locally. On the other hand, HIV-1 subtype B infected Caucasian MSM caught infection mainly outside Hong Kong. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis also indicated that 3 separate subtype B epidemics with divergence dates in the 1990s had occurred. The first and latest epidemics were comparatively small-scaled; spreading among the local Chinese MSM while sauna-visiting was found to be the major sex partner sourcing reservoir for the first subtype B epidemic. However, the second epidemic was spread in a large-scale among local Chinese MSM with a number of them having sourced their sex partners through the internet. The epidemic virus was estimated to have a divergence date in 1987 and the infected population in Hong Kong had a logistic growth throughout the past 20 years. Our study elucidated the evolutionary and demographic history of HIV-1 subtype B virus in Hong Kong MSM population. The understanding of transmission and growth model of the subtype B epidemic provides more information on the HIV-1 transmission among MSM population in other Asia Pacific high-income countries.

  12. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  13. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  14. The Rise of Civic Nationalism: Shifting Identities in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Kwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of civic nationalism in both Hong Kong and Taiwan indicates a prominence of democratic liberal values which are contributing to the further rejection of an ethnonational Chinese identity imposed by Beijing. Using the 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong and the Sunflower Movement in Taiwan as case studies, this paper examines how the rise of civic nationalism is furthering the nation-building project of Hong Kong and Taiwanese identities. Following a comparison between the Umbrella Movement and the Sunflower Movement in terms of the sequence of events, the paper identifies the impact of the movements on both societies through an examination of the successes and failures of each movement, the rise of new political forces and party politics, as well as political institutions. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the widening identity gap of Hong Kong and Taiwan from China.

  15. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  16. Chinese Handwriting Performance of Primary School Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sutie S. T.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Leung, Howard W. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Chinese handwriting performance of typical children and children with dyslexia, and to examine whether speed and accuracy of handwriting could reliably discriminate these two groups of children. One hundred and thirty-seven children with dyslexia and 756 typical children were recruited from main stream…

  17. Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chapmen

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...

  18. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  19. Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, H.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Stigler, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork

  20. Parental refusal of life-saving treatments for adolescents: Chinese familism in medical decision-making re-visited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports two cases in Hong Kong involving two native Chinese adolescent cancer patients (APs) who were denied their rights to consent to necessary treatments refused by their parents, resulting in serious harm. We argue that the dynamics of the 'AP-physician-family-relationship' and the dominant role Chinese families play in medical decision-making (MDM) are best understood in terms of the tendency to hierarchy and parental authoritarianism in traditional Confucianism. This ethic has been confirmed and endorsed by various Chinese writers from Mainland China and Hong Kong. Rather than giving an unqualified endorsement to this ethic, based more on cultural sentimentalism than rational moral reasoning, we warn that a strong familism in MDM, which deprives 'weak' family members of rights, represents the less desirable elements of this tradition, against which healthcare professionals working in this cultural milieu need to safeguard. Specifically for APs, we suggest that parental authority and family integrity should be re-interpreted in terms of parental responsibility and the enhancement of children's interests respectively, as done in the West. This implies that when parents refuse to consent to necessary treatment and deny their adolescent children's right to consent, doctors, as the only remaining advocates of the APs' interest, have the duty to inform the state, which can override parental refusal to enable the doctors to fulfill their professional and moral obligations. In so doing the state exercises its 'parens patriae' power to defend the defenseless in society and the integrity of the medical profession.

  1. Anorexia Nervosa in Chinese Adolescents: Does Culture Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on clinical and psychosocial characteristics of 16 Chinese adolescents from Hong Kong with anorexia nervosa. Over 80% of these patients expressed a fear of fatness. Against the background of increasing Westernization of Hong Kong society, anorexia is taking on a Western pattern, in congruence with the notion that anorexia nervosa is a…

  2. Validation of a Chinese version of the dental anxiety inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, Sam K. S.; Stouthard, Marlies E. A.; Keung Leung, W.

    2005-01-01

    To translate the English version of Dental Anxiety Inventory (DAxI) and its short-form (SDAxI) and to validate their use in Hong Kong Chinese. The DAxI and SDAxI were translated into Chinese. A total of 500 adults (18-64 years) were interviewed, the Chinese DAxI, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90),

  3. The stroller in the virtual city: Spatial practice of Hong Kong players in Sleeping Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping Dogs is an open-world role-playing game developed by United Front Games, a Canadian Studio based in Vancouver, in conjunction with Square Enix London Studios and released by Square Enix in 2012. The game features the city of Hong Kong and the society of Chinese Triads. While the game itself is mainly a representation of post-colonial Hong Kong targeting a transnational audience entrenched in similar gameplay mechanics of the genre, the native Hong Kong players react to these reconstructions of Hong Kong through their own gameplay and unique interpretations. The virtual city is not a static representation but a congruence of vigorous interactions between the originally designed space and gamic actions of the players. This paper seeks to explore the spatial and bodily practices of Sleeping Dogs players in the virtual terrain of Hong Kong through the lens of Lefebvre’s spatial theory.

  4. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  5. GCKR variants increase triglycerides while protecting from insulin resistance in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Variants in gene encoding glucokinase regulator protein (GCKR) were found to have converse effects on triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the influence of GCKR variants for triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits in Chinese children and adults. We genotyped two GCKR variants rs1260326 and rs1260333 in children and adults, and analyzed the association between two variants and triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR using linear regression model, and estimated the effect on insulin resistance using logistic regression model. Rs1260326 and rs1260333 associated with increased triglycerides in children and adults (ptriglycerides in Chinese children and adults. Triglycerides-increasing alleles of GCKR variants reduce insulin and HOMA-IR index, and protect from insulin resistance in children. Our results suggested GCKR has an effect on development of insulin resistance in Chinese children.

  6. Shanghai and Hong Kong Join Efforts for Oil Futures Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) and Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEx) announced in midApril they will jointly introduce crude oil futures. The two exchanges will jointly develop an energy derivatives market that serves both Chinese and international investors,according to a memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed between the two exchanges.

  7. Child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong: incidence rate and seasonal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Chan, Ko Ling; Yip, Paul Siu-Fai; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong; Jiang, Fan

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the incidence and seasonal patterns of child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong. A retrospective study of subjects aged under 19 years with a primary diagnosis of child maltreatment admitted to hospitals in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2010. Data were retrieved from the centralised database of all 42 public hospitals in the Hospital Authority. Child maltreatment incidence rate. A consistent seasonal pattern was found for non-sexual maltreatment in children aged 6-18 years (pmaltreatment or among children under 6 years. The seasonal pattern of child maltreatment coincided with the two school examination periods. The annual child maltreatment hospitalisation rate in Hong Kong in 2010 was 73.4 per 100 000 children under 19 years, more than double that in 2001. A peculiar seasonal pattern and an alarming increasing trend in child maltreatment hospitalisation were observed in Hong Kong, which we speculated to be related to school examination stress and increasing socioeconomic disparity. Our findings highlighted differences in the trends of child maltreatment between Hong Kong and the West. Professionals and policymakers should be made aware of these trends and develop effective strategies to tackle child maltreatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Influenza Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among Elderly Population in Hong Kong: The Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, P. K. H.; Lau, J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of influenza on elderly can be severe and fatal. Influenza vaccination (IV) has been shown to be effective in reducing influenza-related complications, but the IV uptake among elderly in Hong Kong remains low. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with IV among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong using the Health Belief…

  9. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version index scores in Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pinchen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Chang, Chen-Lin; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-02-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version (WISC-IV-Chinese) has been in clinical use in Taiwan since 2007. Research is needed to determine how the WISC-IV, modified from its earlier version, will affect its interpretation in clinical practice in a Mandarin-speaking context. We attempted to use WISC-IV-Chinese scores to identify the cognitive strengths and weaknesses in 334 Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of cognitive profiles of WISC-IV-Chinese scores between subtypes of ADHD was also performed. The results indicated that the four-factor model of the WISC-IV-Chinese fitted well for Taiwanese children with ADHD. The profiles showed that performance in the index score of the Processing Speed Index was the weakness domain for the Taiwanese children with ADHD, as confirmed by two different kinds of analytic methods. Cognitive profile analysis of ADHD subtypes revealed children with inattentive subtypes to have a greater weakness in processing speed performance. The implications of the profiles of the index scores on the WISC-IV-Chinese version for Taiwanese children with ADHD were explored. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  11. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  12. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  13. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  14. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  15. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  16. Physical activity and psychological well-being among Hong Kong Chinese older adults: exploring the moderating role of self-construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y M; Fung, Helene H

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and psychological well-being--self-esteem and relatedness satisfaction--among 102 Hong Kong Chinese older adults. It also tested whether independent-interdependent self-construal moderated the association. Physical activity, self esteem, relatedness satisfaction, and self-construal were measured by the Yale Physical Activity Scale, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Relatedness Satisfaction subscale of the Basic Need Satisfaction in General Questionnaire, and Gudykunst, Matsunoto, Ting-Toomey, and Nishida's (1996) Self-Construal Scale respectively. Findings revealed a positive association between PA and relatedness satisfaction, but not self-esteem. Interdependent self-construal moderated the relationship between physical exercise and relatedness satisfaction. These findings suggest that PA may be psychologically beneficial to older adults across cultures, but its benefits may depend on cultural emphasis and individual self-construal.

  17. Sales internationalization of Swiss luxury watchmakers in China and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Badoux, Simeon; Régnier, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Swiss luxury watch industry has been the market leader since the 1990’s. From the beginning of the 21st century they have enjoyed a tremendous increase in exports worldwide. Recently, starting 2014, the market has been dropping. Decreasing sales in China and Hong Kong and mostly to Chinese consumers are to blame. The slowdown of the Chinese economic growth, increasing taxes imposed on luxury products are some of the few reasons for this slowdown. My first step for this research was to ana...

  18. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  19. A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Reading and Spelling Difficulty in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia: The Matter of Morphological Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Lo, Jason Chor Ming; Shu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we used a three-time point longitudinal design to investigate the associations of morphological awareness to word reading and spelling in a small group of those with and without dyslexia taken from a larger sample of 164 Hong Kong Chinese children who remained in a longitudinal study across ages 6, 7 and 8. Among those 164 children, 15 had been diagnosed as having dyslexia by professional psychologists, and 15 other children manifested average reading ability and had been randomly selected from the sample for comparison. All children were administered a battery of tasks including Chinese character recognition, word dictation, morphological awareness, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming. Multivariate analysis of variance and predictive discriminate analysis were performed to examine whether the dyslexic children showed differences in the cognitive-linguistic tasks in comparison with controls. Results suggested that the dyslexic groups had poorer performance in morphological awareness and RAN across all 3 years. However, phonological awareness was not stable in distinguishing the groups. Findings suggest that morphological awareness is a relatively strong correlate of spelling difficulties in Chinese, but phonological awareness is not. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Stock Market Fluctuations and Self-Harm among Children and Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Lee, James Chun-Yin; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Tim Man-Ho; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2017-06-09

    Although a few studies investigated the impact of stock market fluctuations on population health, the question of whether stock market fluctuations have an impact on self-harm in children and adolescents remain unanswered. This study therefore investigated the association between stock market fluctuations and self-harm among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Daily self-harm attendance records were retrieved from all 18 local Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) from 2001 to 2012. 4931 children and adolescents who committed self-harm were included. The results indicated positive correlation between daily change in stock market index, Hang Seng Index (∇HSI, per 300 points), and daily self-harm incident risk of children and adolescents, without time lag between the two. The incident risk ratio for ∇HSI was 1.09 ( p = 0.0339) in children and 1.06 ( p = 0.0246) in adolescents. Importantly, non-trading days were found to impose significant protective effect in both groups against self-harm risk. Our results showed that stock market fluctuations were related to self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Parents and professionals should be educated about the potential harm of stock market fluctuations and the importance of effective parenting in reducing self-harm among children and adolescents.

  1. School Engagement and Civic Engagement as Predictors for the Future Political Participation of Ethnic Chinese and South Asian Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Y. M. Yuen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a large study on the relationship between school and civic engagement and the self-perceived participation in political activities of ethnic Chinese and South Asian immigrant students in Hong Kong. Data was col¬lected from a sample of 5,574 6th – 11th graders aged 12−19. The nature of school engagement was assessed by a self-rated questionnaire against the affective, behavioral and cognitive domains. Students’ civic engagement was measured by the ICCS student questionnaire (Schulz et al., 2009. Before running the regression analyses, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed and the results showed that both instruments had good construct validity and internal consistency. Consistent with the primary aim of this study, MANOVA analyses indicate significant student group differences in school engagement, and civic related self-belief and behaviours. Our findings showed that non-Chinese speaking South Asian students (NCS scored higher than their mainstream Chinese and newly arrived students from Mainland China (NAS counterparts across the dimensions of both instruments. Results of hierarchical regressions confirmed that school engagement was significant in pre¬dicting expected political participation in the future. The effects of school and civic engagement on future political participation varied significantly between all studied groups.

  2. Chinese Parenting Styles and Children's Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…

  3. Parenting Styles of Chinese Families and Children's Social-Emotional and Cognitive Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xie, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a sample of Chinese children (n = 297) aged 3-6 years in Beijing, we examined the characteristics of Chinese parenting styles and the relationship with children's developmental outcomes. A 6-month follow-up study of 110 of the 297 participants further explored the long-term effect of parenting styles on children's development.…

  4. The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong: A Participant’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong ended on December 15, 2014 after 79 days reflected the protesters and pro-democracy groups’ wish to tell the world that they are not going to give up the cause of democracy and that they will continue to fight despite the understanding that it will be extremely difficult to change the decision of the Chinese leadership in the short term. In the eyes of the supporters of the pro-democracy movement, the challenge facing Hong Kong people is not just fighting for a democratic electoral system, but also struggle to maintain their core values, their lifestyles, and their individual dignity – an uphill battle given that the local business community firmly toes the Beijing line. While the political struggles of the young people of Hong Kong are perceived to have brought hope to the pro-democracy movement, the prospects for democracy remain far from promising.

  5. The Empowerment Model: A Critical Reflection of Empowerment in Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2004-01-01

    The empowerment model has long dominated social work practice in Western countries. Many social workers in Hong Kong use this model regardless of the social or cultural context. In this article the author shares local social work practice experiences in Hong Kong and suggests that the empowerment model may need adaptation in Chinese communities.…

  6. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  7. Chinese Children's Moral Evaluation of Lies and Truths-Roles of Context and Parental Individualism-Collectivism Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Brunet, Megan K; Lv, Yin; Ding, Xiaopan; Heyman, Gail D; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lee, Kang

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese children's moral evaluations of truths and lies about one's own pro-social acts. Children ages 7, 9, and 11 were read vignettes in which a protagonist performs a good deed and is asked about it by a teacher, either in front of the class or in private. In response, the protagonist either tells a modest lie, which is highly valued by the Chinese culture, or tells an immodest truth, which violates the Chinese cultural norms about modesty. Children were asked to identify whether the protagonist's statement was the truth or a lie, and to evaluate how 'good' or 'bad' the statement was. Chinese children rated modest lies more positively than immodest truths, with this effect becoming more pronounced with age. Rural Chinese children and those with at least one nonprofessional parent rated immodest truths less positively when they were told in public rather than in private. Furthermore, Chinese children of parents with high collectivism scores valued modest lies more than did children of parents with low collectivism scores. These findings suggest that both macro- and micro-cultural factors contribute significantly to children's moral understanding of truth and lie telling.

  8. Infodemiology of alcohol use in Hong Kong mentioned on blogs: infoveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kl; Ho, Sy; Lam, Th

    2013-09-02

    In 2007 and 2008, the beer and wine tax in Hong Kong was halved and then abolished, resulting in an increase of alcohol consumption. The prevalence of the Internet and a high blogging rate by adolescents and adults present a unique opportunity to study drinking patterns by infodemiology. To assess and explain the online use of alcohol-related Chinese keywords and to validate blog searching as an infoveillance method for surveying changes in drinking patterns (eg, alcohol type) in Hong Kong people (represented by bloggers on a Hong Kong-based Chinese blogging site) in 2005-2010. Blog searching was done using a blog search engine, Google Blog Search, in the archives of a Hong Kong-based blog service provider, MySinaBlog from 2005-2010. Three groups of Chinese keywords, each representing a specific alcohol-related concept, were used: (1) "alcohol" (ie, the control concept), (2) "beer or wine", and (3) "spirit". The resulting blog posts were analyzed quantitatively using infodemiological metrics and correlation coefficients, and qualitatively by manual effort. The infodemiological metrics were (1) apparent prevalence, (2) actual prevalence, (3) prevalence rate, and (4) prevalence ratio. Pearson and Spearman correlations were calculated for prevalence rates and ratios with respect to per capita alcohol consumption. Manual analysis focused on (1) blog author characteristics (ie, authorship, sex, and age), and (2) blog content (ie, frequency of keywords, description of a discrete episode of alcohol drinking, drinking amount, and genres). The online use of alcohol-related concepts increased noticeably for "alcohol" in 2008 and "spirit" in 2008-2009 but declined for "beer or wine" over the years. Correlation between infodemiological and epidemiological data was only significant for the "alcohol" prevalence rate. Most blogs were managed by single authors. Their sex distribution was even, and the majority were aged 18 and above. Not all Chinese keywords were found. Many of

  9. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children: psychometric testing of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chung, Oi Kwan Joyce; Ho, Ka Yan

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately detects depressive symptoms in children is crucial before any psychological intervention can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such an instrument for Chinese children. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A total of 313 primary school students between the ages of 8 and 12 years were invited to participate in the study in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, short form of the State Anxiety Scale for Children and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children were assessed. The newly-translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly-translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in detecting depressive symptoms of Chinese children aged between 8 and 12 years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  11. PCR Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Faecal Samples from Australian and Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensdale, Joshua T; Xian, Darren Ten Wei; Wei, Chooi Ming; Lv, Quanjun; Wen, Xiajian; Guo, Jing; Coorey, Ranil; LeSouëf, Peter; Lu, Fengmin; Zhang, Brad; Dykes, Gary A

    2018-03-31

    Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage. Faecal samples from 46 Australian and 53 Chinese children were screened for the presence of six clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes using PCR. Clinical and demographic data was also collected from each patient. Over 90% of faecal samples from Chinese children tested positive for β-lactam, macrolide, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside resistance genes, which was substantially higher than Australian samples. Besides country of origin, no clear trend could be seen to predict carriage of resistance genes. The exception to this was Chinese born children who immigrated to Australia having higher rates of carriage for bla TEM and tetM genes than children born and still living in Australia. These data indicated that Chinese children were more likely to carry certain antibiotic resistance genes than Australian children. The Chinese government has recently implemented strict policies to control the overuse of antibiotics in hospitals. However, many of these policies do not extend to the agricultural industry which could explain the differences seen in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. How British-Chinese Parents Support Their Children: A View from the Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei

    2014-01-01

    Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…

  13. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  14. Comparison of different risk perception measures in predicting seasonal influenza vaccination among healthy Chinese adults in Hong Kong: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Wong, Wing Sze; Fielding, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Risk perception is a reported predictor of vaccination uptake, but which measures of risk perception best predict influenza vaccination uptake remain unclear. During the main influenza seasons (between January and March) of 2009 (Wave 1) and 2010 (Wave 2),505 Chinese students and employees from a Hong Kong university completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to assess how well different risk perceptions measures in Wave 1 predicted vaccination uptake against seasonal influenza in Wave 2. The results of the multivariate logistic regression models showed that feeling at risk (β = 0.25, p = 0.021) was the better predictor compared with probability judgment while probability judgment (β = 0.25, p = 0.029 ) was better than beliefs about risk in predicting subsequent influenza vaccination uptake. Beliefs about risk and feeling at risk seemed to predict the same aspect of subsequent vaccination uptake because their associations with vaccination uptake became insignificant when paired into the logistic regression model. Similarly, to compare the four scales for assessing probability judgment in predicting vaccination uptake, the 7-point verbal scale remained a significant and stronger predictor for vaccination uptake when paired with other three scales; the 6-point verbal scale was a significant and stronger predictor when paired with the percentage scale or the 2-point verbal scale; and the percentage scale was a significant and stronger predictor only when paired with the 2-point verbal scale. Beliefs about risk and feeling at risk are not well differentiated by Hong Kong Chinese people. Feeling at risk, an affective-cognitive dimension of risk perception predicts subsequent vaccination uptake better than do probability judgments. Among the four scales for assessing risk probability judgment, the 7-point verbal scale offered the best predictive power for subsequent vaccination uptake.

  15. Comparison of Different Risk Perception Measures in Predicting Seasonal Influenza Vaccination among Healthy Chinese Adults in Hong Kong: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Wong, Wing Sze; Fielding, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Risk perception is a reported predictor of vaccination uptake, but which measures of risk perception best predict influenza vaccination uptake remain unclear. Methodology During the main influenza seasons (between January and March) of 2009 (Wave 1) and 2010 (Wave 2),505 Chinese students and employees from a Hong Kong university completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to assess how well different risk perceptions measures in Wave 1 predicted vaccination uptake against seasonal influenza in Wave 2. Principal Findings The results of the multivariate logistic regression models showed that feeling at risk (β = 0.25, p = 0.021) was the better predictor compared with probability judgment while probability judgment (β = 0.25, p = 0.029 ) was better than beliefs about risk in predicting subsequent influenza vaccination uptake. Beliefs about risk and feeling at risk seemed to predict the same aspect of subsequent vaccination uptake because their associations with vaccination uptake became insignificant when paired into the logistic regression model. Similarly, to compare the four scales for assessing probability judgment in predicting vaccination uptake, the 7-point verbal scale remained a significant and stronger predictor for vaccination uptake when paired with other three scales; the 6-point verbal scale was a significant and stronger predictor when paired with the percentage scale or the 2-point verbal scale; and the percentage scale was a significant and stronger predictor only when paired with the 2-point verbal scale. Conclusions/Significance Beliefs about risk and feeling at risk are not well differentiated by Hong Kong Chinese people. Feeling at risk, an affective-cognitive dimension of risk perception predicts subsequent vaccination uptake better than do probability judgments. Among the four scales for assessing risk probability judgment, the 7-point verbal scale offered the best predictive

  16. Perceived Social Change, Parental Control, and Family Relations: A Comparison of Chinese Families in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J.; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations. PMID:29062285

  17. Perceived Social Change, Parental Control, and Family Relations: A Comparison of Chinese Families in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers' endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.

  18. Perceived Social Change, Parental Control, and Family Relations: A Comparison of Chinese Families in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Fung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA, Hong Kong (HK, and Beijing (BJ. HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.

  19. Optimizing resource allocation for breast cancer prevention and care among Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Irene O L; Tsang, Janice W H; Cowling, Benjamin J; Leung, Gabriel M

    2012-09-15

    Recommendations about funding of interventions through the full spectrum of the disease often have been made in isolation. The authors of this report optimized budgetary allocations by comparing cost-effectiveness data for different preventive and management strategies throughout the disease course for breast cancer in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese women. Nesting a state-transition Markov model within a generalized cost-effectiveness analytic framework, costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were compared to estimate average cost-effectiveness ratios for the following interventions at the population level: biennial mass mammography (ages 40-69 years or ages 40-79 years), reduced waiting time for postoperative radiotherapy (by 15% or by 25%), adjuvant endocrine therapy (either upfront aromatase inhibitor [AI] therapy or sequentially with tamoxifen followed by AI) in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive disease, targeted immunotherapy in those with tumors that over express human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and enhanced palliative services (either at home or as an inpatient). Usual care for eligible patients in the public sector was the comparator. In descending order, the optimal allocation of additional resources for breast cancer would be the following: a 25% reduction in waiting time for postoperative radiotherapy (in US dollars: $5000 per QALY); enhanced, home-based palliative care ($7105 per QALY); adjuvant, sequential endocrine therapy ($17,963 per QALY); targeted immunotherapy ($62,092 per QALY); and mass mammography screening of women ages 40 to 69 years ($72,576 per QALY). Given the lower disease risk and different age profiles of patients in HK Chinese, among other newly emergent and emerging economies with similar transitioning epidemiologic profiles, the current findings provided direct evidence to support policy decisions that may be dissimilar to current Western practice. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  20. The Impact of a Management Protocol on the Outcomes of Child Abuse in Hospitalized Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, C. H.; So, K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the outcomes of children hospitalized for suspected child abuse before and after the implementation of a management protocol in a hospital in Hong Kong. Study period: Two 2-year periods before (1994-1995) and after (2002-2003) the implementation of the protocol in 1998. Methods: This is a retrospective hospital chart review in…

  1. Performance of the international physical activity questionnaire (short form) in subgroups of the Hong Kong chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) has been validated and recommended as an efficient method to assess physical activity, but its validity has not been investigated in different population subgroups. We examined variations in IPAQ validity in the Hong Kong Chinese population by six factors: sex, age, job status, educational level, body mass index (BMI), and visceral fat level (VFL). Methods A total of 1,270 adults (aged 42.9 ± SD 14.4 years, 46.1% male) completed the Chinese version of IPAQ (IPAQ-C) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) for four days afterwards. The IPAQ-C and the ActiGraph were compared in terms of estimated Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET-min/wk), minutes spent in activity of moderate or vigorous intensity (MVPA), and agreement in the classification of physical activity. Results The overall Spearman correlation (ρ) of between the IPAQ-C and ActiGraph was low (0.11 ± 0.03; range in subgroups 0.06-0.24) and was the highest among high VFL participants (0.24 ± 0.05). Difference between self-reported and ActiGraph-derived MET-min/wk (overall 2966 ± 140) was the smallest among participants with tertiary education (1804 ± 208). When physical activity was categorized into over or under 150 min/wk, overall agreement between self-report and accelerometer was 81.3% (± 1.1%; subgroup range: 77.2%-91.4%); agreement was the highest among those who were employed full-time in physically demanding jobs (91.4% ± 2.7%). Conclusions Sex, age, job status, educational level, and obesity were found to influence the criterion validity of IPAQ-C, yet none of the subgroups showed good validity (ρ = 0.06 to 0.24). IPAQ-SF validity is questionable in our Chinese population. PMID:21801461

  2. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beliefs about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter W H; Kwan, Tracy T C; Tam, Kar Fai; Chan, Karen K L; Young, Phyllis M C; Lo, Sue S T; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2007-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and beliefs on cervical cancer and HPV infection and to evaluate the acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women. Seven focus groups were conducted with ethnic Chinese women aged 18-25 (n=20), 26-35 (n=13), and 36 and above (n=16) in a community women's health clinic in Hong Kong in 2006. The discussions were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed. Recurrent themes related to cervical cancer, HPV infection and vaccination were highlighted. Diverse conceptions on likely causes of cervical cancer were noted, covering biological, psychological, environmental, lifestyle and sexual factors. Most women had not heard of HPV and its mode of transmission. The participants had difficulties understanding and accepting the linkage between cervical cancer and the sexually transmitted HPV infection. HPV infection was seen as personally stigmatizing with significant adverse impact on self-esteem and significant relationships. Participants favored HPV vaccination both for themselves and their teenage daughters if authoritative endorsement was provided. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on cervical cancer and HPV were common. Most participants welcomed and favored having HPV vaccination. Apart from promoting HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention should also include strategies to promote knowledge and minimize the stigmatizing effect of a sexually transmitted HPV infection.

  4. Parenting Style as a Context for Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Bowes, Jennifer; Wyver, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine parenting style in the domain of emotion socialization through studying the relationships among parenting styles, emotion-related parental practices, and parental goals of Hong Kong-Chinese mothers. Data were collected from 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children. Hong…

  5. Herth hope index: psychometric testing of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keung Sum; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lopez, Violeta

    2012-09-01

    This article is a report on psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the herth hope index. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately measures the level of hope in patients with heart failure is crucial before any hope-enhancing interventions can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such instrument for Chinese people. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A purposive sample of 120 Hong Kong Chinese patients with heart failure between the ages of 60 and 80 years admitted to two medical wards was recruited during an 8-month period in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the herth hope index, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the herth hope index were assessed. The newly translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in assessing the level of hope in Hong Kong Chinese patients with heart failure. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Six-Year Longitudinal Study of Consumption of Pornographic Materials in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2016-02-01

    Using longitudinal data collected over 6 years, consumption of pornographic materials in adolescents in Hong Kong and the related demographic and psychosocial correlates were examined in this study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A longitudinal research design with 6 waves of data was used to examine consumption of pornographic materials in high school students. A total of 3291 high school students from 28 schools responded to the questionnaire at wave 1. Consumption of online pornography was higher than traditional pornography. There was an increase in consumption of pornographic materials in the high school years. Gender, family functioning, and positive youth development were related to the initial status of pornography consumption. Besides, gender, family intactness and positive youth development predicted rates of change in consumption of pornographic material over time. The present findings showed that gender, family functioning, and positive youth development are significant predictors for pornography consumption in Chinese adolescents. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Views of the Family by Chinese and U.S. Children: A Comparative Study of Kinetic Family Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vasquez; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared family drawings of Chinese (People's Republic of China) and United States (U.S.) elementary school children. Chinese children depicted parents and grandparents more frequently, reflecting the Chinese tendency to perceive themselves as members of nuclear and extended families, whereas U.S. children expressed more individualism and…

  8. Stage-specific and culture-specific coping strategies used by mainland Chinese immigrants during resettlement in Hong Kong: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the stage-specific and culture-specific coping strategies used by Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong to handle psychosocial stressors experienced during the resettlement stage of the migration process. While direct action coping strategies of problem-solving and compromise were used by immigrants to deal with recurring, daily resettlement difficulties, cognitive strategies of positive comparisons and positive and optimistic thinking were utilized to change the meanings of these difficulties. Emotion-focused coping of acceptance and avoidance strategies were culture-specific, and were useful in reducing the stress associated with the resettlement difficulties encountered. It was also found that strategies such as acceptance, compromise and avoidance might have deleterious effects on the longer-term adjustment of immigrants. Implications for services and counseling for the immigrants were suggested.

  9. Sense of community in Hong Kong: relations with community-level characteristics and residents' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Law, Lawrence S C

    2009-09-01

    Sense of community (SOC) has been one of the most studied topics in community psychology. However, no empirical study to date has investigated SOC in Hong Kong and its relations with community characteristics and residents' psychological well-being. A representative sample of 941 Hong Kong Chinese based on a randomized household survey was conducted in all 18 districts in Hong Kong. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that SOC was not associated with sociodemographic indicators on both the individual-level (i.e., gender, age, family income, education level, type of residence, and area-to-capita ratio of residence) and the community-level (i.e., proportion of individuals with tertiary education, median family income, ownership of residence, population density, and resident stability). SOC was negatively related to daily hassles and positively with social support and quality of life. Conceptualization of SOC in Hong Kong was discussed.

  10. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  11. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  12. A comparison on inclusive practices for children with special needs in faith-based kindergartens in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yue Sum Sharon; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2014-06-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine the inclusive practices implemented in three faith-based kindergartens in Hong Kong. A questionnaire was used to collect information about school backgrounds, students' special needs, teacher training, special education services, curriculum design, school policy, parental involvement, and challenges faced by these schools when implementing their inclusive practices. The primary focus of this study was the influence of faiths on the provision of inclusive services for children with special needs. The results indicated that faiths, along with other factors, have played a significant role in contributing to the inclusive education services provided to children in these schools.

  13. Contextual barriers to lifestyle physical activity interventions in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Frank F; Masters, Rich S W; McManus, Alison; Leung, Moon; Wong, Peggy; White, Mike J

    2008-05-01

    Increased lifestyle physical activity, for instance, use of active transport, is a current public health target. Active transport interventions that target stair climbing are consistently successful in English-speaking populations yet unsuccessful in Hong Kong. We report two further studies on active transport in the Hong Kong Chinese. Pedestrians on a mass transit escalator system (study 1) and in an air-conditioned shopping mall (study 2) were encouraged to take the stairs for their cardiovascular health by point-of-choice prompts. Observers coded sex, age, and walking on the mass transit system, with the additional variables of presence of children and bags coded in the shopping mall. In the first study, a 1-wk baseline was followed by 4 wk of intervention (N = 76,710) whereas in the second study (shopping mall) a 2-wk baseline was followed by a 2-wk intervention period (N = 18,257). A small but significant increase in stair climbing (+0.29%) on the mass transit system contrasted with no significant changes in the shopping mall (+0.09%). The active transport of walking on the mass transit system was reduced at higher rates of humidity and temperature, with steeper slopes for the effects of climate variables in men than in women. These studies confirm that lifestyle physical activity interventions do not have universal application. The context in which the behavior occurs (e.g., climate) may act as a barrier to active transport.

  14. Contextual Analysis of Hong Kong Education Policy in 20 Years: The Intention of Making Future Citizens in Political Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Chung Fun Hung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the capitalist society in Hong Kong under communism is exceptional, but the “one country, two systems” formula was a makeshift stratagem by the Communist Chinese government. The twenty years of history witnessed the tension of ruling and policy implementation. Education policy in political conflicts is, of course, the other arena in the Hong Kong context which reveals competitions, controversies and struggles among the cultural hegemonic engineering. This paper can contribute to enigmatic understanding and interpretation of generating educational reform and implementing education policy in this twenty-year history of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chou, Chien; Kim, Dong-Il; Watanabe, Hiroko; Ho, Roger C M

    2014-10-01

    The Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) was developed to assess Internet addiction in Chinese populations, but its psychometric properties in adolescents have not been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of CIAS-R in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. 860 Grade 7 to 13 students (38 % boys) completed the CIAS-R, the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) in a survey. The prevalence of Internet addiction as assessed by CIAS-R was 18 %. High internal consistency and inter-item correlations were reported for the CIAS-R. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure of Compulsive Use and Withdrawal, Tolerance, Interpersonal and Health-related Problems, and Time Management Problems. Moreover, results of hierarchical multiple regression supported the incremental validity of the CIAS-R to predict mental health outcomes beyond the effects of demographic differences and self-reported time spent online. The CIAS is a reliable and valid measure of internet addiction problems in Hong Kong adolescents. Future study is warranted to validate the cutoffs of the CIAS-R for identification of adolescents with Internet use problems who may have mental health needs.

  16. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  17. Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: an experience from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Emily W H; Li, Brian C Y; Yeung, Ian Y L; Li, Kenneth K W

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To review the results of patching for amblyopia management in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Records of all patients attending Paediatric Ophthalmology Clinic at United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong from 1 January 2009 to 31 March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of all children who underwent patching for amblyopia in the study period were evaluated. RESULTS. The mean age of 50 children (50 eyes) was 4 (standard deviation, 1; range, 2-7) years and mean pretreatment visual acuity was 0.35 (0.15; 0.02-0.63) [~20/60]. The values for mean, standard deviation, and range of treatment duration were 27, 16, 4-67 months respectively, and corresponding values for prescribed patching per day were 4, 1, 2-8 hours. The mean, standard deviation, and range of visual acuity at final post-treatment assessment were 0.66, 0.16, 0.1-1.0 (~20/30), respectively. The overall success rate (ie final visual acuity >0.7 or 20/30) was 62%. Children with moderate amblyopia (20/40-20/80) and severe amblyopia (20/100-20/400) had success rates of 74% and 55%, respectively. The mean visual acuity improvements for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 2.3 lines and 5.8 lines, respectively. The mean, standard deviation, and range of patching prescriptions for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 5, 1, 2-7 hours and 5, 1, 3-6 hours, respectively. Recurrence ensued in 7% of the children with moderate amblyopia and 46% of those with severe amblyopia. Reported compliance was good (>75% of the time) in 68% of the children. CONCLUSION. Occlusion therapy is the mainstay of treatment in Hong Kong. The overall success rate was comparable to that achieved in the Amblyopia Treatment Study. Recurrence was more common in patients with severe amblyopia, for whom maintenance therapy may reduce the risk of recurrence. The duration of treatment was much longer in our locality than in western countries. Reported

  18. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J Yn; Lai, K Yc

    2016-12-01

    Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study. Parents completed questionnaires about sibling emotional and behavioural adjustment, and their own mental well-being, quality of life, and family functioning. Siblings completed a questionnaire on their relationship with the autistic proband. Parent ratings did not reveal any significant negative impact on the emotional and behavioural adjustment of the typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, but there were concerns about their peer relationships and weak prosocial behaviours. When cut-off scores were used to screen for risk of mental health problems, a quarter of the siblings warranted further assessment. Parents' quality of life and family functioning were significant predictors of sibling adjustment. In managing children with autism spectrum disorder, it is necessary to bear in mind the adjustment of their siblings, especially their peer relationships and prosocial behaviour. Adopting a holistic approach to address the psychosocial needs of the parents can facilitate sibling adjustment.

  19. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Jing, Jin; Zou, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Meng-Long; Li, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ai-Hua

    2008-09-05

    Reading Chinese, a kind of ideogram, relies more on visual cognition. The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention. The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10, twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12 +/- 1.42) years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06 +/- 1.29) years), 1:1 matched by age, sex, grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group. Four groups of pictures (cock, accident, canyon, meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets. All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink II High-Speed Eye Tracker. The duration time, average fixation duration, average saccade amplitude, fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children. The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F = 7.711, P < 0.01; F = 4.520, P < 0.05), more fixation counts and saccade counts (F = 7.498, P < 0.01; F = 11.040, P < 0.01), and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F = 29.743, P < 0.01) compared with controls. But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group. The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words, all eye movement indexes, except saccade amplitude, had a significant difference within groups (P < 0.05). Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching, applying slow fixations, more fixations and small and frequent saccades. Their abnormal eye movement

  20. Assessing the Accuracy of the Modified Chinese Autism Spectrum Rating Scale and Social Responsiveness Scale for Screening Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chinese Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingrui Zhou; Hao Zhou; Lijie Wu; Xiaobing Zou; Xuerong Luo; Eric Fombonne; Yi Wang; Weili Yan; Xiu Xu

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been increasing rapidly in many parts of the world.However,data on its prevalence in China are largely missing.Here,we assessed the suitability of the modified Chinese version of a newly-developed ASD screening tool,the Modified Chinese Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (MC-ASRS) in screening for ASD in Chinese children aged 6-12 years,through comparison with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) that has been widely used for ASD screening.We recruited the parents/caregivers of 1588 typically-developing children and 190 children with ASD aged 6-12 years to complete the MC-ASRS and SRS,and evaluated the validity of both scales in discriminating children with ASD from those developing typically.The results showed that MC-ASRS performed as well as SRS in sensitivity,specificity,and area-under-the-curve (both >0.95) in receiver operating characteristic analysis,with a fair false-negative rate.These results suggest that MC-ASRS is a promising tool for screening for children with ASD in the general Chinese population.

  1. Developing a cultural model of caregiving obligations for elderly Chinese wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Eleanor

    2005-06-01

    This article addresses the dilemmas of elderly Chinese women as spousal caregivers in Hong Kong in the 1990s. An in-depth ethnographic approach was used to draw on a convenience sample of 20 elderly wives who were caregivers from Hong Kong. At the conceptual level, the discussion highlights how caregiving is rooted in complex, culturally-based models of contemporary practices, sociohistoric patterns, and gender-specific obligations. The key themes identified were marital duty-bound roles and responsibilities, reciprocity and burden, public guidelines and upholding reputations as Chinese wives, monetary restrictions, affection as an emotional force to sustain caregiving, effects of the caregiving role, and the creation of self-identity through caregiving. The model proposed for interpreting elderly Chinese wives' caregiving obligations highlights the tension-filled links between Confucianism and government guidelines, early and ongoing socializing experiences, and self-identity.

  2. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample ( n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

  3. Hong Kong protests: A quantitative and bottom-up account of resistance against Chinese social media (sina weibo censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese online censorship, though has been deeply explored by many scholars from a top-down perspective and has mostly concentrated on the macro level, it appears that there are few, if any, existing studies that features a bottom-up perspective and explores the micro-level aspects of online media censorship. To fill this research gap, this article uses the Occupy movement in Hong Kong as a research case to analyze social media users’ resistance under conditions of heavy censorship from a bottom-up perspective. That is, the research questions seek to uncover what novel ways Weibo users use to try and circumvent Weibo censorship. It is confirmed that the microbloggers tend to use embedded pictures and user ID names, instead of using text messages to camouflage the sensitive information to share with other users; that Weibo users tend to create new accounts once their original ones have been closed or monitored.

  4. Relaxation training methods for nurse managers in Hong Kong: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Paul M B; Fung, Man Yi; Chan, Tony M F; Lau, Bernard W K

    2004-12-01

    Nurse managers are under increased stress because of excessive workloads and hospitals' restructuring which is affecting their work tasks. High levels of stress could affect their mental health. Yet, few stress management training programmes are provided for this population. The purpose of this study was to apply stretch-release relaxation and cognitive relaxation training to enhance the mental health for nurse managers. A total of 65 nurse managers in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to stretch-release relaxation (n = 17), cognitive relaxation (n = 18), and a test control group (n = 35). Mental health status was assessed using the Chinese version of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Chinese version of the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were assessed at the pretreatment session, the fourth posttreatment session, and at the 1-month follow-up session. The results revealed both the stretch-release and cognitive relaxation training enhanced mental health in nurse managers in Hong Kong. The application of relaxation training in enhancing mental health status for nurses and health professionals is discussed.

  5. Meta-analysis of the comorbidity rate of allergic rhinitis and asthma in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wei; Li, Xuelei; Yao, Hongbing; Wei, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often occur concomitantly and are the two most common inflammatory conditions of the airways in children. Large-scale studies investigating the comorbidity of asthma and AR in children are rare. So, we performed a meta-analysis to describe the comorbidity rate of asthma and AR in Chinese children. We retrieved related studies from Pubmed, Science, Springer, Elsevier, Embase, BMJ, and four Chinese biomedical databases, including Wanfang Data, VIP, CBM, and CNKI. From these individual studies, the comorbidity rate of asthma and AR in Chinese children was extracted and pooled to generate summary effect estimates in R version 3.2.3. The meta-analysis included 25 cross-sectional studies. The results indicated that in China, the incidence of asthma in children with AR is 35.01% (95% CI: 32.32%-37.70%) and the incidence of AR in children with asthma is 54.93% (95% CI: 53.05%-56.80%). The comorbidity of AR and asthma is high in Chinese children. Statistically, the prevalence of AR was higher in children with asthma, as opposed to the prevalence of asthma in children with AR. The comorbidity rate of AR and asthma signifies the importance of improving the recognition and treatment under both conditions by respiratory physicians and otolaryngologists. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Hospitalizations for varicella in children and adolescents in a referral hospital in Hong Kong, 2004 to 2008: A time series study

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    Chan WM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella accounts for significant morbidities and remains a public health issue worldwide. Climatic factors have been shown to associate with the incidence and transmission of various infectious diseases. We describe the epidemiology of varicella in paediatric patients hospitalized at a tertiary referral hospital in Hong Kong from 2004 to 2008, and to explore the possible association between the occurrence of varicella infection and various climatic factors. Methods The hospital discharge database of Princess Margaret Hospital was retrospectively analyzed for admissions associated with varicella from 2004 to 2008. Meteorological data were obtained from the monthly meteorological reports from the Hong Kong Observatory website. Time series analysis was performed with Poisson regression using a Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE approach. Results During the study period, 598 children were hospitalized for varicella. The mean age on admission was 57.6 months, and the mean duration of hospitalization was 3.7 days. The overall complication rate was 47%. The mean monthly relative humidity, especially in cool seasons, was inversely correlated with the monthly varicella cases of the same month. Conclusions Varicella can lead to serious complications and prolonged hospitalization, even in previously healthy children. Lower relative humidity in cool seasons is associated with higher number of paediatric varicella hospital admissions. These findings are useful for a better understanding of the pattern of paediatric varicella hospitalization in Hong Kong.

  7. Testing Weak-Form Efficiency of The Chinese Stock Market and Hong Kong Stock Market

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    Lei, Zhuolin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the random walk hypothesis to determine the validity of weak-form efficiency for Shanghai, Shenzhen and Hong Kong Stock Exchanges. Daily returns from 2001-2010 for Shanghai A and B shares, Shenzhen A and B shares and Hong Kong Hang Seng Index are used in this study. The random walk hypothesis is examined by using four statistical methods, namely a serial correlation test, an Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root test, a runs test and a variance ratio test. The empirical re...

  8. The ABCs of Chinese Pop: Wang Leehom and the Marketing of a Global Chinese Celebrity

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    Grace Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How did singer Wang Leehom, a Chinese American raised in the suburbs of New York, end up becoming one of the industry heavyweights of Mandopop (Mandarin-language pop music? This essay uses Wang as a case study to investigate how discourses of race, market, and belonging are reworked in global contexts. Drawing on Sau-ling Wong’s theoretical insights on transnational processes of race, citizenship, and belonging, it argues that Wang capitalizes on a fluid dynamic of sameness and difference to appeal to a heterogeneous Chinese-speaking audience that stretches across China to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and the greater Chinese diaspora. Through an examination of the racial and national contexts that frame Wang’s participation in Mandopop, this essay analyzes the particular calibrations of Chineseness that emerge from the singer’s music and public image and the imperfect translation of identities such as Chinese American, Chinese diasporic, and Chinese across diverse linguistic and national communities.

  9. Frailty and Its Contributory Factors in Older Adults: A Comparison of Two Asian Regions (Hong Kong and Taiwan).

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    Yu, Ruby; Wu, Wan-Chi; Leung, Jason; Hu, Susan C; Woo, Jean

    2017-09-21

    This study aimed to compare the prevalence of frailty across three Chinese populations: Hong Kong, Taiwan-urban and Taiwan-rural. Contributing factors to disparities in frailty were also examined. Data were derived from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) and Women (MsOs) (Hong Kong) Study ( n = 4000) and the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging ( n = 2392). Frailty was defined as an index calculated from 30 multiple deficits. The ratio of the frailty index to life expectancy at birth (FI/LE) was used as an indicator of compression of morbidity. Frailty was more prevalent in Taiwan-urban (33.1%) and Taiwan-rural (38.1%) compared to Hong Kong (16.6%, p Taiwan-urban and Taiwan-rural (both 0.27) compared to Hong Kong (0.20, p Taiwan-urban populations, but not in Taiwan-rural. Living alone was associated with frailty in Hong Kong men, but not in Hong Kong women or Taiwanese people. For all study populations, older age and being a woman constituted the highest attributable factor. This comparison provides useful data to inform government policies.

  10. Young Chinese Children's Justifications of Plants as Living Things

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    Tao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to explore how Chinese preschool children categorize plants into either living or nonliving things. The research was framed within the interpretive paradigm and was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Participants were children 4 to 6 years of age from 3 kindergartens in Jiangsu…

  11. Validation of the Self-Regulation Scale in Chinese Children

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    Zhou, Ying; Bullock, Amanda; Liu, Junsheng; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Regulation Scale (C-SRS) were examined in a sample of 1,458 third- to eighth-grade students in China. Children completed self-reports of self-regulation, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem, and teachers rated children's school adjustment. Results showed a stable three-factor model…

  12. English Word Reading Difficulties and Orthographic Processing Weaknesses in Chinese English Bilingual Adolescents with Dyslexia

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    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Is dyslexia in Chinese for Chinese-English bilinguals associated with difficulties in reading English, given differences in L1 and L2 orthographies? Among 11 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia, who were diagnosed by professional psychologists using the diagnostic criteria set out in a standardized test, and 14 adolescents without…

  13. The Effects of Single Parenthood on Educational Aspiration: A Comparative Study of Children in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong

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    Wang, Miao; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Program for International Student Assessment in 2003, this study examines the gap in the educational aspirations of children from single-parent families and two-parent families in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong. Consistent with previous research on the…

  14. Mental health and lifestyle correlates of sexual problems and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual Hong Kong Chinese population.

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    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Jean H; Tsui, Hi Yi

    2005-12-01

    To examine the lifestyle, mental health, and stress-related factors associated with various types of sexual problems among sexually active, heterosexual Hong Kong residents aged 18 to 59 years. An anonymous, cross-sectional, random telephone survey was conducted using a special, validated, computerized telephone interview method. A total of 1281 men and 2130 women completed the interview (response rate 50.6%). Sexual problems were determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (of Mental Disorders) IV definitions. Among the men, multivariate analyses indicated that older age, poor spousal relationship, less exercise, high level of family stress, high level of financial-related stress, and past year substance use were significantly associated with sexual problems (odds ratio [OR] 1.41 to 3.83). Among the women, being married or cohabiting with a partner was positively associated with lubrication problems, lack of orgasm, lack of pleasure, lack of interest (OR 1.43 to 1.73) and negatively associated with pain during intercourse (OR 0.66) and anxiety (OR 0.62). A high level of financial stress and neuroses diagnoses were also associated with various female sexual problems (OR 1.40 to 2.66). Sexual satisfaction was associated with being married/cohabitating (OR 1.94) and negatively associated with a poor spousal relationship, low level of exercise, and a high level of work-related stress among men (OR 0.37 to 0.71). Among women, a poor spousal relationship and high levels of family stress and financial stress were associated with not being satisfied sexually (OR 0.24 to 0.71). Mental health, stress-related factors, and lifestyle factors contribute to sexual problems among Hong Kong Chinese adults. The factors differed between the two sexes.

  15. Challenging homophobia and heterosexism through storytelling and critical dialogue among Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto.

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    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Homophobia and heterosexism are ubiquitous in Canadian society. They contribute to significant health and mental health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual youth and their families. Anti-homophobia efforts tend to focus on students and teachers at school. While these efforts are important, they do not reach parents, who play an important role in shaping young people's attitudes towards gender and sexuality. To eliminate bullying and victimisation associated with homophobia at school and in the community, concerted efforts are urgently needed to mobilise parents to become champions against homophobia and heterosexism. In this paper, we report on our use of storytelling and critical dialogue to engage a group of Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto to interrogate their values and assumptions about homosexuality. In particular, we illustrate how we use storytelling to create a liminal space whereby the narrators and listeners collaborate to create counter-discourses that challenge social domination and exclusion. We then discuss the implications of using a critical dialogical approach to integrate anti-homophobia efforts in community parenting programmes.

  16. A Study of Organizational Identification of Faculty Members in Hong Kong Business Schools

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    Tsui, Po Yung; Ngo, Hang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine how four organizational antecedents affect the organizational identification (OI) and in-role and extra-role performance of Hong Kong business school faculty. OI was tested to be a mediator. The survey results indicated a high level of OI, consistent with the collectivist cultural value of Chinese employees. However, OI was…

  17. Follow Your Virtual Trainer (FYVT): a randomised controlled trial protocol of IT-based lifestyle intervention programme to promote physical activity and health among middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Xie, Yao Jie; Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Tam, Eric Wing-Cheung; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Mo, Phoenix Kit-Han

    2018-02-03

    Hong Kong is a highly urbanised city where many people work long hours. The limited time and lack of professional instruction are the typical barriers to exercise. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of an information technology-based lifestyle intervention programme on improving physical activity (PA) level and health status in a sample of middle-aged Hong Kong adults. A two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial named 'Follow Your Virtual Trainer' will be conducted among 200 physically inactive Chinese adults aged from 40 to 65 years. Those randomly allocated to an intervention group will be under the instruction of a web-based computer software termed 'Virtual Trainer (VT)' to conduct a 3-month self-planned PA programme. A series of online seminars with healthy lifestyle information will be released to the participants biweekly for 3 months. After that, 6 months observation will follow. Those in the control group will only receive a written advice of standard PA recommendation and the textual content of the seminars. The assessments will be implemented at baseline, the 3rd, 6th and 9th months. The primary outcome is PA measured by accelerometer and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The secondary outcomes include cardiorespiratory fitness, resting energy expenditure, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, health-related quality of life, sleep quality and quantity, fatigue, behaviour mediators and maintenance of PA. The main effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed by a linear mixed model that tests the random effect of treatment on outcomes at the 3rd, 6th and 9th months. This trial has been approved by the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong-New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (CRE 2015235). The study results will be presented at scientific conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02553980. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  18. Early Reading Development in Chinese-Speaking Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Chih; Yang, You-Jhen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore early reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) by examining character recognition and linguistic comprehension. Twenty-five children with HL received three measures relevant to character reading: phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), and character recognition; two…

  19. Psychological correlates of physical abuse in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C

    2003-01-01

    To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Revisiting the Big Six and the Big Five among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study replicated investigation of the link between Holland's six career interest types and Costa and McCrae's big five personality traits in a Chinese context. A sample of 79 university students from Hong Kong evaluated their own abilities and responded to the Short-Version Self-Directed Search (SVSDS) and the NEO Five-Factor…

  1. A Pilot Study of the Attractive Features of Active Videogames Among Chinese Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick W C; Lau, Erica Y; Wang, Jing Jing; Choi, Cheong-Rak; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2017-04-01

    The present study (1) explored the attractive features that affect Chinese primary school children's preferences of active videogames (AVGs) and (2) contrasted these findings with those in the Western literature. A total of 22 Chinese primary school children were recruited and interviewed. Four AVGs (Wii "Boxing," "Wii Fit™ Plus Obstacle Run"; "EyeToy Knockout", "EyeToy Keep ups") from two commercial consoles (Nintendo® Wii™ and Sony PlayStation ® 2 "EyeToy ® ") were employed. Participants used four selected AVGs for 3 minutes each. After each play period, children (1) described the strengths and weaknesses of each game as well as rated the attractive features of each game based on a 16-item questionnaire and (2) rated up to 5 items that were most influential regarding their AVG preferences. Participants indicated that control was the most significant feature, followed by feedback, goal, and graphics. The top five rated features imply that the perception of competence was the most appealing aspect and expected outcome of Chinese children who play AVGs. Compared with the Western findings regarding attractive AVG features, the present study found certain similarities as well as significant differences among Chinese AVG players. Based on the present study, control, feedback, goal, and graphics are the most significant features that attract Chinese children to play AVGs. Physical exertion, social interaction, competition, and learning outcomes, which are valued according to Western studies, were not mentioned as significant features by Chinese children. These findings demonstrate a need to investigate the effect of cultural background in AVG study design.

  2. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions.

  3. Predictors of success in selective laser trabeculoplasty for primary open angle glaucoma in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JW

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine CL Liu,3 Jonathan CH Chan,4 Raymond LM Wong,5 Ian YH Wong,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 4The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China; 5The Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To determine the predictors of success for adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT in Chinese primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients. Methods: This prospective study recruited Chinese subjects with unilateral or bilateral POAG currently taking medication to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP. All subjects received a single session of 360° SLT treatment and continued their medications for 1 month. SLT success was defined as IOP reduction ≥20% at 1 month. The following covariates were analyzed in both groups via univariate and multivariate analyses: age, sex, lens status, initial IOPs, post-SLT IOPs, number and type of medications, SLT shots and energy, and pre-SLT investigations.Results: In 51 eyes of 33 POAG subjects, the success rate of SLT was 47.1%. Certain groups of patients were associated with greater success using univariate analysis. These groups included the following: older age (coefficient =0.1; OR: 1.1; P=0.0003, a higher pre-SLT IOP (coefficient =0.3; OR: 1.3; P=0.0005, using four types of antiglaucoma medication (coefficient =2.1; OR: 8.4; P=0.005, a greater degree of spherical equivalent (coefficient =2.1; OR: 8.4; P=0.005, and the use of a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (coefficient =1.7; OR: 6.0; P=0.003. None of the covariates were significant using

  4. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  5. Immigrant parents' perceptions of school environment and children's mental health and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Marshall, Lysandra; Rummens, Joanna A; Fenta, Haile; Simich, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Research has increasingly identified the perception of school environment as an influential factor in children's lives. There has been sparse research attention, however, on the potential importance of parents' perceptions of school environment on child adjustment. This study examined the relationship between parents' perceptions of school environment and children's emotional and behavioral problems. Data were derived from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, a study of the children (aged 4-6 and 11-13) of immigrant parents. Analyses focused on a subsample of Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, and Filipino immigrants in a large metropolitan area. Parental perception of school environment was negatively associated with physical aggression in children even after controlling for child age and gender, parental characteristics, family functioning, and aspects of acculturation. In contrast, parental perception was not significantly related to symptoms of emotional distress in children. There were some ethnic differences in perception of school environment. Parental perception of school environment is important to the well-being of the children of immigrant parents, and reinforces the relevance of initiatives to improve the dynamics between parents and schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  6. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong

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    Fabrizio Cecilia S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Methods The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Results Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. Conclusions The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  7. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheung, Teresa; Pang, Irene; Chan, Sophia; Stewart, Sunita M

    2012-12-31

    This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR). The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  8. Change in bone mineral density and its determinants in pre- and perimenopausal Chinese women: the Hong Kong Perimenopausal Women Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S C; Chan, S G; Yip, Y B; Chan, C S Y; Woo, J L F; Sham, A

    2008-12-01

    This 30-month study investigating bone change and its determinants in 438 perimenopausal Chinese women revealed that the fastest bone loss occurred in women undergoing menopausal transition but maintenance of body weight and physical fitness were beneficial for bone health. Soy protein intake also seemed to exert a protective effect. This 30-month follow-up study aims to investigate change in bone mineral density and its determinants in Hong Kong Chinese perimenopausal women. Four hundred and thirty-eight women aged 45 to 55 years were recruited through random telephone dialing and primary care clinic. Bone mass, body composition, lifestyle measurements were obtained at baseline and at 9-, 18- and 30-month follow-ups. Univariate and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed with the regression coefficients of BMD/C (derived from baseline and follow-up measurements) as the outcome variables. Menopausal status was classified as pre- or postmenopausal or transitional. Menopausal status was the strongest determinant of bone changes. An annual bone loss of about 0.5% was observed among premenopausal, 2% to 2.5% among transitional, and about 1.5% in postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analyses, revealed that a positive regression slope of body weight was protective for follow-up bone loss at all sites. Number of pregnancy, soy protein intake and walking were protective for total body BMC. Higher baseline LM was also protective for neck of femur BMD. Maintenance of body weight and physical fitness were observed to have a protective effect on for bone loss in Chinese perimenopausal women.

  9. Rethinking Hegemony and Resistance to Political Education in Mainland China and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this article is on Hong Kong and mainland Chinese university student reactions, in two time periods, to national themes in education as part of state attempts to establish and maintain legitimacy. The author argues that among these reactions is one of resistance to the process of state hegemony. To make this point, the article builds…

  10. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, EH; Zhou, Q; Ly, J; Main, A; Tao, A; Chen, SH

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and te...

  11. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  12. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  13. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  14. Assessment and Implications of Social Withdrawal Subtypes in Young Chinese Children: The Chinese Version of the Child Social Preference Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Coplan, Robert J; Gao, Zhu-Qing; Xu, Pin; Li, Linhui; Zhang, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The authors' goals were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Child Social Preference Scale (CSPS; R. J. Coplan, K. Prakash, K. O'Neil, & M. Armer, 2004) and examine the links between both shyness and unsociability and indices of socioemotional functioning in young Chinese children. Participants included of two samples recruited from kindergarten classes in two public schools in Shanghai, China. Both samples included children 3-5 years old (Sample 1: n = 350, Mage = 4.72 years, SD = 0.58 years; Sample 2: n = 129, Mage = 4.40 years, SD = 0.58 years). In both samples, mothers rated children's social withdrawal using the newly created Chinese version of the CSPS, and in Sample 2, teachers also provided ratings of socioemotional functioning. Consistent with previous findings from other cultures, results from factor analyses suggested a 2-factor model for the CSPS (shyness and unsociability) among young children in China. In contrast to findings from North America, child shyness and unsociability were associated with socioemotional difficulties in kindergarten. Some gender differences were also noted. Results are discussed in terms of the assessment and implications of social withdrawal in early childhood in China.

  15. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...

  16. Risk Factors of Learning Disabilities in Chinese Children in Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN YAO; HAN-RONG WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P<0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.

  17. Temporal Processing Development in Chinese Primary School-Aged Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of visual and auditory temporal processing among children with and without dyslexia and to examine the roles of temporal processing in reading and reading-related abilities. A total of 362 Chinese children in Grades 1-6 were recruited from Taiwan. Half of the children had dyslexia, and the other half…

  18. Application of SCOPE-C to Measure Social Inclusion Among Mental Health Services Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Evans, Sherrill; Huxley, Peter J; Ng, Yu-Leung

    2016-11-01

    This study describes the construction of the Chinese version of the Social and Communities Opportunities Profile (SCOPE), henceforth, the SCOPE-C, to measure social inclusion among mental health services users in Hong Kong. The SCOPE-C was developed based on concept-mapping and benchmarking of census questions. The questionnaire consisted of 56 items, went through a standardized linguistic validation process and was pilot tested with qualitative feedback from five users of mental health services. Altogether 168 Chinese service users were recruited through various NGO mental health services to have three times face-to-face interview between October 2013 and July 2014. Results indicated that items related to satisfaction with opportunities and perceived opportunities in various social domains had high consistency. Nearly all the Kappa statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients between the baseline and two rounds of re-test were significant. The SCOPE-C was considered a valid instrument for Hong Kong mental health user population.

  19. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  20. The Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong: Work Done and Lessons Learned in a Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Wu, Florence K Y

    2016-02-01

    The Project Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program initiated and financially supported by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Since 2005, the project has gone through several phases, including the initial phase (2005-2012), school-based extension phase (2009-2016), and community-based extension phase (2013-2017). In the initial phase, with the involvement of academics from 5 universities in Hong Kong, the research team developed youth enhancement programs for junior secondary school students (20 hours per grade), trained the program implementers (20 hours per grade), assisted in the implementation in more than 250 schools, and evaluated the program using multiple evaluation strategies, including a 5-year longitudinal experimental study. In the school-based extension phase, the project was implemented for another cycle (2009-2010 and 2011-2012 school years) and a 6-year longitudinal study was conducted to understand the psychosocial development of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. In the community-based extension phase, the programs were administered by social workers in the community settings. Generally speaking, different evaluation findings showed that the programs in Project Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs promoted positive development and reduced risk behavior in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Positive youth development attributes and family functioning also have positive contributions to adolescent developmental outcomes over time. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The beginning of medical education in Hong Kong 125 years ago...its unique features in comparison with similar efforts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Faith C S

    2012-12-01

    Medical education in Hong Kong began with the inauguration of the College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887. Although training in western medicine for Chinese had been started half a century earlier in the mainland of China, with a few exceptions, much of it was in the form of apprenticeships without a formal course of study, such that by the end of the 19th century medical education in China was still on the whole poorly developed. This paper presents some examples of significant efforts in western medical education on the Chinese mainland during the 19th century. It compares the Hong Kong College with these efforts, and examines those features which, together, made the College unique. These included its independent status as an educational institution, its use of English as a medium of instruction together with the attendant advantages that brings, the availability of students with the requisite language skills to undertake such studies, the availability of teachers, support of the public, and access to autopsies and dissection. Moreover, opportunities for employment in the public sector and in private practice gradually became available for its graduates, thus accelerating the acceptance of western medicine by the Chinese population and the development of these services in Hong Kong. The College, at its inception, could rightfully claim a leading position in these various aspects. Its story should be a source of inspiration and pride, and of encouragement for the local medical profession to continue this 125-year-old tradition of service and leadership.

  2. 'Get an early check - Chrysanthemum tea': An outcome evaluation of a multimedia campaign promoting HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Nnm; Wong, Amh; Fang, Y; Wang, Z

    2018-05-01

    'Get an early check - chrysanthemum tea' was a multimedia campaign promoting HIV testing targeting Chinese-speaking men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong, China. It ran from October to December 2015. This study was carried out to investigate the level of campaign exposure among Chinese-speaking MSM in Hong Kong and the association between uptake of HIV testing in the last 6 months and campaign exposure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 months after the campaign was launched. Participants were Hong Kong Chinese-speaking men aged ≥18 years who had had anal or oral sex with at least one man in their lifetime. A total of 153 eligible participants completed the anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Among the participants, 45.8% had been exposed to the campaign and 43.1% had taken up HIV testing in the last 6 months. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to the campaign [multivariate odds ratio (ORm) 2.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 5.19] and having had anal intercourse with a nonregular sex partner (ORm 2.36; 95% CI 1.05, 5.31) in the last 6 months were significantly associated with uptake of HIV testing in the last 6 months. The campaign had relatively good reach in the target population and may have been useful to encourage them to take up HIV testing. Future campaigns promoting HIV testing among MSM in Hong Kong are still needed. Such programmes should consider making use of viral videos, having a longer project duration and developing culturally sensitive materials for non-Chinese-speaking MSM. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  3. Sleep-Wake Patterns and Sleep Disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. DESIGN AND SETTING: A school-based cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire,...

  4. Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

  5. Allergy in Hong Kong: an unmet need in service provision and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y T; Ho, H K; Lai, Christopher K W; Lau, C S; Lau, Y L; Lee, T H; Leung, T F; Wong, Gary W K; Wu, Y Y

    2015-02-01

    Many children in Hong Kong have allergic diseases and epidemiological data support a rising trend. Only a minority of children will grow out of their allergic diseases, so the heavy clinical burden will persist into adulthood. In an otherwise high-quality health care landscape in Hong Kong, allergy services and training are a seriously unmet need. There is one allergy specialist for 1.5 million people, which is low not only compared with international figures, but also compared with most other specialties in Hong Kong. The ratio of paediatric and adult allergists per person is around 1:460 000 and 1:2.8 million, respectively, so there is a severe lack of adult allergists, while the paediatric allergists only spend a fraction of their time working with allergy. There are no allergists and no dedicated allergy services in adult medicine in public hospitals. Laboratory support for allergy and immunology is not comprehensive and there is only one laboratory in the public sector supervised by accredited immunologists. These findings clearly have profound implications for the profession and the community of Hong Kong and should be remedied without delay. Key recommendations are proposed that could help bridge the gaps, including the creation of two new pilot allergy centres in a hub-and-spoke model in the public sector. This could require recruitment of specialists from overseas to develop the process if there are no accredited allergy specialists in Hong Kong who could fulfil this role.

  6. Persistent Use of Mixed Code: An Exploration of Its Functions in Hong Kong Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Winnie W. M.; Lu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Codemixing of Cantonese Chinese and English is a common speech behaviour used by bilingual people in Hong Kong. Though codemixing is repeatedly criticised as a cause of the decline of students' language competence, there is little hard evidence to indicate its detrimental effects. This study examines the use of mixed code in the context of the…

  7. School Bullying and the Mental Health of Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Josephine W. Y.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon of school bullying and its effect on the mental health of junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. The participants (N = 364, mean age = 13.55) reported on a survey that included a bullying scale, the Chinese General Health Questionnaire-30, and a psychosocial scale. Verbal bullying was the most frequently…

  8. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  9. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  10. Breast feeding and early adolescent behaviour, self-esteem and depression: Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-11-01

    Breast feeding may contribute to neurological development and hence mental health. However, associations from Western populations are unclear, and most likely confounded by socioeconomic position (SEP), making evidence from other sociocultural settings valuable. We examined whether breast feeding was associated with early adolescent emotional and behavioural problems, self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a non-Western developed setting, where socioeconomic patterning of breast feeding differs from but other postnatal characteristics are similar to Western settings. The adjusted associations of breast feeding with emotional and behavioural problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter z-score at ~11 years (n=5598, 67% follow-up), self-reported self-esteem z-score at ~11 years (n=6937, 84%) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 z-score at ~13 years (n=5797, 70%) were examined using multivariable linear regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, 'Children of 1997'. Mothers from families with higher education tended to start but not sustain breast feeding, whereas migrant mothers tended to start and sustain breast feeding. Breast feeding for 3+ months had mostly null associations with Rutter score, self-esteem or depressive symptoms adjusted for sex, age, survey mode, SEP, parents' age, birth weight-for-gestational age, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure, although partial breast feeding for any length of time or exclusive breast feeding for self-esteem (-0.09, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04). In a non-Western developed setting, breast feeding was inconsistently associated with several early adolescent mental health measures suggesting a reflection of setting specific unmeasured confounding.

  11. ????--Implicit Learning and Imperceptible Influence: Syncretic Literacy of Multilingual Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic study involving the literacy practices of two multilingual Chinese children from two similar yet different cultural and linguistic contexts: Montreal and Singapore. Using syncretism as a theoretical tool, this inquiry examines how family environment and support facilitate children's process of becoming…

  12. Parenting stress in Chinese mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Hu, Yanjie; Wang, Yuan; Qin, Xiuqun; Xia, Wei; Sun, Caihong; Wu, Lijie; Wang, Jianli

    2013-04-01

    Elevated parenting stress has been observed among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in western countries, but little is known about mothers of Han Chinese children. The aim of the current study was to further the knowledge about stress experienced by Chinese mothers of children with ASD by examining maternal parenting stress in Heilongjiang province of China. In this cross-sectional study, data about participants' demographic characteristics, parenting stress, anxiety, depression, child's behavioral problems, coping strategies, and social support were collected though a questionnaire survey. The participants included 150 families with ASD children, who were consecutively admitted to the clinics of the Children Development and Behavior Research Center in Harbin Medical University, Heilongjiang Disabled Persons Federation, and Mudanjiang Child Welfare Home. The participants reported elevated parenting stress. Mothers' parenting stress was associated with levels of depression and anxiety, and child's behavioral symptoms. Child's behavioral symptoms, maternal anxiety, maternal depressive symptoms, and lack of governmental financial support were associated with overall parenting stress. Government support may play an important role in reducing parenting stress in this population.

  13. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  14. Work Values of University Students in Chinese Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Wai; Yuen, Mantak

    2012-01-01

    Leuty and Hansen ("Journal of Vocational Behavior" 79:379-390, 2011) identified six domains of work values in undergraduate students in the West. The review undertaken in this paper suggests that the factor structure of work values of university students in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong essentially matches these six domains,…

  15. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  16. Play and Theory of Mind in Early Childhood: A Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wong, Richard Kwok Shing; Wong, Paul Yau Ho; Ho, Fuk Chuen; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand the relation between preschool children's mode of participation and negotiation strategies during play and their theory of mind (ToM) development in the Hong Kong context. Forty-two 5-year-old children were recruited. Their emotional and cognitive ToMs were assessed along with expressive language ability. Children's…

  17. User Experience of Office Chairs and Anthropometrics of Female Chinese and Hong Kong Chinese Office and Factory Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitenbach, E.F.R.; Jochems, A.J.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.; Ball, R.; Eijk, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Hong Kong it was noticed that female office and factory workers use chairs that are oversized and can't support their sitting posture in a comfortable way. In order to set up general recommendations to design a more appropriate office chair, a research of the user experience of office chairs was

  18. Cross-lagged relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension among Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension using a two-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 male and 69 female. We measured children’s morphological awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, morphological awareness stably predicted subsequent reading comprehension, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that word reading partially mediated the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  19. Sleep Patterns in Chinese Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ran; Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2018-04-15

    This study aimed to (1) provide data on normal sleep patterns in Chinese preschool children, (2) identify cross-cultural differences of sleep patterns among children from China and other countries, (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep duration not meeting the optimal amount, and (4) characterize delayed weekend sleep pattern. A population-based sample of 1,610 children aged 3-6 years was recruited from 10 cities across China. Parents completed questions about their child's sleep patterns adapted from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). The mean bedtime was 9:31 PM, wake time was 7:27 AM, nighttime sleep duration was 9 hours 30 minutes, daytime sleep duration was 1 hour 31 minutes, and total sleep duration was 11 hours 2 minutes. The children had a shorter nighttime sleep duration but longer daytime naps, resulting in no differences in total sleep duration compared with counterparts predominantly in the west. Of the children, 85.3% met the recommended amount of sleep of 10 to 13 hours, and 10.8% slept fewer than 10 hours. The prevalence of sleep less than 10 hours was higher in older children and children from eastern China. Children went to bed and woke up more than 30 minutes later on weekends than weekdays, accounting for 40.1% and 50%, respectively. Children in western China showed longer delay than children in eastern China ( P < .05). Age- and region-specific variability of sleep patterns are reported as well as insufficient sleep and delayed weekend sleep pattern in Chinese preschool children. The cross-cultural difference of sleep patterns was in temporal placement rather than sleep duration. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China.

  1. Illicit Drug Exposure and Family Factors in Early Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok Kei; Day, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4,746 Hong Kong students, aged 14-15, participated in the 2000-2001 Health Related Behavior Survey. Results produced by the logistic regression models revealed that non-private housing was significantly associated with ever-use of ecstasy in boys. Moreover, girls in non-private housing were significantly more likely to have been…

  2. Risk factors for obesity and high blood pressure in Chinese American children: maternal acculturation and children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B; Lustig, Robert

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children's weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and self-efficacy regarding diet and physical activity. Mothers completed questionnaires on demographic data and acculturation. About 46% of children had a body mass index exceeding the 85th percentile. Lower level of maternal acculturation is a risk factor for overweight and higher waist to hip ratio. Children's unhealthy food choices were predictive of high body mass index and high systolic blood pressure, whereas older age and less physical activity in children were predictors of high diastolic blood pressure. Developing culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate interventions to reduce overweight and high blood pressure is critical to reduce health disparities among minority children.

  3. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Chinese Children: A Multicenter 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Baoxiang; Yuan, Lan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Xinqiong; Xiao, Yuan; Mei, Hong; Xu, Chundi

    2016-08-01

    Objective This study aims to analyze the clinical and endoscopic presentations of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in the Chinese children. Methods A 10-year retrospective study was made on children with UGIB and undertaken esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) from 4 tertiary referral centers in China. Results Of the 1218 children studied, the bleeding source was found in 76.4%. Erosive gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding (33.5%), followed by duodenal ulcer (23.2%). The proportion of erosive gastritis decreased with age (correlation coefficient = -0.787), and duodenal ulcer increased with age (correlation coefficient = 0.958). The bleeding source was more likely to be determined in children having EGDs within 48 hours (80.6% vs 67.9%). Conclusions In Chinese children with UGIB, erosive gastritis and duodenal ulcer were the leading causes, and their proportions varied with age. EGDs performed within 48 hours may improve the possibility of finding the source of bleeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Cross-sectional study on differences in pain perception and behavioral distress during venipuncture between Italian and Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bisogni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture is perhaps the scariest aspect of hospitalization for children as it causes pain and high levels of behavioral distress. Pain is a complex experience which is also influenced by social factors such as cultural attitudes, beliefs and traditions. Studies focusing on ethnic/cultural differences in pain perception and behavioral distress show controversial results, in particular with regards to children. The aim of this paper is to evaluate differences in pain perception and behavioral manifestations between Italian and Chinese children undergoing a venipuncture, through a cross-sectional study. Behavioral distress and self-reported pain were measured in Chinese and Italian outpatient children during a standardized blood-drawing procedure, using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD and pain scales. We observed 332 children: 93 Chinese and 239 Italian. Chinese children scored higher than Italians on pain scales − mean scores 5.3 (95%CI 4.78-5.81 vs. 3.2 (95%CI 2.86-3.53 − but lower mean OSBD scores − mean 4.1 (95%CI 3.04-5.15 vs. 8.1 (95%CI 7.06-9.14. Our data suggest that Chinese children experience higher levels of pain than their Italian peers, although they show more self-control in their behavioral reaction to pain when experiencing venipuncture.

  5. The development of visual speech perception in Mandarin Chinese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the development of visual speech perception in Chinese-speaking children. Children aged 7, 13 and 16 were asked to visually identify both consonant and vowel sounds in Chinese as quickly and accurately as possible. Results revealed (1) an increase in accuracy of visual speech perception between ages 7 and 13 after which the accuracy rate either stagnates or drops; and (2) a U-shaped development pattern in speed of perception with peak performance in 13-year olds. Results also showed that across all age groups, the overall levels of accuracy rose, whereas the response times fell for simplex finals, complex finals and initials. These findings suggest that (1) visual speech perception in Chinese is a developmental process that is acquired over time and is still fine-tuned well into late adolescence; (2) factors other than cross-linguistic differences in phonological complexity and degrees of reliance on visual information are involved in development of visual speech perception.

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese never smokers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Man-Ping; Wang, Xin; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-09-02

    The evidence on the effect of secondhand smoke (SHS) on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is limited. We examined the relation between SHS and HRQoL among Chinese in Hong Kong. Adult never smokers from a probability sample of three cross-sectional waves (2010, 2012, 2013) of The Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey who completed the Cantonese-version of Short-Form 12 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF12v2) were included in the data analysis conducted in 2014. Models were used to examine associations of SHS with SF12 domains and summary scores of Physical (PCS12) and Mental Component (MCS12) with subgroups analysis by SHS locations. After adjustments, SHS was associated with lower scores on all SF12 domains except physical functioning. PCS12 (regress coefficient=-0.76, 95% CI -1.34 to -0.17) and MCS12 (regress coefficient=-1.35, 95% CI -2.06 to -0.64) were lower in those with SHS exposure than those non-exposed. Those exposed to SHS in outdoor public places had lower scores on most SF12 domains and PSC12 and MCS12. SHS exposure in one's home and workplace was associated with lower scores on role physical, body pain and role emotional while SHS exposure in friends' homes was additionally associated with lower social functioning and mental health scores. Lower MCS12 was associated with SHS exposure at all locations except one's home. Our study showed that SHS exposure, particularly in outdoor public places, was associated with decreased HRQoL. It can provide new evidence for stronger smoke-free policies on public places and promoting smoke-free homes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Dental Erosion and Caries Status of Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun Hung; Ng, Alice; Chau, Alex Man Him; Lo, Edward Chin Man

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosion and caries experience of Chinese university students in Hong Kong. First-year Chinese students were invited to attend a dental clinic at a university campus in Hong Kong during their freshman orientation. A questionnaire was used to investigate the potential factors affecting their dental status, including sociodemographic factors, toothbrushing habits, dietary habits (consumption of sugary drinks), time elapsed since last dental check-up and self-perceived dental erosion status. Three calibrated dentists performed the clinical examinations. Dental erosion was evaluated using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) and dental caries experience was measured using the DMFT index. In total, 600 participants aged 18-21 were examined and 44% showed some signs of dental erosion (maximum BEWE > 0). Severe dental erosion (BEWE = 3) was found in 1% of the adults. Many (69%) had caries experience (DMFT > 0); their mean DMFT score was 2.5 ± 2.7 (± SD). The total BEWE scores were found to be associated with age and self-perception of tooth misalignment. No correlation was found between BEWE score and dietary habits, oral hygiene practices or self-perceived dental erosion status. Females, those whose last dental check-up was more than a year ago and those who perceived having dental decay or tooth wear had higher caries experience. Nearly half of the Chinese Hong Kong university students had signs of dental erosion, but very few showed signs of severe erosion. Caries experience was widespread but not high.

  8. Assessment of Perceived Parental Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no validated self-report measure of parental psychological control in the Chinese culture. The reliability and validity of the Chinese Paternal Psychological Control Scale (CPPCS) and Chinese Maternal Psychological Control Scale (CMPCS) were examined. Method: A total of 3,017 Chinese secondary school students responded to the…

  9. Water resources for urban water and food security: the case of megacity Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy; Gawlik, Bernd; Bidoglio, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The extent to which urban dwellers consume resources is key on the path to reaching global SDGs. One of these resources is water, which is consumed in a direct and indirect way by city inhabitants, to achieve water and food security within city borders. In this study, we quantify the water resources required to provide these two essential securities for megacity Hong Kong. During the last years, this city has made large investments to make its urban water supply system more water efficient and sustainable. As such, its municipal water abstraction - often defined as direct water use - has decreased from 355 litres per capita per day (l/cap/d) in 2005 to 326 l/cap/d in 2013. Due to its political history, Hong Kong is unique in the world in data availability on urban food consumption. It is therefore the ideal case study to show typical urban food consumption behaviour and its related indirect water use. The current average diet in Hong Kong is very different to the average Chinese diet. It is characterised by a high intake of water intensive products like animal products and sugar, leading to a food related indirect water use or water footprint (WFcons) of 4727 l/cap/d. According to recommendations from the Chinese Nutrition Society for a healthy diet, the intake of some product groups should be increased (vegetables and fruit) and of other product groups reduced (sugar, crop oils, meat and animal fats). This would result in a reduction of the WFcons of 40% to 2852 l/cap/d. Especially the reduced intake of meat (including offals) from currently 126 kg per capita per year (kg/cap/yr) to the recommended value 27 kg/cap/yr would result in a substantial WFcons reduction. Meat consumption in Hong Kong is extremely high. A pesco-vegetarian diet would result in a reduction of 49% (to 2398 l/cap/d) and a vegetarian diet in a 53% (to 2224 l/cap/d) reduction. Hong Kong citizens can thus save a lot of water by looking at their indirect water use, through a change in their diet

  10. Adapting a measure of acculturation for Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in health behaviors and disease risks. Research with Chinese children to understand their acculturative processes early in life is important; however, there is no known instrument to measure acculturation for this population. Thi...

  11. Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: bilingual, acculturation, and peer rating studies of Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, R R; Yik, M S; Trapnell, P D; Bond, M H; Paulhus, D L

    1998-04-01

    Prior research (R.R. McCrae, P.T. Costa, & M.S. Yik, 1996) using a Chinese translation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory suggested substantial differences between Hong Kong and North American undergraduates. Study 1, with a sample of bilingual Hong Kong students (N = 162), showed that prior findings were not due simply to the translation. Study 2, with undergraduates of European and Chinese ancestry living in Canada (N = 633), suggested that more of the differences were cultural in origin. Study 3, which used peer ratings of Chinese students (N = 99), replicated most Study 2 results, suggesting that exposure to Canadian culture increased openness, cheerfulness, and prosocial behavior and attitudes. Differences in sense of competence and vulnerability to stress appeared to be due to different cultural standards for judging these traits. Together, the 3 studies illustrate an integrated approach to interpreting personality differences across cultures.

  12. ESL Readers' Comprehension Performance: The Chinese Secondary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Juliana; Wu, Winnie; Chen, Julia; Lughmani, Shari

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in reading comprehension in Western settings has focused on collecting evidence from reading tests that would measure relevant ESL reading constructs to inform reading instruction and assessment. Similar studies in non-Western contexts, however, remain under-reported. This study involved 958 senior secondary Hong Kong (Chinese)…

  13. Update Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Martin F.

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Hong Kong. Following an overview of the history and culture of Hong Kong, 12 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapter topics include: before leaving, on arrival, language, doing business in Hong Kong, customs and courtesies,…

  14. Gestational age and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, H S; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-09-01

    Preterm, and more recently early term, birth has been identified as a risk factor for poor health. Whether the sequelae of late preterm or early term birth extends to poor mental health and well-being in adolescence is unclear and has not been systematically assessed. Linear regression was used to assess the adjusted associations of gestational age (very/moderate preterm (self-reported self-esteem at ∼11 years (n=6935), parent-reported Rutter score assessing the common emotional and behavioural problems at ∼7 years (n=6292) and ∼11 years (n=5596) and self-reported depressive symptoms at ∼13 years (n=5795) in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort 'Children of 1997' where gestational age has little social patterning. Very/moderate preterm birth was associated with higher Rutter subscore for hyperactivity (ß coefficients 0.5, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.00) at ∼7 years but not at ∼11 years, adjusted for sex, age, socio-economic position, parents' age at birth, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure. Similarly adjusted, late preterm, early term, late term and post-term birth were not associated with self-esteem or depressive symptoms. In a population-representative birth cohort from a non-Western-developed setting, gestational age had few associations with mental health and well-being in adolescence, whereas very preterm birth was specifically associated with hyperactivity in childhood. Inconsistencies with studies from Western settings suggest setting specific unmeasured confounding may underlie any observed associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  16. Dietary diversity scores: an indicator of micronutrient inadequacy instead of obesity for Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Yu, Kai; Tan, Shengjie; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-05-12

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the well-being of both adults and children. Dietary diversity score (DDS) is a useful evaluation index with a relatively well-developed guideline by FAO. It's meaningful to assess and predict inadequate micronutrient intakes using DDS in Chinese children, after ruling out the risk of obesity coming with more dietary diversity. Data for evaluation were extracted from the Nutrition Study of Preschool Children and School Children, which is a cross-sectional study covering 8 cities of China, including 1694 children in kindergartens and primary schools. This study applied DDS to Chinese children to test the validity for micronutrient inadequacy, and then explored the relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. It reveals that dietary diversity varied with age and place of residence; the older ones and the ones living in rural areas tend to have poorer dietary diversity. Another discovery is that DDS is positively correlated with indicators of micronutrient adequacy, with a score of 6-8 indicating the lowest risk of micronutrient inadequacy in different groups of children. In our study population, dietary diversity is not related with obesity. Dietary diversity score is a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient inadequacy in Chinese children, though there is still room for improvement of the method. Besides, the relationship between increase of dietary diversity and risk of obesity should be treated circumspectly.

  17. Teachers' Transformation as Learning: Teaching Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong Schools with a Teacher-Artist Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government has advocated teaching Cantonese opera in the school music curriculum to promote Chinese culture education. This longitudinal study aims to examine how and why teachers transform within 3 years in learning and teaching Cantonese opera with a teacher-artist partnership approach in schools. Five primary and two secondary…

  18. Evaluating physical and perceptual responses to exergames in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick W C; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-04-13

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05-5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98-25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05-149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children's physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  19. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  20. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: prospective relations to Chinese children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Annie; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2010-04-01

    The prospective relations between five types of parental reactions to children's negative emotions (PRCNE) and children's psychological adjustment (behavioral problems and social competence) were examined in a two-wave longitudinal study of 425 school-age children in China. Parents (mostly mothers) reported their own PRCNE. Parents, teachers, and children or peers reported on children's adjustment. Parental punitive reactions positively predicted externalizing problems (controlling for baseline), whereas emotion- and problem-focused reactions were negatively related to internalizing problems. Parental minimizing and encouragement of emotion expression were unrelated to adjustment. Concurrent relations were found between PRCNE and parents' authoritative and authoritarian parenting dimensions. However, PRCNE did not uniquely predict adjustment controlling for global parenting dimensions. The findings have implications for cultural adaptation of parent-focused interventions for families of Chinese origin. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. A Dual Coding Model of Processing Chinese as a Second Language: A Cognitive-Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Diana Po Lan

    2002-01-01

    The research was conducted in Sydney and Hong Kong using students, from grades 5 to 9, whose first language or teaching medium was English, learning to read Chinese as second language. According to cognitive load theory, the processing of single Chinese characters accompanied by pictures should impose extraneous cognitive load and thus hinders…

  2. Gift Giving in Hong Kong and the Continuum of Social Ties.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Annamma

    2001-01-01

    This article explores gift-giving practices using data collected through interviews in Hong Kong. I argue that Chinese culture promotes the familial over the private self and that the attainment of family-oriented goals represents an important measure of self-realization and self-fulfillment. Although each individual also has a private or inner self (chi), it is also subject to the collective will. This idea is in keeping with Confucian ideals that encourage the individual to focus on develop...

  3. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become a serious public health problem worldwide; however, the availability of information on the prevalence of NAFLD in the general pediatric population is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and correlates of suspected NAFLD in Chinese children at the national level. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure (BP were measured for children aged 7–18 years. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were above the established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys. A percentage of 9.03% (75 out of 831 of Chinese children was found to have suspected NAFLD. Overweight and obesity according to BMI percentiles, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia (uric acid (UA > 327 μmol/L, and elevated total cholesterol (TC were all detected as the correlates of childhood suspected NAFLD when adjusting for other factors. Our study revealed the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in general Chinese children at the national level for the first time. Our findings indicate that suspected NAFLD in children is associated with increasing childhood morbidities, further studies are needed to better understand the prevalence of childhood NAFLD and its correlates, and large-scale programs should be launched to screen NAFLD in the pediatric population in China.

  5. Validity of bioelectrical impedance measurement in predicting fat-free mass of Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-11-15

    The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (Ω)+0.151×body weight (kg); R2=0.95; SEE=2.45 kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents.

  6. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  7. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  8. Familial risks and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Lap Ah; Li, Mengjie; Chan, Wing-cheong; Kwok, Chi-hei; Leung, Siu-lan; Wu, Cherry; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Yu, Wai-cho; Lao, Xiangqian; Wang, Xiaorong; Wong, Carmen Ka-man; Lee, Priscilla Ming-yi; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiaohong Rose

    2015-01-01

    The role of family history to the risk of breast cancer was analyzed by incorporating menopausal status in Hong Kong Chinese women, with a particular respect to the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) type. Seven hundred and forty seven breast cancer incident cases and 781 hospital controls who had completed information on family cancer history in first-degree relatives (nature father, mother, and siblings) were recruited. Odds ratio for breast cancer were calculated by unconditional multiple logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status (a surrogate of endogenous female sex hormone level and age) and type of relative affected with the disease. Further subgroup analysis by tumor type according to ER status was investigated. Altogether 52 (6.96%) breast cancer cases and 23 (2.95%) controls was found that the patients' one or more first-degree relatives had a history of breast cancer, showing an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.41 (95%CI: 1.45-4.02). An excess risk of breast cancer was restricted to the ER+ tumor (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.38-4.28), with a relatively higher risk associated with an affected mother (OR = 3.97, 95%CI: 1.46-10.79) than an affected sister (OR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.07-3.97), while the relative risk was more prominent in the subgroup of pre-menopausal women. Compared with the breast cancer overall, the familial risks to the ER+ tumor increased progressively with the number of affected first-degree relatives. This study provides new insights on a relationship between family breast cancer history, menopausal status, and the ER+ breast cancer. A separate risk prediction model for ER+ tumor in Asian population is desired.

  9. Volatility Spillovers from the Chinese Stock Market to Economic Neighbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Amram (Ron)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines whether there is evidence of spillovers of volatility from the Chinese stock market to its neighbours and trading partners, including Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan and USA. China’s increasing integration into the global market may have important

  10. Space, Scale and Languages: Identity Construction of Cross-Boundary Students in a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Tong, Ho Kin

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notions of scale and space, this paper investigates identity construction among a group of mainland Chinese cross-boundary students by analysing their language choices and linguistic practices in a multilingual university in Hong Kong. The research illustrates how movement across spaces by these students produces varying index…

  11. Scaling of theory-of-mind understandings in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M; Fang, Fuxi; Liu, David; Zhu, Liqi; Liu, Guoxiong

    2006-12-01

    Prior research demonstrates that understanding of theory of mind develops at different paces in children raised in different cultures. Are these differences simply differences in timing, or do they represent different patterns of cultural learning? That is, to what extent are sequences of theory-of-mind understanding universal, and to what extent are they culture-specific? We addressed these questions by using a theory-of-mind scale to examine performance of 140 Chinese children living in Beijing and to compare their performance with that of 135 English-speaking children living in the United States and Australia. Results reveal a common sequence of understanding, as well as sociocultural differences in children's developing theories of mind.

  12. Characteristics and assimilation of Chinese immigrants in the U.S. labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J

    1998-01-01

    "Using U.S. Public Use Samples, this article examines differences in the quality and assimilation rate of different Chinese immigrant groups (immigrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China) in the U.S. labour market. The descriptive statistics show great differences among Chinese immigrants from the three areas in their ages, wage rates, years of schooling and industrial and occupational distributions. This article also finds that the three Chinese immigrant groups have much more dispersed wage distributions than U.S.-born workers have. The three Chinese immigrant groups also experienced substantial assimilation into the U.S. labour market during the 1980s." (EXCERPT)

  13. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  14. [Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Huijun

    2008-11-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption. The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991 (13.2%) to 2004 (19.3%). There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE, 6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6 day a week had a certain proportion. It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.

  15. Creating Political Space To Defend Chinese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfang, Han

    2002-01-01

    Presents comments spoken at a human rights conference by Han Dongfang, a Chinese activist who was jailed after an attempt to organize China's first independent union from a tent in Tiananmen Square during the democracy movement. Today, he is barred from the mainland but works from Hong Kong through Radio Free Asia. Comments focus on foreign…

  16. Personal and Family Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai Kwok, Sylvia Y. C.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the family ecological model, personal (hopelessness, social problem solving, emotional competence) and family (parent-adolescent communication, family functioning) quality of life measures related to adolescent suicidal ideation were examined in 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that suicidal ideation…

  17. Epidemiology and survival of systemic lupus erythematosus in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C C

    2011-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a fairly common rheumatic disease in Hong Kong, China. The prevalence and annual incidence of SLE are estimated to be 0.1% and 6.7/100,000 population, respectively. The 10-year cumulative survival of SLE patients in Hong Kong is 83% and the age and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 5.25 (1.64-10.4) from 1999 to 2008. The commonest cause of death is infections (60%), followed by cardiovascular complications (16%). Life expectancy analysis reveals a loss of 20 years in women and 27 years in men when SLE develops at birth. The loss in life years is greatest in the younger age groups. Renal damage is the most frequent disease-related damage, whereas musculoskeletal damage is the commonest treatment-related complication. The quality of life of our SLE patients is impaired and declines over time, which is contributed by new organ damage. One-third of our patients lose their ability to work within 5 years of disease onset, which is mainly attributed to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression symptoms, and memory deterioration. With the availability of novel therapeutics and an increased awareness of complication prevention in SLE, it is expected that our patients will live longer with a better quality of life in the next decade.

  18. Population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for high blood pressure in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated. Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated. The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups. Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.

  19. Adolescent Filial Piety as a Moderator between Perceived Maternal Control and Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sin Man; Leung, Angel Nga-Man; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parental styles of maternal warmth and control, as well as adolescent filial piety, in relation to parent-child relationship quality, in 308 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The three mother-child relationship qualities measured were perceived maternal support, conflicts, and relationship depth. Adolescents'…

  20. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Jiang, Nan; Chu, Lai Yan; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong. Methods Daily smokers (N = 1,307) were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial (?Quit to Win?) in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cig...

  1. Intent to Pursue Further Studies among Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, W. M.; Lai, Linda S. L.; Lung, Jane W. Y.; Lai, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of students pursuing graduate qualifications has increased, especially in Asian countries and cities, such as China, Macao and Hong Kong. This paper examines the intent to pursue further studies among Chinese students according to the theory of planned behaviour. Based on responses from 321 final-year students in higher education…

  2. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick W. C.; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y.; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25872015

  4. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. C. Lau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW and overweight (OW children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88 were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE (category range: 0 to 10 were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii. Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50% for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  5. Factors affecting institutionalization in older Hong Kong Chinese patients after recovery from acute medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, James Ka Hay; Chiu, Patrick Ka Chun; Chu, Leung Wing

    2009-01-01

    Older patients with medical illnesses are at risk of institutionalization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors leading to institutionalization in older patients after recovery from medical illnesses. We studied 535 older patients in two convalescence hospitals in Hong Kong. Of them, 116 patients (21.7%) needed to move to nursing homes upon discharge. Univariate analysis showed that age, single/divorced/widowed status, longer length of stay, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, urinary catheterization, falls, dementia, diabetes mellitus, Barthel index (100), Elderly Mobility Score (EMS), Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination (C-MMSE) and albumin levels were significant factors associated with institutionalization. Multivariate analysis showed that being single/divorced/widowed (odds ratio=OR=2.74, 95% confidence interval=CI=1.36-5.53, p=0.0048), having urinary incontinence on discharge (OR=5.13, CI=2.66-10.6, p<0.001) and admission due to falls (OR=2.4, CI=1.03-5.57, p=0.04) were independent risk factors for nursing home admission. Higher admission EMS (OR=0.91, CI=0.84-0.97, p=0.009), admission C-MMSE (OR=0.93, CI=0.87-0.98, p=0.019), and discharge albumin levels (OR=0.93, CI=0.88-0.99, p=0.02) were independent protecting factors against nursing home admission. Knowledge of these factors can allow us to predict accommodation outcome and develop intervention strategy to reduce institutionalization in the older patients.

  6. Why Is the Chinese Curriculum Difficult for Immigrants' Children from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the difficulties of immigrants' children from Southeastern Asia on learning Chinese phonetic symbols and provide further instructors a reference while educating them in early childhood. The participants are native Taiwanese children (N = 40) and immigrant children from Southeastern Asia (N = 34) at the first…

  7. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  8. The Role of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing for Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Cheung, Him; Penney, Trevor B.; Ho, Connie S. -H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined temporal processing in relation to Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. The performances of 26 Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia on tasks of visual and auditory temporal order judgement, rapid naming, visual-orthographic knowledge, morphological, and phonological awareness were compared with…

  9. Investigating quality of life and self-stigma in Hong Kong children with specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi; Chan, Yim Yuk; Cheng, Sui Lam; Chow, Man Yin; Tsang, Yau Wai; Lee, Clara; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2017-09-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) are likely to develop self-stigma and have a poor quality of life (QoL) because of their poor academic performance. Although both self-stigma and poor QoL issues are likely to be found in low academic achievers without SpLD, children with SpLD have worse situation because their diagnosis of SpLD suggests that their learning struggles are biological and permanent. Specifically, students' perception of own capabilities may be affected more by the diagnosis of SpLD than their own actual performance. We examined the self-stigma and QoL of children with SpLD in Hong Kong, a region with an academics-focused culture. Children with SpLD (n=49,M age ±SD=9.55±1.21; SpLD group) and typically developing children (n=32,M age ±SD=9.81±1.40; TD group) completed a Kid-KINDL to measure QoL and a Modified Self-Stigma Scale to measure self-stigma. All parents completed a parallel Kid-KINDL to measure QoL of their children. Compared with the TD group, the SpLD group had a higher level of self-stigma (p=0.027) and lower QoL (child-reported Kid-KINDL: p=0.001; parent-reported Kid-KINDL: plearning process of children with SpLD may be designed to overcome self-stigma and to improve QoL. In addition, the program may involve parents of the children with SpLD or other people (e.g., the peer of the children with SpLD) for improving their understanding and perceptions of SpLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of modified blood pressure-to-height ratio for identifying hypertension in Chinese and American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Chuanwei; Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Xi, Bo

    2018-04-06

    Blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) has been reported to perform well for identifying hypertension (HTN) in adolescents but not in young children. Our study was aimed to evaluate the performance of BPHR and modified BPHR (MBPHR) for screening HTN in children. A total of 5268 Chinese children (boys: 53.1%) aged 6-12 years and 5024 American children (boys: 48.1%) aged 8-12 years were included in the present study. BPHR was calculated as BP/height (mmHg/cm). MBPHR7 was calculated as BP/(height + 7*(13-age)). MBPHR3 was calculated as BP/(height + 3*(13-age)). We used receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the performance of the three ratios for identifying HTN in children as compared to the 2017 U.S. clinical guideline as the "gold standard". The prevalence of HTN in Chinese and American children was 9.4% and 5.4%, respectively, based on the 2017 U.S. guideline. The AUC was larger for MBPHR3 than BPHR and MBPHR7. All three ratios had optimal negative predictive value (~100%). The positive predictive value (PPV) was higher for MBPHR3 than BPHR in both Chinese (43.9% vs. 37.9%) and American (39.1% vs. 26.3%) children. In contrast, the PPV was higher for MBPHR7 than BPHR in Chinese children (47.4% vs. 37.9%) but not in American children (24.8% vs. 26.3%). In summary, MBPHR3 overall performed better than MBPHR7 and BPHR for identifying HTN in children. However, the three ratios had low PPV (<50%) as compared to the 2017 U.S. guidelines, which makes these ratios of limited use for HTN screening in children.

  11. Rhythm-based segmentation of Popular Chinese Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to segment popular music based on rhythm. By computing a shortest path based on the self-similarity matrix calculated from a model of rhythm, segmenting boundaries are found along the di- agonal of the matrix. The cost of a new segment is opti- mized by matching manual...... and automatic segment boundaries. We compile a small song database of 21 randomly selected popular Chinese songs which come from Chinese Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The segmenting results on the small corpus show that 78% manual segmentation points are detected and 74% auto- matic segmentation points...

  12. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: differential symptom functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-08-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N=571) and Chinese (N=254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed.

  13. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  14. Suspicious young minds: paranoia and mistrust in 8- to 14-year-olds in the U.K. and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Keri K; Freeman, Daniel; Hughes, Claire

    2014-09-01

    Research on paranoia in adults suggests a spectrum of severity, but this dimensional approach has yet to be applied to children or to groups from different countries. To investigate the structure, prevalence and correlates of mistrust in children living in the U.K. and Hong Kong. Children aged 8-14 years from the U.K. (n = 1086) and Hong Kong (n = 1412) completed a newly developed mistrust questionnaire as well as standard questionnaire measures of anxiety, self-esteem, aggression and callous-unemotional traits. Confirmatory factor analysis of the U.K. data supported a three-factor mode--mistrust at home, mistrust at school and eneral mistrust - with a clear positive skew in the data: just 3.4%, 8.5% and 4.1% of the children endorsed at least half of the mistrust items for home, school and general subscales respectively. These findings were replicated in Hong Kong. Moreover, compared with their peers, 'mistrustful' children (in both countries) reported elevated rates of anxiety, low self-esteem, aggression and callous-unemotional traits. Mistrust may exist as a quantitative trait in children, which, as in adults, is associated with elevated risks of internalising and externalising problems. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  15. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  16. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  17. Exceeding Boundaries: Chinese Children's Playful Use of Languages in Their Literacy Practices in a Mandarin-English Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Chinese children of immigrant families are often perceived as good at memorization and rote learning or as polite, obedient, and passive students lacking creativity and criticality. Guided by Multiple Literacies Theory and translanguaging, this study explores how Chinese children in a Mandarin-English bilingual program skillfully navigate…

  18. Post-Institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European Children: Heterogeneity in the Development of Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…

  19. Stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese school children: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Zhen, Yan; Lu, Li; Dong, Zhou Xu; Jun, Ye Xu; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2010-02-01

    The Chinese educational system is highly competitive from the start of primary school with great emphasis on academic performance and intolerance of failure. This study aimed to explore the pressures on primary schoolchildren, and to determine the relationship between these pressures and psychosomatic symptoms: abdominal pain and headache. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. 9- to 12-year-olds in primary schools in urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. Proportion of children with defined school-related stressors and frequency of psychosomatic illness. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2191 children. All stressors were common in boys and girls and in urban and rural schools. Eighty-one per cent worry 'a lot' about exams, 63% are afraid of the punishment of teachers, 44% had been physically bullied at least sometimes, with boys more often victims of bullying, and 73% of children are physically punished by parents. Over one-third of children reported psychosomatic symptoms at least once per week, 37% headache and 36% abdominal pain. All individual stressors were highly significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms. Children identified as highly stressed (in the highest quartile of the stress score) were four times as likely to have psychosomatic symptoms. The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently.

  20. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.